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Sample records for project fire ii

  1. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of the Project FIRE II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Micheal J.; Loomis, Mark; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    35 years later, the Project FIRE II ballistic reentry to Earth at a nominal velocity of 11.4 km/s remains one of the best sources of heating data for the design of sample return capsules. The data from this flight experiment encompass both the thermochemical non-equilibrium and equilibrium flow regimes and include measurements of both radiative and total heating on the forebody and afterbody. Because of this, a number of researchers have performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the forebody of the FIRE II entry vehicle, with generally good results. In particular, Olynick et. al. coupled a Navier-Stokes solver (GIANTS) with a radiation code (NOVAR) and showed excellent agreement in surface heat transfer over the FIRE II trajectory between 1634 and 1651 seconds (77 km to 37 km). However, in most cases the primary motivation of the previous work was to understand and model the coupling between shock layer radiation and aerothermodynamics, and thus the simulations concentrated on the forebody flow only. To our knowledge there have been no prior published attempts to reproduce the afterbody heating data. However, an understanding of this data is critical to our efforts to design the next generation of Earth and planetary entry vehicles and to assess our need for additional flight data.

  2. Aerothermal Analysis of the Project Fire II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Loomis, Mark; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the wake flow and afterbody heating of the Project Fire II ballistic reentry to Earth at 11.4 km/sec. Laminar results are obtained over a portion of the trajectory between the initial heat pulse and peak afterbody heating. Although non-catalytic forebody convective heating results are in excellent agreement with previous computations, initial predictions of afterbody heating were about a factor of two below the experimental values. Further analysis suggests that significant catalysis may be occurring on the afterbody heat shield. Computations including finite-rate catalysis on the afterbody surface are in good agreement with the data over the early portion of the trajectory, but are conservative near the peak afterbody heating point, especially on the rear portion of the conical frustum. Further analysis of the flight data from Fire II shows that peak afterbody heating occurs before peak forebody heating, a result that contradicts computations and flight data from other entry vehicles. This result suggests that another mechanism, possibly pyrolysis, may be occurring during the later portion of the trajectory, resulting in less total heat transfer than the current predictions.

  3. Comparison of Coupled Radiative Navier-Stokes Flow Solutions with the Project Fire II Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Henline, William D.; Chambers, Lin Hartung; Candler, Graham V,; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonequilibrium, axisymmetric, Navier-Stokes flow solver with coupled radiation has been developed to use in the design of thermal protection systems for vehicles where radiation effects are important. The present method has been compared with an existing flow and radiation solver and with the Project Fire II experimental data. Very good agreement has been obtained over the entire Fire II trajectory with the experimentally determined values of the stagnation radiation intensity in the .2 to 6.2 eV range and with the total stagnation heating. The agreement was significantly better than previous numerical predictions. The effects of a number of flow models are examined to determine which combination of physical models produces the best agreement with the experimental data. These models include radiation coupling, multi-temperature thermal models, finite-rate chemistry, and a quasi-steady-state or Boltzmann assumption for the calculation of the excited electronic states. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present model is evaluated. The radiation properties model developed for this study is shown to offer significant computational savings compared to existing codes.

  4. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P.

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  5. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  6. TARN II project

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, T.

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of the achievement of the accelerator studies at present TARN, it is decided to construct the new ring TARN II which will be operated as an accumulator, accelerator, cooler and stretcher. It has the maximum magnetic rigidity of 7 Txm corresponding to the proton energy 1.3 GeV and the ring diameter is around 23 m. Light and heavy ions from the SF cyclotron will be injected and accelerated to the working energy where the ring will be operated as a desired mode, for example a cooler ring mode. At the cooler ring operation, the strong cooling devices such as stochastic and electron beam coolings will work together with the internal gas jet target for the precise nuclear experiments. TARN II is currently under the contruction with the schedule of completion in 1986. In this paper general features of the project are presented.

  7. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  8. WHC-SD-W252-FHA-001, Rev. 0: Preliminary fire hazard analysis for Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility, Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, N.F.

    1995-05-11

    A Fire Hazards Analysis was performed to assess the risk from fire and other related perils and the capability of the facility to withstand these hazards. This analysis will be used to support design of the facility.

  9. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  10. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of the 2-day…

  11. Nonequilibrium Stagnation-Line Radiative Heating for Fire II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Hollis, Brian R.; Sutton, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the shock-layer radiative heating to the Fire II vehicle using a new air radiation model and a viscous shock-layer flowfield model. This new air radiation model contains the most up-to-date properties for modeling the atomic-line, atomic photoionization, molecular band, and non-Boltzmann processes. The applied viscous shock-layer flowfield analysis contains the same thermophysical properties and nonequilibrium models as the LAURA Navier-Stokes code. Radiation-flowfield coupling, or radiation cooling, is accounted for in detail in this study. It is shown to reduce the radiative heating by about 30% for the peak radiative heating points, while reducing the convective heating only slightly. A detailed review of past Fire II radiative heating studies is presented. It is observed that the scatter in the radiation predicted by these past studies is mostly a result of the different flowfield chemistry models and the treatment of the electronic state populations. The present predictions provide, on average throughout the trajectory, a better comparison with Fire II flight data than any previous study. The magnitude of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) contribution to the radiative flux is estimated from the calorimeter measurements. This is achieved using the radiometer measurements and the predicted convective heating. The VUV radiation predicted by the present model agrees well with the VUV contribution inferred from the Fire II calorimeter measurement, although only when radiation-flowfield coupling is accounted for. This agreement provides evidence that the present model accurately models the VUV radiation, which is shown to contribute significantly to the Fire II radiative heating.

  12. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  13. Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

  14. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  15. AREAWIDE SUPPRESSION OF FIRE ANTS: DEMONSTRATION PROJECT IN MISSISSIPPI, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS demonstration project for the suppression of imported fire ants has entered its sixth year. In 2005, Mississippi State University joined the project monitoring sites in Clay and Grenada Counties. The Areawide project integrates biological control agents with the chemical ...

  16. The Development of Midlatitude Cirrus Models for MODIS Using FIRE-I, FIRE-II, and ARM In Situ Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasiri, Shaima L.; Baum, Bryan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Yang, Ping; Poellot, Michael R.; Kratz, David P.; Hu, Yong-Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Detailed in situ data from cirrus clouds have been collected during dedicated field Campaigns, but the use of the size and habit distribution data has been lagging in the development of more realistic cirrus scattering models. In this study, the authors examine the use of in situ cirrus data collected during three field campaigns to develop more realistic midlatitude cirrus microphysical models. Data are used from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)-I (1986) and FIRE-II (1991) campaigns and from a recent Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program campaign held in March-April of 2000. The microphysical models are based on measured vertical distributions of both particle size and particle habit and are used to develop new scattering models for a suite of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) bands spanning visible. near-infrared, and infrared wavelengths. The sensitivity of the resulting scattering properties to the underlying assumptions of the assumed particle size and habit distributions are examined. It is found that the near-infrared bands are sensitive not only to the discretization of the size distribution but also to the assumed habit distribution. In addition. the results indicate that the effective diameter calculated from a given size distribution tends to be sensitive to the number of size bins that are used to discretize the data and also to the ice-crystal habit distribution.

  17. The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Prins, E. M.; Westphal, D.; Richardson, K.; Christopher, S.; Schmidt, C.; Theisen, M.; Eck, T.; Reid, E. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project was initiated by NASA, the US Navy and NOAA to monitor biomass burning and burning emissions on a global scale. The idea behind the mission is to integrate remote sensing data with global and regional transport models in real time for the purpose of providing the scientific community with smoke and fire products for planning and research purposes. FLAMBE is currently utilizing real time satellite data from GOES satellites, fire products based on the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) are generated for the Western Hemisphere every 30 minutes with only a 90 minute processing delay. We are currently collaborating with other investigators to gain global coverage. Once generated, the fire products are used to input smoke fluxes into the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, where advection forecasts are performed for up to 6 days. Subsequent radiative transfer calculations are used to estimate top of atmosphere and surface radiative forcing as well as surface layer visibility. Near real time validation is performed using field data collected by Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometers. In this paper we fully describe the FLAMBE project and data availability. Preliminary result from the previous year will also be presented, with an emphasis on the development of algorithms to determine smoke emission fluxes from individual fire products. Comparisons to AERONET Sun photometer data will be made.

  18. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1993-09-01

    The report describes the fire research projects performed in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during fiscal year 1993. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under three program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. The publication is organized along those lines: fire risk and hazard prediction - carbon monoxide prediction, turbulent combustion, soot, engineering analysis, fire hazard assessment, and large fires; fire safety of products and materials - materials combustion, furniture flammability, and wall and ceiling fires; and advanced technologies for fire sensing and control - fire detection and fire suppression. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in Part 2.0.

  19. Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.C.

    1995-09-12

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

  20. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V; Moreira, Jose

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  1. EPACT II: project and methods.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Pascal; Froehlich, Florian; Felley, Christian; Pittet, Valérie; Mottet, Christian; Gonvers, Jean-Jacques; Michetti, Pierre; Vader, John-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Building on the first European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's Disease Treatment (EPACT I) which was held in Lausanne at the beginning of March 2004, a new panel will be convened in Switzerland (EPACT II, November to December 2007) to update this work. A combined evidence- and panel-based method (RAND) will be applied to assess the appropriateness of therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). In preparation for the meeting of experts, reviews of evidence-based literature were prepared for major clinical presentations of CD. During the meeting, an international multidis- ciplinary panel that includes gastroenterologists, surgeons and general practitioners weigh the strength of evidence and apply their clinical experience when assessing the appropriateness of therapy for 569 specific indications (clinical scenarios). This chapter describes in detail the process of updating the literature review and the systematic approach of the RAND Appropriateness Method used during the expert panel meeting. PMID:18239398

  2. COAL/D-RDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) CO-FIRING PROJECT, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Research and Development Project was carried out to mix a densified refuse derived fuel with coal at the fuel receiving point and to co-fire the mixture in a spreader-stoker fired boiler. Two basic series of test runs were conducted. For the first series, coal was fired to esta...

  3. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  4. The Ofidia Project: a Retrospective Fire Danger Forecast Analysis in Mediterranean Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirca, C.; Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mirto, L.; Fiore, S.; Aloisio, G.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    OFIDIA (Operational FIre Danger preventIon plAtform) is a two-year project started in May 2013 funded by the European Territorial Cooperation Programme Greece Italy (2007 - 2013). The project aims to improve the operational capability of forecasting, preventing, and fighting forest wildfires, and enhance the cross-border cooperation for fire danger assessment. More specifically, OFIDIA aims at developing an operational fire danger prevention platform, with the ability for near real-time fire danger forecast and fire behaviour analysis in Apulia (Italy) and Epirus (Greece) regions to help forest fires services in the effective prevention and response to forecasted danger.One of the preliminary activities of the project was the evaluation of fire danger performances by analysing the relationship between the predicted daily fire danger and observed fire activity (number of fires and area burned). To achieve this task, fire activity and danger patterns were characterised and their relationships were investigated for the period 2000-2012. The Italian Forest Service (CFS, Corpo Forestale dello Stato) provided fire statistics at NUT03 level. The data were homogenized and uncertainties corrected, and then burned area and number of fires were analysed according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution, etc). Then, three fire danger models (FFWI, FWI, and IFI) were selected and computed starting from the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) forecast.Results showed a high inter- and intra-annual variability in fire activiy, also considering the different type of affected vegetation. As for other Mediterranean areas, a smaller number of large fires caused a high proportion of burned area. Furthermore, fire activity showed significant correlations with the outputs obtained by the applied models. High relationships were found between

  5. Fire Prevention in California's Riverside County Headstart Project: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkman, William S.; Taylor, Jean

    Results of evaluation are reported for a safety program devised by Head Start teachers and California Division of Forestry personnel to teach fire prevention education to Head Start children. Chapters describe the place of fire prevention in Head Start and causes of fire starting behavior in children. The Head Start Fire Prevention Kit is also…

  6. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the fire research projects performed in the Buildings and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during Fiscal Year 1993. Included are research performed both with funds appropriated to the BFRL Fire Research Program and under contract to outside organizations. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under four program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, extramural grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. This publication is organized along those lines: (1) Performance-based Fire Standards; (2) Fire Safe Materials and Products; (3) Advanced Fire Sensing and Suppression; (4) Large/Industrial Fires. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in the Part 2.0.

  7. Supporting FIRE-suppression strategies combining fire spread MODelling and SATellite data in an operational context in Portugal: the FIRE-MODSAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, Ana C. L.; Benali, Akli; Pinto, Renata M. S.; Pereira, José M. C.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; DaCamara, Carlos C.

    2014-05-01

    Large wildfires are infrequent but account for the most severe environmental, ecological and socio-economic impacts. In recent years Portugal has suffered the impact of major heat waves that fuelled records of burnt area exceeding 400.000ha and 300.000ha in 2003 and 2005, respectively. According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency and amplitude of summer heat waves over Iberia will very likely increase in the future. Therefore, most climate change studies point to an increase in the number and extent of wildfires. Thus, an increase in both wildfire impacts and fire suppression difficulties is expected. The spread of large wildfires results from a complex interaction between topography, meteorology and fuel properties. Wildfire spread models (e.g. FARSITE) are commonly used to simulate fire growth and behaviour and are an essential tool to understand their main drivers. Additionally, satellite active-fire data have been used to monitor the occurrence, extent, and spread of wildfires. Both satellite data and fire spread models provide different types of information about the spatial and temporal distribution of large wildfires and can potentially be used to support strategic decisions regarding fire suppression resource allocation. However, they have not been combined in a manner that fully exploits their potential and minimizes their limitations. A knowledge gap still exists in understanding how to minimize the impacts of large wildfires, leading to the following research question: What can we learn from past large wildfires in order to mitigate future fire impacts? FIRE-MODSAT is a one-year funded project by the Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology (FCT) that is founded on this research question, with the main goal of improving our understanding on the interactions between fire spread and its environmental drivers, to support fire management decisions in an operational context and generate valuable information to improve the efficiency of the

  8. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  9. Cux1 Enables Interhemispheric Connections of Layer II/III Neurons by Regulating Kv1-Dependent Firing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tornos, Fernanda M; Briz, Carlos G; Weiss, Linnea A; Sebastián-Serrano, Alvaro; Ares, Saúl; Navarrete, Marta; Frangeul, Laura; Galazo, Maria; Jabaudon, Denis; Esteban, José A; Nieto, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Neuronal subtype-specific transcription factors (TFs) instruct key features of neuronal function and connectivity. Activity-dependent mechanisms also contribute to wiring and circuit assembly, but whether and how they relate to TF-directed neuronal differentiation is poorly investigated. Here we demonstrate that the TF Cux1 controls the formation of the layer II/III corpus callosum (CC) projections through the developmental transcriptional regulation of Kv1 voltage-dependent potassium channels and the resulting postnatal switch to a Kv1-dependent firing mode. Loss of Cux1 function led to a decrease in the expression of Kv1 transcripts, aberrant firing responses, and selective loss of CC contralateral innervation. Firing and innervation were rescued by re-expression of Kv1 or postnatal reactivation of Cux1. Knocking down Kv1 mimicked Cux1-mediated CC axonal loss. These findings reveal that activity-dependent processes are central bona fide components of neuronal TF-differentiation programs and establish the importance of intrinsic firing modes in circuit assembly within the neocortex. PMID:26804994

  10. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  11. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  12. I. Mixing in doorway flows. II. Entrainment in fire plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Christopher S.

    The motion of hot combustion products through a burning structure plays a dominant role in fixing the spread of the fire and the spread of toxic gases. The first part of this report is concerned with the effect of door geometry on the rate of turbulent mixing between the hot and cold layers near a doorway. The second part of the report deals with the entrainment rates in the near field of a buoyant diffusion methane flame.In the study of the motion of the hot combustion products near a doorway, the gas in the burning room is assumed to be divided into two homogeneous layers--the ceiling layer which contains the hot combustion products and the floor layer which contains the denser fresh air. Temperature and carbon dioxide measurements are taken from a half-scale room which uses a pump and furnace to simulate the entrainment and heating of the fresh air by the fire plume. The mass transfer rates are calculated from these measurements and are found to be a function of a Richardson number that uses the interface height measured from the floor as the characteristic length and the average inflow velocity of fresh air as the characteristic velocity. This form for Ri(0) is derived from an analysis based on Taylor's entrainment hypothesis. For a given fire size, i.e., for a given mass flow of fresh air into the room, the effect of reducing the door area is to reduce the value of Ri(0), and hence increase the mixing rate in the room. The door height is found to be a much stronger influence on the mixing rate and interface height than the door width.The entrainment rates of fresh air in the near field of a buoyant diffusion methane flame whose flames extend well above the interface between the hot gas layer and the fresh air layer are measured for several interface heights. In the experiments, the ceiling layer-fire plume interaction is simulated by placing a large steel hood over an axisymmetric burner. The hood may be raised or lowered to change the interface height. The

  13. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  14. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Laxmikant; Jones, Terry; Moreira, Jose

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  15. Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

  16. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report II. Breckinridge Project design basis

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Breckinridge Project is a pioneer endeavor involving the engineering, construction, and operation of a commercial facility that will convert 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine, high-sulfur coal into 50,000 barrels per day of liquid hydrocarbons equivalent to those produced from crude oil. The Initial Effort, now complete, was executed under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-80OR20717 between the Department of Energy and the Participants, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. The Initial Effort produced a preliminary design, capital estimate, and economic analysis of the commercial plant, as well as a plan for the design, construction, and operation of that plant. The extensive and rigorous attention given to environmental, socioeconomic, safety, and health considerations is indicative of the high priority these issues will continue to receive throughout the life of the project. The Breckinridge Energy Company, a partnership of several major corporations, is being formed to finance, own, and manage the Breckinridge Project. Report II is intended for the reader who is primarily interested in less detailed discussion of the coal liquefaction process and Breckinridge facility than presented in the eleven volumes of Reports IV and V. The overview section describes the project goals and briefly introduces the coal liquefaction process. The report continues with a discussion of the history of the project and the H-COAL process from its concept to the proposed commercialization technology. The report describes the site, the Breckinridge Facility, and concludes with a summary of the eleven reports that contain the deliverable documentation of the Initial Effort or Development Phase of the project.

  17. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  18. Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, J.

    2008-07-15

    Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fiber optic timing, firing and control system for high energy density physics experiments at Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.R.; Rohlev, L.; Earley, L.; Cochrane, J.

    1995-12-01

    Several fiber optic systems have been designed and implemented for the high energy density experiments at Pegasus II. The main fiber optic system developed for Pegasus II, remotely controls both the charging and discharging of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU). This fiber optic system is also used to distribute the timing and firing information specific to each experiment to the operators and experimenters. The timing and firing information includes the voltage on the CDU as it is being charged, a confirmation signal indicating the CDU has discharged and common timing signals based on the output signals on the load ring of the CDU. Various fiber optic systems were implemented to transfer diagnostic information related to the discharge of the main capacitor bank to the control room. The diagnostics include the current, electric field, and vacuum pressure at the target area. Not only do these fiber optic systems provide the control and monitor signals for the experiments at Pegasus II, they have the added value of preventing premature firing of the capacitor bank, eliminating ground loops between the test area and the control room and providing overall increased operator safety.

  20. FIRE_AX_UW_DSCRT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    ... Project Title:  FIRE II ASTEX Discipline:  Clouds Field Campaigns Radiation Budget ... Instrument:  C2H4 Chemiluminescence Cloud Chamber Filter/Fluorescence Filter/IC FSSP GC-FID Hot-Wire IR ...

  1. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  2. NDCX-II project commencing at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Kwan, J

    2009-10-22

    Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Sciences approved the NDCX-II project, a second-generation Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment. NDCX-II is a collaborative effort of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in a formal collaboration known as the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion Science (HIFS-VNL). Supported by $11 M of funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, construction at LBNL commenced in July of 2009, with completion anticipated in March of 2012. Applications of this facility will include studies of: the basic physics of the poorly understood 'warm dense matter' regime of temperatures around 1 eV and densities near solid, using uniform, volumetric ion heating of thin foil targets; ion energy coupling into an ablating plasma (such as that which occurs in an inertial fusion target) using beams with time-varying kinetic energy; space-charge-dominated ion beam dynamics; and beam focusing and pulse compression in neutralizing plasma. The machine will complement facilities at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, but will employ lower ion kinetic energies and commensurately shorter stopping ranges in matter. Much of this research will contribute directly toward the collaboration's ultimate goal of electric power production via heavy-ion beam-driven inertial confinement fusion ('Heavy-Ion Fusion', or HIF). In inertial fusion, a target containing fusion fuel is heated by energetic 'driver' beams, and undergoes a miniature thermonuclear explosion. Currently the largest U.S. research program in inertial confinement is at Livermore's National Ignition Facility (NIF), a multibillion-dollar, stadium-sized laser facility optimized for studying physics issues relevant to nuclear stockpile stewardship. Nonetheless, NIF is expected to establish the fundamental feasibility of

  3. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  4. Masfile--II Pilot Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Five Associated Univ. Libraries, Syracuse, NY.

    The report prepared for the Five Associated University Libraries (FAUL) by the Technical Information Dissemination Bureau (TIDB) at Suny-Buffalo is divided into nine sections: (1) a summary of procedures used to accomplish the specified MASFILE-II tasks; (2) a graphic comparison of the MARC-II and the MASFILE-II formats; (3) recommend…

  5. Final Report: Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Project, Exploration Technology Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is a technology development effort within the Exploration Technology Development Program of the Exploration System Missions Directorate (ESMD) that addresses all aspects of fire safety aboard manned exploration systems. The overarching goal for work in the FPDS area is to develop technologies that will ensure crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the crew, mission, or system. This is accomplished by addressing the areas of (1) fire prevention and material flammability, (2) fire signatures and detection, and (3) fire suppression and response. This report describes the outcomes of this project from the formation of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) in October 2005 to September 31, 2010 when the Exploration Technology Development Program was replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program. NASA s fire safety work will continue under this new program and will build upon the accomplishments described herein.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  7. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Pennington, D.; Ordway, E.; Nelson, E.; Mickley, L.; Koplitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change in past decades as forests and peatlands are cleared for agricultural development, including oil palm and timber plantations1. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and the subsequent emissions can have important public health impacts by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations2. This regional haze was dramatically seen in Singapore during June 2013 due to the transport of emissions from fires in Sumatra. Our study is part of a larger project that will quantify the public health impact of various land use development scenarios for Sumatra over the coming decades. Here, we describe how we translate economic projections of land use change into future fire emissions inventories for GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport simulations. We relate past GFED3 fire emissions3 to detailed 1-km land use change data and MODIS fire radiative power observations, and apply these relationships to future estimates of land use change. The goal of this interdisciplinary project is to use modeling results to interact with policy makers and influence development strategies in ways that protect public health. 1Miettinen et al. 2011. Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Glob. Change Biol.,17 (7), 2261-2270. 2Marlier et al. 2013. El Niño and health risks from landscape fire emissions in southeast Asia. Nature Clim. Change, 3, 131-136. 3van der Werf et al. 2010. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009). Atmos. Chem. Physics, 10 (23), 11707-11735.

  8. FIRE classification of LSQ13dpa, a possible young type II supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P.; Contreras, C.; Gall, C.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.

    2013-12-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of LSQ13dpa using a near-infrared spectrum (range 800-2500 nm) obtained on Dec 20.29 UT with the FoldedPort Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph on the 6.5-m Magellan Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. The near-infrared spectrum shows a blue continuum with weak P-Cyg lines of hydrogen Paschen series, typical of a young type II supernova. We also obtained BVri images with the Swope 1-m on Dec 19.29 and Dec 20.30 UT.

  9. Radiative gas dynamics of the Fire-II superorbital space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2016-03-01

    The rates of convective and radiative heating of the Fire-II reentry vehicle are calculated, and the results are compared with experimental flight data. The computational model is based on solving a complete set of equations for (i) the radiative gas dynamics of a physically and chemically nonequilibrium viscous heatconducting gas and (ii) radiative transfer in 2D axisymmetric statement. The spectral optical parameters of high-temperature gases are calculated using ab initio quasi-classical and quantum-mechanical methods. The transfer of selective thermal radiation in terms of atomic lines is calculated using the line-by-line method on a specially generated computational grid that is nonuniform in radiation wavelength.

  10. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  11. Simulation of Neural Firing Dynamics: A Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletsky, E. J.

    This paper describes a student project in digital simulation techniques that is part of a graduate systems analysis course entitled Biosimulation. The students chose different simulation techniques to solve a problem related to the neuron model. (MLH)

  12. Lessons Learned from FIPSE Projects II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Dora; And Others

    This monograph describes 30 college and university programs funded by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education from 1989 to 1991. Each description includes information on program purpose, project activities, major insights and lessons, project continuation, and available information. The first group of 10 are programs focused on…

  13. Guidelines of the Design of Electropyrotechnic Firing Circuit for Unmanned Flight and Ground Test Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Lucy, Melvin H.; Massie, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, Engineering Directorate, Electronic System Branch, is responsible for providing pyrotechnic support capabilities to Langley Research Center unmanned flight and ground test projects. These capabilities include device selection, procurement, testing, problem solving, firing system design, fabrication and testing; ground support equipment design, fabrication and testing; checkout procedures and procedure?s training to pyro technicians. This technical memorandum will serve as a guideline for the design, fabrication and testing of electropyrotechnic firing systems. The guidelines will discuss the entire process beginning with requirements definition and ending with development and execution.

  14. MERIS burned area algorithm in the framework of the ESA Fire CCI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, P.; Calado, T.; Gonzalez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Fire-CCI project aims at generating long and reliable time series of burned area (BA) maps based on existing information provided by European satellite sensors. In this context, a BA algorithm is currently being developed using the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor. The algorithm is being tested over a series of ten study sites with a area of 500x500 km2 each, for the period of 2003 to 2009. The study sites are located in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, Portugal, Angola, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Borneo, Russia and Australia and include a variety of vegetation types characterized by different fire regimes. The algorithm has to take into account several limiting aspects that range from the MERIS sensor characteristics (e.g. the lack of SWIR bands) to the noise presented in the data. In addition the lack of data in some areas caused either because of cloud contamination or because the sensor does not acquire full resolution data over the study area, provokes a limitation difficult to overcome. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the design of the BA algorithm is based on the analysis of maximum composites of spectral indices characterized by low values of temporal standard deviation in space and associated to MODIS hot spots. Accordingly, for each study site and year, composites of maximum values of BAI are computed and the corresponding Julian day of the maximum value and number of observations in the period are registered by pixel . Then we computed the temporal standard deviation for pixels with a number of observations greater than 10 using spatial matrices of 3x3 pixels. To classify the BAI values as burned or non-burned we extract statistics using the MODIS hot spots. A pixel is finally classified as burned if it satisfies the following conditions: i) it is associated to hot spots; ii) BAI maximum is higher than a certain threshold and iii) the standard deviation of the Julian day is less than a given number of days.

  15. FIRE_AX_UW_C131A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    ... Project Title:  FIRE II ASTEX Discipline:  Clouds Field Campaigns Radiation Budget Aerosols ... Capacitive Sensor Chilled Mirror Cloud Chamber FSSP Hot-Wire Hygrometer RMS Pressure Var Platinum ...

  16. Predicting fire activity in the US over the next 50 years using new IPCC climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is an integral part of the Earth system with both direct and indirect effects on terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and human societies (Bowman et al. 2009). Climate conditions regulate fire activities through a variety of ways, e.g., influencing the conditions for ignition and fire spread, changing vegetation growth and decay and thus the accumulation of fuels for combustion (Arora and Boer 2005). Our recent study disclosed the burned area (BA) in US is strongly correlated with potential evaporation (PE), a measurement of climatic dryness derived from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data (Morton et al. 2012). The correlation varies spatially and temporally. With regard to fire of peak fire seasons, Northwestern US, Great Plains and Alaska have the strongest BA/PE relationship. Using the recently released the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) Version 3 (van der Werf et al. 2010), we showed increasing BA in the last decade in most of NCA regions. Longer time series of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) (Eidenshink et al. 2007) data showed the increasing trends occurred in all NCA regions from 1984 to 2010. This relationship between BA and PE provides us the basis to predict the future fire activities in the projected climate conditions. In this study, we build spatially explicit predictors using the historic PE/BA relationship. PE from 2011 to 2060 is calculated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and the historic PE/BA relationship is then used to estimate BA. This study examines the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of the future US fires driven by new climate predictions for the next 50 years. Reference: Arora, V.K., & Boer, G.J. (2005). Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 110 Bowman, D.M.J.S., Balch, J.K., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J.M., Cochrane, M.A., D

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  18. A convective and radiative heat transfer analysis for the FIRE II forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greendyke, Robert B.; Hartung, Lin C.

    1993-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes flowfield solution method (LAURA code) using finite-rate chemistry and two-temperature thermal nonequilibrium was used in combination with two nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer codes to calculate heating for the FIRE II vehicle. An axisymmetric model of the actual body shape was used. One radiative heating code (NEQAIR) was used in uncoupled fashion with the flowfield solver's energy equations, while the other code (LORAN) was used in both coupled and uncoupled variations. Several trajectory points ranging from highly nonequilibrium flow to near-equilibrium flow were used for a study of both convective and radiative heating over the vehicle. Considerable variation in radiative heating was seen at the extremes, while agreement was good in the intermediate trajectory points. Total heat transfer calculations gave good comparison until the peak heating trajectory points were encountered, and returned to good agreement for the last two equilibrium points.

  19. The role of atomic lines in radiation heating of the experimental space vehicle Fire-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2015-10-01

    The results of calculating the convective and radiation heating of the Fire-II experimental space vehicle allowing for atomic lines of atoms and ions using the NERAT-ASTEROID computer platform are presented. This computer platform is intended to solve the complete set of equations of radiation gas dynamics of viscous, heat-conductive, and physically and chemically nonequilibrium gas, as well as radiation transfer. The spectral optical properties of high temperature gases are calculated using ab initio quasi-classical and quantum-mechanical methods. The calculation of the transfer of selective thermal radiation is performed using a line-by-line method using specially generated computational grids over the radiation wavelengths, which make it possible to attain a noticeable economy of computational resources.

  20. EBR-II and TREAT Digitization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Digitizing the technical drawings for EBR-II and TREAT provides multiple benefits. Moving the scanned or hard copy drawings to modern 3-D CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) format saves data that could be lost over time. The 3-D drawings produce models that can interface with other drawings to make complex assemblies. The 3-D CAD format can also include detailed material properties and parametric coding that can tie critical dimensions together allowing easier modification. Creating the new files from the old drawings has found multiple inconsistencies that are being flagged or corrected improving understanding of the reactor(s).

  1. Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Joe, H.

    2009-07-23

    The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growth—those tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS-simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.

  2. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  3. NDCX-II project commencing at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Kwan, J

    2009-10-26

    NDCX-II is the second-generation Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment, capable of accelerating and strongly bunching tens of nanoCoulombs of non-relativistic ions, for applications requiring nanosecond-scale pulses with short stopping ranges. As with the existing NDCX-I at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the new machine is based on the technique of neutralized drift compression, whereby a head-to-tail velocity gradient is imparted to the beam, which then shortens as it drifts in a neutralizing plasma that suppresses space-charge forces. The figure shows the layout of the machine, to be sited at LBNL. It will make extensive use of induction cells and other parts from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It will be extensible and reconfigurable; in the configuration that has received the most emphasis, each pulse will deliver 30-50 nC of Li+ ions at 3 MeV into a mm-scale spot onto a thin-foil target. Pulse compression to {approx} 1 ns begins in the accelerator and finishes in the drift compression line; the beam is manipulated using suitably tailored voltage waveforms in the accelerating gaps. NDCX-II employs novel beam dynamics. To use the 200 kV Blumlein pulsed power from ATA (blue cylinders in the figure), the pulse duration must first be reduced from an initial 500 ns to less than 70 ns. This shortening is accomplished in an initial stage of non-neutral drift compression, downstream of the injector and the first few induction cells (note the spaces between induction cells at the left end of the figure). The compression is rapid enough that fewer than ten long-pulse waveform generators are needed, with Blumleins powering the rest of the acceleration. Extensive particle-in-cell simulation studies have enabled an attractive physics design that meets the stringent cost goal. Snapshots from a simulation video are shown in the figure. Studies on a dedicated test stand are characterizing

  4. The 5-6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: Possible influences of volcanic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.; Starr, D.O.C.; Melfi, S.H.; Spinhirne, J.D.; Poellot, M.R.; Eberhard, W.L.; Eloranta, E.W.; Hagen, D.E.; Hallett, J.

    1995-01-01

    In presenting an overview of the cirrus clouds comprehensively studied by ground-based and airborne sensors from Coffeyville, Kansas, during the 5-6 December 1992 Project FIRE IFO II case study period, evidence is provided that volcanic aerosols from the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptions may have significantly influenced the formation and maintenance of the cirrus. Following the local appearance of a spur of stratospheric volcanic debris from the subtropics, a series of jet streaks subsequently conditioned the troposphere through tropopause foldings with sulfur-based particles that became effective cloud-forming nuclei in cirrus clouds. Aerosol and ozone measurements suggest a complicated history of stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges embedded within the upper-level flow, and cirrus cloud formation was noted to occur locally at the boundaries of stratospheric aerosol-enriched layers that became humidified through diffusion, precipitation, or advective processes. Apparent cirrus cloud alterations include abnormally high ice crystal concentrations (up to {approximately}600 L{sup {minus}1}), complex radial ice crystal types, and relatively large haze particles in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between {minus}40{degrees} and {minus}50{degrees}C. Implications for volcanic-cirrus cloud climate effects and usual (nonvolcanic aerosol) jet stream cirrus cloud formation are discussed. 42 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Give-Away Book Programs Combined with Title II Reading Projects. ESEA Title II and The Right to Read, Notable Reading Projects No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This is the ninth report describing notable reading projects funded under Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Projects combining Title II reading projects with a give-away book program in Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey are described. Although Title II funds cannot be used to provide books to…

  6. Impacts of the Cerro Grande fire on Homestead era and Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, E. D.; Isaacson, J.

    2001-01-01

    In May of 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 8,000 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) managed land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Although the fire was generally of low intensity, it impacted a significant number of LANL's cultural resources. Historic wooden properties were affected more heavily than prehistoric archaeological sites. This paper will provide an overview of the Homestead and Manhattan Project Periods at LANL and will discuss the effects of the Cerro Grande Fire on historic wooden properties. Post-fire cultural resource management issues will also be discussed.

  7. FIRE_AX_CMS_SOLAR_WK

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-24

    FIRE_AX_CMS_SOLAR_WK Project Title:  FIRE II ASTEX Discipline:  ... Order: Earthdata Search Parameters:  Solar Irradiance Order Data:  Search and Order: Earthdata Search Readme Files:  Readme CMS_SOLAR_WK CMS_SOLAR_WK Info 1 CMS_SOLAR_WK Info 2 ...

  8. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  9. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... flooded, would pollute the waters of the basin or threaten damage to off-site areas, including,...

  10. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... flooded, would pollute the waters of the basin or threaten damage to off-site areas, including,...

  11. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... flooded, would pollute the waters of the basin or threaten damage to off-site areas, including,...

  12. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... flooded, would pollute the waters of the basin or threaten damage to off-site areas, including,...

  13. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... flooded, would pollute the waters of the basin or threaten damage to off-site areas, including,...

  14. Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied "Green House" Effects on Fire Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ronney, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from the University of Southern California in conjunction with a project team from the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study is focusing on flame spread over flat solid fuel beds to improve our understanding of more complex fires, such as those found in manned spacecraft and terrestrial buildings. The investigation has direct implications for fire safety, both for space and Earth applications, and extends previous work with emphasis on the atmospheres and flow environments likely to be present in fires that might occur in microgravity. These atmospheres will contain radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion products, and likely gaseous fuels such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion of solid fuel, as well as flows induced by ventilation currents. During tests in the 2.2-Second Drop Tower and KC-135 aircraft at Glenn, the principal investigator introduced the use of foam fuels for flame spread experiments over thermally thick fuels to obtain large spread rates in comparison to those of dense fuels such as PMMA. This enables meaningful results to be obtained even in the 2.2 s available in drop tower experiments.

  15. Forest Management and the Evolution of Project Design in Dynamic Wildland Urban Interface Fire Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee Ranger District on the Tahoe National Forest, in the heart of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, has a rich history of human activities. Native American influences, comstock-era logging, fire suppression, development, and recreation have all shaped the natural environment into what it is today. Like much of our national forests in California, forest conditions that have developed are generally much more homogenous and less resistant to disturbance from fire, insect, and disease than they might have been without the myriad of human influences. However, in order to improve the resiliency of our forests to stand replacing disturbances like high severity fire, while managing for integrated anthropomorphic values, it is imperative that management evolve to meet those dynamic needs. Recent advances in remote sensing and GIS allow land managers more access to forest information and can inform site specific prescriptions to change site specific undesirable conditions. It is ecologically and politically complex, yet our forests deserve that microscope. This particular presentation will focus on how the Truckee Ranger District began this process of incorporating several values, generated from stakeholder collaboration, into one project's goals and how those lessons learned informed their most recent project.

  16. Comparison of Coupled Radiative Flow Solutions with Project Fire 2 Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Henline, W. D.; Chambers, Lin Hartung; Candler, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    A nonequilibrium, axisymmetric, Navier-Stokes flow solver with coupled radiation has been developed for use in the design or thermal protection systems for vehicles where radiation effects are important. The present method has been compared with an existing now and radiation solver and with the Project Fire 2 experimental data. Good agreement has been obtained over the entire Fire 2 trajectory with the experimentally determined values of the stagnation radiation intensity in the 0.2-6.2 eV range and with the total stagnation heating. The effects of a number of flow models are examined to determine which combination of physical models produces the best agreement with the experimental data. These models include radiation coupling, multitemperature thermal models, and finite rate chemistry. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present model is evaluated. The radiation properties model developed for this study is shown to offer significant computational savings compared to existing codes.

  17. Cirrus cloud spectra and layers observed during the FIRE and GASP projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatau, Piotr J.; Gultepe, I.; Nastrom, G.; Cotton, William R.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    A general characterization is developed for cirrus clouds in terms of their spectra, shapes, optical thicknesses, and radiative properties for use in numerical models. Data sets from the Global Atmospheric Sampling Project (GASP) of the upper troposphere and the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) are combined and analyzed to study general traits of cirrus clouds. A definition is given for 2D turbulence, and the GASP and FIRE data sets are examined with respect to cirrus layers and entrainment and to dominant turbulent scales. The approach employs conditional sampling in cloudy and clear air, power-spectral analysis, and mixing-line-type diagrams. Evidence is given for a well mixed cloud deck and for the tendency of cirrus to be formed in multilayer structures. The results are of use in mesoscale and global circulation models which predict cirrus, in small-scale cirrus modeling, and in studying the role of gravity waves in the horizontal structure of upper tropospheric clouds.

  18. 2200 MW SCR installation on new coal-fired utility project

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, D.P.; Uysal, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    NO{sub x} regulations in Germany and Japan in the mid-1980s resulted in the mandatory retrofit of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology on many utility installations. The early 1990s brought SCR technology to small, single unit new coal fired installations around the world. This paper describes the application of high NO{sub x} reduction SCR technology to the first large scale, coal fired, multiple unit new installation. By integrating the SCR design into the initial boiler equipment arrangement and design, significant simplification of equipment arrangement resulted in project cost savings. The four 550 MW units at Taiwan Power`s Taichung 5--8 Power Plant were installed, commissioned (Unit 8 went on line in early 1997), and tested demonstrating the low NO{sub x} emission capabilities of SCR technology.

  19. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2002-04-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility hydrolysis production has been completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material was used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary co-fire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and bio-solids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NO{sub x} emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. The final co-fire testing report is being prepared at EERC and will be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been

  20. Comparison of DSMC and CFD Solutions of Fire II Including Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. These flows may also contain significant radiative heating. To prepare for these missions, NASA is developing the capability to simulate rarefied, ionized flows and to then calculate the resulting radiative heating to the vehicle's surface. In this study, the DSMC codes DAC and DS2V are used to obtain charge-neutral ionization solutions. NASA s direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC is currently being updated to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced Quantum-Kinetic chemistry model, and to include electronic energy levels as an additional internal energy mode. The Fire II flight test is used in this study to assess these new capabilities. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid. It is shown that there can be quite a bit of variability in the vibrational temperature inferred from DSMC solutions and that, from how radiative heating is computed, the electronic temperature is much better suited for radiative calculations. To include the radiative portion of heating, the flow-field solutions are post-processed by the non-equilibrium radiation code HARA. Acceptable agreement between CFD and DSMC flow field solutions is demonstrated and the progress of the updates to DAC, along with an appropriate radiative heating solution, are discussed. In addition, future plans to generate more high fidelity radiative heat transfer solutions are discussed.

  1. Static firing test results of the H-I and H-II launch vehicle development at the Tanegashima Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekita, Ryuichi; Haraguchi, Yoshitaka; Konno, Akira; Saito, Takashi

    1991-10-01

    In addition to its H-I launch vehicle complex, Japan's Tanegashima Space Center (TSC) encompasses three static-firing test facilities. These facilities will respectively be used in the course of the H-II launch vehicle development program for the static firing of strap-on boosters, the MB-3 liquid-fueled engine, and the Yoshinobu static firing test facility for the LE-7 staged combustion-cycle first-stage engine. Results are presented from static firings for the three H-II components which have been conducted to date. The first flight of the H-II, following completion of static tests at the aforementioned TSC facilities, is scheduled for 1993.

  2. Projections of 21st Century African Climate: Implications for African Savanna Fire Dynamics, Human Health and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is a key agent of change in the African savannas, which are shaped through the complex interactions between trees, C4 grasses, rainfall, temperature, CO2 and fire. These fires and their emitted smoke can have numerous direct and indirect effects on the environment, water resources, air quality, and climate. For instance, veld fires in southern Africa cause large financial losses to agriculture, livestock production and forestry on an annual basis. This study contributes to our understanding of the implications of projected surface temperature evolution in Africa for fire risk, human health and agriculture over the coming decades. We use an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of African climate for the 21st century. Regional dowscalings and recent global circulation model projections obtained for Africa indicate that African temperatures are likely to rise at 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the tropics, and at almost twice the global rate of increase in the subtropics. Warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with increases of 4-6 °C over the subtropics and 3-5 °C over the tropics plausible by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (low mitigation) scenario. We explore the significance of the projected warming by documenting increases in projected high fire danger days and heat-wave days. General drying is projected across the continent, even for areas (e.g. tropical Africa) where an increase in rainfall is plausible. This is due to the drastic increases in temperature that are projected, which leads to drier soils (through enhanced evaporation) despite the rainfall increases. This will likely impact negatively on crop yield, particularly on the maize crop that is of crucial importance in terms of African food security.

  3. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  4. The PEP-II project-wide database

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Calish, S.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.; Wong, J.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of this accelerator construction. It holds the PEP-II design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, magnet and vacuum fabrication data. CAD drawings, publications and documentation, survey and alignment data and property control. The database can be extended to contain information required for the operations phase of the accelerator and detector. Features such as viewing CAD drawing graphics from the database will be implemented in the future. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using ORACLE Case tools. Users at the three collaborating laboratories (SLAC, LBL, LLNL) can access the data remotely, using various desktop computer platforms and graphical interfaces.

  5. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: California Santa Ana wind occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-08-01

    A new method based on global climate model pressure gradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weather conditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of this method for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrence resulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs and observed offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projected change in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climate models, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other a middle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emission scenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis shows consistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later (November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantly increase the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, loss of life, and property.

  6. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  7. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  8. Southern Hemisphere SETI Survey - Five years of project META II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Colomb, Fernando R.; Hurrell, E. E.; Olalde, Juan C.

    1997-01-01

    Project META II, a full-sky survey for artificial narrowband signals, has been conducted from one of the two 30-m radiotelescopes of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). The search was performed near the 1420-MHz line of neutral hydrogen, using a 8.4 million channels Fourier spectrometer of 0.05-Hz resolution and 400-kHz instantaneous bandwidth. The observing frequency was corrected both for motions with respect to three astronomical inertial frames, and for the effect of the Earth's rotation, which provides a characteristic changing signature for narrowband signals of extraterrestrial origin. Among the 2 x 10 exp 13 spectral channels analyzed, 29 extra statistical narrowband events exceeding the average threshold of 1.7 x 10 exp -23 W/sq m were found. The strongest signals that survive culling for terrestrial interference lie in or near the galactic plane. A description of the project META II observing scheme and results is made, as well as a possible interpretation of the results using the Cordes Lazio-Sagan model based on interstellar scattering theory.

  9. GAD67-GFP+ Neurons in the Nucleus of Roller. II. Subthreshold and Firing Resonance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Berger, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In the companion paper we show that GAD67-GFP+ (GFP+) inhibitory neurons located in the Nucleus of Roller of the mouse brain stem can be classified into two main groups (tonic and phasic) based on their firing patterns in responses to injected depolarizing current steps. In this study we examined the responses of GFP+ cells to fluctuating sinusoidal (“chirp”) current stimuli. Membrane impedance profiles in response to chirp stimulation showed that nearly all phasic cells exhibited subthreshold resonance, whereas the majority of tonic GFP+ cells were nonresonant. In general, subthreshold resonance was associated with a relatively fast passive membrane time constant and low input resistance. In response to suprathreshold chirp current stimulation at a holding potential just below spike threshold the majority of tonic GFP+ cells fired multiple action potentials per cycle at low input frequencies (<5 Hz) and either stopped firing or were not entrained by the chirp at higher input frequencies (= tonic low-pass cells). A smaller group of phasic GFP+ cells did not fire at low input frequency but were able to phase-lock 1:1 at intermediate chirp frequencies (= band-pass cells). Spike timing reliability was tested with repeated chirp stimuli and our results show that phasic cells were able to reliably fire when they phase-locked 1:1 over a relatively broad range of input frequencies. Most tonic low-pass cells showed low reliability and poor phase-locking ability. Computer modeling suggested that these different firing resonance properties among GFP+ cells are due to differences in passive and active membrane properties and spiking mechanisms. This heterogeneity of resonance properties might serve to selectively activate subgroups of interneurons. PMID:21047931

  10. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  12. A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to

  13. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  14. EVALUATION OF STATIONARY SOURCE PARTICULATE MEASUREMENT METHODS. VOLUME II. OIL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the reliability of the Method 5 procedure for providing particulate emission data from an oil-fired steam generator. The study was concerned with determining whether any 'false' particulate resulted from the collection process of f...

  15. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  16. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  17. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  18. THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-07-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed

  19. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  20. The PEP-II Project: Low-Energy Ring Design and Project Status

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-02

    We describe the present status of the PEP-II project. The project comprises four major systems: Injector, High-Energy Ring (HER), Low-Energy Ring (LER), and Interaction Region (IR). We focus in detail on the design of the LER, as its parameters and requirements are most closely related to those required for the Beijing Tau-Charm Factory rings. The PEP-II LER is a high-current, 3.1-GeV positron ring mounted above the 9-GeV HER. The LER uses a wiggler located in one of its six straight sections to provide emittance control and additional damping. We describe the rather complicated IR, which must transport the LER beam into the plane of the HER, focus it to a common beam size, and separate the beams after the head-on collisions. Both permanent magnet and conventional electromagnets are used in this area. The LER lattice has now adopted a simplified non-interleaved sextupole correction scheme that has reduced the required number of sextupoles substantially. We describe the LER vacuum system, one of the most challenging subsystems in PEP-II. It employs several technologies. In the arcs, aluminum extrusions and titanium sublimation pumps are employed; the straight sections use stainless steel chambers with lumped ion pumps. In the wiggler area, an extended copper photon dump with nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps is employed to handle the very large synchrotron radiation power. The design of the room-temperature RF system, the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, and some of the special diagnostics will be described briefly. The PEP-II project remains on schedule to begin commissioning of the HER in April 1997, followed by the LER a year later.

  1. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  2. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement: Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  3. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that... disputes and sound industrial relations by developing approaches in cooperation with trade...

  4. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Institutional project summary University of Redlands direct fired gas absorption chiller system

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    The University of Redlands, located in the California Inland Empire City of Redlands supplies six campus building with chilled and hot water for cooling and space heating from a centrally located Mechanical Center. The University was interested in lowering chilled water production costs and eliminating Ozone depleting chloroflourocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in addition to adding chiller capacity for future building to be added to the central plant piping {open_quotes}loop{close_quotes}. After initially providing a feasibility study of chiller addition alternatives and annual hourly load models, GRT & Associates, Inc. (GRT) provided design engineering for the installation of a 500 Ton direct gas fired absorption chiller addition to the University of Redland`s mechanical center. Based on the feasibility study and energy consumption tests done after the new absorption chiller was added, the university estimates annual energy cost saving versus the existing electric chiller is approximately $65,000 per year. Using actual construction costs, the simple before tax payback period for the project is six years.

  6. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  7. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  8. Part I. The fire properties of polymer clay nanocomposites. Part II. Thermal rearrangement of donor-acceptor substituted cyclopropanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shengpei

    2003-08-01

    This work consists of two parts. Part I, which includes chapter 1--5, is focused on the fire properties of nanocomposites while part II deals with thermal rearrangement of the donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. In chapter 1 of the first part an introduction to the preparation of polymer-clay nanocomposites is provided along with their application to fire retardancy. Chapter 2 details the exfoliation process of clay using in situ polymerization; the results show that the exfoliation process is related to the monomer, the modified clay and the initiator. Chapter 3 concentrates on the preparation of nanocomposites by melt blending with polymer modified clays. Three different polymer modified clays (PS, PMMA and PBD modified clay) and six polymers (PS, HIPS, ABS, PMMA, PP and PE) are reported. The morphology, thermal stability, fire behavior and mechanical properties were studied. This research shows that the exfoliation process by melt blending is controlled by the types of interactions between the various polymers, the silicate surfaces and the organic modifier. The combination of polar polymer matrix and non-polar polymer modified clay with large d-spacing will be more likely to give the exfoliated nanocomposites. TGA-FTIR results show that the mechanism of degradation of polystyrene is changed in the presence of the clay. In order to better understand the effects of the organic modifier, PS surfactants with five different pendant groups, dimethylhexadecylamine, trimethylamine, dimethylbenzylamine, 1,2-dimethylimidizole and triphenylphosphine, were used and the results show that the degradation depends upon the pendant. Chapter 5 provides some suggestions for future work based upon this work. The synthesis of several new and previously reported donor-acceptor cyclopropanes is reported in part II. The study shows that the facility of the donor-acceptor cyclopropane ring cleavage is strongly influenced by the kind of activating substitutes on the cyclopropane ring, and the

  9. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using

  10. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Fire Island, New York, January to April 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Voulgaris, George; Traykovski, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during January through April 2012 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics near Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deploymed. The data collected and supporting meteorological observations are presented as time series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual, links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  11. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for oceanographic observations near Fire Island, New York, February through May 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Voulgaris, George

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during February through May 2014 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics along the western part of Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected, including meteorological observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  12. Parametric Optimization of Undulators for NSLS-II Project Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubar, O.; Bengtsson, J.; Berman, L.; Broadbent, A.; Cai, Y. Q.; Hulbert, S.; Shen, Q.; Tanabe, T.

    2010-06-01

    General optimization procedure, computation methods used, and the obtained optimal parameters of undulators for the NSLS-II project beamlines are reported. The optimization starts with high-accuracy calculation of undulator magnetic fields, using Radia magnetostatics code, for a large set of periods and vertical gaps of a given undulator type, given magnetic materials and a scalable magnet geometry. From the resulting magnetic fields, a sub-set of undulator periods and the corresponding vertical gaps, providing the required low-energy cut-off values of spectral harmonics for each particular beamline, is determined. In parallel, from the same Radia undulator models, angular magnetic kick maps are calculated, and the insertion device effect on electron beam is simulated using Tracy-2 tracking code based on symplectic integrator. After these simulations, magnet parameters are fine-tuned and the maximal acceptable undulator lengths are determined for different straight sections, as functions of minimal gap and with due regard for the electron beam vertical "stay clear" constraint in the case of in-vacuum undulators. Finally, the optimal undulator period and length are determined as the values providing maximal spectral flux among the pre-selected undulator cases, already satisfying the requirements concerning the harmonic cut-off values and the effect on electron beam.

  13. Multi-GCM Climate Projection for the Mediterranean and Related Impact on the Forest Fire Risk (with a stress on Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Duce, P.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.

    2012-04-01

    PRASCE project (2008-2011) aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios, which are determined by the pattern scaling method and account for uncertainties in emission scenario, climate sensitivity and between-GCM variability. The methodology is being used to create synthetic weather series representing present and future climates for various climate change impact experiments. One of the regions under focus in this project was the Mediterranean, especially Sardinia. The presentation will consist of two parts: (1) Multi-GCM climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean. (i) The maps will show the probabilistic (based on all GCMs included in IPCC-AR4 dataset) projection of temperature, precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). In addition, the scenarios will include changes of climatic characteristics (also being the parameters of the weather generator), which affect high frequency variability, e.g. changes in probability of wet day occurrence and variability of daily values. (ii) Options for choosing a representative subset of GCMs from all available GCMs will be discussed. This part is motivated by the fact, that some climate change impact studies do not allow to employ all available GCMs, so the task arise to choose the subset of GCMs based on the quality of GCMs and ability of the subset to represent the between GCM uncertainty. To demonstrate the methodology, the procedure will be applied to Sardinia. (2) Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on wildland fire risk. The M&Rfi weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from a subset of available GCMs will be used to create synthetic weather series (air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed

  14. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-01-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. During pilot plant shakedown operations, several production batch test runs were performed. These pilot tests were coupled with laboratory testing to confirm pilot results. In initial batches of operations, cellulose to glucose conversions of 62.5% and 64.8% were observed in laboratory hydrolysis. As part of this testing, lignin dewatering was tested using laboratory and vendor-supplied filtration equipment. Dewatering tests reported moisture contents in the lignin of between 50% and 60%. Dewatering parameters and options will continue to be investigated during lignin production. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. Shredding of the feed material was completed and final drying of the feed is expected to be completed by late January. Once feed drying is completed, pilot facility production will begin to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Facility modifications are expected to continue to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility continues to make progress in evaluating the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed

  15. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra. PMID:25044917

  16. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  17. Fire as Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  18. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  19. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  20. Heat Transfer Measurements of the First Experimental Layer of the Fire II Reentry Vehicle in Expansion Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, B. R.; Morgan, R. G.; Leyland, P.

    2005-02-01

    The present study focused on simulating a trajectory point towards the end of the first experimental heatshield of the FIRE II vehicle, at a total flight time of 1639.53s. Scale replicas were sized according to binary scaling and instrumented with thermocouples for testing in the X1 expansion tube, located at The University of Queensland. Correlation of flight to experimental data was achieved through the separation, and independent treatment of the heat modes. Preliminary investigation indicates that the absolute value of radiant surface flux is conserved between two binary scaled models, whereas convective heat transfer increases with the length scale. This difference in the scaling techniques result in the overall contribution of radiative heat transfer diminishing to less than 1% in expansion tubes from a flight value of approximately 9-17%. From empirical correlation's it has been shown that the St √ Re number decreases, under special circumstances, in expansion tubes by the percentage radiation present on the flight vehicle. Results obtained in this study give a strong indication that the relative radiative heat transfer contribution in the expansion tube tests is less than that in flight, supporting the analysis that the absolute value remains constant with binary scaling. Key words: Heat Transfer, Fire II Flight Vehicle, Expansion Tubes, Binary Scaling. NOMENCLATURE dA elemental surface area, m2 H0 stagnation enthalpy, MJ/kg L arbitrary length, m ls scale factor equal to Lf /Le M Mach Number ˙m mass flow rate, kg/s p pressure, kPa ˙q heat transfer rate, W/m2 ¯q averaged heat transfer rate W/m2 RN nose radius m Re Reynolds number, equal to ρURN µ s/RD radial distance from symmetry axis St Stanton number, equal to ˙q ρUH0 St √ Re = ˙qR 1/2 N (ρU)1/2 µ1/2H0 over radius of forebody (D/2) T temperature, K U velocity, m/s Ue equivalent velocity m/s, equal to √ 2H0 U1 primary shock speed m/s U2 secondary shock speed m/s ρ density, kg/m3 ρL binary

  1. FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-12

    FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Marine Stratocumulus was conducted off the southwestern coast of California. ... FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  2. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-01

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  3. Age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care: the swiss fire project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners often care for patients with several concurrent chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity). Recent data suggest that multimorbidity might be observed more often than isolated diseases in primary care. We explored the age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity and compared these estimates to the prevalence estimates of other common specific diseases found in Swiss primary care. Methods We analyzed data from the Swiss FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC Research using Electronic Medical Record) project database, representing a total of 509,656 primary care encounters in 98,152 adult patients between January 1, 2009 and July 31, 2011. For each encounter, medical problems were encoded using the second version of the International Classification of primary Care (ICPC-2). We defined chronic health conditions using 147 pre-specified ICPC-2 codes and defined multimorbidity as 1) two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 rubrics, 2) two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 chapters, and 3) two or more medical specialties involved in patient care. We compared the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity defined by the three methodologies with the prevalence estimates of common diseases encountered in primary care. Results Overall, the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity were similar for the three different definitions (15% [95%CI 11-18%], 13% [95%CI 10-16%], and 14% [95%CI 11-17%], respectively), and were higher than the prevalence estimates of any specific chronic health condition (hypertension, uncomplicated 9% [95%CI 7-11%], back syndrome with and without radiating pain 6% [95%CI 5-7%], non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 3% [95%CI 3-4%]), and degenerative joint disease 3% [95%CI 2%-4%]). The prevalence estimates of multimorbidity rose more than 20-fold with age, from 2% (95%CI 1-2%) in those aged 20–29 years, to 38% (95%CI 31-44%) in those aged 80 or more years. The prevalence estimates of

  4. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…

  5. Projected carbon stocks in the conterminous USA with land use and variable fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Timothy J; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) MC2 was run over the conterminous USA at 30 arc sec (~800 m) to simulate the impacts of nine climate futures generated by 3GCMs (CSIRO, MIROC and CGCM3) using 3 emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) in the context of the LandCarbon national carbon sequestration assessment. It first simulated potential vegetation dynamics from coast to coast assuming no human impacts and naturally occurring wildfires. A moderate effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on water use efficiency and growth enhanced carbon sequestration but did not greatly influence woody encroachment. The wildfires maintained prairie-forest ecotones in the Great Plains. With simulated fire suppression, the number and impacts of wildfires was reduced as only catastrophic fires were allowed to escape. This greatly increased the expansion of forests and woodlands across the western USA and some of the ecotones disappeared. However, when fires did occur, their impacts (both extent and biomass consumed) were very large. We also evaluated the relative influence of human land use including forest and crop harvest by running the DGVM with land use (and fire suppression) and simple land management rules. From 2041 through 2060, carbon stocks (live biomass, soil and dead biomass) of US terrestrial ecosystems varied between 155 and 162 Pg C across the three emission scenarios when potential natural vegetation was simulated. With land use, periodic harvest of croplands and timberlands as well as the prevention of woody expansion across the West reduced carbon stocks to a range of 122-126 Pg C, while effective fire suppression reduced fire emissions by about 50%. Despite the simplicity of our approach, the differences between the size of the carbon stocks confirm other reports of the importance of land use on the carbon cycle over climate change. PMID:26207729

  6. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie–woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    PubMed Central

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  7. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  8. The Topaz-II project: A technical teaming of US and Russian scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.; Oglobin, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes research efforts associated with the Topaz-II project and thermionic conversion. The Thermionic System Evaluation test is a program that is executed by Air FOrce Phillips Laboratory and involves the purchase of two Russian TOPAZ II space nuclear power reactor systems and support equipment necessary for nonuclear ground testing. The laboratory also is involved with the The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Power System that involes the evaluation of the TOPAZ II system from a safety perspective.

  9. Greek Students Research the Effects of Fire on the Soil System through Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioupi, Vasiliki; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of an environmental education programme for secondary education students. The programme was entitled "?he effects of fire on the soil system" and it was implemented during the school period of 2008. Twenty-four (24) students (aged from 15 to 20) coming from Lidoriki…

  10. A Manhattan Project in Educational Technology, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    The initial four phases of the Training Extension Course (TEC), a project to remedy deficiencies in training programs for armed forces recruits, employed systematic instructional development and extensive audiovisual resources. The project required subcontracting for lesson production and modifications in personnel and budgeting. Posttest evidence…

  11. LAPS Lidar Measurements at the ARM Alaska Northslope Site (Support to FIRE Project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philbrick, C. Russell; Lysak, Daniel B., Jr.; Petach, Tomas M.; Esposito, Steven T.; Mulik, Karoline R.

    1998-01-01

    This report consists of data summaries of the results obtained during the May 1998 measurement period at Barrow Alaska. This report does not contain any data interpretation or analysis of the results which will follow this activity. This report is forwarded with a data set on magnetic media which contains the reduced data from the LAPS lidar in 15 minute intervals. The data was obtained during the period 15-30 May 1998. The measurement period overlapped with several aircraft flights conducted by NASA as part of the FIRE project. The report contains a summary list of the data obtained plus figures that have been prepared to help visualize the measurement periods. The order of the presentation is as follows: Section 1. A copy of the Statement of Work for the planned activity of the second measurement period at the ARM Northslope site is provided. Section 2. A list of the data collection periods shows the number of one minute data records stored during each hour of operation and the corresponding size (Mbytes) of the one hour data folders. The folder and file names are composed from the year, month, day, hour and minute. The date/time information is given in UTC for easier comparison with other data sets. Section 3. A set of 4 comparisons between the LAPS lidar results and the sondes released by the ARM scientists from a location nearby the lidar. The lidar results show the +/- 1 sigma statistical error on each of the independent 75 m altitude bins of the data. This set of 4 comparisons was used to set and validate the calibration value which was then used for the complete data set. Section 4. A set of false color figures with up to 10 hours of specific humidity measurements are shown in each graph. Two days of measurements are shown on each page. These plots are crude representations of the data and permit a survey which indicates when the clouds were very low or where interesting events may occur in the results. These plots are prepared using the real time sequence

  12. Spectroscopy of Project Fire 1, April 14, 1964. [comparison of reentry vehicle and meteor spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millman, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The Fire 1 test was designed to study the heating of an Apollo-type reentry vehicle. The total reentry complex weighed approximately 230 kg and entered the upper atmosphere at a velocity of 11.5 km/s. The spectrum of the reentry complex has been studied in the wavelength range 3700 to 8800 A, where 102 multiplets of 21 atoms and the band systems of 5 diatomic molecules have been identified. Comparisons with meteor spectra are made.

  13. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  14. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project Website: Phase II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project models the impact of human development and natural stressors on the economic, aesthetic and cultural value of local ecosystems. By linking ecological structures, functions, and condition to the ecosystem services valued by h...

  15. Technology and Organisation of Inka Pottery Production in the Leche Valley. Part II: Study of Fired Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, F.; Häusler, W.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    Ceramic finds from the Inka workshops at Tambo Real and La Viña in the Leche Valley in northern Peru were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, thin section microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sherds of Inka style vessels and of local style vessels can be distinguished by their shape, although local techniques appear to have been used in making both types. A reconstruction of the firing techniques by scientific studies of the ceramic material does not reveal a substantial difference in material or in the firing of both forms, although high firing temperatures were necessary to achieve sufficient stability of the large Inka style vessels. It cannot be decided whether the smaller local vessels were fired together with the Inka vessels or separately. Most of the variation in the maximum firing temperature can be explained with the normal temperature and atmosphere fluctuations in an open pit kiln.

  16. Income Verification Pilot Project (Phase II): Results of Quality Assurance Evaluation, 1982-83 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented in this report are selected findings of the Income Verification Pilot Project (IVPP), an investigation examining misreporting of applicant income and family size on applications for government-sponsored school meal benefits. As reported here, Phase II of the project provided for a comprehensive assessment of specific quality assurance…

  17. North Carolina Migrant Education Program. 1971 Project Evaluation Reports, Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Evaluation reports for 13 of the 23 1971 Summer Migrant Projects in North Carolina are presented in Volume II of this compilation. Each report contains the following information: (1) descriptive statistics and results of student achievement; (2) description of the project as obtained from site team reports and other available information; and (3)…

  18. Students' Chemical Information Project, October 1967 - September 1968. Final Report: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, A.; And Others

    Part II of the Students' Chemical Information Project (SCIP), designed to spread the use of computer-based information services among research scientists and technologists, contains details of the project operations, statistics, results of questionnaires and research reports from liaison scientists (See LI 002 562 for Part I). Chapter I: Operation…

  19. Appalachian Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of smoke from forest fires in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia was taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on November 15, 2001. Smoke is visible extending over the Chesapeake Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Linguistic evaluation of Profet II: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, T; Hunnicutt, S

    2000-01-01

    Profet, a word prediction program, was designed to accelerate the writing process and to minimize the writing effort of persons with motor dysfunction. It has also proved to be beneficial in text construction for persons with linguistic impairment such as dyslexia. With increasing linguistic demands on support for individuals with severe reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia, the need for an improved version of Profet arose. Thus, Profet II was designed. In this study, a procedure for evaluating Profet II has been developed. Results from a single-case evaluation study with a person with dyslexia are presented. The possible implications for support and aspects such as spelling, morphology and subjective judgements of and attitudes towards texts are discussed. PMID:11086802

  1. Comparison of RF BPM Receivers for NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev,I.; Singh, O.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II Light Source being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory requires submicron stability of the electron orbit in the storage ring in order to utilize fully very small emittances and electron beam sizes. This sets high stability requirements for beam position monitors and a program has been initiated for the purpose of characterizing RF beam position monitor (BPM) receivers in use at other light sources. Present state-of-the-art performance will be contrasted with more recently available technologies.

  2. Accelerator Physics Challenges for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky,S.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is an ultra-bright synchrotron light source based upon a 3-GeV storage ring with a 30-cell (15 super-period) double-bend-achromat lattice with damping wigglers used to lower the emittance below 1 nm. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics challenges for the design including: optimization of dynamic aperture; estimation of Touschek lifetime; achievement of required orbit stability; and analysis of ring impedance and collective effects.

  3. Project People 2: An extended interview study of behavior response patterns in health care facility fire incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, J. L.

    The data collected in a taped interview study involving a population of 150 facility staff personnel, 53 fire department personnel and 9 patients are presented and discussed. A physical examination and analysis of the fire incident area of the facility was conducted by experienced fire protection engineers to determine the physical area of fire origin with the flame and smoke propagation patterns. Fire department personnel were interviewed to obtain observations of flame and smoke propagation. Facility personnel and patients were interviewed to determine the human behavior responses of the participants during the fire incident and to determine their perception of the fire incident threat.

  4. Phase II: Final Report. Northern New Mexico Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas.

    Objectives of the Northern New Mexico Energy Education Project were to: (1) improve teachers' knowledge of energy-related subject matter and energy-related educational materials; (2) develop continuing communication and cooperation between elementary and junior high staffs and the university on energy-related matters; and (3) provide follow-up…

  5. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  6. Videotex Project Reviews II. Research Report Prepared for OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widing, Robert E., II; Talarzyk, W. Wayne

    Designed to provide an overview of the nature and focus of activity in the fledgling videotex industry in the United States and Canada, this updated and extended report presents in-depth reviews of 26 projects which reflect the involvement of such industries as publishing, retailing, agriculture, banking, other financial intermediaries,…

  7. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume II. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume II contains materials for three one-hour courses on word processing applications, spreadsheet…

  8. The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project (BAP). Computer aided dispatch and communications system for the Baltimore Fire Department: A case study of urban technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    An engineer and a computer expert from Goddard Space Flight Center were assigned to provide technical assistance in the design and installation of a computer assisted system for dispatching and communicating with fire department personnel and equipment in Baltimore City. Primary contributions were in decision making and management processes. The project is analyzed from four perspectives: (1) fire service; (2) technology transfer; (3) public administration; and (5) innovation. The city benefitted substantially from the approach and competence of the NASA personnel. Given the proper conditions, there are distinct advantages in having a nearby Federal laboratory provide assistance to a city on a continuing basis, as is done in the Baltimore Applications Project.

  9. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: CaliforniaSanta Ana wind occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-01-01

    A new methodbased on global climate model pressuregradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weatherconditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of thismethod for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrenceresulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs andobserved offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projectedchange in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climatemodels, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other amiddle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emissionscenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis showsconsistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later(November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantlyincrease the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, lossof life, and property.

  10. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  11. PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2007-08-15

    The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Module 1: Maximum possible fire loss (MPFL) decontamination and cleanup estimates. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, A.W.; Jacobsen, P.H.; Lucas, D.R.

    1994-06-30

    Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Module 1, a 1991 Line Item, is planned for completion and start of operations in the spring of 1997. WRAP Module 1 will have the capability to characterize and repackage newly generated, retrieved and stored transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed, and suspect TRU waste for shipment to the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, the WRAP Facility Module 1 will have the capability to characterize low-level mixed waste for treatment in WRAP Module 2A. This report documents the assumptions and cost estimates for decontamination and clean-up of a maximum possible fire loss (MPFL) as defined by DOE Order 5480.7A, FIRE PROTECTION. The Order defines MPFL as the value of property, excluding land, within a fire area, unless a fire hazards analysis demonstrates a lesser (or greater) loss potential. This assumes failure of both automatic fire suppression systems and manual fire fighting efforts. Estimates were developed for demolition, disposal, decontamination, and rebuilding. Total costs were estimated to be approximately $98M.

  13. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis and Technical Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  14. Hazard Science in Support of Community Resiliency: The Response of the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project to the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. M.; Bawden, G. W.; Bowers, J.; Cannon, S.; Cox, D. A.; Fisher, R.; Keeley, J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The “Station” fire, the largest fire in the history of Los Angeles County in southern California, began on August 26, 2009 and as of the abstract deadline had burned over 150,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest. This fire creates both a demand and an opportunity for hazards science to be used by the communities directly hit by the fire, as well as those downstream of possible postfire impacts. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project of the USGS is deploying several types of scientific response, including 1) evaluation of potential debris-flow hazards and associated risk, 2) monitoring physical conditions in burned areas and the hydrologic response to rainstorms, 3) increased streamflow monitoring, 4) ash analysis and ground water contamination, 5) ecosystem response and endangered species rescue, 6) lidar data acquisition for evaluations of biomass loss, detailed mapping of the physical processes that lead to debris-flow generation, and other geologic investigations. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project is working with the southern California community to use the resulting information to better manage the social consequences of the fire and its secondary hazards. In particular, we are working with Los Angeles County to determine what information they need to prioritize recovery efforts. For instance, maps of hazards specific to debris flow potential can help identify the highest priority areas for debris flow mitigation efforts. These same maps together with ecosystem studies will help land managers determine whether individuals from endangered species should be removed to zoos or other refuges during the rainy months. The ash analysis will help water managers prevent contamination to water supplies. Plans are just beginning for a public information campaign with Los Angeles County about the risk posed by potential debris flows that should be underway in December. Activities from the fire response will support the development of the Wildfire Scenario in

  15. The Forest-Atmospheric Carbon Transfer and Storage-II (FACTS-II): Aspen FACE project

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, D.F.; Pregitzer, K.; Hendrey, G.; Isebrands, J.G.

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (Aspen FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  16. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method.

    PubMed

    Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects. PMID:26819383

  17. Evaluation of the 1985-86 ECIA, Chapter II Teaching Geographic Skills Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Donald R.

    This Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA), Chapter II project combined acquisition of instructional equipment with teacher training to improve the geographic skills of students in grades six through eight in the Dade County Public Schools, Florida. Map and globe materials from three different publishers (the George F. Cram Company,…

  18. Wide-field photometry at 20 Hz for the TAOS II Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, John C.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew J.; Jorden, Paul; Fryer, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The TAOS II Project requires high-speed differential photometry of 10-20 thousand stars over a telescope field of 154mm diameter with 16-micron spatial resolution and good noise performance. We are developing a custom CMOS imager array to accomplish this task.

  19. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  20. WATER RECYCLE/REUSE ALTERNATIVES IN COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS; VOLUME II. APPENDIXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of water recycle/treatment/reuse alternatives in coal-fired power plants. Five power plants from representative U.S. regions were studied. The major water systems encountered were cooling, ash sluicing, and SO2/particulate scrubbers. R...

  1. CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED STEAM-ELECTRIC GENERATORS: WATER POLLUTION IMPACT. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of one task in a comprehensive program to review the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam-electric generating plants. The results compare two alternative standards to the existing NSPS (1.2 lb SO2/million Btu of h...

  2. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

  3. The Due Innovators II Apollo Project: Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution with Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; Del Frate, F.; Di Noia, A.; Sambucini, V.; Bojkov, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we present the Innovators II - APOLLO (monitoring Atmospheric POLLution with earth Observation) project which has been carried out in the framework of the ESA Data User Element programme (http://www.esa.int/due). The projects aims at the development of an innovative service for the monitoring of the air quality from ground based measurements and by means of satellite data e.g. provided by the OMI mission. The core of the APOLLO project is the OMI-TOC NN (neural networks) algorithm.

  4. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification report, volumes I and II - 8/19/99

    SciTech Connect

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The Department of Energy policy (DOE P 450.4) is that safety is integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. In simple and straightforward terms, the Department will ''Do work safely.'' The purpose of this River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes are implemented within RFP to accomplish the goal of ''Do work safely.'' The goal of an implemented ISMS is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The ISMS is comprised of the (1) described functions, components, processes, and interfaces (system map or blueprint) and (2) personnel who are executing those assigned roles and responsibilities to manage and control the ISMS. Therefore, this review evaluated both the ''paper'' and ''people'' aspects of the ISMS to ensure that the system is implemented within RPP. Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted an ISMS Phase I Verification of the TWRS from September 28-October 9, 1998. The resulting verification report recommended that TWRS-RL and the contractor proceed with Phase II of ISMS verification given that the concerns identified from the Phase I verification review are incorporated into the Phase II implementation plan.

  5. 75 FR 18201 - Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC's application...

  6. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, G.

    2014-06-01

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  7. Wildland fire management terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by the FAO Forest Resources Development Branch, this book discusses an ongoing project for developing a multi-lingual glossary of fire terminology. It defines specific terms commonly used in wildland fire management that are not defined in standard desk dictionaries, and includes terminology from neighboring fields of meteorology, aviation and structural fire protection. In addition to the English language entries - which include Spanish, Italian, German and French equivalents - there are also separate Spanish, Italian, German and French word lists.

  8. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  9. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  10. IGCC repowering project clean coal II project public design report. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that was designed to provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) in Springfield, Illinois. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system consists of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-BTU gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment, The project is currently completing the second budget period of five. The major activities to date are: (1) Establishment of a design, cost, and schedule for the project; (2) Establishment of financial commitments; (3) Acquire design and modeling data; (4) Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; (5) Development of a detailed cost estimate; (6) Resolution of project business issues; (7) CWL&P renewal and replacement activities; and (8) Application for environmental air permits. A Project Management Plan was generated, The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities were accomplished, including the Air Permit Application, completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, and the draft Environmental Monitoring Plan. At the end of 1992 the DOE requested that Duke Engineering and Services Inc., (DESI) be used to complete the balance of plant cost estimate. DESI was retained to do this work, DESI completed the material take off estimate and included operations, maintenance, and startup in the estimate.

  11. Exemplary Projects. Mathematics-Science, Computer Learning and Foreign Languages. A Collection of Projects Funded through Title II of The Education for Economic Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document is a collection of over 80 exemplary project summaries from projects funded in 39 states and the District of Columbia through Title II of the Education for Economic Security Act. The subject areas covered by these projects are limited to mathematics, science, foreign language, and computer learning. Each summary includes a…

  12. Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

    2008-09-02

    The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The project’s research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The project’s literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a “heat mirror” that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nation’s future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely “home grown” and carbon free. As CPV enter the nation’s utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this project’s findings.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire...) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. (vi) A fire extinguisher... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire...) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. (vi) A fire extinguisher... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  15. Implementing TOPbase/Iron Project: continuous absorption from FeII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Bautista, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    We discuss implementation of TOPbase and Iron Project opacities for stellar spectral codes. We use a technique employed by Peach, where a Boltzmann-averaged cross-section is calculated for selected temperatures, and the opacity obtained from double interpolation in temperature and wavelength. It is straightforward to include all levels for which cross-sections have been calculated. Boltzmann-averaged cross-sections for FeII show a local maximum between 1700 and 2000 Å. We suggest this feature arises from 3d54snl-> 3d54pnl transitions within FeII. IUE spectra of iron-rich CP stars show local minima in this region. Theoretical calculations of a representative stellar continuum demonstrate that FeII photoionization contributes significantly to the observed minima.

  16. HIFS VNL Monthly Progress Report Preparation for NDCX-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Grant; Kwan, Joe; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik; Leitner, Matthaeus; Waldron, Will; Bieniosek, Frank

    2009-05-29

    In preparation for the project and for anticipated review in August, the HIFS-VNL hosted an NDCX-II Advisory Meeting at LBNL on May 27, 2009. A number of experts in accelerator physics, engineering, and construction were asked to visit for a full day, listen to presentations on the project, its goals, and its status, and to offer their advice on how best to proceed, what topics needed attention, and what technical options seemed most attractive to them. This was a productive meeting, and the Committee's comments will provide useful guidance.

  17. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  18. Project on restaurant energy performance: end-use monitoring and analysis. Appendixes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, C.N.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Heidell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    This is the second volume of the report, ''The Porject on Restaurant Energy Performance - End-Use Monitoring and Analysis''. The first volume (PNL-5462) contains a summary and analysis of the metered energy performance data collected by the Project on Restaurant Energy Performance (PREP). Appendix I, presented here, contains monitoring site descriptions, measurement plans, and data summaries for the seven restaurants metered for PREP. Appendix II, also in this volume, is a description of the PREP computer system.

  19. Analysis of Aircraft, Radiosonde and Radar Observations in Cirrus Clouds Observed During FIRE II: The Interactions Between Environmental Structure, Turbulence and Cloud Microphysical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Ways to determine the turbulence intensity and the horizontal variability in cirrus clouds have been investigated using FIRE-II aircraft, radiosonde and radar data. Higher turbulence intensities were found within some, but not all, of the neutrally stratified layers. It was also demonstrated that the stability of cirrus layers with high extinction values decrease in time, possibly as a result of radiative destabilization. However, these features could not be directly related to each other in any simple manner. A simple linear relationship was observed between the amount of horizontal variability in the ice water content and its average value. This was also true for the extinction and ice crystal number concentrations. A relationship was also suggested between the variability in cloud depth and the environmental stability across the depth of the cloud layer, which requires further investigation.

  20. Development of a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a fluorescence assay for the discovery of kynurenine aminotransferase II inhibitors to treat central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Kopcho, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaushik; Witmer, Mark; Parker, Michael; Gupta, Sumit; Paul, Marilyn; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Laksmaiah, Basanth; Xie, Dianlin; Tredup, Jeffrey; Zhang, Litao; Abell, Lynn M

    2016-05-15

    Kynurenine aminotransferases convert kynurenine to kynurenic acid and play an important role in the tryptophan degradation pathway. Kynurenic acid levels in brain have been hypothesized to be linked to a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Kynurenine aminotransferase II (KATII) has proven to be a key modulator of kynurenic acid levels in brain and, thus, is an attractive target to treat CNS diseases. A sensitive, high-throughput, label-free RapidFire mass spectrometry assay has been developed for human KATII. Unlike other assays, this method is directly applicable to KATII enzymes from different animal species, which allows us to select proper animal model(s) to evaluate human KATII inhibitors. We also established a coupled fluorescence assay for human KATII. The short assay time and kinetic capability of the fluorescence assay provide a useful tool for orthogonal inhibitor validation and mechanistic studies. PMID:26874021

  1. Parameterization of Fire Injection Height in Large Scale Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Val Martin, M.; Freitas, S.; Kaiser, J. W.; Schultz, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modeled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified, in particular we added (i) an equation for mass conservation, (ii) a scheme to parameterize horizontal entrainment/detrainment, and (iii) a new initialization module which estimates the sensible heat released by the fire on the basis of measured FRP rather than fuel cover type. FRP and Active Fire (AF) area necessary for the initialization of the model are directly derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD14 product. An optimization (using the simulating annealing method) of this new version of the PRM is then proposed based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume height project and atmospheric profiles extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set covers the main fire region (Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, and North and South America) and is set up to (i) retain fires where plume height and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact), (ii) keep fire which show decrease of FRP and AF area after MISR overpass (i.e. to minimize effect of the time period needed for the plume to

  2. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  3. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Kopach, Olga; Kao, Sheng-Chin; Petralia, Ronald S.; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation alters AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit trafficking and increases AMPAR Ca2+ permeability at synapses of spinal dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether AMPAR trafficking at extrasynaptic sites of these neurons also changes under persistent inflammatory pain conditions. Using patch-clamp recording combined with Ca2+ imaging and cobalt staining, we found that, under normal conditions, an extrasynaptic pool of AMPARs in rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal dorsal horn predominantly consists of GluR2-containing Ca2+-impermeable receptors. Maintenance of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation was associated with a marked enhancement of AMPA-induced currents and [Ca2+]i transients in SG neurons, while, as we previously showed, the amplitude of synaptically evoked AMPAR-mediated currents was not changed 24 h after CFA. These findings indicate that extrasynaptic AMPARs are upregulated and their Ca2+ permeability increases dramatically. This increase occurred in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those exhibited strong adaptation. This increase was also accompanied by an inward rectification of AMPA-induced currents and enhancement of sensitivity to a highly selective Ca2+-permeable AMPAR blocker, IEM-1460. Electron microcopy and biochemical assays additionally showed an increase in the amount of GluR1 at extrasynaptic membranes in dorsal horn neurons 24 h post-CFA. Taken together, our findings suggest that CFA-induced inflammation increases functional expression and proportion of extrasynaptic GluR1-containing Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing excitatory dorsal horn neurons. We suggest that the altered extrasynaptic AMPAR trafficking might participate in the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:21282008

  4. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Kopach, Olga; Kao, Sheng-Chin; Petralia, Ronald S; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2011-04-01

    Peripheral inflammation alters AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit trafficking and increases AMPAR Ca(2+) permeability at synapses of spinal dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether AMPAR trafficking at extrasynaptic sites of these neurons also changes under persistent inflammatory pain conditions. Using patch-clamp recording combined with Ca(2+) imaging and cobalt staining, we found that, under normal conditions, an extrasynaptic pool of AMPARs in rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal dorsal horn predominantly consists of GluR2-containing Ca(2+)-impermeable receptors. Maintenance of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation was associated with a marked enhancement of AMPA-induced currents and [Ca(2+)](i) transients in SG neurons, while, as we previously showed, the amplitude of synaptically evoked AMPAR-mediated currents was not changed 24 h after CFA. These findings indicate that extrasynaptic AMPARs are upregulated and their Ca(2+) permeability increases dramatically. This increase occurred in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those exhibited strong adaptation. This increase was also accompanied by an inward rectification of AMPA-induced currents and enhancement of sensitivity to a highly selective Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR blocker, IEM-1460. Electron microcopy and biochemical assays additionally showed an increase in the amount of GluR1 at extrasynaptic membranes in dorsal horn neurons 24h post-CFA. Taken together, our findings indicate that CFA-induced inflammation increases functional expression and proportion of extrasynaptic GluR1-containing Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing excitatory dorsal horn neurons, suggesting that the altered extrasynaptic AMPAR trafficking might participate in the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:21282008

  5. Atomic data from the Iron project. XIII. Electron excitation rates and emissivity ratios for forbidden transitions in NI II and Fe II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    1996-02-01

    Electron impact excitation rates and emissivity line ratios are reported for Optical and IR transitions in Ni II and Fe II arising from low-lying even parity levels. A total of 7 LS terms were included for Ni II, which result in 17 fine structure levels and 136 transitions. Coupling effects and resonance structures considered in the present calculations result in significant differences with the earlier distorted wave calculations by Nussbaumer & Storey (1982), although a reasonable agreement is found for the line diagnostics of some strong transitions in Ni II. Whereas an extensive set of collisional data has been presented earlier by Zhang & Pradhan for Fe II in the Iron Project series, in this paper we report collision strengths for some transitions missing from their dataset using an improved eigenfunction expansion for Fe II which includes the lowest 18 LS terms giving 52 fine structure levels and 1326 transitions. The present dataset provides a useful check on several forbidden transitions in Fe II and essentially confirms the diagnostics derived from the earlier work. The present calculations were carried out on the massively parallel processor Cray T3D with a parallelized version of the Iron Project R-matrix codes; to our knowledge these are the first such calculations.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1997. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project provides a total of 313.91 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 16.08 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Shoreline and island habitat provide 7.36 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Wet meadow provides 117.62 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 9.78 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 140.47 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest provides 22.60 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  8. Overview of Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.

    2008-05-04

    A new, ultra-bright 3rd generation light source, the NSLS-II Project, is planned to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The light source being developed will have unprecedently small beam horizontal emittance and will provide the radiation sources with a brightness of 3 x 10{sup 21} photons/sec/0.1%BW/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}. In this paper we present the detailed specifications and a comprehensive description of the planned beam instrumentation system and the first results of the ongoing instrumentation R&D activities on beyond state-of-the-art subsystems.

  9. University of Texas Electrographic Imaging Laboratory - Mark II camera performance update and current projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. M.; Griboval, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the electrographic Mark II camera's most recent design improvements and their performance gains. These improvements encompass better baking; a new o-ring preparation that employs high vacuum baking, aluminization, and oxidation; and a novel rough pumping system that eliminates waiting for pumpdown, and reduces damage risks due to leaks and user error. Projects to be undertaken with this camera, whose photocathode times are now very long, are the construction of a motorized tracking guider, the addition of a focal reducer for a 2.1-m telescope, and the production of K2CsSb(O) photocathodes to increase sensitivity and spectral range.

  10. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  11. Yakima River Basin Fish Passage Phase II Fish Screen Construction, Project Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    On December 5, 1980, Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Public Law 96-501). The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council (now the Northwest Power and Conservation Council). The Council was charged with the responsibility to prepare a Regional Conservation and Electric Power Plan and to develop a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife including related spawning grounds and habitat on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Council adopted its Fish and Wildlife Program on November 15, 1982. Section 800 of the Program addresses measures in the Yakima River Basin. The Yakima measures were intended to help mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the basin and provide off-site mitigation to compensate for fish losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was designated as a major source of funding for such off-site mitigation measures and was requested to initiate discussions with the appropriate Federal project operators and the Council to determine the most expeditious means for funding and implementing the program. The primary measures proposed for rapid implementation in the Yakima River basin were the installation of fish passage and protective facilities. Sec. 109 of The Hoover Power Plant Act of 1984, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to design, construct, operate, and maintain fish passage facilities within the Yakima River Basin. Under Phase I of the program, improvements to existing fish passage facilities and installation of new fish ladders and fish screens at 16 of the largest existing diversion dams and canals were begun in 1984 and were completed in 1990. The Yakima Phase II fish passage program is an extension of the Phase I program. In 1988, the Yakama Nation (YN) submitted an application to amend Sections 803(b) and 1403(4.5) of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council

  12. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  13. New Products for a Better Characterisation of Smoke Plume and Gas/Aerosol Dispersion from Boreal Eurasian Forest Fires: The ALANIS Smoke Plume Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, M.; Peters, W.; Muller, J.-P.; Yershov, V.; San-Miguel, J.; Palumbo, I.; Sedano, F.; Strobl, P.; Clerbaux, C.; George, M.; Helbert, J.; Guillaume, B.

    2011-01-01

    The ALANIS (Atmosphere-LANd Integrated Study) Smoke Plume project is an on-going study funded by the ESA’s Support to Science Element (STSE) dedicated to the monitoring of the fire aerosol and trace gases dispersion over Eurasia from multi-mission EO- based data, in link with the scientific issues of land- atmosphere processes in the iLEAPS community. The injection and dispersion of the smoke plumes are performed with the TM5 model from several new products (burnt areas and forest fire emissions amounts, smoke plumes injection heights) derived from the MERIS and AATSR products and from the validated IASI CO products. A first study focused on the Russian wildfire events of the summer of 2010 has shown the potential of the European missions to assess the forest fire emissions and the aerosols/gases injection and transport over Eurasia. The release of the integrated model, including the new products still under development, is planned for the summer of 2011.

  14. Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

    2000-07-27

    The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

  15. Status of phase II subsystem testing in support of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; DeVault, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    In late 1990, the anticipated need for new generating capacity shortly after the year 2000 and the belief that coal will remain the fuel of choice for much of the domestic power industry motivated the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to begin a two-stage research initiative named Combustion 2000. The nearest term Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program was intended to support development of an advanced pulverized coal (PC)-fired power generation system for commercial application by the year 2000 and the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program was designed to address technologies which will require more time to be commercially ready. Since 1992, Babcock and Wilcox, under contract to the DOE, with a subcontract to Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE and C), has been developing an advanced generating plant design under the LEBS program. Driven by concerns over SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate and air toxics emissions as well as solid waste disposal for coal-fired plants, very low emissions and high cycle efficiency goals were established and subsequently tightened as the project progressed. Meanwhile, the life cycle cost target remains at the cost of a conventional PC plant meeting New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). B and W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies, capable of achieving emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and particulate far below current NSPS, with an advanced boiler, equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems, to meet this objective. This paper describes the status of and recent results from the subsystem testing presently in progress at B and W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) located at the Alliance Research Center, development of the Commercial Generating Unit design, and provides insight into future plans.

  16. Long-rising Type II supernovae from Palomar Transient Factory and Caltech Core-Collapse Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Migotto, K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Armen, S.; Duggan, G.; Ergon, M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fransson, C.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Leloudas, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; Moon, D.-S.; Silverman, J. M.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Supernova (SN) 1987A was a peculiar hydrogen-rich event with a long-rising (~84 d) light curve, stemming from the explosion of a compact blue supergiant star. Only a few similar events have been presented in the literature in recent decades. Aims: We present new data for a sample of six long-rising Type II SNe (SNe II), three of which were discovered and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). Our aim is to enlarge this small family of long-rising SNe II, characterizing their differences in terms of progenitor and explosion parameters. We also study the metallicity of their environments. Methods: Optical light curves, spectra, and host-galaxy properties of these SNe are presented and analyzed. Detailed comparisons with known SN 1987A-like events in the literature are shown, with particular emphasis on the absolute magnitudes, colors, expansion velocities, and host-galaxy metallicities. Bolometric properties are derived from the multiband light curves. By modeling the early-time emission with scaling relations derived from the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) models of MESA progenitor stars, we estimate the progenitor radii of these transients. The modeling of the bolometric light curves also allows us to estimate other progenitor and explosion parameters, such as the ejected 56Ni mass, the explosion energy, and the ejecta mass. Results: We present PTF12kso, a long-rising SN II that is estimated to have the largest amount of ejected 56Ni mass measured for this class. PTF09gpn and PTF12kso are found at the lowest host metallicities observed for this SN group. The variety of early light-curve luminosities depends on the wide range of progenitor radii of these SNe, from a few tens of R⊙ (SN 2005ci) up to thousands (SN 2004ek) with some intermediate cases between 100 R⊙ (PTF09gpn) and 300 R⊙ (SN 2004em). Conclusions: We confirm that long-rising SNe II with light-curve shapes closely

  17. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Health Behavior Change. The current intervention occurs over a 48-month period, using a manual, newsletters, and phone coaching calls. Annual assessments collect standardized data on behavioral outcomes (exercise and diet), TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy), psychosocial variables (social support, depression, resilience, and life satisfaction), physical activity and functioning (SF-36, Up and Go, Senior Fitness Test, and disability assessment), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span), physical measures (height, weight, and waist circumference), and demographics. The SENIOR Project II is designed to answer the following question as its primary objective: (1) Does an individualized active-maintenance intervention with older adults maintain greater levels of healthful exercise and dietary behaviors for four years, compared to a control condition? In addition, there are two secondary objectives: (2) What are the psychosocial factors associated with the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors in the very old? and (3) What are the effects of the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors on reported health outcomes, psychosocial measures, anthropometrics, and cognitive status? PMID:20955821

  18. A hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Satellite-based earth observation is providing an increasingly accurate picture of global fire patterns. The highest fire activity is observed in seasonally dry (sub-)tropical environments of South America, Africa and Australia, but fires occur with varying frequency, intensity and seasonality in almost all biomes on Earth. The particular combination of these fire characteristics, or fire regime, is known to emerge from the combined influences of climate, vegetation, terrain and land use, but has so far proven difficult to reproduce by global models. Uncertainty about the biophysical drivers and constraints that underlie current global fire patterns is propagated in model predictions of how ecosystems, fire regimes and biogeochemical cycles may respond to projected future climates. Here, I present a hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns that predicts the mean annual burned area fraction (F) of 0.25° x 0.25° grid cells as a function of the climatic water balance. Following Bradstock's four-switch model, long-term fire activity levels were assumed to be controlled by fuel productivity rates and the likelihood that the extant fuel is dry enough to burn. The frequency of ignitions and favourable fire weather were assumed to be non-limiting at long time scales. Fundamentally, fuel productivity and fuel dryness are a function of the local water and energy budgets available for the production and desiccation of plant biomass. The climatic water balance summarizes the simultaneous availability of biologically usable energy and water at a site, and may therefore be expected to explain a significant proportion of global variation in F. To capture the effect of the climatic water balance on fire activity I focused on the upper quantiles of F, i.e. the maximum level of fire activity for a given climatic water balance. Analysing GFED4 data for annual burned area together with gridded climate data, I found that nearly 80% of the global variation in the 0.99 quantile of F

  19. Understory Fires

    NASA Video Gallery

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  20. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wind-Whipped Fires in East Texas     View Larger Image ... western side of the storm stoked fires throughout eastern Texas, which was already suffering from the worst one-year drought on record ...

  1. Fires, invasives, migrations, oh my! Scaling spatial processes into earth system models and global change projections. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spatial processes often drive ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles, and land-atmosphere feedbacks at the landscape-scale. Long-term responses of ecosystems to climate change requires dispersal and species migrations. Climate-sensitive disturbances, such as fire, pests, and pathogens, often spread contagiously across the landscape. Land-use change has created a highly fragmented landscape with a large fraction of 'edge' habitat that alters the surface energy dynamics and microclimate. These factors all interact, with fragmentation creating barriers for fire and migrations while creating corridors for rapid invasion. While the climate-change implications of these factors are often discussed, none of these processes are incorporated into earth system models because they occur at a spatial scale well below model resolution. Here we present a novel second-order spatially-implicit scheme for representing the spatial adjacencies of different vegetation types and edaphic classes. Adjacencies direct affect dispersal, contagious disturbance, radiation, and microclimate. We also demonstrate a means for approximating the size distribution of spatially contagious disturbances, such as fire, insects, and disease. Finally, we demonstrate a means for dynamically evolving spatial adjacency through time in response to disturbance and succession. This scheme is tested under a range of dispersal, disturbance, and land-use scenarios in comparison to a spatially explicit and conventional non-spatial alternatives. This scheme lays the ground for a more realistic global-scale exploration of how spatially-complex and heterogenous landscapes interact with climate-change drivers.

  2. The 5 A projection structure of the transmembrane domain of the mannitol transporter enzyme II.

    PubMed

    Koning, R I; Keegstra, W; Oostergetel, G T; Schuurman-Wolters, G; Robillard, G T; Brisson, A

    1999-04-16

    The uptake of mannitol in Escherichia coli is controlled by the phosphoenolpyruvate dependent phosphotransferase system. Enzyme II mannitol (EIIMtl) is part of the phosphotransferase system and consists of three covalently bound domains. IICMtl, the integral membrane domain of EIIMtl, is responsible for mannitol transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. In order to understand this molecular process, two-dimensional crystals of IICMtl were grown by reconstitution into lipid bilayers and their structure was investigated by cryo-electron crystallography. The IICMtl crystals obey p22121 symmetry and have a unit cell of 125 Ax65 A, gamma=90 degrees. A projection structure was determined at 5 A resolution using both electron images and electron diffractograms. The unit cell contains two IICMtl dimers with a size of about 40 Ax90 A, which are oriented up and down in the crystal. Each monomer exhibits six domains of high density which most likely correspond to transmembrane alpha-helices and cytoplasmic loops. PMID:10222194

  3. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  4. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  5. Initiating the D&D Project for the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2010-08-01

    A novel decommissioning project is underway to close the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) “fast” reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) facility near Idaho Falls, ID. The facility was placed in cold shutdown in 1994 and work began on the removal of the metallic sodium coolant. The bulk of the sodium was drained and treated beginning in 2001. The residual sodium heel was chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005 using a novel carbon dioxide treatment. Approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. A RCRA Waste Treatment Permit, issued in 2002 by the State of Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, requires annual progress toward closure of the facility, and that all regulated materials be removed or deactivated, and the waste products removed by 2022. The baseline sodium removal technology would result in about 100,000 gallons of low-level waste solution requiring treatment along with separate handling of the large components (intermediate heat exchanger, rotating plug, etc) outside of the primary tank.

  6. Parameterization of Fire Injection Height in Large Scale Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, r.; Wooster, m.; Freitas, s.; Gonzi, s.; Palmer, p.

    2012-04-01

    The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modelled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified. Major modifications are implemented in its initialisation module: (i) CHF and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and a new module of the buoyancy flux calculation is implemented instead of the original module based on the Morton Taylor and Turner equation. Furthermore the dynamical core of the plume model is also modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results from shallow convection parameterization. Optimization and validation of this new version of the Freitas PRM is based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume height project and atmospheric profile extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set is (i) build up to only keep fires where plume height and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact) and (ii) split per fire land cover type to optimize the constant of the buoyancy flux module and the entrainment scheme to different fire regime. Result shows that the new PRM is

  7. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase.

  8. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO{sub X} control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO{sub x} burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO{sub x} emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO{sub x} emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over $5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO{sub x} emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO{sub x} Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  9. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  10. Materials information for science and technology (MIST): Project overview: Phases I and II and general considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Grattidge, W.; Westbrook, J.; McCarthy, J.; Northrup, C. Jr.; Rumble, J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the initial phases of the Materials Information for Science and Technology (MIST) project jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Bureau of Standards. The purpose of MIST is to demonstrate the power and utility of computer access to materials property data. The initial goals include: to exercise the concept of a computer network of materials databases and to build a demonstration of such a system suitable for use as the core of operational systems in the future. Phases I and II are described in detail herein. In addition, a discussion is given of the expected usage of the system. The primary MIST prototype project is running on an IBM 3084 under STS at the Stanford University's Information Technology Services (ITS). Users can access the Stanford system via ARPANET, TELENET, and TYMNET, as well as via commercial telephone lines. For fastest response time and use of the full screen PRISM interface, direct connection using a 2400 baud modem with the MNP error-correcting protocol over standard telephone lines gives the best results - though slower speed connections and a line-oriented interface are also available. This report gives detailed plans regarding the properties to be enterend and the materials to be entered into the system.

  11. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  12. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Wildfire is a fundamental Earth System process, affecting almost all biogeochemical cycles, and all vegetated biomes. Fires are naturally rare in humid tropical forests, and tropical trees are generally killed by even low-intensity fires. However, fire activity in the tropics has increased markedly over the past 15-20 years, especially in Indonesia, Amazonia, and more recently, central Africa also. Since fire is the prime tool for clearing land in the tropics, it not surprising that the increase in fire activity is strongly associated with increased levels of deforestation, which is driven mainly by world-wide demand for timber and agricultural commodities. The consequences of deforestation fires for biodiversity conservation and emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols are enormous. For example, carbon emissions from tropical biomass burning are around 20% of annual average global fossil fuel emissions. The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong El Niño-induced drought in late 1997 and early 1998 rank as some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history. Past studies estimate about 1Gt of carbon was released to the atmosphere from the Indonesian fires in 1997 (which were mostly concentrated in carbon-rich forested peatlands). This amount is equivalent to about 14% of the average global annual fossil fuel emissions released during the 1990s. While not as large as the 1997-98 events, significant emissions from biomass burning have also been recorded in other (less severe) El Niño years across Indonesia, in particular, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2009-2010. Recent climate modelling studies indicate that the frequency of El Niño events may increase under future climate change, affecting many tropical countries, including Indonesia. An increased drought frequency plus a projected increase in population and land use pressures in Indonesia, imply there will be even more fires and emissions in future across the region. However, while

  13. Is fire a long term sink or source of atmospheric carbon? A comprehensive evaluation of a boreal forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, C.; Doerr, S. H.; Preston, C.; Bryant, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fires lead to a rapid release of carbon (C) from forest and other fire-prone ecosystems, emitting important quantities of C to the atmosphere. Every year 300-600 Mill. ha burn around the globe, generating CO2 emissions equivalent to half of the current annual global from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term vegetation fires are widely considered as 'net zero Carbon (C) emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the role of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, some of the fuel is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal, black C, soot), which is characterized by an enhanced recalcitrance and a longer mean residence time in the environment than its 'fresh' precursors. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated represents an additional longer-term C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could be considered as a 'net sink of atmospheric C'. To test the validity of this hypothesis, and to estimate how quantitatively important this PyC pool might be, accurate data on PyC production with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and stores (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). The FireSmart project (Ft. Providence, NWT, Canada, June 2012) provided the ideal framework to address this research gap. This experimental fire reproduced wildfire conditions in boreal forest, i.e. stand-replacing crown fire and, at the same time, allowed i) pre-fire

  14. Title II Staff Issues Supplement to Reading and Media Selection Aid. ESEA Title II and The Right to Read, Notable Reading Projects, May-July, 1973, No. 14-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is the thirteenth in a series of reports which describe reading projects funded under Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Information about the 19 projects summarized in this issue was supplied by ESEA Title II coordinators and reading and media specialists in state departments of education in Alaska,…

  15. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Levchuk, S E; Glukhovskiy, A S; Khomutinin, Yu V; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per thousand from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of (137)Cs and (90)Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories. PMID:16476511

  16. The Holiday Shop. An Integrated Project for Administrative Support Occupations II To Be Used the Weeks Preceding the Christmas Holidays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This seasonal project integrates the skills of typing, photocopying, calculating, composing, alphabetizing, and human relations, which the student has acquired during the first part of the Administrative Support Occupations II course. The activity is a simulation that involves a small, specialty, mail-order business selling novelty items for…

  17. Comprehensive Study of Educational Technology Programs Authorized from 1989-1992. Volume III: Level II Model Technology School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report, the third in a series of six, evaluates the 10 school districts that received grants from the California Department of Education to develop Level II Model Technology School (MTS) Projects intended to enhance instruction and student learning through a combination of curriculum improvement and integration of technology within a single…

  18. 75 FR 5279 - Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II), Rogue River-Siskiyou National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II..., Oregon. Purpose and Need for Action The purpose of the Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration... show that the stream channel was more sinuous and contained a larger floodplain, characteristic of...

  19. Migrant Children in Florida. The Phase II Report of the Florida Migratory Child Survey Project, 1968-1969, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, E. John; And Others

    Volume 2 of the Phase II report of the Florida Migratory Child Study Project provides the supplemental data relating to Volume I of the study (see RC 004 900). The second volume contains 26 appendices, some of which include (1) procedures for interviewing, (2) use of interview forms, (3) school data-collection forms, (4) migrant personnel…

  20. Migrant Children in Florida. The Phase II Report of the Florida Migratory Child Survey Project, 1968-1969, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, E. John; And Others

    The Phase II study of the Florida Migratory Child Survey Project had as its primary focus the data obtained directly from migratory workers and public schools. Major objectives of the 12-month study were (1) to obtain an accurate count of migratory workers and children in each Florida county, (2) to determine movement patterns of migratory…

  1. Learning Science in Grades 3-8 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Tinker, Robert; Staudt, Carolyn; Mansfield, Amie; Metcalf, Shari

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or…

  2. The MAGellanic Inter-Cloud (MAGIC) project - II. Slicing up the Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, N. E. D.; Conn, B. C.; Read, J. I.; Carrera, R.; Dolphin, A.; Rix, H.-W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the gas in between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), known as the Magellanic Bridge, has always been the subject of controversy. To shed light into this, we present the results from the MAGellanic Inter-Cloud II (MAGIC II) project aimed at probing the stellar populations in 10 large fields located perpendicular to the main ridge-line of H I in the Inter-Cloud region. We secured these observations of the stellar populations in between the MCs using the WFI (Wide Field Imager) camera on the 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. Using colour-magnitude diagrams, we trace stellar populations across the Inter-Cloud region. In good agreement with MAGIC I, we find significant intermediate-age stars in the Inter-Cloud region as well as young stars of a similar age to the last pericentre passage in between the MCs (˜200 Myr ago). We show here that the young, intermediate-age and old stars have distinct spatial distributions. The young stars correlate well with the H I gas suggesting that they were either recently stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) or formed in situ. The bulk of intermediate-age stars are located mainly in the Bridge region where the H I column density is higher, but they are more spread out than the young stars. They have very similar properties to stars located ˜2 kpc from the SMC centre, suggesting that they were tidally stripped from this region. Finally, the old stars extend to some 8 kpc from the SMC supporting the idea that all galaxies have a large extended metal-poor stellar halo.

  3. Characterization of potential fire regimes: applying landscape ecology to fire management in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardel, E.; Alvarado, E.; Perez-Salicrup, D.; Morfín-Rios, J.

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge and understanding of fire regimes is fundamental to design sound fire management practices. The high ecosystem diversity of Mexico offers a great challenge to characterize the fire regime variation at the landscape level. A conceptual model was developed considering the main factors controlling fire regimes: climate and vegetation cover. We classified landscape units combining bioclimatic zones from the Holdridge life-zone system and actual vegetation cover. Since bioclimatic conditions control primary productivity and biomass accumulation (potential fuel), each landscape unit was considered as a fuel bed with a particular fire intensity and behavior potential. Climate is also a determinant factor of post-fire recovery rates of fuel beds, and climate seasonality (length of the dry and wet seasons) influences fire probability (available fuel and ignition efficiency). These two factors influence potential fire frequency. Potential fire severity can be inferred from fire frequency, fire intensity and behavior, and vegetation composition and structure. Based in the conceptual model, an exhaustive literature review and expert opinion, we developed rules to assign a potential fire regime (PFR) defined by frequency, intensity and severity (i.e. fire regime) to each bioclimatic-vegetation landscape unit. Three groups and eight types of potential fire regimes were identified. In Group A are fire-prone ecosystems with frequent low severity surface fires in grasslands (PFR type I) or forests with long dry season (II) and infrequent high-severity fires in chaparral (III), wet temperate forests (IV, fire restricted by humidity), and dry temperate forests (V, fire restricted by fuel recovery rate). Group B includes fire-reluctant ecosystems with very infrequent or occasional mixed severity surface fires limited by moisture in tropical rain forests (VI) or fuel availability in seasonally dry tropical forests (VII). Group C and PFR VIII include fire-free environments

  4. Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids. I. The type II Cepheid κ Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfelder, J.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gallenne, A.; Szabados, L.; Anderson, R. I.; Willson, M.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The distance of pulsating stars, in particular Cepheids, are commonly measured using the parallax of pulsation technique. The different versions of this technique combine measurements of the linear diameter variation (from spectroscopy) and the angular diameter variation (from photometry or interferometry) amplitudes, to retrieve the distance in a quasi-geometrical way. However, the linear diameter amplitude is directly proportional to the projection factor (hereafter p-factor), which is used to convert spectroscopic radial velocities (i.e., disk integrated) into pulsating (i.e., photospheric) velocities. The value of the p-factor and its possible dependence on the pulsation period are still widely debated. Aims: Our goal is to measure an observational value of the p-factor of the type-II Cepheid κ Pavonis. Methods: The parallax of the type-II Cepheid κ Pav was measured with an accuracy of 5% using HST/FGS. We used this parallax as a starting point to derive the p-factor of κ Pav, using the SPIPS technique (Spectro-Photo-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars), which is a robust version of the parallax-of-pulsation method that employs radial velocity, interferometric and photometric data. We applied this technique to a combination of new VLTI/PIONIER optical interferometric angular diameters, new CORALIE and HARPS radial velocities, as well as multi-colour photometry and radial velocities from the literature. Results: We obtain a value of p = 1.26 ± 0.07 for the p-factor of κ Pav. This result agrees with several of the recently derived Period-p-factor relationships from the literature, as well as previous observational determinations for Cepheids. Conclusions: Individual estimates of the p-factor are fundamental to calibrating the parallax of pulsation distances of Cepheids. Together with previous observational estimates, the projection factor we obtain points to a weak dependence of the p-factor on period. Based on observations realized with ESO

  5. THE IRON PROJECT AND THE RMAX PROJECT: Radiative and CollisionalProcesses of Iron Ions - Fe I, Fe II, Fe XVI, Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Maximiliano; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil; Sur, Chiranjib

    2008-05-01

    Results from work in progress under the Iron Project and Rmax Project on electron impact excitation and radiative processes of photo-excitations, photoionization and electron-ion recombination will be reported. Whereas the Iron Project is involved in scattering and radiative atomic processes of iron and iron-peak elements, and the Rmax Project aims particularly at the X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical objects. We will present (i) collision strengths of Fe II at low energies using an accurate wavefunction needed for spectral analysis of infrared region, (ii) oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe I and Fe II, (iii) photoionization and electron-ion recombination of ground state of Fe XVI for over a large energy/temperature range up to and including K-shell ionization and core excitations as observed in X-ray spectra, and (iv) photoionization cross sections of large number fine structure levels (n<=10 and 0 <= 10) needed for astrophysical and modeling work. Relativistic approach in the Breit-Pauli approximation is being employed to study these atomic processes.

  6. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  7. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  8. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  9. Analysis of tethered balloon, ceilometer and class sounding data taken on San Nicolas Island during the FIRE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne H.; Ciesielski, Paul E.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Mckee, Thomas B.

    1990-01-01

    During the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Program on San Nicolas Island, Colorado State University (CSU) and the British Meteorological Office (BMO) operated separate instrument packages on the NASA tethered balloon. The CSU package contained instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud droplet concentration, and long and short wave radiation. Eight research flights, performed between July 7 and July 14, are summarized. An analysis priority to the July 7, 8 and 11 flights was assigned for the purposes of comparing the CSU and BMO data. Results are presented. In addition, CSU operated a laser ceilometer for the determination of cloud base, and a CLASS radiosonde site which launched 69 sondes. Data from all of the above systems are being analyzed.

  10. The Importance of Permafrost Thaw, Fire and Logging Disturbances as Driving Factors of Historical and Projected Carbon Dynamics in Alaskan Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; Zhang, Y.; McGuire, A. D.; He, Y.; Johnson, K. D.; D'Amore, D. V.; Zhou, X.; Bennett, A.; Breen, A. L.; Biles, F. E.; Bliss, N. B.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kurkowski, T. A.; Pastick, N.; Rupp, S. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhu, Z.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dynamics of natural ecosystems are influenced by disturbance regimes of various frequencies and magnitudes. With global change, these disturbances are projected to increase in frequency and/or magnitude and may have significant effects on future net carbon balance, especially in high latitude ecosystems where carbon stocks are among the largest on Earth and climate change is substantial. In Alaska, permafrost degradation and fire in the boreal and arctic regions and logging in the southern coastal region are the main disturbances that affect ecosystems. Large uncertainties related to the effects of these disturbances on the capacity of these regions to store carbon still exist mainly due to difficulty in representing permafrost degradation in current ecosystem models. We ran the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), which explicitly simulates the carbon cycle and permafrost dynamics, coupled with a disturbance model (the Alaska Frame Based Ecosystem Code, ALFRESCO) to assess the relative importance of permafrost thaw, wildfire, and forest management on historical and projected carbon balance and carbon stocks in Alaska, from 1950 to 2100, at a 1-km resolution. Our simulations showed that the increase in plant productivity in response to warming in boreal and arctic regions is offset by soil carbon loss due to permafrost degradation and wildfire combustion during both historical and future simulations. Fire disturbances act as a catalyst accelerating permafrost degradation and associated soil carbon loss. In addition, our preliminary results for south coastal regions of Alaska indicate that logging of second growth forests could influence carbon dynamics in that region. Overall, these results have implications for land management strategies and illustrate the importance of taking into account multiple types of disturbance regimes in ecosystem models for Alaska.

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) Report for the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP), developed in 1980 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1980a, USFWS 1980b), uses a habitat/species based approach to assessing project impacts, and is a convenient tool to document the predicted effects of proposed management actions. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) endorsed the use of HEP in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to evaluate wildlife benefits and impacts associated with the development and operation of the federal Columbia River Basin hydroelectric system (NPPC 1994). The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) used HEP in 1987 to evaluate wildlife habitat losses attributed to the Albeni Falls hydroelectric facility (Martin et al. 1988). In 1992, the AFIWG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes) began implementing activities to mitigate these losses. Implementation activities include protecting, restoring and enhancing wildlife habitat. HEPs are used extensively within the NPPC's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Wildlife managers use HEP to determine habitat lost from the construction of the federal hydroelectric projects and habitat gained through NPPC mitigation program. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for each of the seven target species are used to determine habitat quality and quantity losses for representative habitat cover types for this project. Target species include Bald Eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer and yellow warbler. In 2002, a HEP team determined the habitat condition of the 164-acre Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project (Figure 1). The HEP team consisted of the following members and agencies: Roy Finley, Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD); Neil Lockwood, KNRD; Brian Merson, KNRD; Sonny Finley, KNRD; Darren Holmes, KNRD; Anna, Washington Dept. of Fish and Game (WDFW); and Scott, WDFW. Baseline Habitat Units (HU) will be credited to

  12. An Oral History Project: World War II Veterans Share Memories in My Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the author developed and implemented a course on World War II that has an oral history component. The author describes the format of the World War II course and the oral history component within the course framework. The author uses classroom presentations by veterans to enliven his World War II history class and enhance…

  13. Photochemical and meteorological relationships during the Texas-II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Flynn, James; Haman, Christine

    2010-10-01

    The Moody Tower measurement site at the University of Houston experienced several large ozone events during the Texas-II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) campaign between 13 Aug-02 Oct, 2006. This rooftop site samples that atmosphere 70 m a.g.l. and consequently is less susceptible to local surface emissions. Several high-ozone episodes encountered at Moody Tower during the TRAMP campaign were preceded one to two days earlier by a cold front passage, creating a situation where polluted air is transported from the North interacts with local Houston emissions and with light local winds. High quality CO measurements were good indicators of long range transport of pollution and/or biomass burning. During TRAMP there were also 4 periods with low "background" CO characterized by southerly winds, overcast conditions and low NOx and O 3 mixing ratios. The summer and fall of 2000 was an unusually hot period in Houston with considerably higher ozone levels than the 2000-2007 climatology. The 2006 TRAMP time period is more representative of the typical conditions for these 8 years. Over the time period from 1991 to 2009 the number of 8-h ozone episode days in Houston has decreased, as have the peak 1-h ozone mixing ratios. It is not possible from this analysis to demonstrate whether these improvements in Houston air quality are due to reductions in NOx levels, VOCs levels, and/or changes in meteorology.

  14. The Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II): rationale, methods, and features of the sample at intake.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Risa B; Beard, Courtney; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B

    2012-05-01

    We describe the rationale, method, and intake demographic and clinical findings of the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II). HARP-II is the first prospective, observational, longitudinal study to describe the characteristics and course of anxiety in African American, Latino, and Non-Latino White individuals. Participants met criteria for at least one of the following disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia, Agoraphobia without history of Panic Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Initial intake data, collected between 2004 and 2011, are presented for 165 African American, 150 Latino, and 172 Non-Latino White participants. Participants evidenced substantial psychiatric comorbidity (mean number of Axis I disorders=3.4), and moderate to severe symptoms and functional impairment. HARP-II will examine clinical course, in the context of potential socio-cultural and individual moderators (e.g., discrimination, acculturation, negative affect). Results should lead to improved understanding, prognostics, and treatment of anxiety in diverse populations. PMID:22410095

  15. 36 CFR 327.10 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fires. 327.10 Section 327.10... Fires. (a) Gasoline and other fuels, except that which is contained in storage tanks of vehicles... onto or stored on the project without written permission of the District Commander. (b) Fires shall...

  16. 36 CFR 327.10 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 327.10 Section 327.10... Fires. (a) Gasoline and other fuels, except that which is contained in storage tanks of vehicles... onto or stored on the project without written permission of the District Commander. (b) Fires shall...

  17. 36 CFR 327.10 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fires. 327.10 Section 327.10... Fires. (a) Gasoline and other fuels, except that which is contained in storage tanks of vehicles... onto or stored on the project without written permission of the District Commander. (b) Fires shall...

  18. 36 CFR 327.10 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fires. 327.10 Section 327.10... Fires. (a) Gasoline and other fuels, except that which is contained in storage tanks of vehicles... onto or stored on the project without written permission of the District Commander. (b) Fires shall...

  19. Fight Fire with These Safety Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides expert guidelines on ways to keep schools and children safe from building fires, such as maintenance of exits for easy egress in emergencies, maintaining fire-protection systems, and utilizing evacuation planning and drilling. Highlights fire-safety ideas as part of school-building and renovation projects. (GR)

  20. Phase II Report for SERRI Project No. 80037: Investigation of surge and wave reduction by vegetation (Phase II)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand and quantify the effectiveness of wetland vegetation in mitigating the impact of hurricane and storm surges, this SERRI project (No. 80037) examined surge and wave attenuation by vegetation through laboratory experiments, field observations and computational modeling. It was a c...

  1. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being driven by high winds and ... bright desert background. The areas with no data (shown in black and present at the oblique angles) are locations where the variable ...

  2. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  3. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  4. Siberian Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of fires across Siberia and the Russian Far East, northeast China and northern Mongolia. Fires in Eastern Siberia have been increasing in ... spatial contrast. The heights correspond to elevations above sea level. Taking into account the surface elevation, the smoke plumes range ...

  5. Business models for cost effective use of health information technologies: lessons learned in the CHCS II project.

    PubMed

    Riley, David L

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has embarked on an initiative to create an electronic medical record for all of its eligible beneficiaries. The Clinical Information Technology Program Office (CITPO) is the joint-service program office established to centrally manage this multi-year project. The Composite Health Care System II (CHCS II) is the name of the system under development. Given the historical failure rate of large-scale government information system projects, CITPO has employed an incremental acquisition approach and striven to use industry best practices to the greatest degree possible within the constraints of federal acquisition law. Based on lessons learned during the concept exploration phase of this project, CITPO, in partnership with Integic Corporation, the prime integration contractor, has reengineered its software acquisition process to include industry best practices. The result of this reengineering process has resulted in a reduction of the total projected life cycle costs for CHCS II from the original estimate of $7.6 billion over a 14-year period to between $3.9 and $4.3 billion. PMID:15455852

  6. The lick AGN monitoring project 2011: Fe II reverberation from the outer broad-line region

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Aaron J.; Cooper, Michael C.; Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Brewer, Brendon J.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Sand, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; and others

    2013-06-01

    The prominent broad Fe II emission blends in the spectra of active galactic nuclei have been shown to vary in response to continuum variations, but past attempts to measure the reverberation lag time of the optical Fe II lines have met with only limited success. Here we report the detection of Fe II reverberation in two Seyfert 1 galaxies, NGC 4593 and Mrk 1511, based on data from a program carried out at Lick Observatory in Spring 2011. Light curves for emission lines including Hβ and Fe II were measured by applying a fitting routine to decompose the spectra into several continuum and emission-line components, and we use cross-correlation techniques to determine the reverberation lags of the emission lines relative to V-band light curves. In both cases, the measured lag (τ{sub cen}) of Fe II is longer than that of Hβ, although the inferred lags are somewhat sensitive to the choice of Fe II template used in the fit. For spectral decompositions done using the Fe II template of Véron-Cetty et al., we find τ{sub cen}(Fe II)/τ{sub cen}(Hβ) = 1.9 ± 0.6 in NGC 4593 and 1.5 ± 0.3 in Mrk 1511. The detection of highly correlated variations between Fe II and continuum emission demonstrates that the Fe II emission in these galaxies originates in photoionized gas, located predominantly in the outer portion of the broad-line region.

  7. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  8. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  9. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  10. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  11. Project on Social Architecture in Education. Final Report. Part II: Research Methods. Chapter 4: Project Overview. Chapter 5: Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.

    This document contains chapters 4 and 5 of the final report of the Project on Social Architecture in Education. Chapter 4 provides a brief overview of the activities of the project in order to sketch the context out of which the case studies, conclusions, and learning materials emerged. Chapter 5 discusses and evaluates six major strands of…

  12. Fuel Modelling at Extended Burnup: IAEA Coordinated Research Project FUMEX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.C.; Turnbull, J.A.; Sartori, E.

    2007-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored a Coordinated Research Project on Fuel Modelling at Extended Burnup (FUMEX-II). Eighteen fuel modelling groups participated with the intention of improving their capabilities to understand and predict the behaviour of water reactor fuel at high burnups. The exercise was carried out in coordination with the OECD/NEA. The participants used a mixture of data derived from actual irradiation histories of high burnup experimental fuel and commercial irradiations where post-irradiation examination measurements are available, combined with idealised power histories intended to represent possible future extended dwell commercial irradiations and test code capabilities at high burnup. All participants have been asked to model nine priority cases out of some 27 cases made available to them for the exercise from the IAEA/OECD International Fuel Performance Experimental Database. Calculations carried out by the participants, particularly for the idealised cases, have shown how varying modelling assumptions affect the high burnup predictions, and have led to an understanding of the requirements of future high burnup experimental data to help discriminate between modelling assumptions. This understanding is important in trying to model transient and fault behaviour at high burnup. It is important to recognise that the code predictions presented here should not be taken to indicate that some codes do not perform well. The codes have been designed for different applications and have differing assumptions and validation ranges; for example codes intended to predict Candu fuel operation with thin wall collapsible cladding do not need the clad creep and gap conductivity modelling found in PWR codes. Therefore, when a case is based on Candu technology or PWR technology, it is to be expected that the codes may not agree. However, it is the very differences in such behaviour that is useful in helping to understand the effects of such

  13. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  15. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  16. Salt II: Illusion and Reality. World Order Models Project. Working Paper Number Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Robert C.

    The document discusses miscalculations by public officials, arms control experts, journalists, and the general public regarding the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks; assesses the Salt II treaty; and suggests criteria for appraising Salt II. The objective is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action which will contribute to a…

  17. Mexico Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico     View Larger Image ... southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  18. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  19. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  20. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  1. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  2. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  3. Highlights from a project focusing on quantifying the characteristics and investigating the biogeoscientific and societal impacts of extreme wildland fires in the northwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Lannom, K. O.; Tinkham, W.; Hall, T. E.; Morgan, P.; Paveglio, T.; Carrol, M.; Newingham, B. A.; Strand, E. K.; Sparks, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years there is a perception that wildland fires have become more widespread with significant ecological, social, and economic impacts. Fewer than 5% of all fires account for the majority of area burned and the costs of fire suppression. The complex terrain in the northern Rockies offers steep environmental and social gradients to understand how and why landscapes change in response to extreme disturbances, as well as the social and environmental implications of those changes. The social gradient includes wildland interface community experience, while the environmental gradient covers aridlands, such as shrublands and grasslands, to mesic mixed conifer forests and subalpine ecosystems. Fires in these systems result in varying public and policy maker experiences and land management decisions in forested and rangeland ecosystems. We present highlights from our interdisciplinary research team that has focused on characterizing extreme wildland fires in the northwestern United States and evaluates the biophysical and social responses to those fires.

  4. CE IGCC repowering project: Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, 1 January, 1992--31 December, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    CE is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that will provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, light and Power (CWL and P) in Springfield, Illinois. The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu gas: and all necessary coal handling equipment. The project is currently in the second budget period of five. The major activities during this budgeted period are: Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; development of a detailed cost estimate; resolution of project business issues; CWL and P renewal and replacement activities; and application for environmental air permits. The Project Management Plan was updated. The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established previously in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities are continuing. At the end of 1992 the major activities remaining for Budget Period two is to finish the cost estimate and complete the Continuation Request Documents.

  5. Development of advanced blanket performance under irradiation and system integration through JUPITER-II project

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Katsunori; Kohyama, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru; Namba, C.; Terai, T.; Kunugi, T.; Muroga, Takeo; Hasegawa, Akira; Sagara, A.; Berk, S.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sze, Dai Kai; Petti, D. A.; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Morley, Neil B.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Snead, Lance L.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes an outline of the activities of the JUPITER-II collaboration (japan-USA program of Irradiation/Integration test for Fusion Research-II), Which has bee carried out through six years (2001-2006) under Phase 4 of the collabroation implemented by Amendment 4 of Annex 1 to the DOE (United States Department of Energy)-MEXT (Ministry of Education ,Culture,Sports,Science and Technology) Cooperation. This program followed the RTNS-II Program (Phase1:1982-4986), the FFTF/MOTA Program (Phase2:1987-1994) and the JUPITER Program (Phase 3: 1995-2000) [1].

  6. Fire-on-fire interactions in three large wilderness areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, Casey C.

    Current knowledge about wildfire occurrence is not complete. Fire researchers and managers hold the assumption that previous wildfires affect subsequent wildfires; however, research regarding the interactions of large wildfires at their common boundaries is missing from the literature. This research focuses on understanding the influence of previous large wildfires on subsequent large wildfires in three wilderness areas: The Greater Bob Marshall, the Selway-Bitterroot, and the Frank Church. Data from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project, which mapped large wildfires in the western United States occurring since 1984, are used for the research. The combination of using wilderness areas and remotely sensed images allows an objective and consistent analysis of fire-on-fire interaction that is extensive in both time and space. Standardized methods for analyzing fire interactions do not currently exist, therefore methods were developed, tested, and refined to describe, quantify, and compare once-burned and re-burned locations within a subset of ten fires in terms of size, location, timing between fires, and severity. These methods were then used to address the question of whether re-burns occur within each of the three wilderness areas. Edge and re-burn characteristics were also derived and quantified. Results were statistically and empirically compared to randomized fire intersections and to published fire history research for each area. Although a low proportion of each study area burns or re-burns, when a new fire encounters a previous fire it re-burns onto the previously burned area approximately 80% of the time. Current large wildfires are behaving in a typical fashion, although on some landscapes the amount of re-burn is not different from what would be expected due to chance. Lastly, the complexity of the post-fire landscape was assessed using texture metrics. Pre-fire and post-fire landscapes were shown to be different, with post-fire landscapes

  7. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  8. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  9. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .../capacity, and is properly equipped to handle both fire fighting and flood control. (b) Each vessel must... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  10. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller I, II and Johnie Boy. Project officers report. Project 6. 6. Electromagnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.D.; Livingston, P.M.; Rutter, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    Of considerable interest from both a physical and practical viewpoint is the coupling of electromagnetic energy from a nuclear explosion into various electrical systems in the vicinity of the burst. A series of electromagnetic measurements were made on Shots Little Feller I, Little Feller II, and Johnie Boy. It is clear from the records that radiation shielding must be given closer consideration in future tests. Due to equipment failure and radiation inactivation, only the Johnie Boy dynamic current measurement and the passive peak current indicators on all three events are interpretable.

  11. The ForFire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyaud, A.; Angelopoulos, A.; Chelmis, C.; Costopoulos, V.; Chica, M.; Giomataris, I.; Gongadze, A.; Herbert, T.; Kantemiris, I.; Kirch, S.; Mols, J. P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Quinlan, F.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the ForFire project is the development of an outdoor fire detection system by using an innovative solar blind camera based on the technology of photosensitive gas and solid-state detectors. The development of this new sensor together with an appropriate algorithm for pattern recognition aims to provide a high capability and a high reliability flame-detection system with cost effectiveness, early detection and accurate localization of fire hazards. This is achieved by focusing specifically on the detection of the VUV part (180 nm ≤ λ ≤ 260 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the fire source. The advantage of this approach is that on Earth only fire flames emit in this spectral range thus avoiding potential interferences with other wavelength sources where the Sun is a dominant background.

  12. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  13. Myosin-II inhibition and soft 2D matrix maximize multinucleation and cellular projections typical of platelet-producing megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Won; Swift, Joe; Spinler, Kyle R; Discher, Dennis E

    2011-07-12

    Cell division, membrane rigidity, and strong adhesion to a rigid matrix are all promoted by myosin-II, and so multinucleated cells with distended membranes--typical of megakaryocytes (MKs)--seem predictable for low myosin activity in cells on soft matrices. Paradoxically, myosin mutations lead to defects in MKs and platelets. Here, reversible inhibition of myosin-II is sustained over several cell cycles to produce 3- to 10-fold increases in polyploid MK and a number of other cell types. Even brief inhibition generates highly distensible, proplatelet-like projections that fragment readily under shear, as seen in platelet generation from MKs in vivo. The effects are maximized with collagenous matrices that are soft and 2D, like the perivascular niches in marrow rather than 3D or rigid, like bone. Although multinucleation of other primary hematopoietic lineages helps to generalize a failure-to-fission mechanism, lineage-specific signaling with increased polyploidy proves possible and novel with phospho-regulation of myosin-II heavy chain. Label-free mass spectrometry quantitation of the MK proteome uses a unique proportional peak fingerprint (ProPF) analysis to also show upregulation of the cytoskeletal and adhesion machinery critical to platelet function. Myosin-inhibited MKs generate more platelets in vitro and also in vivo from the marrows of xenografted mice, while agonist stimulation activates platelet spreading and integrin αIIbβ3. Myosin-II thus seems a central, matrix-regulated node for MK-poiesis and platelet generation. PMID:21709232

  14. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  15. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Coastal oceanographic characteristics and their impact on marine effluent biotoxicity studies during the SEFLOE II project

    SciTech Connect

    Commons, D.N.; Proni, J.R.; Fergen, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Southeast Florida Outfall Experiment II (SEFLOE II) study was conducted at four ocean outfalls to determine the dispersion characteristics and biotoxicity of their effluent in the coastal ocean. The effluent from these facilities is secondary treated municipal wastewater. This paper deals with the impact of coastal oceanographic characteristics upon the biotoxicity aspect of the SEFLOE II study on data collected at the Broward County outfall. During the study, whole effluent toxicity (WET) bioassays were compared to bioassays analyzed on samples taken from the outfall dispersion plumes. The ocean bioassays results were then evaluated along with contemporaneous current direction and speed data to determine initial and farfield dilutions and calculate Eularian and Lagrangian exposure impacts. The bioassay comparison appears to indicate that standard WET methodology does not adequately take into consideration the substantial differences in dilution ratios and exposure times used in laboratory analyses with those experienced in actual environmental field conditions especially for ocean outfalls.

  17. Apollo 1 Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Officially designated Apollo/Saturn 204, but more commonly known as Apollo 1, this close-up view of the interior of the Command Module shows the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew during a routine training exercise. While strapped into their seats inside the Command Module atop the giant Saturn V Moon rocket, a faulty electrical switch created a spark which ignited the pure oxygen environment. The speed and intensity of the fire quickly exhausted the oxygen supply inside the crew cabin. Unable to deploy the hatch due to its cumbersome design and lack of breathable oxygen, the crew lost consciousness and perished. They were: astronauts Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, (the second American to fly into space) Edward H. White II, (the first American to 'walk' in space) and Roger B. Chaffee, (a 'rookie' on his first space mission).

  18. Evaluation of the Field Test of Project Information Packages: Volume II--Recommendations for Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Donald P.; And Others

    This report, the second of three volumes, presents recommendations for revisions to the USOE Project Information Packages (PIPs). Field tests were made to determine experimentally whether the six prototype PIPs were effective mechanisms for replicating the six exemplary projects and what modifications, if any, they required. The primary focus of…

  19. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings, and green spaces.…

  20. The VIDEOSHARE Project. Instruction (Manual I) and Classroom Videotaping Guide (Manual II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Tim; Neilsen, Shelley

    Manual I describes the VIDEOSHARE Project, a demonstration project employing systematic, video-based technology in preschool special education classrooms to supplement traditional measures of academic and developmental progress. The VIDEOSHARE model focuses on using video to: (1) enhance family-school partnerships; (2) increase child study team…

  1. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  2. Evaluation of the 1984-85 ECIA, Chapter II English Composition through Art History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proller, Norman L.

    The English Composition through Art History (ECTAH) Project was established in 1984-85 at Coral Gables Senior High School in Dade County, Florida. The main goal of the project was to teach the students how to relate acquired art history knowledge to the literary devices employed by an author. For example, pupils studied non-representational art,…

  3. Technical Assistance in Evaluating Career Education Projects. Final Report. Volume II: Final Career Education Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenner, A. Jackson; And Others

    This document contains the second of five volumes reporting the activities and results of a career education evaluation project conducted to accomplish the following two objectives: (1) to improve the quality of evaluations by career education projects funded by the United States Office of Career Education (OCE) through the provision of technical…

  4. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  5. Library Career Training Program: Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1991. Title II-B, Higher Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Yvonne B., Comp.; Owens, Janice E., Comp.

    The Library Career Training Program, Title II-B of the Higher Education Act (HEA), provides grants to institutions of higher education and library organizations or agencies to train persons in librarianship through fellowships, institutes, and traineeships, and to establish, develop, and expand programs of library and information science. The U.S.…

  6. General Mathematics II. A CoSer Project of the Cortland-Madison BOCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLucci, Jackie; And Others

    This General Mathematics II curriculum reflects the 1980 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Agenda for Action statement that emphasis in mathematics learning and teaching should be shifted away from isolated computational skills toward problem-solving techniques. The use of calculators and estimation is encouraged. Emphasis both in…

  7. The FERRUM Project: Experimental Transition Probabilities of [Fe II] and Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H.; Derkatch, A.; Donnelly, M. P.; Gull, T.; Hibbert, A.; Johannsson, S.; Lundberg, H.; Mannervik, S.; Norlin, L. -O.; Rostohar, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on experimental transition probabilities for thirteen forbidden [Fe II] lines originating from three different metastable Fe II levels. Radiative lifetimes have been measured of two metastable states by applying a laser probing technique on a stored ion beam. Branching ratios for the radiative decay channels, i.e. M1 and E2 transitions, are derived from observed intensity ratios of forbidden lines in astrophysical spectra and compared with theoretical data. The lifetimes and branching ratios are combined to derive absolute transition probabilities, A-values. We present the first experimental lifetime values for the two Fe II levels a(sup 4)G(sub 9/2) and b(sup 2)H(sub 11/2) and A-values for 13 forbidden transitions from a(sup 6)S(sub 5/2), a(sup 4)G(sub 9/2) and b(sup 4)D(sub 7/2) in the optical region. A discrepancy between the measured and calculated values of the lifetime for the b(sup 2)H(sub 11/2) level is discussed in terms of level mixing. We have used the code CIV3 to calculate transition probabilities of the a(sup 6)D-a(sup 6)S transitions. We have also studied observational branching ratios for lines from 5 other metastable Fe II levels and compared them to calculated values. A consistency in the deviation between calibrated observational intensity ratios and theoretical branching ratios for lines in a wider wavelength region supports the use of [Fe II] lines for determination of reddening.

  8. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  9. Wind River Watershed Project; Volume II of III Reports F and G, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-11-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds.

  10. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  11. FIRE BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pears and woody ornamentals of the rose family. The disease is indigenous to North America and has been studied for more than one century. E. amylovora can infect blossoms, stems, immature fruits, woody branch...

  12. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  13. Colorado Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... (MISR). The images were captured on June 9, 2002, on the second day of the Hayman fire, when only about 13 percent of the total 137,000 ... x 565 kilometers. They use data from blocks 58 to 61 within World Reference System-2 path 32. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  14. Fire in the Shop!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.; Buchanan, Joseph P.

    1977-01-01

    Fire emergency preparedness measures to take to prevent school fires and to protect against injury and minimize damage when fire does occur are presented. Includes fire safety practices, extinguishers for different classes of fires and their use, and the need for fire safety training in schools. (MF)

  15. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire...

  16. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire...

  17. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Howard, Stephen; Burgan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, and satellite and surface observations of fuel conditions in the form of the Fire Potential Index, to estimate two aspects of fire danger: 1) the probability that a 1 acre ignition will result in a 100+ acre fire, and 2) the probabilities of having at least 1, 2, 3, or 4 large fires within a Predictive Services Area in the forthcoming week. These statistical processes are the main thrust of the paper and are used to produce two daily national forecasts that are available from the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center and via the Wildland Fire Assessment System. A validation study of our forecasts for the 2013 fire season demonstrated good agreement between observed and forecasted values.

  18. Waste drum fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Olson, W.W.; Zimmer, J.J.

    1994-05-01

    Radioactive solid wastes containing combustible materials have been generated and stored in drums and boxes at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites since the 1940`s. Programs are currently underway to characterize, process, and package the post-1970 portion of these wastes for final disposal as low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste. As these programs mature and projects are defined, safety analysis reports and fire hazard analyses are required to assure the DOE of the safety of the planned activities. Review of literature and discussions with other DOE sites indicated a lack of available data regarding the behaviour and consequences of fires involving radioactive combustible wastes stored at DOE sites. In the past 2 years, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has been involved in two different waste drum fire tests. The first was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 1993 and was patterned after a flammable liquid pool fire. The second was performed by WHC at the Hanford Site as part of a building demolition burn. These scoping tests provide useful data for the development of more structured test plans. The paper summarizes the LLNL and WHC tests and their results.

  19. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two

  20. Proceedings of the Final Conference of National Project II: Alternatives to the Revolving Door (Washington, D. C., December 8-10, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    The objective of the final conference was to provide an opportunity for the 10 Associate institutions of National Project II to share what they had learned, both individually and as a consortium. Each institution had been chosen to participate in the project on the basis of an exemplary program for underprepared college students. This document…

  1. Combustion Engineering Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project -- Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, November 20, 1990--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. The IGCC will include CE`s slogging, entrained-flow, gasifier operating in a pressurized mode and using air as the oxidant. The hot gas will be cleaned of particulate matter (char) which is recycled back to the gasifier. After particulate removal, the product gas will be cleaned of sulfur prior to burning in a gas turbine. The proposed project includes design and demonstration of two advanced hot gas cleanup processes for removal of sulfur from the product gas of the gasifier. The primary sulfur removal method features a newly developed moving-bed zinc ferrite system downstream of the gasifier. The process data from these pilot tests is expected to be sufficient for the design of a full-scale system to be used in the proposed demonstration. A second complementary process is in situ desulfurization achieved by adding limestone or dolomite directly to the coal feed. The benefit, should such an approach prove viable, is that the downstream cleanup system could be reduced in size. In this plant, the gasifier will be producing a low-Btu gas (LBG). The LBG will be used as fuel in a standard GE gas turbine to produce power. This gas turbine will have the capability to fire LBG and natural gas (for start-up). Since firing LBG uses less air than natural gas, the gas turbine air compressor will have extra capacity. This extra compressed air will be used to pressurize the gasifier and supply the air needed in the gasification process. The plant is made of three major blocks of equipment as shown in Figure 2. They are the fuel gas island which includes the gasifier and gas cleanup, gas turbine power block, and the steam turbine block which includes the steam turbine and the HRSG.

  2. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system is installed in accordance with 46 CFR 108.489. ... paint room exit. (d) Machinery Spaces: (1) Gas-fired boilers B-II OR C-II Two. (2) Gas-fired boilers B-V One. 1 (3) Oil-fired boilers B-II Two. (4) Oil-fired boilers B-V Two. 1 (5) Internal combustion or...

  3. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system is installed in accordance with 46 CFR 108.489. ... paint room exit. (d) Machinery Spaces: (1) Gas-fired boilers B-II OR C-II Two. (2) Gas-fired boilers B-V One. 1 (3) Oil-fired boilers B-II Two. (4) Oil-fired boilers B-V Two. 1 (5) Internal combustion or...

  4. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system is installed in accordance with 46 CFR 108.489. ... paint room exit. (d) Machinery Spaces: (1) Gas-fired boilers B-II OR C-II Two. (2) Gas-fired boilers B-V One. 1 (3) Oil-fired boilers B-II Two. (4) Oil-fired boilers B-V Two. 1 (5) Internal combustion or...

  5. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, I. G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Galán, J.; Garcia, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Ruiz, E.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on double beta decay, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small (few cm wide) ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. Background levels as low as 0.8 × 10-6 counts keV-1 cm-2 s-1 have already been achieved in CAST while values down to ~10-7 counts keV-1 cm-2 s-1 have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC). Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to ~10-8 counts keV-1 cm-2 s-1 will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray telescopes in the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), would allow for 105 better signal-to-noise ratio than CAST, and search for solar axions with gaγ down to few 1012 GeV-1, well into unexplored axion parameter space. In addition, a scaled-up version of these TPCs, properly shielded and placed underground, can be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. The TREX-DM prototype, with ~ 0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ~ 0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, and energy threshold well below 1 keV, has been built to test this concept. We will describe the main technical solutions developed, as well as the results from the commissioning phase on surface. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique might reach ~10-44 cm2 for low mass (<10 GeV) WIMPs, well beyond current experimental limits in this mass range.

  6. Linking Horizontal And Vertical Transports of Biomass Fire Emissions to the Tropical Atlantic Ozone Paradox during the Northern Hemisphere Winter Season: II. 1998-1999.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2002-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical transport of biomass fire emissions in West Africa during November 1998 through February 1999, are examined using all available data including wind, fire, aerosol, precipitation, lightning and outgoing longwave radiation. Ozonesonde data from the Aerosols99 Trans-Atlantic cruise are also included with rain and wind analyses. The results here support earlier studies that ozone and ozone precursors associated with biomass burning are confined to the lower troposphere primarily due to the lack of deep convection over land areas. Ozone and its precursors are horizontally transported equatorward or towards the west by winds in the 1000-700 hPa layers. However, rising adiabatic motions associated with the diurnal evolution of the West African n can transport ozone and its precursors vertically into the free troposphere above the marine boundary layer. Moreover, lightning from South America, Central Africa and mesoscale convective systems in the Gulf of Guinea can lead to elevated ozone mixing ratios in the middle and upper troposphere.

  7. PKCα is required for inflammation-induced trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II dorsal horn neurons during the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Kopach, Olga; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Viacheslav; Atianjoh, Fidelis E.; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2012-01-01

    Persistent inflammation promotes internalization of synaptic GluR2-containing Ca2+-impermeable AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and insertion of GluR1-containing Ca2+-permeable AMPARs at extrasynaptic sites in dorsal horn neurons. Previously we have shown that internalization of synaptic GluR2-containing AMPARs requires an activation of spinal cord protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), but molecular mechanisms that underlie altered trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPARs are still unclear. By utilizing the antisence oligodeoxynucleotides that specifically knockdown PKCα, we have found that a decrease in dorsal horn PKCα expression prevents complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced increase in a functional expression of extrasynaptic Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the rat spinal cord. This was manifested as an abolishment of augmented AMPA-induced currents and associated [Ca2+]i transients, and as a reverse of the current rectification 1 d post-CFA. These changes were observed specifically in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those exhibiting strong adaptation. Finally, dorsal horn PKCα knockdown produced anti-nociceptive effect on CFA-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity during the maintenance period of inflammatory pain, indicating a role for PKCα in persistent inflammatory pain maintenance. Altogether, our results indicate that inflammation-induced trafficking of extrasynaptic Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing SG neurons depends on PKCα, and suggest that this PKCα-dependent trafficking may contribute to the persistent inflammatory pain maintenance. PMID:23374940

  8. Developing an Improved Wildland Fire Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, S.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; Drury, S.; Solomon, R. C.; Wheeler, N.

    2010-12-01

    Smoke from wildland fire is a growing concern as air quality regulations tighten and public acceptance declines. Wildland fire emissions inventories are not only important for understanding air quality impacts from smoke but also in quantifying sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of wildland fire emissions can be done using a number of models and methods. Under the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project, comparisons between different methodologies are presented allowing for direct model-to-model variability calculations. Additionally, the relative importance of uncertainties in fire size information, available fuels information, consumption modeling techniques, and emissions factors can be compared. This work shows the local need for accurate fire information and a new effort to integrate both ground and satellite information into the the SMARTFIRE-BlueSky framework is presented. This DOI/USFS effort is designed to provide constraints on fire information and other errors in the modeling chain, resulting in an improved wildland fire emissions inventory.

  9. Color model and method for video fire flame and smoke detection using Fisher linear discriminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuan; Jie, Li; Jun, Fang; Yongming, Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Video fire detection is playing an increasingly important role in our life. But recent research is often based on a traditional RGB color model used to analyze the flame, which may be not the optimal color space for fire recognition. It is worse when we research smoke simply using gray images instead of color ones. We clarify the importance of color information for fire detection. We present a fire discriminant color (FDC) model for flame or smoke recognition based on color images. The FDC models aim to unify fire color image representation and fire recognition task into one framework. With the definition of between-class scatter matrices and within-class scatter matrices of Fisher linear discriminant, the proposed models seek to obtain one color-space-transform matrix and a discriminate projection basis vector by maximizing the ratio of these two scatter matrices. First, an iterative basic algorithm is designed to get one-component color space transformed from RGB. Then, a general algorithm is extended to generate three-component color space for further improvement. Moreover, we propose a method for video fire detection based on the models using the kNN classifier. To evaluate the recognition performance, we create a database including flame, smoke, and nonfire images for training and testing. The test experiments show that the proposed model achieves a flame verification rate receiver operating characteristic (ROC I) of 97.5% at a false alarm rate (FAR) of 1.06% and a smoke verification rate (ROC II) of 91.5% at a FAR of 1.2%, and lots of fire video experiments demonstrate that our method reaches a high accuracy for fire recognition.

  10. Differences in fire regimes and fire-climate feedbacks in North American and Eurasian boreal forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests contribute 9% of current annual fire emissions and contain nearly 40% of the world's terrestrial carbon stocks. Temperatures are projected to increase by the greatest magnitudes in high latitudes and lead to increased frequencies of forest fires. However, because of variations in climate and species-driven forest structure, fire regimes of North American and Eurasian boreal forests are distinctly different. These differences are generally not accounted for in global models. We quantified variations in fire and burn severity between the two continents using MODIS fire radiative power, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and spring albedo. These metrics suggest that Eurasian boreal fires are on average less than half as severe as those in North America. We examine how boreal forest fires may respond to 21st century climate change using the Community Land Model, and consider how these regimes may feed back to climate through fire-emitted aerosols, greenhouse gas fluxes, and land surface characteristics.

  11. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  12. Fire Detection Organizing Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity evaluation of candidate detector technologies. d. Reduced gravity verification of advanced fire detection system. e. Validated database of fire and pre-fire signatures in low and partial gravity.

  13. Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environmental impact report/statement II. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are; a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

  14. Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environment impact report/statement II. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are; a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

  15. Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environment impact report/statement II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are: a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

  16. CMIP5 simulated climate conditions of the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA). Part II: projected climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otieno, Vincent O.; Anyah, R. O.

    2013-10-01

    This is the second of the two-part paper series on the analysis and evaluation of the Fifth phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation of contemporary climate as well as IPCC, AR5 Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP), 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios projections of the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) Climate. In the first part (Otieno and Anyah in Clim Dyn, 2012) we focused on the historical simulations, whereas this second part primarily focuses on future projections based on the two scenarios. Six Earth System Models (ESMs) from CMIP5 archive have been used to characterize projected changes in seasonal and annual mean precipitation, temperature and the hydrological cycle by the middle of twenty-first century over the GHA region, based on IPCC, 5th Assessment Report (AR5) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Nearly all the models outputs analyzed reproduce the correct mean annual cycle of precipitation, with some biases among the models in capturing the correct peak of precipitation cycle, more so, March-April-May (MAM) seasonal rainfall over the equatorial GHA region. However, there is significant variation among models in projected precipitation anomalies, with some models projecting an average increase as others project a decrease in precipitation during different seasons. The ensemble mean of the ESMs indicates that the GHA region has been experiencing a steady increase in both precipitation and temperature beginning in the early 1980s and 1970s respectively in both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Going by the ensemble means, temperatures are projected to steadily increase uniformly in all the seasons at a rate of 0.3/0.5 °C/decade under RCP4.5/8.5 scenarios over northern GHA region leading to an approximate temperature increase of 2/3 °C by the middle of the century. On the other hand, temperatures will likely increase at a rate of 0.3/0.4 °C/decade under RCP4.5/8.5 scenarios in both equatorial and southern GHA region leading to an approximate

  17. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-04-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  18. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-01-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  19. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-07-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  20. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Plumes from the B&B Complex Fires, Oregon     ... The results indicate that the tops of the two main plumes originating from the B&B complex differ in altitude by about 1-2 ... The  animation  depicts a "multi-angle fly-over" of the plumes, and was generated using red-band data from MISR's vertical and ...

  1. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  2. Chemical interactions in isolated coal-fired power plant plumes: conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosols. Volume II. Data supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, J.F.; Bailey, E.M.; Stockburger, L. III

    1981-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted several field experiments to examine the chemical interactions in isolated coal-fired power plant plumes, Particularly the conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to sulfate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) aerosols. Six field studies have been conducted at three TVA power plants - Cumberland, paradise, and Colbert Steam Plants - each of which has a different boiler configuration. Studies were conducted during all seasons of the year. Samples were usually collected between sunrise and noon; however, at Cumberland and Paradise Steam Plants, samples were also collected in the afternoon and after sunset. The effect of several meteorological parameters on the conversion rate was investigated from the results of these studies. During one study at Cumberland Steam Plant, samples were taken during periods of reduced and normal electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operation; results from this study were used to investigate the effect of particle loading in the plume on the conversion rate.

  3. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003–2100

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Rupp, T.S.; Chapin, F. S., III; Walsh, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003–2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1) vegetation changes following a changing fire regime, and (2) changes in snow cover duration. We used a spatially explicit dynamic vegetation model (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) to simulate changes in successional dynamics associated with fire under the future climate scenarios, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate changes in snow cover. Changes in summer heating due to the changes in the forest stand age distributions under future fire regimes showed a slight cooling effect due to increases in summer albedo (mean across climates of −0.9 W m−2 decade−1). Over this same time period, decreases in snow cover (mean reduction in the snow season of 4.5 d decade−1) caused a reduction in albedo, and a heating effect (mean across climates of 4.3 W m−2 decade−1). Adding both the summer negative change in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire regimes to the positive changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in the length of the snow season resulted in a 3.4 W m−2 decade−1 increase in atmospheric heating. These findings highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the influences of changes in surface albedo on atmospheric heating due to both changes in the fire regime and changes in snow cover duration.

  4. Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as…

  5. Vocational Assessment of Special Needs Individuals Project: Final Report. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, Robert A.

    The Vocational Assessment of Special Needs Individuals Project originated with the regional vocational schools and educational collaboratives of the Assabet and Blackstone Valleys cooperating to determine a meaningful process through which vocational assessment information could be collected, organized, and used in formulating a basis for…

  6. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Data Summaries. Vol. II: Demonstration Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings are presented in three volumes. This, the second volume, identifies the major efforts currently underway in support of the national program. The National Aeronautics and…

  7. Project Spring II: Identifying Rural Disadvantaged and Ethnically Diverse Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicker, Howard H.; Aamidor, Shirley E.

    This manual was developed as part of a project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged students (grades 3-8) from ethnically diverse populations. Section 1 presents a leader's manual for a workshop designed to help teachers understand that many gifted students are not being identified for program…

  8. Longitudinal Results of the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project. Final Report. Volume II of 2 Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, David P.; And Others

    The Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project was an experiment to assess the longitudinal effects of a 2-year preschool program designed to compensate for functional mental retardation found in some children from disadvantaged families. The program consisted of a daily cognitively oriented preschool program and home visits each week to involve mothers in…

  9. Closing Pandora's Box: Copyright Technological Issues Addressed by EC Espirit II Project, CITED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nancarrow, Peter; Boisson, Jean-Francois

    1993-01-01

    Describes how the European Community's CITED Project provides the information industry with a solution to the problem of copyright applied to digital technology. The use of technical means to control copying and an assessment of the legal and commercial situation in the information industry are discussed. (EAM)

  10. KHAN DU! II. Final Project Performance Report, November 1, 1978-September 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLRN/KLRU-TV, Austin, TX.

    This KHAN DU! project produced four half-hour television programs in the area of career education with emphasis on the handicapped, plus an extra nonbroadcast program designed for teachers. The four-program series was designed for children aged eight to eleven, although older children have responded favorably. The goals of the series were (1) to…

  11. Wisconsin K-12. Career Education Consortium. Final Project Performance Report. Volume II of Two Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This report contains accounts from seven Wisconsin school districts which participated in an incremental improvement project to demonstrate career education methods and procedures. The consortium district reports are from Eau Claire, Kimberly, Madison, Oregon, Shawano, Sheboygan, and Watertown. All presentations follow the same format: (1) major…

  12. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  13. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report-Year II. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the second year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, which uses experimental research to devise and evaluate educational intervention techniques with approximately 28 normal or developmentally delayed children 1- to 4-years-old and their families. Described are researchers/teachers relationships, behavioral…

  14. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999 NE-183 regional project planting: II. Fruit quality characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit quality performance of 23 apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars and/or numbered selections on Malling 9 (M.9) rootstock was evaluated over four growing seasons at 12 locations across North America as part of the NE-183 Regional Project, "Multid sciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Culti...

  15. Project Spring II: Science Curriculum Modifications for Rural Disadvantaged Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicker, Howard H.; Aamidor, Shirley E.

    This manual is an overview of the science curriculum intervention that occurred in a federally funded project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged students (grades 3-8) from minority populations. An introduction discusses the training in curriculum development and methodology, based on Bloom's Taxonomy…

  16. The Hmong Resettlement Study. Volume II: Economic Development and Employment Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Simon M.; Bui, Diana D.

    Part of a national study which examined the resettlement of Laotian Hmong refugees in the United States, this volume presents the results of an eight-month study of projects and enterprises that in some way promote the economic self-sufficiency of the Hmong. The specific purposes of the study were to identify and to obtain information about all…

  17. Evaluation of the 1983-84 ECIA, Chapter II Program Development for the Artistically Talented Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldinher, Martin R.

    The Program Development for Artistically Talented Project (ATP) in the Dade County Schools, Florida, funded by the Education Consolidation Improvement Act, Chapter 2, was designed to provide technical support to the locally funded program for artistically talented elementary students through: (1) the development of a curriculum/program guide; and…

  18. Research and Development Project in Career Education. Volume II: Agri-Business Job Description Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena. Div. of Vocational and Occupational Skills.

    The document is Appendix H of the Final Report of a Montana Research and Development Project in Career Education. It describes a sampling of jobs found in the agribusiness community: agricultural supplies and services, agricultural mechanics, agricultural products, ornamental horticulture, agricultural resources, forestry business, and other…

  19. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  20. COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT PHASE II--TEACHER PREPARATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RATNER, MURIEL

    THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO AND CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COOPERATED WITH THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT BY ESTABLISHING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE PRACTITIONERS TO TEACH IN COMMUNITY COLLEGE PROGRAMS IN (1) OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTING, (2) DENTAL ASSISTING, (3) OPHTHALMIC DISPENSING, AND (4) MEDICAL RECORD,…

  1. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  2. Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Portch, Matthew P.; Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2005-09-23

    In a previous study, the effect of the furnace atmosphere on E glass foaming was investigated with the specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. The present study extended the previous study and focused on the effect of glass batch chemical composition on E-glass foaming. The present study also included reruns of foam tests performed in a previous study, which resulted in the same trend: the foaming extent increased nearly linearly with the heating rate and no foam was produced when CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere was introduced at 300°C. It was shown that the lack of foaming in the test with CO2 + 55% H2O atmosphere introduced at 300°C was caused by a loss of sulfate at T <1250°C because of higher water content at the early stages of melting. The tests with new batches in the present study showed that replacing quicklime with limestone tend to decrease foaming, possibly caused by increased sulfate loss during early stages of melting in the batch with limestone. The batches where Na2SO4 was replaced with NaNO3, NaNO3 + CeO2, or CeO2, produced only very limited foaming regardless of the replacing components. As expected, the foaming extent increased as the sulfate content in the batch increased. The results of the present study suggest that foaming can be reduced by using limestone over quicklime and by decreasing the sulfate addition to a minimum required for refining.

  3. Fire effects on soils: the human dimension.

    PubMed

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H

    2016-06-01

    Soils are among the most valuable non-renewable resources on the Earth. They support natural vegetation and human agro-ecosystems, represent the largest terrestrial organic carbon stock, and act as stores and filters for water. Mankind has impacted on soils from its early days in many different ways, with burning being the first human perturbation at landscape scales. Fire has long been used as a tool to fertilize soils and control plant growth, but it can also substantially change vegetation, enhance soil erosion and even cause desertification of previously productive areas. Indeed fire is now regarded by some as the seventh soil-forming factor. Here we explore the effects of fire on soils as influenced by human interference. Human-induced fires have shaped our landscape for thousands of years and they are currently the most common fires in many parts of the world. We first give an overview of fire effect on soils and then focus specifically on (i) how traditional land-use practices involving fire, such as slash-and-burn or vegetation clearing, have affected and still are affecting soils; (ii) the effects of more modern uses of fire, such as fuel reduction or ecological burns, on soils; and (iii) the ongoing and potential future effects on soils of the complex interactions between human-induced land cover changes, climate warming and fire dynamics.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216528

  4. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  5. LANDFIRE: Collaboration for National Fire Fuel Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of national fire management policies, such as the National Fire Plan and the Healthy Forest Restoration Act, requires geospatial data of vegetation types and structure, wildland fuels, fire risks, and ecosystem fire regime conditions. Presently, no such data sets are available that can meet these requirements. As a result, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service and the Department of the Interior's land management bureaus (Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and National Park Service (NPS)) have jointly sponsored LANDFIRE, a new research and development project. The primary objective of the project is to develop an integrated and repeatable methodology and produce vegetation, fire, and ecosystem information and predictive models for cost-effective national land management applications. The project is conducted collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the USDA Forest Service, and The Nature Conservancy.

  6. Holocene fire dynamics in Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear, Jennifer; Seppa, Heikki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Allen, Katherine; Bradshaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. The expansion of spruce led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass burning and here we show the now widespread dominance of Picea is responsible for the low fire frequency observed throughout Fennoscandia. Mid-Holocene declines in the abundance of deciduous species and concomitant loss of floristic diversity were driven by an increased use of fire during localised anthropogenic disturbance recorded 1500 years apart at two local-scale sites (located <20km apart). The charcoal data presented show an underlying natural fire frequency of approximately 400 years in southern Finland that without intensive anthropogenic disturbance during the mid- to late-Holocene may have persisted to the present day. Modelled fire frequency appears to control vegetation dynamics with spruce dominance favoured by longer fire intervals and a projected 2˚C temperature rise would encourage an increase in deciduous species and floristic diversity, but only if the fire frequency remains low.

  7. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-07-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  8. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2006-04-19

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  9. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2006-01-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  10. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-04-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  11. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2007-03-31

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase 1 was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  12. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-07-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  13. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-10-22

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  14. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon; Reina Calderon

    2004-01-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  15. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  16. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  17. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  18. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  19. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  20. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering...

  1. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering...

  2. Photochemical and meteorological conditions during the 2006 TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefer, B.; Rappenglueck, B.; Flynn, J.; Haman, C.; Luke, W.

    2007-12-01

    The TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) was an atmospheric chemistry field campaign from mid-August to early October 2006 with the primary objective to better understand processes important to the photochemical cycling of atmospheric radical and aerosol species in the Houston atmospheric environment. Photochemically important trace gas and aerosol species, as well as the relevant meteorological and solar conditions were measured on the roof of an 18-story building at the University of Houston. During the TRAMP campgain, multiple 1-hr and 8-hr ozone exceedences were observed. The basic photochemical conditions (CO, NO, NOx, O3, j-values, AOD) during the both clean and polluted days are compared with meteorological conditions (T, P, RH, clouds, wdir, ws) to identify the factors important to ozone events at this site. Chemical and meteorological conditions during the 2006 ozone season are compared to 2000 and 2005 when similar photochemical measurement campaigns were performed in Houston.

  3. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  4. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  5. VAMDC FP7 project and STARK-B database: C II Stark broadening parameters for white dwarf atmospheres research

    SciTech Connect

    Larbi-Terzi, Neila; Ben Nessib, Nebil; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie; Dimitrijevic, Milan S.

    2010-11-23

    Stark broadening parameters of C II lines were determined within 3s-np spectral series within the semiclassical perturbation method. The atomic energy levels needed for calculations were taken from TOPBASE as well as the oscillator strengths, calculated additionally using the Coulomb approximation (the method of Bates and Damgaard). The both results were compared and the disagreement is found only in one case where the configuration mixing allows a forbidden transition to a close perturbing energy level. Calculations were performed for plasma conditions relevant for atmospheres of DQ white dwarfs and for a new type of white dwarfs, with surface composed mostly of carbon, discovered in 2007 by Dufour et al.. The aim of this work is to provide accurate C II Stark broadening data, which are crucial for this type of white dwarf atmosphere modellisation. Obtained results will be included in STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/), entering in the FP7 project of European Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center VAMDC aiming at building an interoperable e-Infrastructure for the exchange of atomic and molecular data (http://www.vamdc.org/).

  6. Five-year longitudinal and secular shifts in adolescent beverage intake: findings from project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Detailed research examining concurrent longitudinal and secular changes in adolescent beverage intake is not currently available, particularly since the year 2000. This study's objective was to evaluate these trends in beverage intake in a large, diverse adolescent cohort. Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II is a 5-year longitudinal study (n=2,516) including two cohorts, which allows for the observation of longitudinal changes from early to mid-adolescence (junior high to high school) and from mid- to late adolescence (high school to post high school). Project EAT-II also examined secular trends in adolescent health behavior from 1999-2004 in mid-adolescence. Daily beverage servings were assessed using the Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Longitudinal findings indicate that intake of soda and sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, sweetened iced teas, and fruit drinks) increased significantly among younger males, and alcohol increased across all groups (P<0.01). Consumption of certain beverages decreased with age: fruit juice (among all males and older females, P< or =0.02), milk (older adolescents, P<0.01), other milk beverages (all females and older males, P<0.01), diet soda (younger adolescents, P<0.01), and coffee/tea (all males and younger females, P<0.01). Significant secular decreases were observed in fruit juice and coffee/tea for males and females (P< or =0.05). Overall, these findings reflect recent secular and longitudinal shifts in adolescent beverage consumption during the critical transition period from early to mid-adolescence and mid- to late adolescence. Although additional research is needed to better understand nuances in adolescent consumption patterns, registered dietitians and other health care practitioners working with adolescents should address the importance of limiting sugar-sweetened beverages with low nutrient density. PMID:19167959

  7. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren C.; Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Borisuthirattana, Wichanee; Omoto, Jaison J.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila central brain is largely composed of lineages, units of sibling neurons derived from a single progenitor cell or neuroblast. During the early embryonic period neuroblast generate the primary neurons that constitute the larval brain. Neuroblasts reactivate in the larva, adding to their lineages a large number of secondary neurons which, according to previous studies in which selected lineages were labeled by stably expressed markers, differentiate during metamorphosis, sending terminal axonal and dendritic branches into defined volumes of the brain neuropil. We call the overall projection pattern of neurons forming a given lineage the “projection envelope” of that lineage. By inducing MARCM clones at the early larval stage, we labeled the secondary progeny of each neuroblast. For the supraesophageal ganglion excluding mushroom body (the part of the brain investigated in the present work) we obtained 81 different types of clones, Based on the trajectory of their secondary axon tracts (described in the accompanying paper), we assigned these clones to specific lineages defined in the larva. Since a labeled clone reveals all aspects (cell bodies, axon tracts, terminal arborization) of a lineage, we were able to describe projection envelopes for all secondary lineages of the supraesophageal ganglion. This work provides a framework by which the secondary neurons (forming the vast majority of adult brain neurons) can be assigned to genetically and developmentally defined groups. It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. PMID:23872236

  8. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones.

    PubMed

    Wong, Darren C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Borisuthirattana, Wichanee; Omoto, Jaison J; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    The Drosophila central brain is largely composed of lineages, units of sibling neurons derived from a single progenitor cell or neuroblast. During the early embryonic period, neuroblasts generate the primary neurons that constitute the larval brain. Neuroblasts reactivate in the larva, adding to their lineages a large number of secondary neurons which, according to previous studies in which selected lineages were labeled by stably expressed markers, differentiate during metamorphosis, sending terminal axonal and dendritic branches into defined volumes of the brain neuropil. We call the overall projection pattern of neurons forming a given lineage the "projection envelope" of that lineage. By inducing MARCM clones at the early larval stage, we labeled the secondary progeny of each neuroblast. For the supraesophageal ganglion excluding mushroom body (the part of the brain investigated in the present work) we obtained 81 different types of clones. Based on the trajectory of their secondary axon tracts (described in the accompanying paper, Lovick et al., 2013), we assigned these clones to specific lineages defined in the larva. Since a labeled clone reveals all aspects (cell bodies, axon tracts, terminal arborization) of a lineage, we were able to describe projection envelopes for all secondary lineages of the supraesophageal ganglion. This work provides a framework by which the secondary neurons (forming the vast majority of adult brain neurons) can be assigned to genetically and developmentally defined groups. It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. PMID:23872236

  9. Making the CHARA Array, Part II: project management: 15 years on thin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; McAlister, Harold A.

    2014-07-01

    The reviewers of our first NSF proposal asked us to prepare a more ambitious plan, and we did. When it was funded, the scope of the resources made available was far below the scope of the project. What to do? The only way to proceed within budget was to eliminate the entire professional engineering component of the proposal team, and we did so. This left the CHARA staff and a few consultants. The story of building the CHARA Array is largely the story of how to build a facility and instrument with no engineers, no managers, and no meetings. How was this possible?

  10. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard . E-mail: Richard.Saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-10

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  11. Controls on fire activity over the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Brucher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Wilkenskjeld, S.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in fire activity over the last 8000 years are simulated with a global fire model driven by changes in climate and vegetation cover. The changes were separated into those caused through variations in fuel availability, fuel moisture or wind speed, which react differently to changes in climate. Disentangling these controlling factors helps in understanding the overall climate control on fire activity over the Holocene. Globally the burned area is simulated to increase by 2.5% between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, with larger regional changes compensating nearly evening out on a global scale. Despite the absence of anthropogenic fire ignitions, the simulated trends in fire activity agree reasonably well with continental-scale reconstructions from charcoal records, with the exception of Europe. For some regions the change in fire activity is predominantly controlled through changes in fuel availability (Australia monsoon, Central America tropics/subtropics). For other regions changes in fuel moisture are more important for the overall trend in fire activity (North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Asia monsoon). In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, changes in fuel moisture alone lead to an increase in fire activity between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, while changes in fuel availability lead to a decrease. Overall, the fuel moisture control is dominating the simulated fire activity for Sub-Saharan Africa. The simulations clearly demonstrate that both changes in fuel availability and changes in fuel moisture are important drivers for the fire activity over the Holocene. Fuel availability and fuel moisture do, however, have different climate controls. As such, observed changes in fire activity cannot be related to single climate parameters such as precipitation or temperature alone. Fire models, as applied in this study, in combination with observational records can help in understanding the climate control on fire activity, which is essential to project future fire

  12. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP): Phase II, Lake Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A.; Tolson, B.; Gaborit, E.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Lakes runoff intercomparison project (GRIP) was established to assess a suite of models used primarily for simulating and forecasting flows from all of the major tributaries within the Great Lakes basin. These models are somewhat unique, in part because they were developed to overcome challenges of assimilating data across an international border, and in part because they are often an integral component of regional water budget models that also include simulations of over-lake precipitation and over-lake evaporation (both of which are, on annual time scales, of the same magnitude as runoff). Here, we present the next step in the evolution of GRIP (following GRIP-M, the first phase of the project that focused on Lake Michigan) with a comparison between different hydrological models (including GR4J and the NOAA large basin runoff model) and different regional precipitation data sources across the Lake Ontario basin. Results of our analysis provide insights that underscore the importance of the spatial and temporal resolution of a model domain and its forcings, along with their connections to model skill and selected objective criteria. Perhaps more importantly, our results are expected to assist in the advancement of regional hydrological models not only for improved forecasts of the Great Lakes water cycle, but in other large international freshwater basins as well.

  13. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-04-25

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work performed to-date is encouraging by virtue that product was produced with the lowest cost raw material (ore concentrate), and the energy source being exclusively coal. The product was melted and cast. The equipment has been debugged and preparations are taking place towards the integration of the process to produce directly molten iron and/or molten steel. Also it is planned to conclude the 72 hours test at reasonably continuous steady state during next quarter.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CORNISH project. II. Source catalog (Purcell+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Cotton, W. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S.; Chandler, C.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Hindson, L.; Jackson, J. M.; Kurtz, S. E.; Marti, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mundy, L. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Smethurst, S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    CORNISH covers the 110deg2 of the northern GLIMPSE (10° 2006 Sep 16 VLA antennas only, storms II 2007 Sep 28 -> 2007 Oct 6 VLA + EVLA antennas, low Decl. IIIa 2007 Oct 27 -> 2008 Feb 4 Dec. Range: -14.9° -10.5° Range: 16.1° -> 21.1° IIIb 2007 Oct 27 -> 2008 Feb 4 Dec. Range: +14.2° +29.1° Range: 48.9° -> 65.5° --------------------------------------------------------------------- (1 data file).

  15. Biscuit Fire, OR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This image, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2002, shows the pillars of smoke arising from the fires. Active fire areas are in red. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire alone, which was 390,276 acres as of Thursday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager

  16. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... fires were fueled by gas while 13% used charcoal or other solid fuel. Gas grills were involved ... structure fires and 4,300 outdoor fires annually. Charcoal or other solid-fueled grills were involved in ...

  17. Fire safety at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  18. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... per year, including an average of 3,900 structure fires and 5,100 outside fires. These 8, ... property damage.  Almost all the losses resulted from structure fires.  July was the peak month for grill ...

  19. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  20. Fire water systems in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sundt, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Due to corrosion problems in fire water systems offshore there is a need for a corrosion resistant material to improve the reliability of onboard fire fighting systems. Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe is seen as a cost effective and light weight alternative to metals. Through a test program run by AMAT, Advanced Materials a/s in collaboration with the Norwegian Fire and Research Laboratory (NBL, SINTEF), GRE pipes have proved to be viable materials for offshore fire water systems. The test program included furnace testing, jetfire testing and simulated explosion testing. GRE pipes (2--12 inches) from two suppliers were fire tested and evaluated. Both adhesively bonded joints and flange connections were tested. During the course of the project, application methods of passive fire protection and nozzle attachments were improved.

  1. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification review plan - 7/29/99

    SciTech Connect

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The purpose of this review is to verify the implementation status of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) for the River Protection Project (RPP) facilities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC). This review will also ascertain whether within RPP facilities and operations the work planning and execution processes are in place and functioning to effectively protect the health and safety of the workers, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The RPP ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOERL-96-92) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste and deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS central theme to ''Do work safely'' and protect human health and the environment.

  2. Level II Cultural Resource investigation for the Texoma Distribution Enhancements project, Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeeDecker, C. H.; Holland, C. C.

    1987-10-01

    A Level II Cultural Resource Survey was completed for the Texoma Distribution Enhancements project, located in Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana. The 13-mile pipeline extends from Strategic Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to a terminus near Vincent Landing. Located in Louisiana's southwest coastal zone, the pipeline will traverse extensive marsh lands as well as upland prairie terrace areas. Present land use within the project area consists primarily of undeveloped marsh land and cattle range. The study methods included background research, intensive pedestrian survey with systematic shovel testing, a boat survey, and laboratory analysis of recovered artifact collections. One historic site, 16CU205, was identified during the field survey, and it was tested for National Register eligibility. The site is assignable to the Industrialization and Modernization (1890-1940) Cultural Unit. Archaeological testing indicates that it is a rural residence or farmstead, with a house and one outbuilding within the proposed right-of-way. The site lacks significant historical association and sufficient archaeological integrity to merit inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places. Four standing structures were also identified during the field survey. The structures are agricultural outbuildings, less than 40 years in age, that possess no architectural distinction or historical association. They have been documented photographically and by scaled plan drawings, but do not merit additional study prior to their destruction. 24 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume II. Environmental baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company, Inc. (AECI) have recently formed the Breckinridge Project and are currently conducting a process and economic feasibility study of a commercial scale facility to produce synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The coal conversion process to be used is the H-COAL process, which is in the pilot plant testing stage under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at the H-COAL Pilot Plant Project near Catlettsburg, Kentucky. The preliminary plans for the commercial plant are for a 18,140 metric ton/day (24,000 ton/day) nominal coal assumption capacity utilizing the abundant high sulfur Western Kentucky coals. The Western Kentucky area offers a source of the coal along with adequate water, power, labor, transportation and other factors critical to the successful siting of a plant. Various studies by federal and state governments, as well as private industry, have reached similar conclusions regarding the suitability of such plant sites in western Kentucky. Of the many individual sites evaluated, a site in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) west of the town of Stephensport, has been identified as the plant location. Actions have been taken to obtain options to insure that this site will be available when needed. This report contains an overview of the regional setting and results of the baseline environmental studies. These studies include collection of data on ambient air and water quality, sound, aquatic and terrestrial biology and geology. This report contains the following chapters; introduction, review of significant findings, ambient air quality monitoring, sound, aquatic ecology, vegetation, wildlife, geology, soils, surface water, and ground water.

  4. Sustainability of an in-home fire prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Duchossois, Gina P; Nance, Michael L; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Flores, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Residential fires remain a challenge in many parts of the United States. This project assessed the sustainability of a community-based fire prevention intervention on household fire safety knowledge and practices. The design was a prospective, cohort study including preintervention and postintervention surveys, which assessed participants' fire safety knowledge and behavior. The implementation of an in-home visit to educate parents of third- and fourth-grade students on escape planning coupled with the installation of smoke alarms can be successful in increasing basic fire safety knowledge and household fire safety practices. PMID:20029281

  5. [Medicolegal aspects of witnessed suicide due to gunshot to the head. II. Legal medicine aspects and examination of the firing hand].

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Schmidt, Peter H; Schyma, Christian; Hirsch, Rolf D; Kröner, Lars U; Dettmeyer, Reinhard B; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    The second part of the paper on suicides by gunshots to the head in the presence of witnesses focuses on relevant morphological autopsy findings such as entrance site, signs of close range or contact shots, bullet path etc. and also discusses selected aspects of ascertaining gunshot residues. For the identification of the shooter an integral medicolegal assessment of all the facts including the investigation results and the autopsy findings is essential. However, the morphological findings alone do not allow safe diagnosis, as for example in a homicide the temporal region, which was affected in all our cases, may have been deliberately chosen by the perpetrator as a localization typical of suicide. Thus methods to ascertain gunshot residues on the firing hand (by means of adhesive films and the polyvinyl-alcohol collection method--PVAL) are of great practical importance. In seven cases adhesive films and/or the polyvinyl-alcohol collection method were used. In one case the gunshot residues (GSR) were analysed by means of tape lifts and subsequent scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that especially the combined application of topographical (adhesive tape/PVAL) and cumulative (SEM) methods allowed for the doubtless identification of the shooter, thus usually confirming the suicide. By the example of one case it is demonstrated that without the immediate collection of evidence at the scene objective reconstruction of the event becomes impossible. On the basis of the reported cases recommendations are finally given for a differentiated approach in the medicolegal evaluation of alleged witnessed suicide by gunshot (to the head). PMID:15666971

  6. A search for supersymmetric electrons with the Mark II detector at PEP (Positron Electron Project)

    SciTech Connect

    LeClaire, B.W.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental search for selectrons, the supersymmetric partner of the electron, has been performed at the PEP storage ring at SLAC using the Mark II detector. The experimental search done was based upon hypothetical reaction in e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PEP center of mass energies of 29 GeV. In this reaction the selectrons, e-tilde, are assumed produced by the interaction of one of initial state electrons with a photon radiated from the other initial state electron. This latter electron is assumed to continue down the beam pipe undetected. The photon and electron then produce a selectron and a photino, ..gamma..-tilde, in the supersymmetric analog of Compton scattering. The photino is assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle, and as such, does not interact in the detector, thereby escaping detection very much like a neutrino. The selectron is assumed to immediately decay into an electron and photino. This electron is produced with large p perpendicular with respect to the beam pipe, since it must balance the transverse momentum carried off by the photinos. Thus, the experimental signature of the process is a single electron in the detector with a large unbalanced tranverse momentum. No events of this type were observed in the original search of 123 pb/sup -1/ of data, resulting in a cross section limit of less than 2.4 x 10/sup -2/ pb (at the 95% CL) within the detector acceptance. This cross section upper limit applies to any process which produces anomalous single electron events with missing transverse momentum. When interpreted as a supersymmetry search it results in a lower selectron mass limit of 22.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ for the case of massless photinos. Limits for non-zero mass photinos have been calculated. 87 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Next generation fire suppressants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  8. Next generation fire suppressants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral band microprocessor controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  9. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  10. THE TAIWANESE-AMERICAN OCCULTATION SURVEY PROJECT STELLAR VARIABILITY. II. DETECTION OF 15 VARIABLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lin, H.-C.; Alcock, C.; Bianco, F. B.; Lehner, M. J.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Coehlo, N. K.; Rice, J. A.; Cook, K. H.; Marshall, S. L.; Dave, R.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Schwamb, M. E.

    2010-05-15

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data-covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days-are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17{sup h}30{sup m}6.{sup s}7, decl. = 27{sup 0}17'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg{sup 2} field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  11. The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey Project Stellar Variability. II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Coehlo, N. K.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lehner, M. J.; Lin, H.-C.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2010-05-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data—covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days—are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (R.A. = 17h30m6.s7, decl. = 27°17'30'', J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 deg2 field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the light curves, 29 variables, 15 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, δ Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular, and eclipsing binaries.

  12. City of New York preparing of a district heating and cooling systems Project (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-27

    The project with the greatest, and most immediate potential, is the Brooklyn Navy Yard Complex, which included the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Complex, nearby public housing apartments, Brooklyn Hospital, Cumberland Hospital, the Red Hook Sewage Treatment Plant and Pratt Institute. Initial engineering investigation indicates that five, and probably six, of the 160,000 lb/hr, 500 psi boilers in the generating plant at the Navy Yard can be economically refurbished, and could produce up to 900,000 lbs/hr of steam. Further, at least two of the on site turbines appear to be refurbishable, making possible cogeneration of electricity with district heating and/or cooling. The NYCEO research has shown that an innovative system, using pressurized hot water and heat exchangers (to generate low pressure steam for individual apartment houses) is an effective means to satisfy the heating requirements of New York City's apartment buildings, many of which are already steam heated, while reducing their energy costs and oil consumption. This approach takes advantage of a modern hot water system, while avoiding the disadvantage of expensive building retrofit. Preliminary studies have shown that thermal energy costs to Yard tenants, among the highest anywhere in the USA, will be reduced. These savings will increase long term tenant occupancy as well as ability to create and hold jobs in the area.

  13. City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

  14. The TAOS Project Stellar Variability II. Detection of 15 Variable Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S; Lin, C C; Zhang, Z W; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Bianco, F B; Byun, Y I; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; Kim, D W; King, S K; Lee, T; Lehner, M J; Lin, H C; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, J H; Wang, S Y; Wen, C Y

    2010-01-28

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) project has collected more than a billion photometric measurements since 2005 January. These sky survey data - covering timescales from a fraction of a second to a few hundred days - are a useful source to study stellar variability. A total of 167 star fields, mostly along the ecliptic plane, have been selected for photometric monitoring with the TAOS telescopes. This paper presents our initial analysis of a search for periodic variable stars from the time-series TAOS data on one particular TAOS field, No. 151 (RA = 17{sup h} 30{sup m} 6.67{sup s}, Dec = 27 degrees, 17 minutes, 30 seconds, J2000), which had been observed over 47 epochs in 2005. A total of 81 candidate variables are identified in the 3 square degree field, with magnitudes in the range 8 < R < 16. On the basis of the periodicity and shape of the lightcurves, 32 variables, 18 of which were previously unknown, are classified as RR Lyrae, Cepheid, {delta} Scuti, SX Phonencis, semi-regular and eclipsing binaries.

  15. Propagation of firing rate by synchronization and coherence of firing pattern in a feed-forward multilayer neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ming; Yang, Lijian

    2010-06-01

    When neurons in layer 1 fire irregularly under stochastic noise, it is found synchronous firings can develop gradually in latter layers within a feed-forward multilayer neural network, which is consistent with experimental findings. The underlying mechanism of propagation of firing rate is explored, then rate encoding realized by synchronization is clarified. Furthermore, the effects of connection probability between nearest layers, stochastic noise, and ratio of inhibitory connections to total connection on (i) propagation of firing rate by synchronization and (ii) coherence of firing pattern are investigated, respectively. It is observed that (i) there is a threshold for connection probability, beyond which firing rate of each layer can propagate successfully through the whole network by synchronization. The dependence of firing rate on layer index is very different for different connection probability. In addition, larger the connection probability is, more rapidly the synchrony is built up. (ii) Increasing intensity of stochastic noise enhances firing rate in output layer. Stochastic noise plays a constructive role in improving synchrony by causing the synchronization more quickly. (iii) The inhibitory connection offsets excitatory input therefore reduces firing rate and synchrony. As layer index increases, coherence measure goes through a peak, i.e., the coherence of firing pattern is the worst at certain a layer. With increasing the ratio of inhibitory connections, the variability of firing train is enhanced, exhibiting destructive role of inhibitory connections on coherence of firing pattern.

  16. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  17. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  18. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. II. The luminosity function and mean galaxy density.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Vettolani, G.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    1997-10-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey we have recently completed as an ESO Key-Project over about 23 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude b_J_=19.4 and consists of 3342 galaxies with reliable redshift determination. The ESP survey is intermediate between shallow, wide angle samples and very deep, one-dimensional pencil beams: spanning a volume of ~5x10^4^h^-3^Mpc^3^ at the sensitivity peak (z~0.1), it provides an accurate determination of the "local" luminosity function and the mean galaxy density. We find that, although a Schechter function (with α=-1.22, M^*^_bJ_=-19.61+5logh and φ^*^=0.020h^3^/Mpc^3^) is an acceptable representation of the luminosity function over the entire range of magnitudes (M_bJ_<=-12.4+5logh), our data suggest the presence of a steepening of the luminosity function for M_bJ_>=-17+5logh. Such a steepening at the faint end of the luminosity function, well fitted by a power law with slope β~-1.6, is almost completely due to galaxies with emission lines: in fact, dividing our galaxies into two samples, i.e. galaxies with and without emission lines, we find significant differences in their luminosity functions. In particular, galaxies with emission lines show a significantly steeper slope and a fainter M^*^. The amplitude and the α and M^*^ parameters of our luminosity function are in good agreement with those of the AUTOFIB redshift survey (Ellis et al. 1996). Vice-versa, our amplitude is significantly higher, by a factor ~1.6 at M~M^*^, than that found for both the Stromlo-APM (Loveday et al. 1992) and the Las Campanas (Lin et al. 1996) redshift surveys. Also the faint end slope of our luminosity function is significantly steeper than that found in these two surveys. The galaxy number density for M_bJ_<=-16+5logh is well determined (n{bar}=0.08+/-0.015h^3^/Mpc^3^). Its estimate for M_bJ_<=-12.4+5logh is more uncertain, ranging from n{bar}=0.28h

  19. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. II. THE ANGULAR-DIAMETER DISTANCE TO UGC 3789

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Lo, K.Y.; Reid, M. J.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Henkel, C.

    2010-08-01

    The Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) aims to determine H {sub 0} by measuring angular-diameter distances to galaxies in the Hubble flow using observations of water vapor megamasers in the circumnuclear accretion disks of active galaxies. The technique is based only on geometry and determines H {sub 0} in one step, independent of standard candles and the extragalactic distance ladder. In Paper I, we presented a very long baseline interferometry map of the maser emission from the Seyfert 2 galaxy UGC 3789. The map reveals an edge-on, sub-parsec disk in Keplerian rotation, analogous to the megamaser disk in NGC 4258. Here, we present 3.2 years of monthly Green Bank Telescope observations of the megamaser disk in UGC 3789. We use these observations to measure the centripetal accelerations of both the systemic and high-velocity maser components. The measured accelerations suggest that maser emission lines near the systemic velocity originate on the front side of the accretion disk, primarily from segments of two narrow rings. Adopting a two-ring model for the systemic features, we determine the angular-diameter distance to UGC 3789 to be 49.9 {+-} 7.0 Mpc. This is the most accurate geometric distance to a galaxy in the Hubble flow yet obtained. Based on this distance, we determine H {sub 0} = 69 {+-} 11 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}. We also measure the mass of the central black hole to be 1.09 x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} {+-}14%. With additional observations, the uncertainty in the distance to this galaxy can be reduced to under 10%. Observations of megamaser disks in other galaxies will further reduce the uncertainty in H {sub 0} as measured by the MCP.

  20. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2006-07-13

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.

  1. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Ancăr, V; Rădoi, V; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania. Since 2013, an increased trend of endometrial cancer occurrence has been registered in urban areas as compared with rural ones. Unfortunately, most of the cancer cases are diagnosed too late, in an advanced stage of the disease, resulting into diminished lifetime expectancy. The first part of the article concentrated on issues such as: the description of the study, results, and discussions regarding the study, definitions and terms, risk factors specific for endometrial carcinomas, presentation of the activities of the Program, etc. Objective: Drafting a national program that will serve as an early diagnosis method of endometrial cancer. This second part of the study continues with the presentation of the activities of the Program, analyzes the human resources and materials needed to implement the Program, presents the strategies and the indicators specific for the implementation of the project. Methods and Results: A standardization of the diagnostic steps was proposed and the focus was on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: The first steps were approached in the first part of the study and the second part of the study investigated the proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Discussion: Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms and programs improves and increases the lifetime expectancy, due to the fact that endometrial cancer is early diagnosed and treated before it causes serious health problems or even death. Abbreviations: ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, CT = Computerized Tomography, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI-H/ MSI-L = high (positive test)/ low (negative test

  2. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Fire Detections to Map Fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, S. M.; Picotte, J. J.; Coan, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project began a cooperative effort between the US Forest Service (USFS) and the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess burn severity all large fires that have occurred in the United States since 1984. Using Landsat imagery, MTBS is mandated to map wildfire and prescribed fire that meet specific size criteria: greater than 1000 acres in the west and 500 acres in the east, regardless of ownership. Relying mostly on federal and state fire occurrence records, over 15,300 individual fires have been mapped. While mapping recorded fires, an additional 2,700 "unknown" or undocumented fires were discovered and assessed. It has become apparent that there are perhaps thousands of undocumented fires in the US that are yet to be mapped. Fire occurrence records alone are inadequate if MTBS is to provide a comprehensive accounting of fire across the US. Additionally, the sheer number of fires to assess has overwhelmed current manual procedures. To address these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program is helping to fund the efforts of the USGS and its MTBS partners (USFS, National Park Service) to develop, and implement a system to automatically identify fires using satellite data. In near real time, USGS will combine active fire satellite detections from MODIS, AVHRR and GOES satellites with Landsat acquisitions. Newly acquired Landsat imagery will be routinely scanned to identify freshly burned area pixels, derive an initial perimeter and tag the burned area with the satellite date and time of detection. Landsat imagery from the early archive will be scanned to identify undocumented fires. Additional automated fire assessment processes will be developed. The USGS will develop these processes using open source software packages in order to provide freely available tools to local land managers providing them with the capability to assess fires at the local level.

  3. Articulated Instruction Objectives Guide for Typewriting (Module 1.0--Typewriting I) (Module 2.0--Typewriting II). Project Period, March 1981-February 1982 (Pilot Model). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Barbara; And Others

    Developed during the course of a project designed to provide a continuous, competency-based line of vocational training in business and office education programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this package consists of an instructor's guide and learning modules for use in Typewriting I and Typewriting II. Various aspects of implementing…

  4. Articulated Instruction Objectives Guide for Accounting (Module 5.0--Accounting I) (Module 6.0--Accounting II). Project Period, March 1981-February 1982 (Pilot Model). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Wylda; And Others

    Developed during a project designed to provide a continuous, competency-based line of vocational training in business and office education programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this package consists of an instructor's guide and learning modules for use in Accounting I and II. Various aspects of implementing and articulating secondary…

  5. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Phase II Fish Screen Operation and Maintenance; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schille, Patrick C.

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project is to assure that the benefits of BPA's capital investment in Yakima Basin Phase II fish screen facilities are realized by performing operations that assure optimal fish protection and long facility life through a rigorous preventative maintenance program, while helping to restore ESA listed fish stocks in the Yakima River Basin.

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Phase II Fish Screen Operation and Maintenance; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schille, Patrick C.

    2004-04-01

    The goal of this project is to assure that the benefits of BPA's capital investment in Yakima Basin Phase II fish screen facilities are realized by performing operations that assure optimal fish protection and long facility life through a rigorous preventative maintenance program, while helping to restore ESA listed fish stocks in the Yakima River Basin.

  7. Fire severity influences the response of soil microbes to a boreal forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Rogers, Brendan M.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Randerson, James T.

    2016-03-01

    Wildfire activity is projected to increase in boreal forests as a result of climate warming. The consequences of increased wildfire activity for soil carbon (C) storage in boreal forests may depend on the sensitivity of soil microbes to fire severity, but microbial responses to boreal forest fire severity are not well known. Here, we combine remote sensing of fire severity and field sampling to characterize the response of soil microbial biomass per g soil, microbial respiration of CO2 per g soil, and fungal groups to fire severity in a boreal forest ecosystem. We used remote sensing measurements of differenced normalized burn ratio from Landsat as a measure of fire severity. Our results demonstrate that fire severity controls soil microbial responses to boreal forest fires. In comparison to unburned stands, burned stands had a 52% and 56% reduction in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration, respectively. Within burned stands, we found that microbial biomass and basal respiration significantly declined with increasing fire severity. In addition, mycorrhizal taxa and basidiomycetes displayed particularly low tolerances for severe fire. Although wildfires result in the immediate loss of soil C, our study provides evidence that decreases in microbial biomass and respiration following high severity fires may reduce the capacity of the soil microbial community to decompose soil C over longer time scales. Therefore, models of C cycle responses to climate warming may need to represent the sensitivity of microbial biomass and fungal community composition to fire severity in boreal forests.

  8. Reviews Book: Extended Project Student Guide Book: My Inventions Book: ASE Guide to Research in Science Education Classroom Video: The Science of Starlight Software: SPARKvue Book: The Geek Manifesto Ebook: A Big Ball of Fire Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND Level 3 Extended Project Student Guide A non-specialist, generally useful and nicely put together guide to project work ASE Guide to Research in Science Education Few words wasted in this handy introduction and reference The Science of Starlight Slow but steady DVD covers useful ground SPARKvue Impressive software now available as an app WORTH A LOOK My Inventions and Other Writings Science, engineering, autobiography, visions and psychic phenomena mixed in a strange but revealing concoction The Geek Manifesto: Why Science Matters More enthusiasm than science, but a good motivator and interesting A Big Ball of Fire: Your questions about the Sun answered Free iTunes download made by and for students goes down well APPS Collider visualises LHC experiments ... Science Museum app enhances school trips ... useful information for the Cambridge Science Festival

  9. Do Large Fire Runs Result in More Severe Fires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, P.; Birch, D.; Kolden, C.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Do large fire runs consistently result in high severity fires, and how do climate, weather topography and fuels influence where they burn severely? We analyzed burn severity on 11,938 polygons representing daily area growth (0.09 - 5559 ha, median 0.75 ha) from 410 days of fire progression totaling more than 141,363 ha from 43 large forest fires from Idaho and Montana that burned 2007-2011. We used burn severity classes interpreted using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio from 30-m Landsat satellite imagery by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, along with infrared perimeter maps provided by the USDA Forest Service National Infrared Operations. Proportion burned with high severity, likely indicating tree mortality >70%, was not correlated with the daily area growth (Kendall Tau=0.288, p=<0.0001), and no burn severity class was correlated to the size of individual daily areas of growth. Burn severity proportions were variable even when extensive areas burned in a day, with proportion burned moderately commonly about 20%, proportion burned with low severity commonly about 23%, and proportion in high severity or other class more variable. On days of large fire growth, fires burn across areas of varying topography and fuels and under different weather conditions. We use the Random Forest Machine Learning algorithm to analyze burn severity relative to 31 fuel, topography, and weather factors, with weather factors such as temperature and relative humidity based on the 24-hour burn period, all at randomly located points within polygons. Results support our hypothesis that local, bottom-up fuels and topography influences where fires burn severely, while top-down climate and weather more strongly influence area burned, even when large areas burn within a single 24-hour period.

  10. Wildland fire simulation by WRF-Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, J.; Beezley, J. D.; Kochanski, A.; Kondratenko, V. Y.; Sousedik, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the principles, algorithms, and features of the coupled atmosphere-wildland fire software WRF-Fire. WRF-Fire consists of a fire-spread model, based on a modified Rothermel's formula implemented by the level-set method, coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The code has been publicly released with WRF and it is supported by the developers. The WRF infrastructure is used for parallel execution, with additional improvements. In addition to the input of standard atmospheric data, the WRF Preprocessing System (WPS) has been extended for the input of high-resolution topography and fuel data. The fuel models can be easily modified by the user. The components of the wind and of the terrain gradient are interpolated to the fire model mesh by accurate formulas which respect grid staggering. Ignition models include point, drip-torch line, and, in near future, a developed fire perimeter from standard web sources, with an atmosphere spin-up. Companion presentations will describe a validation on the FireFlux experiment, and a simulation of a real wildland fire in a terrain with sharp gradients. This work was supported by NSF grants CNS-0719641 and ATM-0835579. Simulation of the FireFlux grass fire experiment (Clements et al., 2007) in WRF-Fire.

  11. FIRE SERVICE TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM M.; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS MAY USE THIS REVISED MANUAL IN FIRE STATION OR TRAINING CENTER EXTENSION PROGRAMS FOR IMPROVING THE COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS OF LOCAL FIRE PERSONNEL IN THE SPECIALIZED FIELD OF FIRE SERVICE. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF FIRE-FIGHTING CONSULTANTS AND ADVISORY GROUPS. THE 26 CHAPTERS PROVIDE BOTH BASIC AND ADVANCED TECHNICAL…

  12. Children and Home Fires

    MedlinePlus

    CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...

  13. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  14. Containment Fire Simulation by a CFD Code

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Matthias

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of an international collaborative project to evaluate fire models a code benchmark was initiated to better quantify the strengths and weaknesses of the codes involved. CFX has been applied to simulate selected cases of both parts of the benchmark. These simulations are presented and discussed in this paper. In the first part of the benchmark a pool fire just represented by a heat release table is considered. Consequently, the physical fire model within CFX is simple. Radiative heat exchange together with turbulent mixing are involved. Two cases with and without venting of the fire room are compared. The second part of the benchmark requires a more detailed fire model in order to inspect the availability of oxygen locally and to control the fire intensity. Under unvented conditions oxygen starvation is encountered and the fire oscillates. Mechanical ventilation changes this behavior and provides enough oxygen all over the simulation time. The predefined damage criteria to characterize, if a target cable in the fire room would be damaged, are not met. However, surface temperatures predicted are well above the assumed threshold temperatures. A continuation of the work presented is foreseen and will address a more complex physical modeling of relevant fire scenarios. (author)

  15. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  16. CALTECH CORE-COLLAPSE PROJECT (CCCP) OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: EVIDENCE FOR THREE DISTINCT PHOTOMETRIC SUBTYPES

    SciTech Connect

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Cenko, S. Bradley; Becker, Adam B.; Fox, Derek B.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Sand, David J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Kiewe, Michael; Scheps, Raphael; Birenbaum, Gali; Chamudot, Daniel; Zhou, Jonathan

    2012-09-10

    We present R-band light curves of Type II supernovae (SNe) from the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). With the exception of interacting (Type IIn) SNe and rare events with long rise times, we find that most light curve shapes belong to one of three apparently distinct classes: plateau, slowly declining, and rapidly declining events. The last class is composed solely of Type IIb SNe which present similar light curve shapes to those of SNe Ib, suggesting, perhaps, similar progenitor channels. We do not find any intermediate light curves, implying that these subclasses are unlikely to reflect variance of continuous parameters, but rather might result from physically distinct progenitor systems, strengthening the suggestion of a binary origin for at least some stripped SNe. We find a large plateau luminosity range for SNe IIP, while the plateau lengths seem rather uniform at approximately 100 days. As analysis of additional CCCP data goes on and larger samples are collected, demographic studies of core-collapse SNe will likely continue to provide new constraints on progenitor scenarios.

  17. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Fire-walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, David

    2010-09-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently teaches Physics for the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, USA.

  19. Fire-Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  20. Demonstration of Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2012-01-01

    During the Constellation Program, the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies were focused on the immediate questions related to the atmosphere of the habitable volume and implementation of fire detection, suppression, and postfire clean-up systems into the vehicle architectures. One of the difficulties encountered during the trade studies for these systems was the frequent lack of data regarding the performance of a technology, such as a water mist fire suppression system or an optically-based combustion product monitor. Even though a spacecraft fire safety technology development project was being funded, there was insufficient time and funding to address all the issues as they were identified. At the conclusion of the Constellation Program, these knowledge gaps formed the basis for a project proposed to the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. This project, subsequently funded by the AES Program and in operation since October 2011, has as its cornerstone the development of an experiment to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the European Space Agency (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Science s Cygnus vehicle after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. The technology development efforts being conducted in this project include continued quantification of low- and partial-gravity maximum oxygen concentrations of spacecraft-relevant materials, development and verification of sensors for fire detection and post-fire monitoring, development of standards for sizing and selecting spacecraft fire suppression systems, and demonstration of post-fire cleanup strategies. The major technology development efforts are identified in this paper but its primary purpose is to describe the spacecraft fire safety demonstration being planned for the reentry vehicle.

  1. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  2. A new copper(II) chelate complex with tridentate ligand: Synthesis, crystal and molecular electronic structure of aqua-(diethylenetriamine-N, N‧, N‧‧)-copper(II) sulfate monohydrate and its fire retardant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenyuk, H.; Mykhalichko, O.; Zarychta, B.; Olijnyk, V.; Mykhalichko, B.

    2015-09-01

    The crystals of a new aqua-(diethylenetriamine-N, N‧, N‧‧)-copper(II) sulfate monohydrate have been synthesized by direct interaction of solid copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate with diethylenetriamine (deta). The crystal structure of [Cu(deta)H2O]SO4ṡH2O (1) has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods at 100 K and characterized using X-ray powder diffraction pattern: space group P 1 bar, a = 7.2819(4), b = 8.4669(4), c = 8.7020(3) Å, α = 83.590(3), β = 89.620(4), γ = 84.946(4)°, Z = 2. The environment of the Cu(II) atom is a distorted, elongated square pyramid which consists of three nitrogen atoms of the deta molecule and oxygen atom of the water molecule in the basal plane of the square pyramid (the average lengths of the in-plane Cu-N and Cu-O bonds are 2.00 Å). The apical position of the coordination polyhedron is occupied by complementary oxygen atom of the sulfate anion (the length of the axial Cu-O bond is 2.421(1) Å). The crystal packing is governed by strong hydrogen bonds of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O types. The ab initio quantum-chemical calculations have been performed by the restricted Hartree-Fock method with a basis set 6-31∗G using the structural data of [Cu(deta)H2O]SO4ṡH2O. It has been ascertained that the degenerate d-orbitals of the Cu2+ ion split under the co-action of both the square-pyramidal coordination and the chelation. It is significant that visually observed crystals color (blue-violet) of the [Cu(deta)H2O]SO4ṡH2O complex is in good agreement with the calculated value of wavelength of visible light (λ = 5735 Å) which is closely related to the energy of the absorbed photon (Δ = 2.161 eV). Furthermore, the stereo-chemical aspect of influence of the CuSO4 upon combustibility of modified epoxy-amine polymers has been scrutinized.

  3. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wildfires Rage in Southern California     ... Image Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, ... at JPL October 26, 2003 - Smoke from wildfires near Los Angeles and San Diego. project:  MISR ...

  4. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  5. Born of fire - restoring sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Fire is a natural feature of sagebrush grasslands in the Great Basin. The invasion of exotic annual grasses, such as Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), has changed the environment in these ecosystems. Invasive annual grasses provide a dense and continuous source of fuel that extends the season for fires and increases the frequency of fires in the region. Frequent fires eventually eliminate the native sagebrush. These annual grasses also change soil nutrients, especially carbon and nitrogen, such that invasive annual grasses are favored over the native plants. The Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying how to reduce the problems caused by these invasive annual grasses and restore native sagebrush grasslands. The areas of research include understanding disturbance regimes, especially fire, discerning the role of nutrients in restoring native plants, determining the potential to restore forbs important for wildlife, and ascertaining the past and present use of native and nonnative plants in revegetation projects.

  6. Fire safety distances for open pool fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, S.; Kumar, Lokendra; Manjunath, B. S.; Pasi, Amit; Meenakshi, G.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-11-01

    Fire accidents that carry huge loss with them have increased in the previous two decades than at any time in the history. Hence, there is a need for understanding the safety distances from different fires with different fuels. Fire safety distances are computed for different open pool fires. Diesel, gasoline and hexane are used as fuels for circular pool diameters of 0.5 m, 0.7 m and 1.0 m. A large square pool fire of 4 m × 4 m is also conducted with diesel as a fuel. All the prescribed distances in this study are purely based on the thermal analysis. IR camera is used to get the thermal images of pool fires and there by the irradiance at different locations is computed. The computed irradiance is presented with the threshold heat flux limits for human beings.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  8. COAL: DRDF (DENSIFIED REFUSE DERIVED FUEL) DEMONSTRATION TEST IN AN INDUSTRIAL SPREADER STOKER BOILER. USE OF COAL: DRDF BLENDS IN STOKER-FIRED BOILERS, APPENDICES A, B, C, AND D. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study program has the overall objective of evaluating boiler performance and environmental feasibility when combusting densified forms of refuse derived fuels (dRDF) blended with coal and fired in a modern industrial spreader stoker-fired boiler. The results reported herein ...

  9. 46 CFR 2.75-25 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... structures on the Outer Continental Shelf whenever required by the regulations in 33 CFR parts 140 to 146... evaluation of portable fire extinguishers. (ii) A certification that it has an established factory inspection... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers. 2.75-25 Section...

  10. Eco-hydrology driven fire regime in savanna.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Nadia

    2014-08-21

    Fire is an important evolutionary force and ecosystem consumer that shapes savanna composition. However, ecologists have not comprehensively explained the functioning and maintenance of flammable savannas. A new minimal model accounting for the interdependence between soil saturation, biomass growth, fuel availability and fire has been used to predict the increasing tree density and fire frequency along a Mean Annual Rainfall (MAR) gradient for a typical savanna. Cyclic fire recurrence is reproduced using a predator prey approach in which fire is the "predator" and vegetation is the "prey". For the first time, fire frequency is not defined a priori but rather arises from the composition of vegetation, which determines fuel availability and water limitation. Soil aridity affects fuel production and fuel composition, thus indirectly affecting the ecosystem vulnerability to fire and fire frequency. The model demonstrates that two distinct eco-hydrological states correspond to different fire frequencies: (i) at low MAR, grass is abundant and the impact of fire on the environment is enhanced by the large fuel availability, (ii) at higher MAR, tree density progressively increases and provides less fuel for fire, leading to more frequent and less destructive fires, and (iii) the threshold MAR that determines the transition between the two states and the fire frequency at high MAR are affected by the vulnerability of trees to grass fire. The eco-hydrology-driven predator-prey model originally predicts that the transition between dry and wet savanna is characterized by a shift in wildfire frequency driven by major differences in soil moisture available for plants and savanna structure. The shift and the role of fire in conserving savanna ecosystems could not have been predicted if fire was considered as an external forcing rather than an intrinsic property of the ecosystem. PMID:24727188

  11. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continue to grow explosively. This image from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was captured on July 29, 2002. The Florence Fire had grown to 50,000 acres and the Sour Biscuit Fire had grown to 16,000 acres. Numerous evacuation notices remain in effect. Thick smoke from the actively burning eastern perimeter of the Florence Fire is billowing southward and mingling with the Biscuit Fire smoke. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  12. Hayman Fire, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Hayman forest fire, started on June 8, is continuing to burn in the Pike National Forest, 57 km (35 miles) south-southwest of Denver. According to the U.S. Forest Service, the fire has consumed more than 90,000 acres and has become Colorado's worst fire ever. In this ASTER image, acquired Sunday, June 16, 2002 at 10:30 am MST, the dark blue area is burned vegetation and the green areas are healthy vegetation. Red areas are active fires, and the blue cloud at the top center is smoke. Meteorological clouds are white. The image covers an area of 32.2 x 35.2 km (20.0 x 21.8 miles), and displays ASTER bands 8-3-2 in red, green and blue.

    This image was acquired on June 16, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  13. TETRAMETHRIN AND DDT INHIBIT SPONTANEOUS FIRING IN CORTICAL NEURONAL NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The insecticidal and neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids result from prolonged sodium channel inactivation, which causes alterations in neuronal firing and communication. Previously, we determined the relative potencies of 11 type I and type II pyrethroid insecticides using microel...

  14. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  15. Chemical warehouse fire emergency response case study

    SciTech Connect

    Anzalone, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Houston Distribution (HD) site was a warehouse complex that was occupied by four buildings known as 8530, 8550, 8560, and 8570 Market Street. The site was damaged by fire on three separate occasions in June and July 1995. Soil and groundwater samples showed the presence of hydrocarbons. The Houston Distribution (HD) project was started immediately after the first fire. The managing entity of the site requested that CET prepare a work plan to manage future operations related to the incident, which were included in the clean up activities. The project was conducted in phases to allow for the eventual debris removal in all areas impacted by the fires. Remediation activities included clearing, sorting, characterizing, and disposing of debris that resulted from the fire and/or firefighting activities.

  16. Urotensin II Promotes Vagal-Mediated Bradycardia by Activating Cardiac-Projecting Parasympathetic Neurons of Nucleus Ambiguus

    PubMed Central

    Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Rabinowitz, Joseph E.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Koch, Walter J.; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic undecapeptide that regulates cardiovascular function at central and peripheral sites. The functional role of U-II nucleus ambiguus, a key site controlling cardiac tone, has not been established, despite the identification of U-II and its receptor at this level. We report here that U-II produces an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus via two pathways: (i) Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; and (ii) Ca2+ influx through P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. In addition, U-II depolarizes cultured cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Microinjection of increasing concentrations of U-II into nucleus ambiguus elicits dose-dependent bradycardia in conscious rats, indicating the in vivo activation of the cholinergic pathway controlling the heart rate. Both the in vitro and in vivo effects were abolished by the urotensin receptor antagonist, urantide. Our findings suggest that, in addition, to the previously reported increase in sympathetic outflow, U-II activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus, which may contribute to cardioprotection. PMID:24521102

  17. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Open cycle gas fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, S.A. ); Negrini, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the main objectives for the present development of gas fired MHD power generation are considered. The state of the world-wide natural gas consumption and its utilization for electricity production is analyzed. The experimental efforts in gas-fired MHD studies are briefly described. The essential features of the two major world gas-fired MHD project - the Ryazan MHDES-580 (U-500) power plant and the Italian 230 MWt retrofit are presented. New suggestions for improving the efficiency of MHD systems and the theoretical and experimental aspects of MHD development are discussed.

  19. An Evaluation of Project Information Packages (PIPs) as Used for the Diffusion of Bilingual Projects. Volume II: Technical Discussion and Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, D. P.; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of Project Information Packages (PIPs), sets of manuals and other materials intended to help a school district adopt and implement an exemplary education project. Four PIPs were evaluated in a field test, each PIP describing a different bilingual project. It was concluded that the awareness materials produced…

  20. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons. Part II, Appendices B: Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project, the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This document contains observations of library staff and interviews with community members about the Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project and the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project. The Community Coordinator Project employs four professional librarians to take an active part in community institutions and organizations…

  1. Placing a Hand in the Fire: Assessing the Impact of a YouTube Experiential Learning Project on Viral Marketing Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Nathaniel J.; Campbell, Colin; Bal, Anjali S.; Piercy, Niall

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an experiential learning social media project that was integrated into a graduate marketing class. As part of the semester-long project, students were required to work within a team and create a spoof video, which was posted on YouTube. Students' success was partially determined by the…

  2. From Getting "Fired" to Becoming a Collaborator: A Case of the Coconstruction of Identity and Engagement in a Project-Based Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the coconstruction of student identity and engagement in the case of a 9th grader in a project-based algebra classroom that afforded students a great deal of autonomy. The focal student, Terrance, utilized classroom resources to serve both project-related and social functions as he interacted with his peers during…

  3. Acute pancreatitis decreases the sensitivity of pancreas-projecting dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus neurones to group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists in rats

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Tanja; Travagli, R Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pancreatic exocrine secretions (PES) are modulated by dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones, whose activity is finely tuned by GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) decrease synaptic transmission to pancreas-projecting DMV neurones and increase PES. In the present study, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches aimed at characterising the effects of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) on the vagal neurocircuitry modulating pancreatic functions. In control rats, microinjection of bicuculline into the DMV increased PES, whereas microinjections of kynurenic acid had no effect. Conversely, in AP rats, microinjection of bicuculline had no effect, whereas kynurenic acid decreased PES. DMV microinjections of the group II mGluR agonist APDC and whole cell recordings of excitatory currents in identified pancreas-projecting DMV neurones showed a reduced functional response in AP rats compared to controls. Moreover, these changes persisted up to 3 weeks following the induction of AP. These data demonstrate that AP increases the excitatory input to pancreas-projecting DMV neurones by decreasing the response of excitatory synaptic terminals to group II mGluR agonist. PMID:24445314

  4. School Fires. Topical Fire Research Series. Volume 8, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Using the past 3 years of data, for 2003 to 2005, from the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) database, the yearly national fire loss for fires on nonadult school properties is estimated at $85 million. Such losses are the result of an estimated annual average of 14,700 fires that required a fire department response. Fires on school…

  5. Fire Service Training. Fire Stream Practices. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of fire streams. The various types of fire streams are identified as well as the methods used to produce them, emphasizing the operation of nozzles and the different kinds of friction loss. Designed to be used with the Robert J.…

  6. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Wednesday, August 7, 2002, two large Oregon fires merged into a single massive fire of more than 333,000 acres. In southwest Oregon, the Sour Biscuit fire on the Oregon-California state line, and the larger Florence Fire to its north closed the gap between them and created an enormous blaze that retained the name Biscuit Fire. The fire has burned over the Oregon state line into California. This image of the fires and thick smoke was captured by the landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on August 14, 2002. In this false-color iamge, vegetation is green, burned areas are deep magenta, actively burning fire is bright pink, and smoke is blue. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  7. FIRE Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-13

    ... The First ISCCP Regional Experiment ( FIRE ) is a series of field missions which have collected cirrus and marine stratocumulus ... Marine Stratocumulus Home Page FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  8. Wildland Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Wildland Fire Safety Every year, wildfires burn across the U.S., and more and more people are living where wildfires ... including garages and sheds. If it can catch fire, don’t let it touch your house, deck ...

  9. South America Fire Observations

    NASA Video Gallery

    From space, we can understand fires in ways that are impossible from the ground. NASA research has contributed to much improved detection of fire for scientific purposes using satellite remote sens...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.134 for each employee required by this section to use a respirator. (ii) Approved self... of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84... not permit employees with known heart disease, epilepsy, or emphysema, to participate in fire...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.134 for each employee required by this section to use a respirator. (ii) Approved self... of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84... not permit employees with known heart disease, epilepsy, or emphysema, to participate in fire...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.134 for each employee required by this section to use a respirator. (ii) Approved self... of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire brigades. 1910.156 Section 1910.156 Labor...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.134 for each employee required by this section to use a respirator. (ii) Approved self... of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire brigades. 1910.156 Section 1910.156 Labor...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.156 - Fire brigades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.134 for each employee required by this section to use a respirator. (ii) Approved self... of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire brigades. 1910.156 Section 1910.156 Labor...

  15. The status and challenge of global fire modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantson, Stijn; Arneth, Almut; Harrison, Sandy P.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Rabin, Sam S.; Archibald, Sally; Mouillot, Florent; Arnold, Steve R.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bachelet, Dominique; Ciais, Philippe; Forrest, Matthew; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hickler, Thomas; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Lasslop, Gitta; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stephane; Melton, Joe R.; Meyn, Andrea; Sitch, Stephen; Spessa, Allan; van der Werf, Guido R.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Yue, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Biomass burning impacts vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and climate, with sometimes deleterious socio-economic impacts. Under future climate projections it is often expected that the risk of wildfires will increase. Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes, using either well-founded empirical relationships or process-based models with good predictive skill. While a large variety of models exist today, it is still unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. This is the central question underpinning the creation of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), an international initiative to compare and evaluate existing global fire models against benchmark data sets for present-day and historical conditions. In this paper we review how fires have been represented in fire-enabled dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and give an overview of the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling. We indicate which challenges still remain in global fire modelling and stress the need for a comprehensive model evaluation and outline what lessons may be learned from FireMIP.

  16. SeaWiFS Images Fires on Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dense smoke from fires in the Yucatan peninsula on April 24, 2000. In the El Nino year of 1998 fires in the region emitted enough smoke to cause authorities in Texas to issue air quality warnings. For more information, see: SeaWiFS Project Home Page Global Fire Monitoring 4km2 TRMM Fire Data Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Old Fire/Grand Prix Fire, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On November 18, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Old Fire/Grand Prix fire east of Los Angeles. The image is being processed by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and will be sent to the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) which provides interpretation services to Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assist in mapping the severity of the burned areas. The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight the burned areas.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Michael Abrams at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to

  18. Hydrogen Fire Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Through NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center, two SSC engineers were able to market their hand-held fire imager. Called FIRESCAPE, the device allows firefighters to 'see' the invisible flames of hydrogen and alcohol fires in the daylight, as well as to find victims and burning embers in dense smoke and fog. SafetySCAN, which specializes in fire safety electronic products, will make the device the first affordable commercial product for fire imaging.

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  20. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of

  1. Fire Education Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide for public fire educators was developed to assist them in planning and implementing fire educational programs for older Americans (over 65), adults, youthful firesetters, and children. This booklet's content is in four parts: (1) Over 65 and Fire Safety discusses five broad questions which provide the framework for planning…

  2. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  3. Fire Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmann, Jeanne; Claus, William C.

    The fire prevention education bulletin helps schools continue their work to make the home, school, and community safe places in which to live and to help children and young people live in safe ways without developing undue fears. Briefly discussed are the goals of a fire prevention program, who should be concerned with fire prevention education,…

  4. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  5. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  6. Fire Safety Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Planning and prevention is the best defense against fires in school. This is particularly true in the science laboratory due to the presence of flammable gases, liquids, combustibles, and other potential sources of fire. Teachers can prevent fires from starting by maintaining prudent lab practices when dealing with combustible and flammable…

  7. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes     View ... - NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes project:  MISR category:  ...

  8. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  9. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  10. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Toth, Balazs; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  11. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Jomaas, Grunde

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant know how about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  12. Impact of Clouds and Aerosols on Photochemistry During the TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Olson, J. R.; Chen, G.

    2007-12-01

    Photochemistry is responsible for the production of tropospheric ozone, the primary component of smog. In 2006, Houston, Texas experienced 20 days with a 1-hour ozone average in excess of 125 ppbv, and 36 days with an 8-hour average over 85 ppbv. Two models were used to assess the impact of clouds and aerosols on the photochemical production and loss of ozone and radicals in a polluted urban environment. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 0-D photochemical box model was used to assess the changes in the photochemical budgets due to varying cloud and aerosol conditions. The NCAR Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model was used to calculate photolysis frequencies for clear sky conditions with a variety of aerosol profiles. These tools were used to analyze the data set collected during the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) with respect to ozone and radical budgets. Measurements of trace gasses, aerosols, meteorological parameters, and radiation were collected between mid-August and early October 2006 at the University of Houston. The photochemical model was run using various photolysis rates that reflect a range of atmospheric conditions impacting the actinic flux. Rates from real-time actinic flux measurements include the impact of both the clouds and aerosols that are present. Photolysis rates for clear-sky (cloud-free) conditions, both with and without aerosol profiles were calculated using the TUV radiative transfer model. A comparison of the photochemical ozone and radical budgets resulting from these different rates indicate those sensitivities to the presence of aerosols and clouds. Approximately seven of the 50 days during the campaign were cloud-free and were compared to LaRC-TUV results to show the effects of aerosols. The remaining days show the effects of both aerosols and cloud conditions that varied from partly cloudy to heavy overcast conditions. A cloud camera was used to

  13. U.S. LCI Database Project--Phase II - 2nd Quarterly Report and Development Plan Update: April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-08-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the progress of the project since January 1, 2003. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop publicly available LCI Data modules for commonly used materials, products, and processes.

  14. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

  15. Evaluation of Free To Grow, Phase II: Detailed Profile of the Free To Grow Project in California. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Mary

    The Free to Grow pilot project, developed by the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and its Head Start project, operated between 1994 and 1999. Following a 2-year planning and development stage, 5 project sites went on to complete the 3-year implementation phase in California, Colorado, Kentucky, New York, and Puerto Rico; the…

  16. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  17. Fighting Forest Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

  18. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  19. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  20. (4,2)D Projection--reconstruction experiments for protein backbone assignment: application to human carbonic anhydrase II and calbindin D(28K).

    PubMed

    Venters, Ronald A; Coggins, Brian E; Kojetin, Doug; Cavanagh, John; Zhou, Pei

    2005-06-22

    Projection-reconstruction NMR experiments have been shown to significantly reduce the acquisition time required to obtain protein backbone assignment data. To date, this concept has only been applied to smaller (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins. Here, we show that projection-reconstruction NMR techniques can be extended to larger protonated and perdeuterated proteins. We present a suite of (4,2)D triple-resonance experiments for protein backbone assignment and a Hybrid Backprojection/Lower-Value algorithm for reconstructing data with relatively weak signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, we propose a sampling theorem and discuss its implication on the choice of projection angles. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using the 29 kDa protein, human carbonic anhydrase II and the 30 kDa protein, calbindin D(28K). PMID:15954785

  1. Slash fire hazard analysis on the Siskiyou National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, David L.; Schopfer, Walter C.; Yancik, Richard F.

    1982-11-01

    Potential increase in fire hazard as a result of timber harvesting is a concern of forest managers throughout the United States. Treating fuels can help reduce unacceptable fire hazards. To evaluate alternative fuel treatments, managers need to know their effects on fire hazard. A decision analysis approach to estimating fire hazard in terms of expected burned area was applied to a watershed in the Siskiyou National Forest (Oregon). Three treatment alternatives (do nothing and two levels of yarding unmerchantable material) were evaluated, and the effects of the treatments were projected over a 90-yr period. Initially, the effects of applying a treatment are small. After 50 years of treatment, the most intense alternative can be expected to show almost a 50% reduction in burned area compared to no treatment. The procedure also estimates burned are by fire size and fire intensity classes. Managers may find this useful for estimating expected fire effects associated with a particular fuel treatment regime.

  2. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  3. Making Project Groups Work II: The Impact of Group Process Training and Role Assignment on the Performance and Perception of Information Systems Project Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennecke, Brian; Bradley, John; McLeod, Michael

    Many project teams in organizations are highly structured, members have clearly defined roles, and they possess knowledge about how to effectively manage their projects and meetings. On the other hand, students in educational environments lack significant experience working in teams. Therefore, student teams are often poorly structured, members…

  4. Operation Sun Beam shots Little Feller I and II, Johnie boy, and Small Boy. Project Officer's report. Project 2. 3. Neutron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rigotti, D.L.; McNeilly, J.H.; Brady, R.E.; Tarbox, J.L.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of this project were (1) to measure free-field neutron flux and spectrum as required in support of other projects; (2) to document the neutron flux versus ground range; and (3) to determine the effect of various blast containers and shields on detector activation.

  5. A putative relay circuit providing low-threshold mechanoreceptive input to lamina I projection neurons via vertical cells in lamina II of the rat dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lamina I projection neurons respond to painful stimuli, and some are also activated by touch or hair movement. Neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral nerve damage is often associated with tactile allodynia (touch-evoked pain), and this may result from increased responsiveness of lamina I projection neurons to non-noxious mechanical stimuli. It is thought that polysynaptic pathways involving excitatory interneurons can transmit tactile inputs to lamina I projection neurons, but that these are normally suppressed by inhibitory interneurons. Vertical cells in lamina II provide a potential route through which tactile stimuli can activate lamina I projection neurons, since their dendrites extend into the region where tactile afferents terminate, while their axons can innervate the projection cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether vertical cell dendrites were contacted by the central terminals of low-threshold mechanoreceptive primary afferents. Results We initially demonstrated contacts between dendritic spines of vertical cells that had been recorded in spinal cord slices and axonal boutons containing the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), which is expressed by myelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents. To confirm that the VGLUT1 boutons included primary afferents, we then examined vertical cells recorded in rats that had received injections of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the sciatic nerve. We found that over half of the VGLUT1 boutons contacting the vertical cells were CTb-immunoreactive, indicating that they were of primary afferent origin. Conclusions These results show that vertical cell dendritic spines are frequently contacted by the central terminals of myelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents. Since dendritic spines are associated with excitatory synapses, it is likely that most of these contacts were synaptic. Vertical cells in lamina II are therefore a potential route through which tactile

  6. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  7. Evaluation of the National School Lunch Program Application/Verification Pilot Projects: Volume II: Data Collection, Study Methods and Supplementary Tables on Certification Impacts. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series. Report No. CN-04-AV2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Gleason, Philip; Sinclair, Michael; Cohen, Rhoda; Hulsey, Lara; Milliner-Waddell, Julita

    2004-01-01

    This is Volume II of the report on the evaluation of the NSLP Application Verification Pilot Projects. It supplements Volume I, which presents the evaluation findings. Volume II has two objectives: (1) to provide a detailed description of the methods used to conduct the study; and (2) to present tabulations that supplement and extend the analyses…

  8. The FIRE Cirrus Science Results 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program that seeks to improve our basic understanding and parameterizations of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems and ISCCP data products. The FIRE Cirrus Science Conference was held in Breckenridge, CO, 14-17 Jun. 1993, to present results of cirrus research for the second phase of FIRE (1989-present) and to refine cirrus research goals and priorities for the next phase of FIRE (1994-future). This Conference Publication contains the text of short papers presented at the conference. The papers describe research analyses of data collected at the Cirrus Intensive Field Observations-2 field experiment conducted in Kansas, 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991.

  9. The FIRE Cirrus Science Results 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program that seeks to improve the basic understanding and parameterizations of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems and ISCCP data products. The FIRE Cirrus Science Conference was held in Breckenridge, CO, 14-17 Jun. 1993, to present results of cirrus research for the second phase of FIRE (1989-present) and to refine cirrus research goals and priorities for the next phase of FIRE (1994-future). This Conference Publication contains the text of short papers presented at the conference. The papers describe research analyses of data collected at the Cirrus Intensive Field Observations-2 field experiment conducted in Kansas, 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  10. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  11. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Morton, D. C.; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; Collatz, G. J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km2 between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  12. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  13. Multisensor Fire Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boquist, C.

    2004-01-01

    This DVD includes animations of multisensor fire observations from the following satellite sources: Landsat, GOES, TOMS, Terra, QuikSCAT, and TRMM. Some of the animations are included in multiple versions of a short video presentation on the DVD which focuses on the Hayman, Rodeo-Chediski, and Biscuit fires during the 2002 North American fire season. In one version of the presentation, MODIS, TRMM, GOES, and QuikSCAT data are incorporated into the animations of these wildfires. These data products provided rain, wind, cloud, and aerosol data on the fires, and monitored the smoke and destruction created by them. Another presentation on the DVD consists of a panel discussion, in which experts from academia, NASA, and the U.S. Forest Service answer questions on the role of NASA in fighting forest fires, the role of the Terra satellite and its instruments, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in fire fighting decision making, and the role of fire in the Earth's climate. The third section of the DVD features several animations of fires over the years 2001-2003, including animations of global and North American fires, and specific fires from 2003 in California, Washington, Montana, and Arizona.

  14. Libby South Fire, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 9, 2001, a fire burned about 15 miles south of Twisp, Washington, that officials believe was caused by human error. NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on the Terra satellite observed the fire, indicated with a red dot in this image, on July 10, after the fire had already consumed about 1,240 acres. On July 10, another fire-called the Thirty Mile Fire-trapped 21 firefighters and 2 civilians in a narrow canyon in the Chewuch River Valley, north of Winthrop, WA. (That fire did not erupt until later in the day after this image was acquired and is therefore not visible.) Tragically, four firefighters were killed and six people were injured, including the two civilians. Rolling debris, rugged and steep terrain, and limited access are impeding efforts to contain the now 8,200-acre fire, which according to current fire incident reports, is completely uncontained. Nearly all the areas in the full-size image, including Washington (center), Idaho (right), Oregon (bottom) are in a state of severe drought, which means the region could be in for another devastating fire season. Another fire is visible in Idaho in the full-size image just east of where Idaho borders with Washington and Oregon. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  15. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Spacecraft Fire Suppression: Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Wu, Ming-Shin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is the testing and evaluation of the effectiveness of a variety of fire suppressants and fire-response techniques that will be used in the next generation of spacecraft (Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV) and planetary habitats. From the many lessons learned in the last 40 years of space travel, there is common agreement in the spacecraft fire safety community that a new fire suppression system will be needed for the various types of fire threats anticipated in new space vehicles and habitats. To date, there is no single fire extinguishing system that can address all possible fire situations in a spacecraft in an effective, reliable, clean, and safe way. The testing conducted under this investigation will not only validate the various numerical models that are currently being developed, but it will provide new design standards on fire suppression that can then be applied to the next generation of spacecraft extinguishment systems. The test program will provide validation of scaling methods by conducting small, medium, and large scale fires. A variety of suppression methods will be tested, such as water mist, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen with single and multiple injection points and direct or distributed agent deployment. These injection methods cover the current ISS fire suppression method of a portable hand-held fire extinguisher spraying through a port in a rack and also next generation spacecraft units that may have a multi-point suppression delivery system built into the design. Consideration will be given to the need of a crew to clean-up the agent and recharge the extinguishers in flight in a long-duration mission. The fire suppression methods mentioned above will be used to extinguish several fire scenarios that have been identified as the most relevant to spaceflight, such as overheated wires, cable bundles, and circuit boards, as well as burning cloth and paper. Further testing will be conducted in which obstructions and

  17. A NASA-NOAA Update on Global Fire Monitoring Capabilities for Studying Fire-Climate Interactions: Focus on Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, G.; Csiszar, I.

    2012-04-01

    The global, long-term effects of fires are not well understood and we are learning more every year about its global impacts and potential feedbacks to climate change. The frequency, intensity, severity, and emissions of fires may be changing as a result of climate warming as has been manifested by the observations in northern Eurasia. The climate-fire interaction may produce important societal and environmental impacts in the long run. NASA and NOAA have been developing long-term fire datasets and improving systems to monitor active fires, study fire severity, fire growth, emissions into the atmosphere, and fire effects on carbon stocks. Almost every year there are regions in the world that experience particularly severe fires. For example, less than two years ago the European part of Russia was the focus of attention due to the anomalous heat and dry wave with record high temperatures that caused wildfires rage for weeks and that led to thousands of deaths. The fires also have spread to agricultural land and damaged crops, causing sharp increases of global wheat commodity prices. Remote sensing observations are widely used to monitor fire occurrence, fire spread; smoke dispersion, and atmospheric pollutant levels. In the context of climate warming and acute interest to large-scale emissions from various land-cover disturbances studying spatial-temporal dynamics of forest fire activity is critical. NASA supports several activities related to fires and the Earth system. These include GOFC-GOLD Fire Project Office at University of Maryland and the Rapid Response System for global fire monitoring. NASA has funded many research projects on biomass burning, which cover various geographic regions of the world and analyze impacts of fires on atmospheric carbon in support of REDD initiative, as well as on atmospheric pollution with smoke. Monitoring active fires, studying their severity and burned areas, and estimating fire-induced atmospheric emissions has been the

  18. (Collaborative coal project between the USA and India)

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1990-10-05

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification. (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  19. Climate change, fire management, and ecological services in the southwestern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Bradford, John B.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Taylor, Alan H.; Martin, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    The diverse forest types of the southwestern US are inseparable from fire. Across climate zones in California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, fire suppression has left many forest types out of sync with their historic fire regimes. As a result, high fuel loads place them at risk of severe fire, particularly as fire activity increases due to climate change. A legacy of fire exclusion coupled with a warming climate has led to increasingly large and severe wildfires in many southwest forest types. Climate change projections include an extended fire season length due to earlier snowmelt and a general drying trend due to rising temperatures. This suggests the future will be warmer and drier regardless of changes in precipitation. Hotter, drier conditions are likely to increase forest flammability, at least initially. Changes in climate alone have the potential to alter the distribution of vegetation types within the region, and climate-driven shifts in vegetation distribution are likely to be accelerated when coupled with stand-replacing fire. Regardless of the rate of change, the interaction of climate and fire and their effects on Southwest ecosystems will alter the provisioning of ecosystem services, including carbon storage and biodiversity. Interactions between climate, fire, and vegetation growth provide a source of great uncertainty in projecting future fire activity in the region, as post-fire forest recovery is strongly influenced by climate and subsequent fire frequency. Severe fire can be mitigated with fuels management including prescribed fire, thinning, and wildfire management, but new strategies are needed to ensure the effectiveness of treatments across landscapes. We review the current understanding of the relationship between fire and climate in the Southwest, both historical and projected. We then discuss the potential implications of climate change for fire management and examine the potential effects of climate change and fire on ecosystem

  20. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).