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Sample records for project mars gravity

  1. The Mars Gravity Simulation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korienek, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Human beings who make abrupt transitions between one gravitational environment and another undergo severe disruptions of their visual perception and visual- motor coordination, frequently accompanied by "space sickness." Clearly, such immediate effects of exposure to a novel gravitational condition have significant implications for human performance. For example, when astronauts first arrive in Earth orbit their attempts to move about in the spacecraft and to perform their duties are uncoordinated, inaccurate, and inefficient. Other inter-gravitational transitions for which these difficulties can be expected include going from the 0 g of the spacecraft to the. 16 g of the Moon, from 0 g to the .38 g of Mars, and from 0 g back to the 1.0 g of Earth. However, after astronauts have actively interacted with their new gravitational environment for several days, these problems tend to disappear, evidence that some sort of adaptive process has taken place. It would be advantageous, therefore, if there were some way to minimize or perhaps even to eliminate this potentially hazardous adaptive transition period by allowing astronauts to adapt to the altered gravitational conditions before actually entering them. Simultaneous adaptations to both the altered and the normal gravitational environment as a result of repeatedly adapting to one and readapting to the other, a phenomenon known as dual adaptation. The objective of the Mars Gravity Simulator (MGS) Project is to construct a simulation of the visual and bodily effects of altered gravity. This perceptual-motor simulation is created through the use of: 1) differential body pressure to produce simulated hypo-gravity and 2) treadmill-controlled virtual reality to create a corresponding visual effect. It is expected that this combination will produce sensory motor perturbations in the subjects. Both the immediate and adaptive behavioral (postural and ambulatory) responses to these sensory perturbations will be assessed.

  2. The Mars Gravity Simulation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korienek, Gene

    1998-10-01

    Human beings who make abrupt transitions between one gravitational environment and another undergo severe disruptions of their visual perception and visual- motor coordination, frequently accompanied by "space sickness." Clearly, such immediate effects of exposure to a novel gravitational condition have significant implications for human performance. For example, when astronauts first arrive in Earth orbit their attempts to move about in the spacecraft and to perform their duties are uncoordinated, inaccurate, and inefficient. Other inter-gravitational transitions for which these difficulties can be expected include going from the 0 g of the spacecraft to the. 16 g of the Moon, from 0 g to the .38 g of Mars, and from 0 g back to the 1.0 g of Earth. However, after astronauts have actively interacted with their new gravitational environment for several days, these problems tend to disappear, evidence that some sort of adaptive process has taken place. It would be advantageous, therefore, if there were some way to minimize or perhaps even to eliminate this potentially hazardous adaptive transition period by allowing astronauts to adapt to the altered gravitational conditions before actually entering them. Simultaneous adaptations to both the altered and the normal gravitational environment as a result of repeatedly adapting to one and readapting to the other, a phenomenon known as dual adaptation. The objective of the Mars Gravity Simulator (MGS) Project is to construct a simulation of the visual and bodily effects of altered gravity. This perceptual-motor simulation is created through the use of: 1) differential body pressure to produce simulated hypo-gravity and 2) treadmill-controlled virtual reality to create a corresponding visual effect. It is expected that this combination will produce sensory motor perturbations in the subjects. Both the immediate and adaptive behavioral (postural and ambulatory) responses to these sensory perturbations will be assessed.

  3. The U.S. Rosetta Project: Mars Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Claudia; Holmes, Dwight P.; Goldstein, R.; Parker, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Since launch on March 2, 2004, the International Rosetta Mission has flown by the Earth/Moon system one time and conducted several distant observations of comets, including support for the Deep Impact measurements of comet 9 P/Tempel 1. In 2007, Rosetta flew by Mars for a gravity assist, and conducted observations of the Martian upper atmosphere as well as extended observations, in support of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter, of the Jovian magnetotail and Io torus. In late 2007 Rosetta had its second encounter with the Earth/Moon system. NASA's contribution to the Rosetta mission consists of three hardware experiments, and the portion of the electronics package for a fourth, as well as the participation of an Interdisciplinary Scientist (IDS); backup tracking, telecommunications, and navigation assurance provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN); support for the scientific participation of U.S. investigators on non-U.S. PI-led experiments. Collectively these elements are known as the U.S. Rosetta Project. In this paper we will update the status of the instruments following the both the Mars and Earth/Moon gravity assists. In addition, we will present a summary of the science observations for both Mars and Jupiter. 12.

  4. Artificial gravity Mars spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1989-01-01

    Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.

  5. Mars mission gravity profile simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to determine the need for artificial gravity for Mars mission architectures at earlier stages of the design process is proposed. The Soviet Mir space station, the NASA Space Shuttle, and the resources of NASA Ames Research Center would be used to duplicate in the terrestrial environment the complete Mars-mission gravity profile in order to assess the need for artificial gravity. All mission phases of 1 G would be on earth; all mission phases of zero or micro G would be in space aboard Mir; and all launch, ascent, orbit, deorbit, approach, departure, and descent G loads would be provided by actual spacecraft in operations that could be designed to simulate the actual G loads, while the Mars stay time would be simulated on earth or in a variable-gravity research facility in space. Methods of simulating activities on the Martian surface are outlined along with data monitoring, countermeasures, and launch site and vehicle selection criteria.

  6. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.

  7. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  8. Gravity and topography. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, P. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lindal, G. F.; Sjogren, W. L.; Slade, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes the fundamental gravity field constants for Mars and a brief historical review of early determinations and current-day accurate estimates. These include the planetary gravitational constant, global figure, dynamical oblateness, mean density, and rotational period. Topographic results from data acquired from the 1967 opposition to the most recent, 1988, opposition are presented. Both global and selected local topographic variations and features are discussed. The inertia tensor and the nonhydrostatic component of Mars are examined in detail. The dimensionless moment of inertia about the rotational axis is 0.4 for a body of uniform density and 0.37621 if Mars were in hydrostatic equilibrium. By comparing models of both gravity and topography, inferences are made about the degree and depth of compensation in the interior and stresses in the lithosphere.

  9. A manned Mars artificial gravity vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, David N.; Rupp, Charles C.; Hajos, Gregory A.; Butler, John M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented on an artificial-gravity vehicle that is being designed for a manned Mars mission, using a 'split-mission' concept, in which an unmanned cargo vehicle is sent earlier and stored in a Mars orbit for a rendezvous with a manned vehicle about 1.5 years later. Special attention is given to the vehicle trajectory and configuration, the tether design, and the vehicle weight and launch requirements. It is shown that an artificial-G vehicle for a manned Mars missions is feasible technically and programmatically. Using an artificial-G vehicle instead of a zero-G vehicle for the piloted portion of a split mission provides physiological and human-factor-related benefits, does not eliminate requirements for zero-G countermeasures research (since zero-G is an abort mode), and could possibly reduce some life science activities. Diagrams are included.

  10. International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity (IMAG) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts of the International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity Project. Specifically it reviews the NASA Exploration Planning Status, NASA Exploration Roadmap, Status of Planning for the Moon, Mars Planning, Reference health maintenance scenario, and The Human Research Program.

  11. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.

  12. [MaRS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  13. Gravity Field Mapping of Mars with MGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    Tracking of the MGS spacecraft in orbit at Mars by the Deep Space Network since last September has provided doppler and range measurements that are being used to improve the model of the Mars gravity field. During most of October 1997, April 1998, and June thru August 1998 high quality tracking data were obtained while the periapse was in the northern hemisphere at altitudes in the 170 to 190 km range. The eccentric orbit had a period of about 11.5 hrs and an inclination of about 96.2 degrees so that low altitude tracking was obtained over most of the northern hemisphere, including the north polar icecap. Data from the earlier Mariner 9 and Viking missions have been added to the MGS data and a series of experimental gravity models developed from the combined datasets. These models have generally been of degree and order 70 and are a significant improvement over earlier models that did not include the MGS data. Gravity anomalies over the north polar cap region of Mars are generally less than 50 to 100 mgals and show no obvious correlation with the topography. Successive MGS orbits derived using these new models are showing agreement at the 100 meter level, and this has been confirmed with the laser altimeter (MOLA) on MGS These comparisons are expected to improve significantly as more tracking data get included in the solution and the MGS orbit becomes more circular giving a more balanced geographical distribution of data at low altitude. This will happen early in 1999 as the orbit approaches the mapping configuration of a circular orbit at about 400 Km.

  14. Crustal Structure of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Tyler, G. L.; Aharonson, O.; Balmino, G.; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, J. W.; Johnson, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    In this analysis we invert global models of Mars' topography from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from Doppler tracking obtained during the mapping mission of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We analyze the distribution of Martian crust and discuss implications for Mars' thermal history.

  15. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  16. Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  17. An improved JPL Mars gravity field and orientation from Mars orbiter and lander tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Folkner, William M.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars gravity field resolution is mostly determined by the lower altitude Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) tracking data. With nearly four years of additional MRO and Mars Odyssey tracking data since the last JPL released gravity field MRO110C and lander tracking from the MER Opportunity Rover, the gravity field and orientation of Mars have been improved. The new field, MRO120D, extends the maximum spherical harmonic degree slightly to 120, improves the determination of the higher degree coefficients as demonstrated by improved correlation with topography and reduces the uncertainty in the corresponding Mars orientation parameters by up to a factor of two versus previously combined gravity and orientation solutions. The new precession solution is ψ˙ = - 7608.3 ± 2.1 mas / yr and is consistent with previous results but with a reduced uncertainty by 40%. The Love number solution, k2 = 0.169 ± 0.006, also shows a similar result to previous studies.

  18. Time-variable and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have significantly contributed to the determination of global high-resolution global gravity fields of Mars for the last 16 years. All three spacecraft were located in sun-synchronous, near-circular polar mapping orbits for their primary mission phases at different altitudes and Local Solar Time (LST). X-Band tracking data have been acquired from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) providing information on the time-variable and static gravity field of Mars. MGS operated between 1999 and 2006 at 390 km altitude. ODY and MRO are still orbiting Mars with periapsis altitudes of 400 km and 255 km, respectively. Before entering these mapping phases, all three spacecraft collected radio tracking data at lower altitudes (˜170-200 km) that help improve the resolution of the gravity field of Mars in specific regions. We analyzed the entire MGS radio tracking data set, and ODY and MRO radio data until 2015. These observations were processed using a batch least-squares filter through the NASA GSFC GEODYN II software. We combined all 2- and 3-way range rate data to estimate the global gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, the seasonal variations of gravity harmonic coefficients C20, C30, C40 and C50 and the Love number k2. The gravity contribution of Mars atmospheric pressures on the surface of the planet has been discerned from the time-varying and static gravity harmonic coefficients. Surface pressure grids computed using the Mars-GRAM 2010 atmospheric model, with 2.5° x2.5° spatial and 2-h resolution, are converted into gravity spherical harmonic coefficients. Consequently, the estimated gravity and tides provide direct information on the solid planet. We will present the new Goddard Mars Model (GMM-3) of Mars gravity field in spherical harmonics to degree and order 120. The solution includes the Love number k2 and the 3-frequencies (annual, semi-annual, and tri

  19. Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sediment sorting on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment in water is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is more uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. In reality, such considerations have to be applied with great caution because the shape of a particle strongly influences drag. Drag itself can only be calculated directly for an irregularly shaped particle with great computational effort, if at all. Therefore, even for terrestrial applications, sediment settling velocities are often determined directly, e.g. by measurements using settling tubes. Experiments: In this study the results of settling tube tests conducted under reduced gravity during three Mars Sedimentation Experiment (MarsSedEx I, II and III) flights, conducted between 2012 and 2015, are presented. Ten types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Results: The experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx reduced gravity experiments showed that the violation of fluid dynamics caused by using empirical models and parameter values developed for sediment transport on Earth lead to significant miscalculations for Mars, specifically an underetsimation of settling velcoity because of an overestimation of turbulant drag. The error is caused by the flawed representation of particle drag on Mars. Drag coefficients are not a property of a sediment particle, but a property of the flow around the particle, and thus strongly affected by gravity. Conlcusions: The observed errors in settling velocity when using terrestrial models

  20. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  1. 2001 Mars Odyssey Project Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David A.; Gibbs, Roger G.; Mase, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Project is the latest in an ongoing series of robotic missions to Mars within NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The Program goals include the global observation of Mars, to enable understanding of the Mars climatic and geologic history, including the search for liquid water and the evidence of prior or extant life. The Odyssey orbiter carries scientific payloads that will determine surface elemental composition, mineralogy and morphology, and measure the Mars radiation environment from orbit. In addition, the orbiter will serve as a data relay for future landers. Odyssey was designed and developed through a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colorado. Odyssey was launched atop a Boeing 7925 launch vehicle on April 7, 2001, from Kennedy Space Center. The 200-day journey to Mars was marked by four trajectory correction maneuvers, and numerous spacecraft and payload calibration activities. The final maneuver was performed 12 days prior to encounter, and successfully targeted the spacecraft to the desired arrival conditions 300 km above the North Pole of Mars. The 20-minute orbit insertion burn was the only use of the bipropellant propulsion system on the spacecraft. The burn executed as planned on October 24, 2001, capturing the spacecraft into an 18.6-hour orbit around Mars. The subsequent aerobraking phase was designed to gradually reduce the orbit period by flying through the upper atmosphere of Mars on each orbit, allowing atmospheric drag to remove energy from the orbit. Aerobraking was the most demanding operational phase of the mission, requiring continuous monitoring and control of the spacecraft to ensure health and safety. The aerobraking phase was successfully completed on January 11, 2002 after 76 days and 332 drag passes through the Martian atmosphere. Following completion of the aerobraking phase, a series of five propulsive maneuvers were performed to

  2. Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.

    PubMed

    Kiss, J Z

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration. PMID:23889757

  3. Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

  4. Lithospheric Structure from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity and Implications for the Early Thermal Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Aharonson, Oded; Balmino, Georges; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2000-01-01

    Regional variations in the thickness of the elastic lithosphere on Mars derived from a combined analysis of topography and gravity anomalies determined by Mars Global Surveyor provide new insight into the planet's thermal history.

  5. The Mars Express - NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Horttor, Richard L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.; Asmar, S. W.; Goltz, G.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the Mars Express NASA Project at JPL. The contents include: 1) Mars Express/NASA Project Overview; 2) Experiment-Investigator Matrix; 3) Mars Express Support of NASA's Mars Exploration Objectives; 4) U.S./NASA Support of Mars Express; 5) Mars Express Schedule (2003-2007); 6) Mars Express Data Rates; 7) MARSIS Overview Results; 8) MARSIS with Antennas Deployed; 9) MARSIS Science Objectives; 10) Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) Experiment Overview; 11) Mars Express Orbit Evolution; 12) MARSIS Science - Subsurface Sounding; 13) MARSIS-North Polar Ice Cap; 14) MARSIS Data-Buried Basin; 15) MARSIS over a Crater Basin; 16) MARSIS-Buried Basin; 17) Ionogram - Orbit 2032 (example from Science paper); 18) Ionogram-Orbit 2018 (example from Science paper); and 19) Recent MARSIS Results ESA Press Releases.

  6. The JPL Mars gravity field, Mars50c, based upon Viking and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the current JPL efforts of generating a Mars gravity field from Viking 1 and 2 and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data. The Mars 50c solution is a complete gravity field to degree and order 50 with solutions as well for the gravitational mass of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos. The constants and models used to obtain the solution are given and the method for determining the gravity field is presented. The gravity field is compared to the best current gravity GMM1 of Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Design of Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Cryogenic System for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Lemoine, F. G.; Paik, H. J.; Zagarola, M.; Shirron, P. J.; Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of a planet's gravity field provides fundamental information about the planet's mass properties. The static gravity field reveals information about the internal structure of the planet, including crustal density variations that provide information on the planet's geological history and evolution. The time variations of gravity result from the movement of mass inside the planet, on the surface, and in the atmosphere. NASA is interested in a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) with which to measure the gravity field of a planet from orbit. An SGG instrument is under development with the NASA PICASSO program, which will be able to resolve the Mars static gravity field to degree 200 in spherical harmonics, and the time-varying field on a monthly basis to degree 20 from a 255 x 320 km orbit. The SGG has a precision two orders of magnitude better than the electrostatic gravity gradiometer that was used on the ESA's GOCE mission. The SGG operates at the superconducting temperature lower than 6 K. This study developed a cryogenic thermal system to maintain the SGG at the design temperature in Mars orbit. The system includes fixed radiation shields, a low thermal conductivity support structure and a two-stage cryocooler. The fixed radiation shields use double aluminized polyimide to emit heat from the warm spacecraft into the deep space. The support structure uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic, which has low thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature and very high stress. The low vibration cryocooler has two stages, of which the high temperature stage operates at 65 K and the low temperature stage works at 6 K, and the heat rejection radiator works at 300 K. The study also designed a second option with a 4-K adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and two-stage 10-K turbo-Brayton cooler.

  8. Design of Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Cryogenic System for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.; Paik, H. J.; Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S. C.; Zagarola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of a planets gravity field provides fundamental information about the planets mass properties. The static gravity field reveals information about the internal structure of the planet, including crustal density variations that provide information on the planets geological history and evolution. The time variations of gravity result from the movement of mass inside the planet, on the surface, and in the atmosphere. NASA is interested in a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) with which to measure the gravity field of a planet from orbit. An SGG instrument is under development with the NASA PICASSO program, which will be able to resolve the Mars static gravity field to degree 200 in spherical harmonics, and the time-varying field on a monthly basis to degree 20 from a 255 x 320 km orbit. The SGG has a precision two orders of magnitude better than the electrostatic gravity gradiometer that was used on the ESAs GOCE mission. The SGG operates at the superconducting temperature lower than 6 K. This study developed a cryogenic thermal system to maintain the SGG at the design temperature in Mars orbit. The system includes fixed radiation shields, a low thermal conductivity support structure and a two-stage cryocooler. The fixed radiation shields use double aluminized polyimide to emit heat from the warm spacecraft into the deep space. The support structure uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic, which has low thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature and very high stress. The low vibration cryocooler has two stages, of which the high temperature stage operates at 65 K and the low temperature stage works at 6 K, and the heat rejection radiator works at 300 K. The study also designed a second option with a 4-K adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and two-stage 10-K turbo-Brayton cooler.

  9. Estimating the k2 Tidal Gravity Love Number of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria; Torrence, Mark; Dunn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the orbits of spacecraft can be used to infer global tidal parameters. For Mars, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been used to estimate the second degree Love number, k2 from the tracking DSN tracking Doppler and range data by several authors. Unfortunately, neither of the spacecraft presently in orbit are ideally suited to tidal recovery because they are in sun-synchronous orbits that vary only slightly in local time; and, further, the sub-solar location only varies by about 25 degrees in latitude. Never-the less respectable estimates of the k2 tide have been made by several authors. We present an updated solution of the degree 2 zonal Love number, compare with previous dues, and analyze the sensitivity of the solution to orbital parameters, spacecraft maneuvers, and solution methodology. Estimating the k2 Tidal Gravity Love Number of Mars.

  10. A Revolution in Mars Topography and Gravity and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) at Mars in September 1997 and the subsequent beginning of observations of the planet there has been a constant stream of surprises and puzzling observations that have kept scientists looking at new 'out of the box' explanations. Observations of the shape and topography have shown a planet with one hemisphere, the southern, several kilometers higher than the north and a northern hemisphere that is so flat and smooth in places that it's difficult to imagine it was not once the bottom of an ocean. And yet the ocean idea presents some enormous difficulties. The measurements of gravity derived from the tracking of MGS have shown that several Mars volcanoes are enormous positive gravity anomalies much larger than we see on Earth and revealed small errors in the orbit of Mars and or Earth. And the magnetic field is found to be composed of a number of extremely large crustal anomalies; but as far as can be ascertained there is no main dipole field such as we have on Earth. Understanding these diverse observations and placing them in the sequence of the evolution of the planet will be a long, challenging but rewarding task.

  11. The Mystery of the Mars North Polar Gravity-Topography Correlation(Or Lack Thereof)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Johnson, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Maps of moderately high resolution gravity data obtained from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity calibration orbit campaign and high precision topography obtained from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) experiment reveal relationships between gravity and topography in high northern latitudes of Mars. Figure 1 shows the results of a JPL spherical harmonic gravity model bandpass filtered between degrees 6 and 50 contoured over a MOLA topographic image. A positive gravity anomaly exists over the main North Polar cap, but there are at least six additional positive gravity anomalies, as well as a number of smaller negative anomalies, with no obvious correlation to topography. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Mars Gravity Field and Upper Atmosphere from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA orbital missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have been exploring and monitoring the planet Mars since 1997. MGS executed its mapping mission between 1999 and 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis altitude at ~370 km and the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 pm Local Solar Time (LST). The spacecraft was equipped with onboard instrumentation to acquire radio science data and to measure spacecraft ranges to the Martian surface (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter). These measurements resulted in static and time-varying gravity field and high-resolution global topography of the planet. ODY and MRO are still orbiting about Mars in two different sun-synchronous orbits, providing radio tracking data that indirectly measure both the static and time-varying gravity field and the atmospheric density. The orbit of ODY has its periapsis at ~390 km altitude and descending node at 4-5 pm LST. However, the spacecraft also collected measurements at lower altitudes (~220 km) in 2002 prior to the mapping phase. Since November 2006, MRO is in a low-altitude orbit with a periapsis altitude of 255 km and descending node at 3 pm LST. Radio data from MRO help improve the resolution of the static gravity field and measure the mass distribution of the polar caps, but the atmospheric drag at those altitudes may limit the benefits of these radio tracking observations. We present a combined solution of the Martian gravity field to degree and order 110 and atmospheric density profiles with radio tracking data from MGS, ODY and MRO. The gravity field solution is combined with the MOLA topography yielding an updated map of Mars crustal thickness. We also show our solution of the Love number k2 and time-variable gravity zonal harmonics (C20 and C30, in particular). The recovered atmospheric density profiles may be used in atmospheric models to constrain the long-term variability of the

  13. On the model structure of the gravity field of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    A discussion is presented about the constraints used in constructing a model for the internal structure of Mars. The most important fact is that the Martian chemical model proposed by Wänke and Dreibus (WD) has stood the test of time. This means that the chondritic ratio Fe/Si = 1.71 can be used as a constraint in constructing an interior structure model of the planet. Consideration is given to the constructing of the reference surface of Mars. It is concluded that the effectively hydrostatic-equilibrium model of Mars is well suited for this purpose. The areoid heights and gravity anomalies in the model of Mars are calculated. The results are shown in the figures (maps) and comments made. The results are compared with the similar data for the Earth. Mars deviates much more strongly from the hydrostatic equilibrium than the Earth. It is suggested that the average thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere should exceed that of the Earth's continental lithosphere.

  14. Analyses of Mars Topography, Gravity and Aroid: Implications for Tharsis and Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Shcherbakov, R.; Malamud, B. D.; Kucinskas, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Correlations between topography, gravity, and aroid can provide important constraints on the structure and tectonic evolution of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  16. (abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.

  17. Mars' gravity field and upper atmosphere with MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO radio science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars exploration program conducted by NASA during the last decade has enabled continuous observations of the planet from orbit with three different missions: the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These spacecraft were equipped with on board instrumentation dedicated to collect radio tracking data in the X-band. The analysis of these data has provided a high-resolution gravity field model of Mars. MGS and ODY were inserted into two separate frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbits with different local times, with their periapsis altitude at ~370 km and ~390 km, respectively. MGS was in orbit around Mars between 1999 and 2006, whereas ODY has been orbiting the planet since January 2002. Using the radio science data of these two spacecraft, gravity models with a maximum resolution of degree and order 95 in spherical harmonics (spatial resolution of 112 km) have been determined. MRO has been orbiting Mars since August 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous orbit with a periapsis at 255 km altitude. Therefore, its radio data helped significantly improve Mars' gravity field model, up to degree and order 110 (spatial resolution of 96 km). However, mismodeling of the atmospheric drag, which is the strongest non-conservative force acting on the spacecraft at MRO's low altitude, compromises the estimation of the temporal variations of the gravity field zonal harmonics that provide crucial information on the seasonal mass of carbon dioxide in the polar caps. For this reason, we implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM)-Mars model (Bruinsma and Lemoine 2002) into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II. We estimated key model parameters to adequately reproduce variations in temperatures and (partial) density along the spacecraft trajectories. Our new model allows us to directly estimate the long-term periodicity of the major constituents at MGS, ODY, and MRO altitudes (~255-450 km). In this

  18. Need for artificial gravity on a manned Mars mission?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing upon the extensive Soviet and Skylab medical observations, the need for artificial gravity (g) on a manned Mars mission is discussed. Little hard data derived from well done experiments exist. This dearth of information is primarily due to two factors. Inability to collect tissues from astronauts for ethical or operational reasons. Second, there was not opportunities to fly animals in space to systematically evaluate the extent of the problem, and to develop and then to prove the effectiveness of countermeasures. The Skylab and space station will provide the opportunity to study these questions and validate suggested solutions.

  19. Crustal structure of Mars from gravity and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Wieczorek, M. A.; McGovern, P. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography and gravity models from 5 years of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft tracking provide a window into the structure of the Martian crust and upper mantle. We apply a finite-amplitude terrain correction assuming uniform crustal density and additional corrections for the anomalous densities of the polar caps, the major volcanos, and the hydrostatic flattening of the core. A nonlinear inversion for Moho relief yields a crustal thickness model that obeys a plausible power law and resolves features as small as 300 km wavelength. On the basis of petrological and geophysical constraints, we invoke a mantle density contrast of 600 kg m-3; with this assumption, the Isidis and Hellas gravity anomalies constrain the global mean crustal thickness to be >45 km. The crust is characterized by a degree 1 structure that is several times larger than any higher degree harmonic component, representing the geophysical manifestation of the planet's hemispheric dichotomy. It corresponds to a distinction between modal crustal thicknesses of 32 km and 58 km in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The Tharsis rise and Hellas annulus represent the strongest components in the degree 2 crustal thickness structure. A uniform highland crustal thickness suggests a single mechanism for its formation, with subsequent modification by the Hellas impact, erosion, and the volcanic construction of Tharsis. The largest surviving lowland impact, Utopia, post-dated formation of the crustal dichotomy. Its crustal structure is preserved, making it unlikely that the northern crust was subsequently thinned by internal processes.

  20. The MarsQuest Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    1998-09-01

    The upcoming decade of Mars exploration will provide numerous opportunities for a variety of educational efforts. One of these, MarsQuest, is a travelling exhibition being developed by the Space Science Institute with partial funding from NSF and NASA. MarsQuest's Education and Outreach Program will take advantage of the many Mars-related educational resources currently available, as well as those in the planning stages. Materials reflecting the exhibit content will be disseminated to teachers at sites where the exhibit is visiting and via presentations at annual and regional meetings of the National Science Teachers Association, and via a web site containing interactive educational resources. The goals of the MarsQuest Education Program are to: 1) Make use of the rich educational resources and coincident occurrence of ongoing Mars missions; 2) Captivate broad public interest in Mars exploration and use it to promote scientific literacy; 3) Provide opportunities for teachers, students, and families to connect in real-time to the Mars missions, the people involved, and the science experiments underway; 4) Enhance the overall education experience of the MarsQuest exhibition. The MarsQuest Education Program is focused on teacher training/enhancement and parental involvement. The main mechanism for teacher enhancement and encouragement of parental participation will be through two education workshops organized by MarsQuest personnel at each host site. The first will target museum staff and "master" K-12 teachers. The second will target local K-12 teachers. The MarsQuest Education Program will also provide museum staff, exhibit liaisons, and astronomy volunteers information on offering one-day workshops designed for family groups. The MarsQuest project will provide a wide ranging dissemination effort, ultimately reaching an estimated two to three million people during its three-year tour.

  1. Exploring the Moon and Mars Using an Orbiting Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Ho Jung; Strayer, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity measurement is fundamental to understanding the interior structure, dynamics, and evolution of planets. High-resolution gravity maps will also help locating natural resources, including subsurface water, and underground cavities for astronaut habitation on the Moon and Mars. Detecting the second spatial derivative of the potential, a gravity gradiometer mission tends to give the highest spatial resolution and has the advantage of requiring only a single satellite. We discuss gravity missions to the Moon and Mars using an orbiting Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer and discuss the instrument and spacecraft control requirements.

  2. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.

  3. The Mars Exploration Rover Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    In mid-2003 NASA will launch two identical rovers to Mars. The Mars Exploration Rovers will be delivered using cruise, entry, and landing systems with Mars Pathfinder heritage. After landing in January of 2004, the rovers will use their set of instruments -- the Athena Science Payload -- to test hypotheses for the presence of past water at two separate sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable for life. Particular emphasis will be placed on assessing environmental conditions at the time of water activity. The landing sites are being selected on the basis of community-wide study of orbital data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and other missions. Possibilities include former lakebeds or hydrothermal deposits. The Athena Science Payload includes two mast-mounted remote-sensing instruments: a color stereo imager (Pancam) and a thermal emission infrared point spectrometer (Mini-TES). Mounted on the end of a five degree-of-freedom robotic arm are three more in-situ instruments: an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer, a Mössbauer Spectrometer, and a Microscopic Imager. A Rock Abrasion Tool is also mounted on the arm, and will be used to remove the surface layers of rocks and expose underlying material for investigation. The rovers are substantially larger than Mars Pathfinder's Sojourner rover. They have substantial onboard autonomy capability, and can traverse many tens of meters per martian day. The combined capabilities of the MER rovers and the Athena payload will make these rovers the first robotic field geologists to operate on another planet.

  4. Software for Tracking Costs of Mars Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Alvin; Warfield, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Cost Tracking Model is a computer program that administers a system set up for tracking the costs of future NASA projects that pertain to Mars. Previously, no such tracking system existed, and documentation was written in a variety of formats and scattered in various places. It was difficult to justify costs or even track the history of costs of a spacecraft mission to Mars. The present software enables users to maintain all cost-model definitions, documentation, and justifications of cost estimates in one computer system that is accessible via the Internet. The software provides sign-off safeguards to ensure the reliability of information entered into the system. This system may eventually be used to track the costs of projects other than only those that pertain to Mars.

  5. Gravity Waves and their Effects on the Mean State and Variability of Mars' Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, John E.

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has revealed the presence of gravity waves in Mars' lower atmosphere and thermosphere. From perturbations in radio occultation temperature profiles of the lower atmosphere, global distributions of gravity wave potential energy density were calculated. The potential energy density distributions served as the basis to compute gravity wave source momentum flux used in a Mars dynamical model, marking the first time that a numerical study of Mars' gravity waves was observationally constrained. The gravity wave source spectrum is believed to include a stationary component from topographic forcing and a non-stationary component from atmospheric tides with large zonal wavenumbers. The model used was a Mars-specific version of the Hybrid Lindzen-Matsuno gravity wave parameterization that was created and integrated into the time-dependent, two-dimensional QNLM model for Mars. Due to the non-stationary waves in the gravity wave spectrum, the effect on predicted zonal wind and temperature fields was profound, particularly in the upper atmosphere above 100 km altitude where Mars' atmosphere is poorly observed. At solstice, the middle atmosphere zonal jets were closed near 80 km, and upper atmosphere zonal winds were significantly diminished from 120--140 m s-1 to near zero. Meridional circulation increased to over 50 m s-1 at altitudes where gravity wave breaking occurred, and adiabatic heating above the winter pole was enhanced. The model results were particularly sensitive to the prescribed phase speed distribution, and multiple phase speed spectra were evaluated to assess sensitivity. The effects of the non-stationary tidal components in the gravity wave spectrum indicate that Mars' GCMs may be underestimating their contribution to middle and upper atmosphere forcing, but open questions remain with respect to the phase speed distribution of non-stationary components and the relative contribution to momentum flux of

  6. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.; Asmar, S. W.; Goltz, G.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL is presented. The topics include: 1) Mars Express Mission Experiments and Investigators; 2) Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Soundig (MARSIS) Overview; 3) MARSIS Experiment Overview; 4) Interoperability Concept; 5) Mars Express Science Operations; 6) Mars Express Schedule (2003-2007);

  7. Mars Pathfinder Project: Planetary Constants and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D.; Vaughn, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a common set of astrodynamic constants and planetary models for use by the Mars pathfinder Project. It attempts to collect in a single reference all the quantities and models in use across the project during development and for mission operations.

  8. Status of the ExoMars Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Vago, Jorge; Gianfiglio, Giacinto; Haldemann, Albert; Elfving, Anders; Pinel, Jacques; McCoy, Don

    The ExoMars mission will deploy two science elements on the Martian surface: a rover and a small, fixed package. The fixed Humboldt science package, will measure planetary geophysics parameters important for understanding Mars's evolution and habitability, identify possible surface hazards to future human missions, and study the environment. The Rover Pasteur science package will search for signs of past and present life on Mars, and characterise the water and geochemical environment with depth by collecting and analysing subsurface samples down to 2 meters. The very powerful combination of surface mobility and subsurface access to locations where organic molecules may be well-preserved is unique to this mission. ExoMars is currently in Phase B prior to PDR. This presentation will provide an update on the project status, including instrument and technology developments.

  9. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  10. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  11. Mars Pathfinder Project: Planetary Constants and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robin

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a common set of astrodynamic constants and planetary models for use by the Mars Pathfinder Project. It attempts to collect in a single reference all the quantities and models in use across the project during development and for mission operations. These models are central to the navigation and mission design functions, but they are also used in other aspects of the project such as science observation planning and data reduction.

  12. Mars Propellant Production with Ionic Liquids Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a single vessel for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and electrolysis for in situ Mars propellant production by eliminating several steps of CO2 processing, two cryocoolers, a high temperature reactor, a recycle pump, and a water condenser; thus greatly reducing mass, volume, and power.

  13. Progress in the development of the GMM-2 gravity field model for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    Last year we published the GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1) gravity model for Mars. We have completely re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner 9 tracking data in the development of the new field, designated GMM-2. The model is complete to degree and order 70. Various aspects of the model are discussed.

  14. Curiosity: the Mars Science Laboratory Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Curiosity rover landed successfully in Gale Crater, Mars on August 5, 2012. This event was a dramatic high point in the decade long effort to design, build, test and fly the most sophisticated scientific vehicle ever sent to Mars. The real achievements of the mission have only just begun, however, as Curiosity is now searching for signs that Mars once possessed habitable environments. The Mars Science Laboratory Project has been one of the most ambitious and challenging planetary projects that NASA has undertaken. It started in the successful aftermath of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover project and was designed to take significant steps forward in both engineering and scientific capabilities. This included a new landing system capable of emplacing a large mobile vehicle over a wide range of potential landing sites, advanced sample acquisition and handling capabilities that can retrieve samples from both rocks and soil, and a high reliability avionics suite that is designed to permit long duration surface operations. It also includes a set of ten sophisticated scientific instruments that will investigate both the geological context of the landing site plus analyze samples to understand the chemical & organic composition of rocks & soil found there. The Gale Crater site has been specifically selected as a promising location where ancient habitable environments may have existed and for which evidence may be preserved. Curiosity will spend a minimum of one Mars year (about two Earth years) looking for this evidence. This paper will report on the progress of the mission over the first few months of surface operations, plus look retrospectively at lessons learned during both the development and cruise operations phase of the mission..

  15. Effect of gravity on terminal particle settling velocity on Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, StokeśLaw, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle moving in a gas of liquid assumes a linear relationship between terminal velocity and gravity. For terrestrial applications, this "error" is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on Mars. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks on Mars. Wrong interpretations may occur, for example, when the texture of sedimentary rocks is linked to the amount and hydraulics of runoff and thus ultimately the environmental conditions on Mars at the time of their formation. A good understanding of particle behaviour in liquids on Mars is therefore essential. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can also be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and gas or liquid. However, the use of such analogues simulating the lower gravity on Mars on Earth is creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under Martian gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling tests within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation we report the results of such a test conducted during a reduced gravity flight in November 2012. The results explore the strength of the non-linearity in the gravity-settling velocity relationship for terrestrial, lunar and Martian gravity.

  16. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  17. Lithospheric flexure and gravity spreading of Olympus Mons volcano, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Holohan, E. P.; Cailleau, B.; Platz, T.; Dumke, A.; Walter, T. R.; Williams, D. A.; Gasselt, S.

    2016-03-01

    The structural architecture of large volcanoes is governed substantially by gravity-driven deformation that is manifest as distinct processes such as basement flexure or volcanic spreading. Temporal effects and the mutual interplay of these processes have been investigated only to a limited extent, and so we present novel numerical models of the time-dependent deformation associated with them. The models simulate the combined effects of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading during growth increments of an elastoplastic volcanic cone. Different spreading scenarios are considered by a variable coupling decoupling behavior at the interface between volcano and basement. We apply our models to Olympus Mons on Mars, which is characterized by upper to middle flank terraces on the shield, is encircled by a basal scarp that has an average slope of 30° and is surrounded by distant deposits that resemble large-scale slumping features on Earth. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that terraces on Olympus Mons' flanks form by thrust faulting that results from lithospheric flexure. The presence and expression of terraces depend on the coupling of volcano and basement, on the time of volcano growth relative to mantle relaxation, and on the cohesion of the edifice. The encircling scarp may be related to a very low friction detachment at the edifice base, which leads to a normal fault regime on the lowermost flanks. With time and volcano growth, predicted stress and faulting regimes migrate only slightly, indicating that the structural architecture of volcanoes is largely set in the very early stages of formation.

  18. Trajectories to the outer planets using aero-gravity assist flybys of Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, David F.

    1992-01-01

    The trajectory concept used here is to flyby Venus and then Mars with moderately high speeds expecting to use both gravity and aeroassisted (wave rider) turns in the atmospheres of the planets in order to form fast trajectories to the planets beyond Jupiter. The first part of the paper contains a description of the development of earth-Venus-Mars trajectories yielding the required speeds at Mars in the interval 2001 to 2015. The second part consists in identifying cases in which Mars is at the proper longitude for each target and obtaining trajectories. Trajectories to Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto have been found.

  19. Taking advantage of the MEMO orbiter to improve the determination of Mars' gravity field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, P.; Le Maitre, S.; Marty, J. C.; Duron, J.; Dehant, V.

    2007-08-01

    In the context of future ESA's mission to Mars, it is proposed an orbiter named MEMO (Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter) to especially improve the measurement of the atmospheric escape and the magnetic field of the planet. Its orbit is planned to have an inclination of 77 degrees and periapsis and apoapsis altitude of 130 km and 1000 km, respectively. In addition, such an orbit is scheduled to be maintained during one Martian year. This differs from the usual near-polar, near-circular orbit with a periapsis altitude of at least 200 km, such as for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Even if the MEMO orbiter is not dedicated to Mars' gravity field investigation, we propose to take this opportunity to improve our knowledge of Mars' gravity field. Indeed, the sensitivity of an orbiter to the gravity field strongly depends on the semi-major axis, inclination and eccentricity of its orbit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the improvement on the determination of local gravity anomalies, of seasonal variations of the first zonal harmonics and of the k2 Love number of Mars. We base our work on both analytical and numerical approaches in order to simulate the Mars' gravity field determination from spacecraft tracking data from the Earth.We also add in our simulations the possibility to have an accelerometer onboard the MEMO spacecraft. Indeed, if it is placed at the center of mass of the spacecraft, it could provide measurements of the non-gravitational forces acting on it, especially the atmospheric drag. A good determination of the contribution of this force to the spacecraft motion would bring information about the atmospheric density at altitude between 100 and 200 km, and would improve the gravity field determination from tracking data of the spacecraft.

  20. Automated design of gravity-assist trajectories to Mars and the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Williams, Steve N.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach to planetary mission design is described which automates the search for gravity-assist trajectories. This method finds all conic solutions given a range of launch dates, a range of launch energies and a set of target planets. The new design tool is applied to the problems of finding multiple encounter trajectories to the outer planets and Venus gravity-assist trajectories to Mars. The last four-planet grand tour opportunity (until the year 2153) is identified. It requires an earth launch in 1996 and encounters Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Venus gravity-assist trajectories to Mars for the 30 year period 1995-2024 are examined. It is shown that in many cases these trajectories require less launch energy to reach Mars than direct ballistic trajectories.

  1. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport developed on Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of the gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates fromed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  2. Joint Inversion and Forward Modeling of Gravity and Magnetic Data in the Ismenius Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milbury, C. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Jewell, J. B.; Smrekar, S. E.; Schubert, G.

    2005-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of remanent crustal magnetism on Mars was one of the most intriguing results from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. The origin of the pattern of magnetization remains elusive. Correlations with gravity and geology have been examined to better understand the nature of the magnetic anomalies. In the area of the Martian dichotomy between 50 and 90 degrees E (here referred to as the Ismenius Area), we find that both the Bouguer and the isostatic gravity anomalies appear to correlate with the magnetic anomalies and a buried fault, and allow for a better constraint on the magnetized crust].

  3. Gravity wave vertical coupling on Earth and Mars: similarities and peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexander S.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves play a major role in the dynamical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere both on Earth and Mars. A significant progress with understanding gravity wave phenomena in the Martian atmosphere has been achieved over the last decade. We present some of these findings focusing on comparison with the terrestrial atmosphere. Gravity waves are stronger on Mars, thanks to more violent meteorology and rougher topography. They transport energy and momentum upon propagation to the mesosphere and thermosphere, and affect the circulation there. Gravity waves facilitate a formation of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, and cause a strong thermospheric response to dust storms in the troposphere. This talk promotes a view of coupling processes not only as an Earth phenomenon, but as a universal mechanism in planetary atmospheres.

  4. Mars gravity derived from the long-period motion of Mariner 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.; Christensen, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The spherical harmonic coefficients in the Mars gravity field are determined using a two-stage filtering process. In the first stage, a weighted least-squares orbit determination processor is applied to Mariner 9 radio data to estimate the mean Kepler elements of each orbit. A finite difference method is then used to generate orbital element rates. In the second stage, the gravity coefficients are determined using another weighted least-squares processor which fits the long period Lagrange perturbation equations to the estimated rates. The resulting gravity potential and associated equipotential surface is presented and error sources discussed. Gravity field results are applied to various physical properties of Mars, such as moments of inertia.-

  5. Send Your Students to Mars for Their next Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) is led by the Arizona State University (ASU) Mars Education Program, a major partner of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. MSIP is based on the National Science Education Standards and includes curriculum on terrestrial planet characteristics, experimental design, and proposal writing. Three spacecraft…

  6. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine r&searchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual I-IMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas. 1. Classes of Supply: First, we wanted to understand what supply items existed at the HMP research station in support of planetary science and exploration research at and around the Haughton Crater. We also wanted to quantify the total amount of imported mass at HMP and compare this with predictions from existing parametric lunar base demand models. 2. Macro-Logistics Transportation Network: Our second objective was to understand the nodes, transportation routes, vehicles, capacities and crew and cargo mass flow rates required to support the HMP logistics network. 3. Agent and Asset Tracking: Since the current inventory management system on ISS relies heavily on barcodes and manual tracking, we wanted to test new automated technologies and procedures such as radio frequency identification RFID) to support exploration logistics. 4. Micro-Logistics (EVA): Finally, we wanted to understand the micro-logistical requirements of conducting both short (<1 day) and long traverses in the Mars-analog terrain on Devon Island. Micro-logistics involves the movement of surface vehicles, people and supplies from base to various exploration sites over short distances (<100 km).

  7. A manned Mars mission concept with artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.

    1986-01-01

    A series of simulated manned Mars missions was analyzed by a computer model. Numerous mission opportunities and mission modes were investigated. Sensitivity trade studies were performed of the vehicle all-up mass and propulsion stage sizes as a function of various levels of conservatism in mission velocity increment margins, payload mass and propulsive stage characteristics. The longer duration but less energetic type of conjunction class mission is emphasized. The specific mission opportunity reviewed was for a 1997 departure. From the trade study results, a three and one-half stage vehicle concept evolved, utilizing a Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) first stage derived from the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET).

  8. Structure and Dynamics of the Polar Regions of Mars from MGS Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been engaged in systematic mapping of Mars since insertion into Mars orbit in September, 1997. The objectives of the MGS mission are to globally map Mars as well as to quantify seasonal changes on the planet. MGS geophysical/geodetic observations of topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from the Radio Science investigation are providing significant new insights on both static and time-varying aspects of the polar regions of Mars. These observations have implications for polar processes on diurnal seasonal and climatic timescales. Thus far, MOLA has collected over 300 million precise measurements of Martian topography and cloud heights. The instrument has also provided measurements of the width of the backscattered optical pulse and of the 1064 nm reflectivity of the Martian surface and atmosphere. The along-track resolution of MOLA ground shots is approx. 300 m and the across-track spacing in the polar regions is a maximum of about four kilometers. The vertical accuracy of the topography is determined by the precision recovery of spacecraft orbits from the Radio Science investigation, which includes MOLA altimetry in the form of crossovers. This accuracy is currently approx. one meter. The gravity field is derived from X-band Doppler tracking with typical accuracy of 0.03 to 0.05 mm/s averaged over ten seconds. Current Mars gravity fields are to approximately degree and order 80 but are interpretable to the approximate degree and order 60 (spatial resolution < 180 km), which represents an estimate of the approximate coefficient limit of a field that can be produced without a power law constraint on the gravitational field inversion, which is commonly imposed for solution stability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar and Mars Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences of the Apollo missions, it is evident that the off nominal center of gravity (CG) induced by the portable life support system (PLSS) had significant impact on the locomotion stability of the crew. This in turn is believed to have been a major contributor to the high numbers of falls and high metabolic rates experienced by the crew, and thus significantly hampered the crew s performance. With this in mind, the EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) group at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been conducting tests to assess how spacesuit CG location impacts human performance in simulated lunar and Mars gravity. The results acquired to date show correlations between CG location and performance. However, noticeable variations in the performance data have been observed across subjects for fixed CG configurations. Consequently, it was hypothesized that this variability may be attributed to the anthropometrics of the different test subjects. It was further hypothesized that trunk-to-height ratio (THR) may be directly correlated to performance in reduced gravity; i.e. subjects with increased THR may have increased performance. To test this hypothesis, lunar and Mars gravity test data acquired over three years during NASA Neural Buoyancy Lab (NBL) tests and NASA Extreme Environment Missions Operation (NEEMO) missions were analyzed against THR, height, trunk length, and subject body mass/weight. The results of the study supported the hypothesis relating THR and performance, while the other three anthropometric parameters did not provide consistent correlations with performance. This in turn suggests that human performance in reduced gravity may be more dependent on anthropometric proportions than on body segment lengths and mass/weight.

  10. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.

  11. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  12. Lunar/Mars Surface Habitat Mockups Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Daues, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Surface habitats play a centric role with respect to integration of the crew operations and supporting surface systems for external operations on the moon and Mars. Up to now the only planetary surface habitat NASA has ever developed is the 2-person, 3-day duration Lunar Module from the 1960 s-era Apollo Program. Today s National Vision for Space Exploration pushes far beyond the safety, performance and operational requirements of the Lunar Module, and NASA needs to develop a basis for making habitat design decisions Experience has shown that using mockups very early in a project s life cycle is extremely beneficial, providing data that influences requirements for human design, volumetrics, functionality, systems hardware and operations. Evaluating and comparing a variety of habitat configurations will provide NASA with a cost-effective basis for trades to support lunar and Martian habitat design selection. This paper describes the NASA project that recently has been created to undertake the development and evaluation of a series of planetary surface habitat mockups. This project is in direct response to the Advanced Space Platforms and Systems (ASPS) Element Program s request for novel systems approaches for robust and reconfigurable habitation systems.

  13. Gravity-wave induced CO2 clouds on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO2 condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the whole atmosphere GW parameterization of Yiǧit et al. (2008)}. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO2 cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date. Reference: Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.

  14. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nikolaus J. Kuhn (1), Brigitte Kuhn (1), and Andres Gartmann (2) (1) University of Basel, Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland (nikolaus.kuhn@unibas.ch), (2) Meteorology, Climatology, Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport on Mars developed for Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of such gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates formed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  15. Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment - Gravity field and pole direction of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, J.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Laing, P. A.; Martin, W. L.; Sjogren, W. L.; Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Slater, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the Mariner 9 radio-tracking data shows that the Martian gravity field is rougher than that of earth or the moon, and that the accepted direction of the Mars rotation axis is in error by about 0.5 deg. Contours of equivalent surface heights deduced from a sixth-degree solution for the Martian gravity field are presented. These contours represent the deviations from sphericity of a uniformly dense body with an external potential which is given by the first sixth-degree solution. In addition to Doppler observations, ranging or group-delay measurements have been made regularly since orbit insertion.

  16. Mars gravity derived from long-period motion of Mariner 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.; Christensen, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The spherical harmonic coefficients in the gravity field of Mars are determined using a two stage filtering process. In the first stage, a weighted least squares orbit determination processor is applied to Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data to estimate Kepler elements and rates. In the second stage, the Kepler element rates are used as input to another weighted least squares processor that estimates gravity coefficients using the Lagrange perturbation equations. The novelty in this method is the fitting of element rates rather than the elements themselves. This procedure decouples the results from the effects of internal spacecraft dynamics.

  17. Artificial gravity considerations for a mars exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial gravity (AG), as a means of preventing physiological deconditioning of astronauts during long-duration space flights, presents certain special challenges to the otolith organs and the adaptive capabilities of the CNS. The key issues regarding the choice of AG acceleration, radius, and rotation rate are reviewed from the viewpoints of physiological requirements and human factors disturbances. Head movements and resultant Coriolis forces on the rotating platform may limit the usefulness of economical short centrifuges for other than brief periods of intermittent stimulation.

  18. Artificial gravity considerations for a mars exploration mission.

    PubMed

    Young, L R

    1999-05-28

    Artificial gravity (AG), as a means of preventing physiological deconditioning of astronauts during long-duration space flights, presents certain special challenges to the otolith organs and the adaptive capabilities of the CNS. The key issues regarding the choice of AG acceleration, radius, and rotation rate are reviewed from the viewpoints of physiological requirements and human factors disturbances. Head movements and resultant Coriolis forces on the rotating platform may limit the usefulness of economical short centrifuges for other than brief periods of intermittent stimulation. PMID:10372085

  19. NASA/Haughton-Mars Project 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) medical requirements and lunar surface operations is shown. The topics onclude: 1) Mission Purpose/ Overview; 2) HMP as a Moon/Mars Analog; 3) Simulation objectives; 4) Discussion; and 5) Forward work.

  20. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittance and Correlation Spectra on Mars: Implications for Regional and Global Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.

    2002-01-01

    [i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.

  1. Tunable Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer for Mars Climate, Atmosphere, and Gravity Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, C. E.; Paik, H. J.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a compact tensor superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) for obtaining gravimetric measurements from planetary orbits. A new and innovative design gives a potential sensitivity of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2)( 1 E = 10(sup -9 S(sup -2) in the measurement band up to 0.1 Hz (suitale for short wavelength static gravity) and of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2) in the frequency band less than 1 mHz (for long wavelength time-variable gravity) from the same device with a baseline just over 10 cm. The measurement band and sensitiy can be optimally tuned in-flight during the mission by changing resonance frequencies, which allows meaurements of both static and time-variable gravity fields from the same mission. Significant advances in the technologies needed for space-based cryogenic instruments have been made in the last decade. In particular, the use of cryocoolers will alleviate the previously severe constraint on mission lifetime imposed by the use of liquid helium, enabling mission durations in the 5 - 10 year range.

  2. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. MARS Gravity-Assist to Improve Missions towards Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Lorenzo; Colasurdo, Guido

    fain-belt asteroids are one of the keys to the investigation of the processes that lead to the solar electric propulsion (SEP) with ion thrusters is a mature technology for the exploration of the bolar system. NASA is currently planning the DAWN mission towards two asteroids of the main s with Vesta in 2010 and Ceres in 2014. A mission to an asteroid of the main belt requires a large velocity increment (V) and the use of high-specific-impulse thrusters, such as ion thrusters, p m ovides a large improvement of the payload and, consequently, of the scientific return of the of this kind of trajectory is a non-trivial task, since many local optima exist and performance can be improved by increasing the trip-time and the number of revolutions around the sun, in order to use t the propellant only in the most favorable positions (namely, perihelia, aphelia and nodes) along the Mars is midway between the Earth and the main belt; even though its gravity is quite small, a gravity assist from Mars can remarkably improve the trajectory performance and is considered in this paper. p he authors use an indirect optimization procedure based on the theory of optimal control. The Mars) spheres of influence is neglected; the equations of motion are therefore integrated only in the heliocentric reference frame, whereas the flyby is treated as a discontinuity of the spacecraft's velocity. The paper analyzes trajectories, which exploit chemical propulsion to escape from the E variable-power, constant-specific-impulse propulsion system is assumed. The optimization procedure provides departure, flyby and arrival dates, the hyperbolic excess velocity on leaving the t arth's sphere of influence, which must be provided by the chemical propulsion system, and the E e ass at rendezvous, when the trip time is assigned. As far as the thrust magnitude is concerned, m either full-thrust arcs or coast arcs are required, and the procedure provides the times to switch the g low and the spacecraft

  4. Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.

  5. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program --now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human Exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines be opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  6. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program -- now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history. The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines the opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  7. Mars in this century: The Olympia Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Manned exploration of the inner solar system --- typified by a manned expedition to Mars --- this side of the indefinite future involves fitting a technical peg into the political hole. If Apollo-level resources are assumed unavailable for such exploratory programs, then non-Apollo means and methods must be employed, involving greater technical and human risks, or else such exploration must be deferred indefinitely. Sketched here is an example of such a relatively high-risk alternative, one which could land men on Mars in the next decade, and return them to earth. Two of its key features are a teleoperated rocket fuel-generating facility on the lunar surface and an interplanetary mission-staging space station at L{sub 4}, which would serve to enable a continuing solar system exploratory program, with annual mission commencements to points as distant as the Jovian moons. The estimated cost-to-execute this infrastructure-building manned Mars mission is $3 billion, with follow-on missions estimated to cost no more than $1 billion each. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment: gravity field and pole direction of Mars.

    PubMed

    Lorell, J; Born, G H; Christensen, E J; Jordan, J F; Laing, P A; Martin, W L; Sjogren, W L; Shapiro, I I; Reasenberg, R D; Slater, G L

    1972-01-21

    Analysis of the Mariner 9 radio-tracking data shows that the Martian gravity field is rougher than that of Earth or the moon, and that the accepted direction of Mars's rotation axis is in error by about 0.5 degrees . The new value for the pole direction for the epoch 1971.9, referred to the mean equatorial system of 1950.0, is right ascension alpha= 317.3 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees , declination delta = 52.6 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees . The values found for the coefficients of the low-order harmonics of Mars's gravity field are as follows: J(2)=(1.96+/-0.01)x10(-3), referred to an equatorial radius of 3394 kilometers; C(22) = -(5 +/- 1) x 10(-5); and S(22) = (3 +/- 1) x 10(-5). The value for J(2) is in excellent agreement with the result from, Wilkins' analysis of the observations of Phobos. The other two coefficients imply a value of (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-4) for the fractional difference in the principal equatorial moments of inertia; the axis of the minimum moment passes near 105 degrees W. PMID:17814540

  9. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  10. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  11. Gravity Monitoring of the Weber River Aquifer Storage Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, P.; Hurlow, H.; Chapman, D. S.; Harris, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    Repeated precision gravity measurements provide an economical way to track aquifer storage changes through time. In early 2004, the Weber River Water Conservancy District in northern Utah began an aquifer storage and recovery pilot project by infiltrating river water into a depleted aquifer. We are tracking the infiltrated water by measuring gravity changes over the aquifer through time. A network of 28 stations around the infiltration location was established, with an additional station in the nearby mountains for a stable reference. Gravity surveys are conducted at approximately two week intervals; monthly rapid-static GPS campaigns monitor ground deformation across the network. Gravity monitoring commenced in Feburary 2004, to establish a baseline before infiltration and investigate the magnitudes of natural signals and measurment noise. Infiltration commenced six weeks after the start of monitoring and by early July 2004, nearly 750 000 m3 of water were infiltrated; gravity changes at the infiltration site reached a peak of ˜100 μ Gal. Gaussian integration of the peak gravity signal is consistent with the total volume of infiltrated water. Continued monitoring during infiltration tracked the horizontal migration of infiltration water south and west of the site, consistent with known hydraulic gradients. Infiltration ended in July 2004 and gravity measurements show a declining recharge mound, with the peak decreasing to ˜60 μ Gal one month later. The spatial and temporal changes in gravity will be used to refine and enhance reservoir modeling around the infiltration site.

  12. Artificial Gravity for Mars Missions: The Different Design and Development Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus; Arno, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major impediments to human Mars missions is the development of appropriate countermeasures for long term physiological response to the micro-gravity environment. A plethora of countermeasure approaches have been advanced from strictly pharmacological measures to large diameter rotating spacecraft that would simulate a 1-g environment (the latter being the most conservative from a human health perspective). The different approaches have significantly different implications not only on the overall system design of a Mars Mission Vehicle (MMV) but on the necessary earth-orbiting platform that would be required to qualify the particular countermeasure system. it is found that these different design options can be conveniently categorized in terms of the order of magnitude of the rotation diameter required (100's, 10's, 1's, 0 meters). From this, the different mass penalties associated with each category can be generally compared. The overall objective of the countermeasure system should be to maximize crew safety and comfort, minimize exercise protocol time (i.e., the time per day that each crew member would have to participate in the exercise/countermeasure), maximize countermeasure effectiveness, and minimize the associated system mass penalty of the Mars Mission Vehicle (in terms of fraction of IMLEO - Injected Mass in Low Earth Orbit).

  13. Overview of the MARS Laser Communications Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edward, Bernard L.; Townes, Stephen A.; Bondurant, Roy S.; Scozzafava, Joseph J.; Boroson, Don M.; Parvin, Ben A.; Biswas, Abhijit; Pillsbury, Alan D.; Khatri, Farzana I.; Burnside, Jamie W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reviews the strawman designs for the flight and ground segments, the critical technologies required, and the concept of operations. It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done at JPL and GSFC. The lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telecom Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will demonstrate a technology which has the potential of vastly improving NASA s ability to communicate throughout the solar system.

  14. Finite Difference Simulations of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Applications to INSIGHT NASA Mission and Mars Microphone Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R.; Brissaud, Q.; Martin, R.; Rolland, L. M.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    A simulation tool of acoustic and gravity wave propagation through finite differences is applied to the case of Mars atmosphere.The details of the code and its validation for Earth atmosphere are presented in session SA003.The simulations include the modeling of both acoustic and gravity waves in the same run, an effects of exponential density decrease, winds and attenuation.The application to Mars requires the inclusion of a specific attenuation effect related to the relaxation induced by vibrational modes of carbon dioxide molecules.Two different applications are presented demonstrating the ability of the simulation tool to work at very different scale length and frequencies.First the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves due to a bolide explosion in the atmosphere of Mars are simulated.This case has a direct application to the atmospheric pressure and seismic measurements that will be performed by INSIGHT NASA discovery mission next year.Then, we also present simulations of sound wave propagation on a scale of meters that can be used to infer the feasability microphone measurements for future Mars missions.

  15. World Gravity Map (WGM) Project: Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, S.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Moreaux, G.; Sarrailh, M.; Fayard, T.

    2009-12-01

    The WGM project is a gravity mapping project undertaken under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) to complement a set of global geological and geophysical digital maps published and updated by CGMW, such as the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM), released in 2007. This new global digital map aims to provide a high-resolution picture of the gravity anomalies of the world (free-air and topography-corrected Bouguer) based on the available information on the Earth gravity field, with the final objective to contribute to research and educational projects. The WGM project is conducted by the International Gravimetric Bureau (IGB), a center of the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), with the support of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Major contributions to the WGM are provided by the EGM08 global model, recently released by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA, USA), as well as the new global marine gravity fields derived from satellite altimetry (DNSC08 computed at the Danish National Space Center, and V18.1 computed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography). The WGM also aims to improve the gravity anomalies at regional scale, using available products from recent regional compilations of land, marine and airborne surveys (possibly derived from BGI or other global or regional databases). As other geophysical maps published by CGMW, the WGM maps and digital products should be regularly updated according to the incoming gravity datasets. We present here the current status of the WGM project.

  16. Project MARS, Leominster, Massachusetts. Compensatory Education, Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Project Make All Reading Serviceable (MARS) offers special reading instruction to over 200 public and parochial school disadvantaged children in grades one through four. The primary objective is to raise the reading performance of students to a level consistent with their potential reading ability. The program also aims to foster academic…

  17. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of "zero-gravity" (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5-1.2 year long stays in LEO (Low Earth Orbit). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity (AG) Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced "bimodal" nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (I (sub sp)) capability of approximately 900 s - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional NTP carry twin cylindrical "ISS-type" habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own "closed" secondary helium-xenon gas loop and Brayton rotating unit that can generate tens of kilowatts (kW (sub e)) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase eliminating the need for large PVAs. A single inflatable

  18. High Performance Mars Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Whitlock, David; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is enough of a challenge and in the gravity of Mars, improvements in mobility will enable the suited crew member to efficiently complete EVA objectives. The idea proposed is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area in order to free up the arms and legs by removing the liquid tubes currently used in the ISS EVA suit in the limbs. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased to provide the entire liquid cooling requirement and increase mobility by freeing up the arms and legs. Additional potential benefits of this approach include reduced LCVG mass, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development.

  19. An Inversion of Gravity and Topography for Mantle and Crustal Structure on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Bills, Bruce G.; Nerem, R. Steven

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars presently provides our primary quantitative constraints on the internal structure of Mars. We present an inversion of the long-wavelength (harmonic degree less than or equal to 10) gravity and topography of Mars for lateral variations of mantle temperature and crustal thickness. Our formulation incorporates both viscous mantle flow (which most prior studies have neglected) and isostatically compensated density anomalies in the crust and lithosphere. Our nominal model has a 150-km-thick high-viscosity surface layer over an isoviscous mantle, with a core radius of 1840 km. It predicts lateral temperature variations of up to a few hundred degrees Kelvin relative to the mean mantle temperature, with high temperature under Tharsis and to a lesser extent under Elysium and cool temperatures elsewhere. Surprisingly, the model predicts crustal thinning beneath Tharsis. If correct, this implies that thinning of the crust by mantle shear stresses dominates over thickening of the crust by volcanism. The major impact basins (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis, Chryse, and Utopia) are regions of crustal thinning, as expected. Utopia is also predicted to be a region of hot mantle, which is hard to reconcile with the surface geology. An alternative model for Utopia treats it as a mascon basin. The Utopia gravity anomaly is consistent with the presence of a 1.2 to 1.6 km thick layer of uncompensated basalt, in good agreement with geologic arguments about the amount of volcanic fill in this area. The mantle thermal structure is the dominant contributor to the observed geoid in our inversion. The mantle also dominates the topography at the longest wavelengths, but shorter wavelengths (harmonic degrees greater than or equal to 4) are dominated by the crustal structure. Because of the uncertainty about the appropriate numerical values for some of the model's input parameters, we have examined the sensitivity of the model results to the planetary

  20. Plume Mitigation for Mars Terminal Landing: Soil Stabilization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has led the efforts for lunar and Martian landing site preparation, including excavation, soil stabilization, and plume damage prediction. There has been much discussion of sintering but until our team recently demonstrated it for the lunar case there was little understanding of the serious challenges. Simplistic sintering creates a crumbly, brittle, weak surface unsuitable for a rocket exhaust plume. The goal of this project is to solve those problems and make it possible to land a human class lander on Mars, making terminal landing of humans on Mars possible for the first time.

  1. The Ph-D project: Manned expedition to the Moons of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. Fred

    2000-01-01

    The Ph-D (Phobos-Deimos) mission involves the transfer of six to eight men (and women), including two medical scientists, from Earth orbit to Deimos, the outer satellite of Mars. There follows a sequential program of unmanned exploration of the surface of Mars by means of some ten to twenty unmanned rover vehicles, each of which returns Mars samples to the Deimos laboratory. A two-man sortie descends to the surface of Mars to gain a direct geological perspective and develop priorities in selecting samples. At the same time, other astronauts conduct a coordinated program of exploration (including sample studies) of Phobos and Deimos. Bringing men close to Mars to control exploration is shown to have scientific and other advantages over either (i) (manned) control from the Earth, or (ii) manned operations from Mars surface. The mission is envisaged to take place after 2010, and to last about two years (including a three-to six-month stay at Deimos). Depending on then-available technology, take-off weight from Earth orbit is of the order of 300 tons. A preferred mission scheme may preposition propellants and equipment at Deimos by means of ``slow freight,'' possibly using a ``gravity boost'' from Venus. It is then followed by a ``manned express'' that conveys the astronauts more rapidly to Deimos. Both chemical and electric propulsion are used in this mission, as appropriate. Electric power is derived from solar and nuclear sources. Assuming that certain development costs can be shared with space-station programs, the incremental cost of the project is estimated as less than $40 billion (in 1998 dollars), expended over a 15-year period. The potential scientific returns are both unique and important: (i) Establishing current or ancient existence of life-forms on Mars; (ii) Understanding the causes of climate change by comparing Earth and Mars; (iii) Martian planetary history; (iv) Nature and origin of the Martian moons. Beyond the Ph-D Project, many advanced programs

  2. Mars gravity field model from Mariner 9, Viking 1 and 2 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmino, G.; Moynot, B.; Christensen, E. J.; Roucher, P.; Vales, N.

    1979-01-01

    Earth artificial satellite methods are extended by means of two way Doppler data, to the computation of very accurate orbiter trajectories around another planet, and to the determination of its gravity field. It is reported that in the case of Mars, all observations collected by 10 Deep Space Network stations located at three different sites during the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed and used to compute a full twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model of the gravitational potential. It is concluded that the aeroid derived from the model shows very large correlations with the Martian topography, raising questions as to the deep structure of the planet which cannot be interpreted on the basis of topographic and isostatic considerations alone.

  3. Implications of the Utopia Gravity Anomaly for the Resurfacing of the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas the surface units of the northern plain of Mars generally exhibit ages ranging from late Hesperian to Amazonian, interpretation of precise topographic measurements indicate that the age of the underlying "basement" is early Noachian, or almost as old as the southern highlands. This suggests that widespread but relatively superficial resurfacing has occurred throughout the northern plains since the end of early heavy bombardment. In this abstract I examine some of the possible implications of the subsurface structure inferred for the Utopia basin from gravity data on the nature of this resurfacing. The large, shallow, circular depression in Utopia Planitia has been identified as a huge impact basin, based on both geological evidence and detailed analysis of MOLA topography. Its diameter (approx. 3000 km) is equivalent to that of the Hellas basin, as is its inferred age (early Noachian). However, whereas Hellas is extremely deep with rough terrain and large slopes, the Utopia basin is a smooth, shallow, almost imperceptible bowl. Conversely, Utopia displays one of the largest (non-Tharsis-related) positive geoid anomalies on Mars, in contrast to a much more subdued negative anomaly over Hellas.

  4. Gravity. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Keith; Osborne, Roger

    One area explored in the second (in-depth) phase of the Learning in Science Project was "children's science," defined as views of the world and the meanings for words that children have and bring with them to science lessons. The investigation reported focuses on students' thinking regarding their views on gravity. Students (N=42) were…

  5. Project Genesis: Mars in situ propellant technology demonstrator mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Francisco Garcia; Anderson, Scott; Andrews, Jason; Deger, Matt; Hedman, Matt; Kipp, Jared; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Marcelo, Mohrli; Mark, Karen; Matheson, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Project Genesis is a low cost, near-term, unmanned Mars mission, whose primary purpose is to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. The essence of the mission is to use indigenously produced fuel and oxidizer to propel a ballistic hopper. The Mars Landing Vehicle/Hopper (MLVH) has an Earth launch mass of 625 kg and is launched aboard a Delta 117925 launch vehicle into a conjunction class transfer orbit to Mars. Upon reaching its target, the vehicle performs an aerocapture maneuver and enters an elliptical orbit about Mars. Equipped with a ground penetrating radar, the MLVH searches for subsurface water ice deposits while in orbit for several weeks. A deorbit burn is then performed to bring the MLVH into the Martian atmosphere for landing. Following aerobraking and parachute deployment, the vehicle retrofires to a soft landing on Mars. Once on the surface, the MLVH begins to acquire scientific data and to manufacture methane and oxygen via the Sabatier process. This results in a fuel-rich O2/CH4 mass ratio of 2, which yields a sufficiently high specific impulse (335 sec) that no additional oxygen need be manufactured, thus greatly simplifying the design of the propellant production plant. During a period of 153 days the MLVH produces and stores enough fuel and oxidizer to make a 30 km ballistic hop to a different site of scientific interest. At this new location the MLVH resumes collecting surface and atmospheric data with the onboard instrumentation. Thus, the MLVH is able to provide a wealth of scientific data which would otherwise require two separate missions or separate vehicles, while proving a new and valuable technology that will facilitate future unmanned and manned exploration of Mars. Total mission cost, including the Delta launch vehicle, is estimated to be $200 million.

  6. Convective generation and vertical propagation of fast gravity waves on Mars: One- and two-dimensional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.

  7. Radio Science Observations of the Mars Express December 2013 Phobos Flyby and Implications for the Satellite's Gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, T.; Paetzold, M.; Rosenblatt, P.; Lainey, V.; Pasewaldt, A.; Oberst, J.; Jaumann, R.; Thuillot, W.; Remus, S.; Gurvits, L.; Pogrebenko, S.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T.; Cimo, G.; Duev, D.; Molera Calves, G.

    2014-12-01

    On 29th December 2013, the European spacecraft Mars Express performed a very close flyby at the Martian moon Phobos dedicated to the radio science experiment MaRS. The flyby distance was 58 km, the closest ever. Almost 32 hours of continuous tracking data were collected by ESTRACK (35 m) and DSN (70 m) ground station antennas. 31 VLBI antennas worldwide also recorded the radio signal. The tracking data were interrupted by occultations of approximately 1 hour duration in each orbit revolution, when the spacecraft in Mars orbit disappeared behind the planet as seen from the ground station. Images were taken with the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard Mars Express before and after the flyby in order to improve the ephemeris of Phobos. The gravity field of Phobos was estimated from a close MEX flyby in 2010 at a distance of 77 km. The derived second degree and order gravity coefficients, however, showed large errors and could not resolve the interior structure of Phobos. Hence, the close flyby in 2013 was the opportunity to estimate the gravity field of Phobos at a higher precision because of the closer flyby distance, improved Phobos ephemeris obtained from the HRSC/SRC camera, and longer observation times with the ground station antennas. We aim at measurements of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22, which are linked with the main moments of inertia of the body. By comparison with the Phobos shape model and assuming a homogeneous mass distribution these can help in interpretations of the internal structure of Phobos. The main contribution to the error budget of the gravity field is caused by the uncertainty of the Phobos ephemeris, which potentially can be improved by HRSC/SRC observations.

  8. The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.

    2008-12-01

    This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is

  9. Project Minerva: A low-cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Anderson, Hobie; Caviezel, Kelly; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hamling, Steven; Johnson, Bryan; Kalberer, Martin; Machula, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface, using only two sets of two launches. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the senario originally proposed by R. Zubrin of Martin Marietta. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low earth orbit (LEO): one consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles, and the second consists of the upper stage/trans-Mars injection (TMI) booster. In LEO, the two payloads are joined and inserted into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis-type process to combine six tons of hydrogen brought from earth with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce 100 tons of liquid oxygen and methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. Once the in-situ propellant production is completed, approximately two years after the first set of launches, the manned portion of the mission leaves earth. This set of two launches is similar to that of the unmanned vehicles; the two payloads are the Manned Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and the upper stage/TMI booster. The MTV contains the manned rover and the habitat which houses the astronauts enroute to Mars and on the Martian surface. During the 180-day trip to Mars, artificial gravity is created by tethering the MTV to the TMI booster and inducing rotation. Upon arrival the MTV performs aerobraking maneuvers to land near the fully-fueled ERV, which will be used by the crew a year and a half later to return to earth. The mission entails moderate travel times with relatively low-energy conjunction-class trajectories and allows ample time for scientific

  10. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Project and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Gavit, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Project, or Deep Space 2 (DS2), is the second of the New Millennium Program planetary missions and is designed to enable future space science network missions through flight validation of new technologies. A secondary goal is the collection of meaningful science data. Two micropenetrators will be deployed to carry out surface and subsurface science. The penetrators are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring and will be launched in January 1999. The microprobe has no active control, attitude determination, or propulsive systems. It is a single stage from separation until landing and will passively orient itself due to its aerodynamic design. The aeroshell will be made of a nonerosive heat shield material, Silicon impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA), developed at Ames Research Center. The aeroshell shatters on impact, at which time the probe separates into an aftbody that remains at the surface and a forebody that penetrates into the subsurface. Each probe has a total mass of up to 3 kg, including the aeroshell. The impact velocity will be about 180 meters per second. The forebody will experience up to 30,000 g's and penetrate between 0.3 and 2 meters, depending on the ice content of the soil. The aftbody deceleration will be up to 80,000 g. The penetrators arrive in December 1999. The landing ellipse latitude range is 73 deg-77 deg S. The longitude will be selected by the Mars Surveyor Project to place the lander on the polar layered deposits in the range of 180 deg -230 deg W. The two micropenetrators are likely to land within 100 km of the Mars Surveyor Lander, on the polar deposits. The likely arrival date is L(sub s) = 256, late southern spring. The nominal mission lasts 2 days. A science team was selected in April 1998.

  11. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Project and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Gavit, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Project, or Deep Space 2 (DS2), is the second of the New Millennium Program planetary missions and is designed to enable future space science network missions through flight validation of new technologies. A secondary goal is the collection of meaningful science data. Two micropenetrators will be deployed to carry out surface and subsurface science. The penetrators are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring and will be launched in January 1999. The microprobe has no active control, attitude determination, or propulsive systems. It is a single stage from separation until landing and will passively orient itself due to its aerodynamic design. The aeroshell will be made of a nonerosive heat shield material, Silicon impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA), developed at Ames Research Center. The aeroshell shatters on impact, at which time the probe separates into an aftbody that remains at the surface and a forebody that penetrates into the subsurface. Each probe has a total mass of up to 3 kg, including the aeroshell. The impact velocity will be about 180 meters per second. The forebody will experience up to 30,000 g's and penetrate between 0.3 and 2 meters, depending on the ice content of the soil. The aftbody deceleration will be up to 80,000 g. The penetrators arrive in December 1999. The landing ellipse latitude range is 73 deg-77 deg S. The longitude will be selected by the Mars Surveyor Project to place the lander on the polar layered deposits in the range of 180 deg -230 deg W. The two micropenetrators are likely to land within 100 km of the Mars Surveyor Lander, on the polar deposits. The likely arrival date is Ls = 256, late southern spring. The nominal mission lasts 2 days. A science team was selected in April 1998.

  12. Russian contribution to the ExoMars project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Korablev, O.; Rodionov, D.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukyanchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    goal of the descent module consists of the delivery of the 300-kg rover on the surface. The full mass of the module should not exceed 2000 kg. An aerodynamic shield and a parachute system assure the entry phase. A descent scenario with integrated retro-propulsion engines and landing on feet is being developed. Subsystems of the descend module are supplied by both Roscosmos and ESA. On the rover, Russia contributes two science instruments. ADRON-RM is a passive neutron detector to assess water contents in the Mars surface along the rover track. ISEM is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer mounted at the mast of the rover and is primarily dedicated for the assessment of mineralogical composition, operating in coordination with high-resolution channel of PANCAM. Both instruments will assist with planning rover traverse, rover targeting operations, and sample selection. A major effort of the Russian science is concentrated on the 2018 landing platform. This is the part of the descent module remaining immobile after the rover egress. The platform, or the longliving geophysical station shall have guaranteed lifetime of one Martian year, and will be able to accommodate up to 50 kg of science payload. The final list of science investigations, which is yet to be finalized, includes the meteorological station, instruments to analyse atmospheric composition, geophysical instruments. Other investigations will provide analyses of the surface/shallow subsurface material complimentary to these on the rover, and other experiments, if resources permit. Current status of the project and the developments will be presented

  13. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  14. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  15. Density and lithospheric thickness of the Tharsis Province from MEX MaRS and MRO gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthe, M.; Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Pätzold, M.; Dehant, V.

    2012-04-01

    Radio science tracking of Mars Express (MaRS experiment) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter produced high resolution Martian gravity data. Applying localized spectral analysis on the new gravity data sets, we study the surface density and lithospheric elastic thickness in the Tharsis province. The gravity signal is predicted with geophysical models either including bottom loading (top/bottom model) or taking into account the loading history (top/top model). Volcanic shields are mainly composed of high-density lava but their construction could have begun with lower density lava, with the exception of Ascraeus Mons which has a top of lower density. Buoyant bottom loading may have been present in the form of a mantle plume under Olympus Mons. The elastic thickness was much larger at Olympus Mons than at other volcanoes, suggesting large spatial variations of heat flux during the Hesperian. Alternatively, small elastic thicknesses could be artifacts reflecting the presence of very localized high-density crustal intrusions beneath the volcanoes. Thaumasia highlands were probably supported by a mantle plume at the time of formation. In Valles Marineris, top/bottom models predict low densities and large elastic thicknesses, in conflict with the basaltic rock composition and Hesperian age of the valley. Dense mafic dikes underlie the western part of the valley. The top/top model serves to test another scenario in which the trough is formed with sedimentary infilling removed much later by erosion, the elastic thickness increasing in between. At the large volcanoes, the relation between gravity and topography is anisotropic probably because of density variations.

  16. Use of Gravity Simulator in the International Space Station for Mars Terraformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    The future international manned exploration of planet Mars will require some independency of food and oxygen supplies to the crews on Mars. Vegetables, growing inside secure vessels on the Martian ground, are the best candidates for supplying a quasi-continuous production of proteins, salt minerals, water and oxygen to the astronauts working in a semi-permanent possible future living facility at Mars' surface, for a future, possible secure and controlled Mars terraformation.

  17. Haughton-Mars Project: Lessons for the Selection of Landing Site/Exploration Zone for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P.; Braham, S.; Fong, T.; Glass, B.; Hoffman, S. J.; Hoftun, C.; Huffman, S.; Johansen, B. W.; Lorber, K.; McKay, C. P.; Mueller, R.; Schutt, J. W.; Schwartz, K.; Weaver, J. T.

    2015-10-01

    Important lessons for designing, planning and implementing future human Mars surface activities have been learned from science and exploration investigations at the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island, High Arctic.

  18. Absolute gravity measurements in Southeast Alaska and continuous gravity observation in Juneau by ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kazama, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Okubo, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Kaufman, M.; Herreid, S. J.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that Southeast Alaska (SE-AK) shows a large uplift rates exceeding 32 mm/year at the maximum mainly due to the three ice changes in ages, i.e. in the Large Glacier Maximum, the Little Ice Age and the present day. Comparisons between rates of change obtained from GPS and absolute gravimeter (AG) observations and the rates predicted by model computations based on independently estimated ice mass changes indicate the existence of a very thin lithosphere (on the order of 60 km) and a low viscousity upper mantle (on the order of 1.E18 Pa s) beneath SE-AK (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al, 2011; Sato et al., 2012). On the other hand, it is also known that there are very large oceanic tidal loading effects in SE-AK, i.e. exceeding 2.7 cm and 8 microGals for the M2 constituent of the vertical displacement and gravity, respectively (Sato et al., 2008; Inazu et al., 2009; Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012). These regional large loading and unloading effects provide good signals to study the viscoelastic structure beneath SE-AK. A joint observation project (ISEA2) between Japan and USA groups has restarted as a five years project beginning in 2012. In June 2012, we conducted the AG measurements at the 6 sites in SE-AK at where the AG measurements were conducted by the previous ISEA1 project (Sun et al., 2010). Continuous gravity observation started also on June 2012 with a portable super conducting gravimeter (iGrav) at the EGAN library of UAS. We will introduce the results for these observations and comparisons with the previous observations and model computations. It is noted that the precipitation during the period from the winter in 2011 to the spring in 2012 was very large compared with the usual amount. We evaluate this effect on our gravity observations with a hydrological model computation (Kazama and Okubo, 2009) using the observed precipitation data as an input data. The observation with the iGrav super conducting gravimeter shall give us a useful data

  19. Moon and Mars gravity environment during parabolic flights: a new European approach to prepare for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Clervoy, Jean-Fran; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe; Rosier, Patrice

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballis-tic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 more than fifty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 600 experiments were conducted spanning several fields in Physical Sciences and Life Sciences, namely Fluid Physics, Combustion Physics, Ma-terial Sciences, fundamental Physics and Technology tests, Human Physiology, cell and animal Biology, and technical tests of Life Sciences instrumentation. Since 1997, ESA uses the Airbus A300 'Zero G', the largest airplane in the world used for this type of experimental research flight and managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the French space agency CNES. From 2010 onwards, ESA and Novespace will offer the possibility of flying Martian and Moon parabolas during which reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars will be achieved repetitively for periods of more than 20 seconds. Scientists are invited to submit experiment proposals to be conducted at these partial gravity levels. This paper presents the technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 Zero-G aircraft used by ESA to support and conduct investigations at Moon-, Mars-and micro-gravity levels to prepare research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions. Some Physiology and Technology experiments performed during past ESA campaigns at 0, 1/6 an 1/3 g are presented to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations.

  20. The geological mapping project of the Mars Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; di Iorio, A.

    2003-04-01

    The ESA mission Mars Express will send three instruments with geological mapping capability: HRSC, OMEGA, and MARSIS. The HRSC is a camera that will provide medium to high-resolution images (about 10m/pixel to 2m/pixel) in colour and stereo. OMEGA will provide maps of the surface mineralogy. MARSIS is a subsurface penetrating radar that will bring back data at depth in excess of 2000 metres. The data of Mars Express will provide a good opportunity to match different geological data sets including the subsurface geology. ESA through a peer-reviewed open competition has selected a project dealing with the geological mapping of the Mars Express data and their distribution in electronic formats. The aim of the project is to perform the geological mapping of the surface and subsurface data from HRSC, OMEGA, and MARSIS. The mapping operations will be coordinated by a scientific panel that will take care of the distribution among the scientific community of the tasks, the standardization of the geological nomenclature and of the interpretation of the data sets, and the evaluation and validation of the final products. The distribution of the tasks to the mapping teams will be done through a peer-reviewed process by the scientific panel. In order to have in Europe a community ready for such a kind of large-scale planetary project, a continuing educational programme is under way. This programme is financed by the Commission of the European Union, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. Short Courses, summer schools, and workshop have been organized in 2001 and 2002 and more will be held in the next two years. The response to this activity has been positive and the interested community has grown up to cover a large number of scientists from State members of the European Union and other European Countries. The current activity of the project deals with two tasks. The first one is to provide the proper electronic configurations and formats (hardware and

  1. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  2. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast.

    This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.; Asmar, S.; Goltz, G.

    2005-01-01

    ESA s Mars Express Mission involves international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of this mission is to search for hydrologic resources on the surface of Mars. Mars Express was launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on June 2, 2003 and arrived at Mars on December 25, 2003. Orbital science observations started in January 2004.

  4. Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines hundreds of exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm appears cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Buried and Visible Impact Basin Distribution on Mars: Comparison with Magnetization, Gravity and Crustal Thickness Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The large population of buried impact basins found in MOLA elevation data on Mars provides compelling evidence for a pre-Noachian crust below the oldest visible Early Noachian surface units, and lowland crust below the younger plains that is Early Noachian in age, older than much of the visible highlands, but not as old as the buried pre-Noachian highlands. The large (D greater than 200 km) buried basins are suggested by Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) that are not apparent in image data, and include features up to 3000 lun diameter in both the lowlands (Utopia) and highlands (a newly found "Ares Basin"). There are about a dozen QCDs larger than 1000 km diameter. We have placed these large features in a relative age sequence based on superimposed smaller QCD. Only the youngest and most obvious of these (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis) lack magnetic anomalies within their main rings. These all have an N(200) cumulative crater density of less than 2.5. Somewhat older lowland-making basins (Utopia, Chryse, Acidalia) with an N(200) age of approximately 3.0, have weak magnetic anomalies, and the oldest, most subdued basins (including Ares) with N(200) greater than 3.5 have many strong magnetic anomalies within their main ring. These older basins likely formed before the main magnetic field died. We have compared our inventory of large QCDs with the distribution of gravity anomalies and with a crustal thickness model which shows many roughly circular areas of thinner crust completely or partly surrounded by narrow regions of thicker crust. These have the structure expected for impact basins, and many of them do correspond to the visible or buried QCDs we previously identified. But there are cases where the crustal thickness feature is offset from the QCD found in topography alone, and there are also several, sometimes large examples of such features which do not coincide with QCDs previously identified. For example, we find several likely buried basins revealed in the crustal

  6. Gravity and lithospheric stress on the terrestrial planets with reference to the Tharsis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    On Mars and Venus, a strong positive correlation is found between geoid height and topography. The Tharsis region of Mars provides an exhibition of this correlation. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin of Tharsis. For purposes of explanation, three end-member dynamic hypotheses are considered. A hypothesis that the flexural doming of Tharsis resulted from uplift caused by some force acting on the base of the lithosphere can be rejected. According to another hypothesis, Tharsis is associated with a lithospheric load, while a third one considers that Tharsis is primarily isostatically compensated. In the present study, improved stress models for isostatic compensation on Mars are obtained. The strains inferred from fracture patterns on Mars are compared with the stresses predicted by the isostatic theory. It is found that the computed stresses are in reasonable agreement with tectonic features on Mars.

  7. Telerobotic Perception During Asteroid and Mars Regolith Operations Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Steven; Zeitlin, Nancy (Compiler); Mueller, Robert (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current space telerobotic systems are constrained to only operating in bright light and dust-free conditions. This project will study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on telerobotic perception systems to better assess and refine regolith operations on other neighboring celestial bodies. In partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and Caterpillar, Inc., optical, LiDAR and RADAR sensing equipment will be used in performing the study. This project will create a known dust environment in the Swamp Works Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) Laboratory regolith test bin to characterize the behavior of the sensing equipment in various calibrated lighting and dust conditions. It will also identify potential methods for mitigating the impacts of these undesirable conditions on the performance of the sensing equipment. Enhancing the capability of telerobotic perception systems will help improve life on earth for those working in dangerous, dusty mining conditions, as well as help advance the same technologies used for safer self-driving automobiles in various lighting and weather conditions. It will also prove to be a critical skill needed for advancing robotic and human exploration throughout our solar system, for activities such as mining on an asteroid or pioneering the first colony on Mars.

  8. Bayesian Approach to the Joint Inversion of Gravity and Magnetic Data, with Application to the Ismenius Area of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Raymond, C.; Smrekar, S.; Millbury, C.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a Bayesian approach to the inversion of gravity and magnetic data with specific application to the Ismenius Area of Mars. Many inverse problems encountered in geophysics and planetary science are well known to be non-unique (i.e. inversion of gravity the density structure of a body). In hopes of reducing the non-uniqueness of solutions, there has been interest in the joint analysis of data. An example is the joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data, with the assumption that the same physical anomalies generate both the observed magnetic and gravitational anomalies. In this talk, we formulate the joint analysis of different types of data in a Bayesian framework and apply the formalism to the inference of the density and remanent magnetization structure for a local region in the Ismenius area of Mars. The Bayesian approach allows prior information or constraints in the solutions to be incorporated in the inversion, with the "best" solutions those whose forward predictions most closely match the data while remaining consistent with assumed constraints. The application of this framework to the inversion of gravity and magnetic data on Mars reveals two typical challenges - the forward predictions of the data have a linear dependence on some of the quantities of interest, and non-linear dependence on others (termed the "linear" and "non-linear" variables, respectively). For observations with Gaussian noise, a Bayesian approach to inversion for "linear" variables reduces to a linear filtering problem, with an explicitly computable "error" matrix. However, for models whose forward predictions have non-linear dependencies, inference is no longer given by such a simple linear problem, and moreover, the uncertainty in the solution is no longer completely specified by a computable "error matrix". It is therefore important to develop methods for sampling from the full Bayesian posterior to provide a complete and statistically consistent

  9. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Barbieri, A. J.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.

    2004-01-01

    ESA's Mars Express Mission is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of the mission is to conduct a search for potential hydrologic resources from orbit and on the surface of Mars. Launch was from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on June 2, 2003; arrival at Mars was on December 25, 2003.

  10. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Butman, S.; Jepsen, P. L.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; Vaisnys, A.

    2003-01-01

    ESA's Mars Express Mission is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of the mission is to conduct a search for potential hydrologic resources from orbit and on the surface of Mars. Launch will be from Baikonur, Kazakhstan in late May 2003; arrival at Mars will be in late December 2003.

  11. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2003-12-01

    More than any other planet, Mars has captured our attention and fueled our speculations. Much of this interest relates to the possibility of martian life, as championed by Percival Lowell in the last century and subsequently in scientific papers and science fiction. Lowell's argument for life on Mars was based partly on geochemistry, in that his assessmentof the planet's hospitable climate was dependent on the identification of H2O ice rather than frozen CO2 in the polar caps. Although this reasoning was refuted by Alfred Wallace in 1907, widespread belief in extant martian life persisted within the scientific community until the mid-twentieth century (Zahnle, 2001). In 1965 the Mariner 4 spacecraft flyby suddenly chilled this climate, by demonstrating that the martian atmosphere was thin and the surface was a cratered moonscape devoid of canals. This view of Mars was overturned again in 1971, when the Mariner 9 spacecraft discovered towering volcanoes and dry riverbeds, implying a complex geologic history. The first geochemical measurements on Mars, made by two Viking landers in 1976, revealed soils enriched in salts suggesting exposure to water, but lacking organic compounds which virtually ended discussion of martian life.The suggestion that a small group of achondritic meteorites were martian samples (McSween and Stolper, 1979; Walker et al., 1979; Wasson and Wetherill, 1979) found widespread acceptance when trapped gases in them were demonstrated to be compositionally similar to the Mars atmosphere ( Bogard and Johnson, 1983; Becker and Pepin, 1984). The ability to perform laboratory measurements of elements and isotopes present in trace quantities in meteorites has invigorated the subject of martian geochemistry. Indeed, because of these samples, we now know more about the geochemistry of Mars than of any other planet beyond the Earth-Moon system. Some studies of martian meteorites have prompted a renewed search for extraterrestrial life using chemical

  13. Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

  14. The spinning artificial gravity environment: A design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignataro, Robert; Crymes, Jeff; Marzec, Tom; Seibert, Joe; Walker, Gary

    1987-01-01

    The SAGE, or Spinning Artificial Gravity Environment, design was carried out to develop an artificial gravity space station which could be used as a platform for the performance of medical research to determine the benefits of various, fractional gravity levels for astronauts normally subject to zero gravity. Desirable both for its medical research mission and a mission for the study of closed loop life-support and other factors in prolonged space flight, SAGE was designed as a low Earth orbiting, solar powered, manned space station.

  15. The Mars Exploration Rover Project : 2005 surface operations results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, James K.; Callas, John L.; Haldemann, Albert F. C.

    2005-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide the aerospace community a status report of the progress of the Mars Rovers exploration of the Martian surface, picking up after the landings and continuing through fiscal year 2005.

  16. Survey of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics efforts carried out in the frame of Mars exploration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynier, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is a survey of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics data related to Mars entry. The survey includes the studies carried out in the frame of projects aiming at preparing exploration missions involving entry probes into Mars atmosphere and the efforts have been concentrated on the aerothermodynamics developments. Russian (including former Soviet Union), European and NASA aerothermodynamics developments for preparing such missions have been accounted for. If a focus has been dedicated to the flight data gathered during Viking and Mars Pathfinder entries, the experimental and numerical activities carried out for the different projects have been also considered. The emphasis has been put on the post-flight analysis of flight experiments. The objective of the activity has been to develop a database of the developments performed for Mars entry that will be of interest for the preparation of future missions and for testing new models related to radiative transfer, and chemical kinetics schemes based on a state-to-state approach.

  17. Mars 2024/2026 Pathfinder Mission: Mars Architectures, Systems, and Technologies for Exploration and Resources Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Mueller, Robert; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Integrate In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) sub-systems and examine advanced capabilities and technologies to verify Mars 2024 Forward architecture precursor pathfinder options: Integrated spacecraft/surface infrastructure fluid architecture: propulsion, power, life support center dot Power system feed and propellant scavenging from propulsion system center dot High quality oxygen for life support and EVA Fluid/cryogenic zero-loss transfer and long-term storage center dot Rapid depot-to-rover/spacecraft center dot Slow ISRU plant-to-ascent vehicle Integration of ISRU consumable production center dot Oxygen only from Mars atmosphere carbon dioxide center dot Oxygen, fuel, water, from extraterrestrial soil/regolith Test bed to evaluate long duration life, operations, maintenance on hardware, sensors, and autonomy

  18. Project Ares: A systems engineering and operations architecture for the exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglioranzi, Michael J.; Berger, Jeff M.; Blaufuss, David J.; Boltz, Richard W.; Dunn, Michael T.

    1992-03-01

    The authors, a group of 18 veteran space operations officers, explored the concept of placing a permanently manned station on Mars - Project Ares. Using a five phase plan involving an early moon base and three scientific missions to Mars followed by cargo missions and eventually manned trips to the planet, the authors analyzed, designed, and documented their approach. The report focuses on the second phase of the project - scientific expansion of our knowledge of Mars and proof of a reliable transportation system. Among the subjects discussed in the report are management, mission profile and environment, and mission systems. The latter subject contains a variety of systems proposed by various authorities in the space industry and selected to fulfill the unique requirements of the project. Because this phase is an integral part of the project, emphasis was on reusability and versatility.

  19. Scientific results of the NASA-sponsored study project on Mars: Evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C. (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor); Zimbelman, James R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonics, and Volatiles (MEVTV) project are to outline the volcanic and tectonic history of Mars; to determine the influence of volatiles on Martian volcanic and tectonic processes; and to attempt to determine the compositional, thermal, and volatile history of Mars from its volcanic and tectonic evolution. Available data sets were used to test general models of the volcanic and tectonic history of Mars.

  20. Planetary protection issues for Mars sample acquisition flight projects.

    PubMed

    Barengoltz, J B

    2000-01-01

    The planned NASA sample acquisition flight missions to Mars pose several interesting planetary protection issues. In addition to the usual forward contamination procedures for the adequate protection of Mars for the sake of future missions, there are reasons to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by terrestrial microbes from the acquisition mission. Recent recommendations by the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Research Council (United States), would indicate that the scientific integrity of the sample is a planetary protection concern (SSB, 1997). Also, as a practical matter, a contaminated sample would interfere with the process for its release from quarantine after return for distribution to the interested scientists. These matters are discussed in terms of the first planned acquisition mission. PMID:12038483

  1. Project Hyreus: Mars sample return mission utilizing in situ propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita; Bair, Chris; Hink, Anthony; Kim, Jae; Koch, Amber; Kruse, Ross; Ngo, Dung; Nicholson, Heather; Nill, Laurie; Perras, Craig

    1993-01-01

    Project Hyreus is an unmanned Mars sample return mission that utilizes propellants manufactured in situ from the Martian atmosphere for the return voyage. A key goal of the mission is to demonstrate the considerable benefits of using indigenous resources and to test the viability of this approach as a precursor to manned Mars missions. The techniques, materials, and equipment used in Project Hyreus represent those that are currently available or that could be developed and readied in time for the proposed launch date in 2003. Project Hyreus includes such features as a Mars-orbiting satellite equipped with ground-penetrating radar, a large rover capable of sample gathering and detailed surface investigations, and a planetary science array to perform on-site research before samples are returned to Earth. Project Hyreus calls for the Mars Landing Vehicle to land in the Mangala Valles region of Mars, where it will remain for approximately 1.5 years. Methane and oxygen propellant for the Earth return voyage will be produced using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere and a small supply of hydrogen brought from Earth. This process is key to returning a large Martian sample to Earth with a single Earth launch.

  2. The Mars Project: Avoiding Decompression Sickness on a Distant Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    A cost-effective approach for Mars exploration is to use available resources, such as water and atmospheric gases. Nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) are available and could form the inert gas component of a habitat atmosphere at 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0 pounds per square inch (psia). The habitat and space suit are designed as an integrated system: a comfortable living environment about 85% of the time and a safe working environment about 15% of the time. A goal is to provide a system that permits unrestricted exploration of Mars, but the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) during the extravehicular activity in a 3.75-psia suit, after exposure to any of the three habitat conditions, may limit unrestricted exploration. I evaluate here the risk of DCS since a significant proportion of a trinary breathing gas in the habitat might contain Ar. I draw on past experience and published information to extrapolate into untested, multivariable conditions to evaluate risk. A rigorous assessment of risk as a probability of DCS for each habitat condition is not yet possible. Based on many assumptions about Ar in hypobaric decompressions, I conclude that the presence of Ar significantly increases the risk of DCS. The risk is significant even with the best habitat option: 2.56 psia oxygen, 3.41 psia N2, and 2.20 psia Ar. Several hours of prebreathing 100% 02, a higher suit pressure, or a combination of other important variables such as limited exposure time on the surface or exercise during prebreathe would be necessary to reduce the risk of DCS to an acceptable level. The acceptable level for DCS risk on Mars has not yet been determined. Mars is a great distance from Earth and therefore from primary medical care. The acceptable risk would necessarily be defined by the capability to treat DCS in the Rover vehicle, in the habitat, or both.

  3. The Mars Project: Avoiding Decompression Sickness on a Distant Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2000-05-01

    A cost-effective approach for Mars exploration is to use available resources, such as water and atmospheric gases. Nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) are available and could form the inert gas component of a habitat atmosphere at 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0 pounds per square inch (psia). The habitat and space suit are designed as an integrated system: a comfortable living environment about 85% of the time and a safe working environment about 15% of the time. A goal is to provide a system that permits unrestricted exploration of Mars, but the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) during the extravehicular activity in a 3.75-psia suit, after exposure to any of the three habitat conditions, may limit unrestricted exploration. I evaluate here the risk of DCS since a significant proportion of a trinary breathing gas in the habitat might contain Ar. I draw on past experience and published information to extrapolate into untested, multivariable conditions to evaluate risk. A rigorous assessment of risk as a probability of DCS for each habitat condition is not yet possible. Based on many assumptions about Ar in hypobaric decompressions, I conclude that the presence of Ar significantly increases the risk of DCS. The risk is significant even with the best habitat option: 2.56 psia oxygen, 3.41 psia N2, and 2.20 psia Ar. Several hours of prebreathing 100% 02, a higher suit pressure, or a combination of other important variables such as limited exposure time on the surface or exercise during prebreathe would be necessary to reduce the risk of DCS to an acceptable level. The acceptable level for DCS risk on Mars has not yet been determined. Mars is a great distance from Earth and therefore from primary medical care. The acceptable risk would necessarily be defined by the capability to treat DCS in the Rover vehicle, in the habitat, or both.

  4. Environmental Test Program for the Mars Exploration Rover Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Terry C.; VanVelzer, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    On June 10 and July 7, 2003 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida for a six (6) months flight to the Red Planet, Mars. The two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft landed safely on the planet in January 2004. Prior to the successful launch, both of the spacecraft were involved in a comprehensive test campaign that included development, qualification, and protoflight test programs. Testing was performed to simulate the environments associated with launch, inter-planetary cruise, landing on the planet and Mars surface operations. Unique test requirements included operating the spacecraft while the chamber pressure was controlled to simulate the decent to the planet from deep space, high impact landing loads and rover operations on the surface of the planet at 8 Torr and -130 C. This paper will present an overview of the test program that included vibration, pyro-shock, landing loads, acoustic noise, thermal vacuum and solar simulation testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Environmental Test Laboratory facilities in Pasadena, California.

  5. Mars Surface Analog Project: Preparing for Astronauts' First Hours on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J.; Evanoff, J.; Johnson, M.; Loerch, L.; Whelan, S.; Amonette, W.; Sanders, J.; Haralson, C.; Paloski, W.

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut missions to Mars may be decades in the future, but contemporary estimates of the physical capabilities of the crewmembers upon arrival after prolonged transit can guide development of operational requirements to be imposed on them. Requirements for functional capacities will differ depending on whether they land in a spartan ascent vehicle or in a well-equipped habitat, but each of those options brings with it certain operational risks. Rehabilitation will be an important factor for crew health, safety and efficiency after the multi-month transit from Earth. Specific recommendations will be stipulated for the time to be allotted for on-planet rehabilitation before the first planned surface excursion, such as the transfer from the ascent-lander to the habitat-lander. Three sequential workshops (the third including extramural experts in appropriate fields) examined the likely capabilities of crewmembers shortly after landing on Mars, the predicted operational requirements they will face, and the near-term steps to close the gap between the requirements and capabilities.

  6. Exercise Countermeasures Demonstration Project During the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase 2A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Williams, W. Jon; Greenisen, M. C.; Fortney, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This demonstration project assessed the crew members' compliance to a portion of the exercise countermeasures planned for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the outcomes of their performing these countermeasures. Although these countermeasures have been used separately in other projects and investigations, this was the first time they'd been used together for an extended period (60 days) in an investigation of this nature. Crew members exercised every day for six days, alternating every other day between aerobic and resistive exercise, and rested on the seventh day. On the aerobic exercise days, subjects exercised on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a protocol that has been previously shown to maintain aerobic capacity in subjects exposed to a space flight analogue. On the resistive exercise days, crew members performed five major multijoint resistive exercises in a concentric mode, targeting those muscle groups and bones we believe are most severely affected by space flight. The subjects favorably tolerated both exercise protocols, with a 98% compliance to aerobic exercise prescription and a 91% adherence to the resistive exercise protocol. After 60 days, the crew members improved their peak aerobic capacity by an average 7%, and strength gains were noted in all subjects. These results suggest that these exercise protocols can be performed during ISS, lunar, and Mars missions, although we anticipate more frequent bouts with both protocols for long-duration spaceflight. Future projects should investigate the impact of increased exercise duration and frequency on subject compliance, and the efficacy of such exercise prescriptions.

  7. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Public Mapping Project is a web-based education and public outreach tool developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This tool allows the general public to identify and map geologic features on Mars, utilizing Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible images, allowing public participation in authentic scientific research. In addition, participants are able to rate each image (based on a 1 to 5 star scale) to help build a catalog of some of the more appealing and interesting martian surface features. Once participants have identified observable features in an image, they are able to view a map of the global distribution of the many geologic features they just identified. This automatic feedback, through a global distribution map, allows participants to see how their answers compare to the answers of other participants. Participants check boxes "yes, no, or not sure" for each feature that is listed on the Mars Public Mapping Project web page, including surface geologic features such as gullies, sand dunes, dust devil tracks, wind streaks, lava flows, several types of craters, and layers. Each type of feature has a quick and easily accessible description and example image. When a participant moves their mouse over each example thumbnail image, a window pops up with a picture and a description of the feature. This provides a form of "on the job training" for the participants that can vary with their background level. For users who are more comfortable with Mars geology, there is also an advanced feature identification section accessible by a drop down menu. This includes additional features that may be identified, such as streamlined islands, valley networks, chaotic terrain, yardangs, and dark slope streaks. The Mars Public Mapping Project achieves several goals: 1) It engages the public in a manner that encourages active participation in scientific research and learning about geologic features and processes. 2) It helps to

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Boot Robustness Testing Project Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Brian

    2011-01-01

    On the surface of Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory will boot up its flight computers every morning, having charged the batteries through the night. This boot process is complicated, critical, and affected by numerous hardware states that can be difficult to test. The hardware test beds do not facilitate testing a long duration of back-to-back unmanned automated tests, and although the software simulation has provided the necessary functionality and fidelity for this boot testing, there has not been support for the full flexibility necessary for this task. Therefore to perform this testing a framework has been build around the software simulation that supports running automated tests loading a variety of starting configurations for software and hardware states. This implementation has been tested against the nominal cases to validate the methodology, and support for configuring off-nominal cases is ongoing. The implication of this testing is that the introduction of input configurations that have yet proved difficult to test may reveal boot scenarios worth higher fidelity investigation, and in other cases increase confidence in the robustness of the flight software boot process.

  9. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  10. Dropouts, Stopouts, Optouts at Del Mar College: Spring 1991. Report of a Joint Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Jo Ann I.; Bonham, L. Adrianne

    A research project investigated 2,313 persons who attended Del Mar College (Texas) during fall 1990 but did not enroll for spring 1991. Four sets of data were collected: (1) limited demographic information on the total student body; (2) demographic information drawn from school records to describe all nonreturnees; (3) demographic information…

  11. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, A. C.; Hintze, P. E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Bayliss, J. A.; Karr, L. J.; Paley, M. S.; Marone, M. J.; Gibson, T. L.; Surma, J. M.; Mansell, J. M.; Lunn, G. M.; Devor, R. W.; Berggren, M.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASA's Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100% of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon is under construction.

  12. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Bayliss, Jon; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Steve; Marone, Matt; Gibson, Tracy; Surma, Jan; Mansell, Matt; Lunn, Griffin; Devor, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is 96 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASAs Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100 of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon has been tested with encouraging results.

  13. Deployment of a Prototype Plant GFP Imager at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse of the Haughton Mars Project

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Bamsey, Matthew; Berinstain, Alain; Braham, Stephen; Neron, Philip; Murdoch, Trevor; Graham, Thomas; Ferl, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the past decades, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. However, most of the analytical procedures involve laboratory examination of the biosensor plants. With the advent of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a biosensor molecule, it became at least theoretically possible for analyses of gene expression to occur telemetrically, with the gene expression information of the plant delivered to the investigator over large distances simply as properly processed fluorescence images. Spaceflight and other extraterrestrial environments provide unique challenges to plant life, challenges that often require changes at the gene expression level to accommodate adaptation and survival. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wished to develop the plants and especially the imaging devices required to conduct such experiments robotically, without operator intervention, within extraterrestrial environments. This requires the development of an autonomous and remotely operated plant GFP imaging system and concomitant development of the communications infrastructure to manage dataflow from the imaging device. Here we report the results of deploying a prototype GFP imaging system within the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG) an autonomously operated greenhouse located within the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian High Arctic. Results both demonstrate the applicability of the fundamental GFP biosensor technology and highlight the difficulties in collecting and managing telemetric data from challenging deployment environments.

  14. Gravity-driven deformation of Olympus Mons volcano, Mars: plate flexure and volcanic spreading studied with finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, Stefanie; Cailleau, Béatrice; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Walter, Thomas R.; Williams, David A.; Dumke, Alexander; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Olympus Mons on Mars is an exceptional volcano, not only for its enormous size, but also for its structural inventory that includes faulting and mass movements. It is a basaltic shield volcano with a height of 22 km, a diameter of about 600 km, and an average flank slope of 5°. Its characteristics include a summit caldera complex, upper- to mid-flank terraces, a basal circumferential scarp of up to 8 km height, and widespread lobate deposits that extend several hundred kilometers from the basal scarp into the surrounding plains. The formation of these major structural elements and association to gravity tectonics remained unclear, however. This study investigated the combined effects of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading in the evolution of Olympus Mons. For this purpose, the deformation of an elastoplastic volcanic cone under Martian gravity was simulated with axisymmetric finite element models. To reproduce observed structural complexities, these models were combined with a viscoelastic mantle and a variable coupling-decoupling behaviour at the interface between volcano and underlying lithosphere. We found that the combination of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading is able to account for Olympus Mons upper-flank terraces and basal overthrusting. Terraces are explained with radial compression, with an extent and expression that is related to both lithospheric flexure and the nature of a basal detachment surface. As coupling along the basal detachment decreases, and spreading increases, the zone of flank terracing migrates toward the summit area. The presence of faults on the shield depends on the edifice cohesion and the time of volcano growth relative to mantle relaxation. To produce surface faults, a high edifice cohesion has to be combined with quasi instantaneous volcano emplacement. When edifice cohesion is an order of magnitude lower, however, an instantaneous volcano emplacement is unnecessary to produce surface faults. For a load growing

  15. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  16. The Highland Terrain Hopper: a new locomotion system for exploration of Mars and other low-gravity planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Mege, Daniel; Rickman, Hans

    Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, reconstruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, conducting and interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. There are few limitations in the type of scientific payload conventional exploration rovers can carry, from geology and geophysics to geochemistry and exobiology. They lack two skills, however: the ability of working on rugged or unstable terrain, like in canyons and mountains, and on solid bodies having gravity too low for the friction between the wheels and the ground to generate robot displacement. ASTRONIKA Ltd. and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences are designing Galago, the Highland Terrain Hopper, a small (Ø~50-100 cm), light (5-10 kg), and robust locomotion system, which addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a commando. Galago is symmetric and can jump accurately to a height of 4.5 m on Mars, 9 m on the Moon, and much more on Phobos and other small bodies. For one Galago, a nominal horizontal travel distance of 5 km (1000 jumps) is currently planned with the considered energy source, a battery reloaded by solar panels. Galago may assist other types of robots, or humans, in accessing difficult terrain, or even replace them for specific measurements or campaigning. Its three independent legs make possible several types of motions: accurate jumping (to any place identified in advance

  17. Mars digital terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    The Mars Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is the result of a new project to: (1) digitize the series of 1:2,000,000-scale topographic maps of Mars, which are being derived photogrammetically under a separate project, and (2) reformat the digital contour information into rasters of elevation that can be readily registered with the Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars. Derivation of DTM's involves interpolation of elevation values into 1/64-degree resolution and transformation of them to a sinusoidal equal-area projection. Digital data are produced in blocks corresponding with the coordinates of the original 1:2,000,000-scale maps, i.e., the dimensions of each block in the equatorial belt are 22.5 deg of longitude and 15 deg of latitude. This DTM is not only compatible with the DIM, but it can also be registered with other data such as geologic units or gravity. It will be the most comprehensive record of topographic information yet compiled for the Martian surface. Once the DTM's are established, any enhancement of Mars topographic information made with updated data, such as data from the planned Mars Observer Mission, will be by mathematical transformation of the DTM's, eliminating the need for recompilation.

  18. Modified gravity N-body code comparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Hans A.; Schmidt, Fabian; Barreira, Alexandre; Arnold, Christian; Bose, Sownak; Llinares, Claudio; Baldi, Marco; Falck, Bridget; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu; Mota, David F.; Puchwein, Ewald; Smith, Robert E.; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Self-consistent N-body simulations of modified gravity models are a key ingredient to obtain rigorous constraints on deviations from general relativity using large-scale structure observations. This paper provides the first detailed comparison of the results of different N-body codes for the f (R), Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati and Symmetron models, starting from the same initial conditions. We find that the fractional deviation of the matter power spectrum from Λ cold dark matter agrees to better than 1 per cent up to k ˜ 5-10 h Mpc-1 between the different codes. These codes are thus able to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of upcoming observational surveys. All codes are also in good agreement in their results for the velocity divergence power spectrum, halo abundances and halo profiles. We also test the quasi-static limit, which is employed in most modified gravity N-body codes, for the Symmetron model for which the most significant non-static effects among the models considered are expected. We conclude that this limit is a very good approximation for all of the observables considered here.

  19. Latest developments in lunar gravity field recovery within the project GRAZIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald; Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Baur, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The project GRAZIL addresses the highly accurate recovery of the lunar gravity field using intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) measurements collected by the Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS) of the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Dynamic precise orbit determination is an indispensable task in order to recover the lunar gravity field based on LGRS measurements. The concept of variational equations is adopted to determine the orbit of the two GRAIL satellites based on radio science data. In this contribution we focus on the S-band two-way Doppler data collected by the Deep Space Network. As far as lunar gravity field recovery is concerned, we apply an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs in the order of one hour. In this contribution special attention is given to the refinement of our processing strategy in conjunction with an increase of the spectral resolution. Based on these considerations we present the latest version of a lunar gravity field model developed in Graz which is based on KBR observations during the primary mission phase (March 1 to May 29, 2012). Our results are validated against GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.

  20. Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness and Magnetization Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the distribution of visible and buried impact basins (Quasi-Circular Depressions or QCDs) on Mars > 200 km in diameter with free air gravity, crustal thickness and magnetization models shows some QCDs have coincident gravity anomalies but most do not. Very few QCDs have closely coincident magnetization anomalies, and only the oldest of the very large impact basins have strong magnetic anomalies within their main rings. Crustal thickness data show a large number of Circular Thinned Areas (CTAs). Some of these correspond to known impact basins, while others may represent buried impact basins not always recognized as QCDs in topography data alone. If true, the buried lowlands may be even older than we have previously estimated.

  1. Simulation of gait and gait initiation associated with body oscillating behavior in the gravity environment on the moon, mars and Phobos.

    PubMed

    Brenière, Y

    2001-04-01

    A double-inverted pendulum model of body oscillations in the frontal plane during stepping [Brenière and Ribreau (1998) Biol Cybern 79: 337-345] proposed an equivalent model for studying the body oscillating behavior induced by step frequency in the form of: (1) a kinetic body parameter, the natural body frequency (NBF), which contains gravity and which is invariable for humans, (2) a parametric function of frequency, whose parameter is the NBF, which explicates the amplitude ratio of center of mass to center of foot pressure oscillation, and (3) a function of frequency which simulates the equivalent torque necessary for the control of the head-arms-trunk segment oscillations. Here, this equivalent model is used to simulate the duration of gait initiation, i.e., the duration necessary to initiate and execute the first step of gait in subgravity, as well as to calculate the step frequencies that would impose the same minimum and maximum amplitudes of the oscillating responses of the body center of mass, whatever the gravity value. In particular, this simulation is tested under the subgravity conditions of the Moon, Mars, and Phobos, where gravity is 1/6, 3/8, and 1/1600 times that on the Earth, respectively. More generally, the simulation allows us to establish and discuss the conditions for gait adaptability that result from the biomechanical constraints particular to each gravity system. PMID:11324337

  2. Impact of far-side satellite tracking on gravity estimation in the SELENE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Heki, K.; Rowlands, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary results of numerical simulation are presented to examine the gravity estimation capability in the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer), which will be launched in 2003. One of the new characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry is 4-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of a low-altitude lunar orbiter by means of a high-altitude relay satellite. It is shown that planned satellites configuration will provide a good far-side data coverage of the lunar orbiter and will improve lunar gravity field as well as far-side selenoid.

  3. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005: Interplanetary Supply Chain Management & Logistics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine researchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual HMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas.

  5. Scientific Results of the Nasa-sponsored Study Project on Mars: Evolution of Its Climate and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific highlights of the Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere (MECA) study project are reviewed and some of the important issues in Martian climate research that remain unresolved are discussed.

  6. Using the Mars Student Imaging Project to Integrate Science and English into Middle School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, C. F.; Troy, M. T.; Valderrama, P.

    2005-12-01

    Bringing science to life in a middle school classroom, and getting students excited about writing an English research paper can be a challenge. We met the challenge by using the exploration of Mars with Arizona State University`s (ASU) Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP). We replaced individuals writing their own research papers with teams writing scientific proposals for use of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. The 126 students on our academic team divided themselves into 26 teams. Each team selected a Leader, Archivist, Publicist, and Bibliographer. I was the Principal Investigator for each team. For twelve weeks the teams formally met once a week to discuss their progress and plan strategies for the following week. We created a website to communicate our progress. During the twelve weeks, the major task was to narrow each general topic such as ``Volcanoes on Mars," to a specific topic that could be answered by an 18km by 60km visible light image such as ``Is it Possible to Find the Relative Age of Volcanic Depressions in a Lava Flow Using a Mars Odyssey Image?" In addition to traditional research methods, we also participated in four teleconferences with ASU scientists chaired by Paige Valderrama, Assistant Director of the Mars Education Program. As the project evolved, I guided the teams with content, while the English teacher provided strategies for writing a meaningful persuasive essay, using citations, and recording bibliographical entries. When the proposals were completed, each team created a PowerPoint presentation to introduce their proposal to everyone for peer review. The students were hard, but fair with their evaluations. In several cases, they did not cast one of their three votes for their own! They decided that ten proposals met the criteria established by ASU. Those teams selected one member to use the JMARS software to target locations on Mars. The imagers spent two intensive days learning the software and targeting the surface. When we received

  7. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  8. Computer Interactives for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission through NASA's "Project Spectra!"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    "Project Spectra!" is a standards-based E-M spectrum and engineering program that includes paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games, students experience and manipulate information making abstract concepts accessible, solidifying understanding and enhancing retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new interactives. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature. Students design a planet that is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives were pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  9. Using Participatory Exploration to Engage Classrooms in STEM Learning: A Case Study Using NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Graff, P.; Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Mars Program and Arizona State University’s Mars Education Program have partnered with Mars mission teams and Mars Principal Investigator Dr. Phil Christensen to develop and promote an ongoing STEM-based opportunity for students to become active participants in the exploration of the Red Planet. The Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) has, since 2002, given over 15,000 students from grades 5 through early college the opportunity to work with scientists, mission planners and Mars education specialists using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera. MSIP participants are involved in authentic Mars research by imaging and researching a site on Mars using the THEMIS visible wavelength camera onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. Students can participate one of three ways: on-site at ASU, through distance learning and using archived THEMIS images. Throughout the period of time that the Mars Student Imaging Project has been operating, many lessons-learned have been accumulated, assessed, and project adjustments have been made. To meet the needs of a changing educational landscape and audience needs, MSIP is changing as well. Many challenges and barriers are making it difficult for teachers to promote deep, hands-on research projects in the formal classroom. As high stakes testing is again becoming more of the focus for the classroom, there becomes a greater need to understand audience needs (schools, teachers, students) and where new opportunities might emerge for students to participate in authentic and data-driven research. Participatory Exploration is a new exciting way to help teachers bring authentic STEM to their students through our journeys through the solar system. By engaging students through technology and challenging them with space-related research opportunities, we can further enable this generation of technology natives toward STEM literacy in a hands-on, memorable way.

  10. Partial gravity habitat study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

  11. Monitoring Aquifer Storage and Recovery Using Repeat Gravity Measurements: the Weber River Project, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Sahm, E.; Gettings, P.

    2008-05-01

    Repeated high-precision gravity surveys were made over two annual infiltration cycles on an alluvial fan at the mouth of Weber Canyon, Northern Utah, as part of the Weber River Basin Aquifer Storage and Recovery Pilot Project (WRBASR). Gravity data collected before, during and after infiltration events provides dramatic confirmation that a groundwater mound formed during infiltration and that the mound decayed predictably and migrated gradually south-southwest from the infiltration ponds following infiltration. Maximum measured gravity changes associated with the recharge events were 110 μGal during the first event (2004) and an increment of about 130 μGal during the second event (2005) for a total maximum signal of 180 μGal. Gaussian integration of the spatial gravity anomaly predicts an anomalous mass within a factor of two of the 1 Tg (1 Mton) mass of water infiltrated in 2004. The spatial gravity field is consistent with a groundwater mound at the end of infiltration that mimics a cylindrical disc having a height of 12 m and radius of 300-400 m. After infiltration was stopped, the gravity anomalies decayed to about 50% of the original amplitude over characteristic time of two months; the decay is simulated extremely well by an analytical solution for the decay of a groundwater mound by flow through porous media. Modeling the decay places tight bounds on the hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial fan below the recharge site at a length scale of 300 m to a value between 3 and 100 m/day.

  12. New gravity map of the western Galicia margin: The Spanish exclusive economic zone project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó, A.; Muñoz, A.; Druet, M.; Llanes, P.; Álvarez, J.

    Since 1995, the most intensive mapping of the seafloor off the Spanish coast has been carried out in the framework of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone Project (ZEEE). The main objectives of this project are to obtain improved multibeam bathymetric cartography of the areas off Spanish coastlines, and to perform a geophysical survey, well-suited with a 10-knot navigation velocity (some techniques requires lower navigation velocity).The geophysical survey includes gravity, geomagnetism, and low-penetration seismic techniques in order to infer the geological structure of the seafloor. Other oceanographic variables such as current, surface salinity, and temperature profiles, can be recorded without compromising this systematic survey effort.

  13. Design of low-thrust gravity-assist trajectories for cycler missions to Mars and for non-Newtonian physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua

    We design and optimize low-thrust gravity-assist trajectories for several applications. For Earth-Mars cycling trajectories, we approach the problem by designing a low-thrust version of the well-known Aldrin cycler, and by "patching" together a series of ballistic semi-cyclers. These new cycler trajectories allow significant savings in terms of taxi rendezvous propellant expenditure over the original (nearly ballistic) Aldrin cycler and the semi-cyclers. Trade studies show that even though the propellant requirement on the low-thrust cycling vehicle is not insignificant, the overall architecture-level propellant cost savings is worthwhile. For the investigation of new physics, we design low-thrust trajectories that employ Jupiter gravity assists to reach a distance of 1000 AU from the Sun. Trajectories that allow close flybys of the Sun are also presented. In addition, we analyze the unexpected gamma-ray detection readings from the MESSENGER spacecraft, and the results may suggest interactions between spacecraft-Sun distance and radioactive decay rates. Besides these new trajectories for various applications, we also present a new design tool for low-thrust gravity-assist trajectories. This new design technique relies on an extension of the Tisser and graph, which tracks the changes in orbital shapes and energies from gravity assist maneuvers. Several simple low-thrust control schemes and their corresponding Tisserand graph curves are investigated and used to bridge gaps on the ballistic Tisserand graph (which could only be used for ballistic trajectories in its original formulation). We use the new low-thrust Tisserand graph to generate candidate (both direct and multi-flyby) rendezvous trajectories and show that the new tool can predict the mass-optimized DeltaV cost to within 15% in most cases.

  14. Human Exploration Ethnography of the Haughton-Mars Project, 1998-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During the past two field seasons, July 1988 and 1999, we have conducted research about the field practices of scientists and engineers at Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, with the objective of determining how people will live and work on Mars. This broad investigation of field life and work practice, part of the Haughton-Mars Project lead by Pascal Lee, spans social and cognitive anthropology, psychology, and computer science. Our approach involves systematic observation and description of activities, places, and concepts, constituting an ethnography of field science at Haughton. Our focus is on human behaviors-what people do, where, when, with whom, and why. By locating behavior in time and place-in contrast with a purely functional or "task oriented" description of work-we find patterns constituting the choreography of interaction between people, their habitat, and their tools. As such, we view the exploration process in terms of a total system comprising a social organization, facilities, terrain/climate, personal identities, artifacts, and computer tools. Because we are computer scientists seeking to develop new kinds of tools for living and working on Mars, we focus on the existing representational tools (such as documents and measuring devices), learning and improvization (such as use of the internet or informal assistance), and prototype computational systems brought to the field. Our research is based on partnership, by which field scientists and engineers actively contribute to our findings, just as we participate in their work and life.

  15. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  16. Third International Colloquium on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of papers concerning the geology and geophysics of Mars, volcanism on Mars, the Mars atmosphere, and the long term history of the atmosphere-cap-regolith volatile regime are presented. Formation of the Mars surface, climatology, gravity and magnetism, atmospheric boundary layers, and interpretation of Viking imagery and Earth-based observations are considered.

  17. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Project Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Flechtner, F.; Gruber, C.; Guntner, A.; Gouweleeuw, B.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Kvas, A.; Martinis, S.; Zwenzer, H.; Bruinsma, S.; Lemoine, J. M.; Flury, J.; Bourgogne, S.

    2015-12-01

    The project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission has started in January 2015. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. We give an overview of the project and present first results from the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  18. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Status and project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer-Guerr, Torsten; Adrian, Jäggi; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Susnik, Andreja; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Flechtner, Frank; Gruber, Christian; Güntner, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Kvas, Andreas; Klinger, Beate; Flury, Jakob; Bruinsma, Sean; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zwenzner, Hendrik; Bourgogne, Stephane; Bandikova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) is a project of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. In the frame of EGSIEM three key services should established: 1) a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools. In this talk the status of the ongoing project is presented and selected results are discussed.

  19. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses (NSBRI Neurovestibular Project 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Goldberg, Jefim; Minor, Lloyd B.; Paloski, William H.; Young, Laurence R.; Zee, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of gaze and head stabilization reflexes can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force (gif) environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive capabilities of these mechanisms. We wish to determine to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others, and to what extent gravity serves as a context cue for inhibiting such transfer. We use the general approach of adapting a response (saccades, vestibuloocular reflex: VOR, or vestibulocollic reflex: VCR) to a particular change in gain or phase in one gif condition, adapting to a different gain or phase in a second gif condition, and then seeing if gif itself - the context cue - can recall the previously-learned adapted responses. Previous evidence indicates that unless there is specific training to induce context-specificity, reflex adaptation is sequential rather than simultaneous. Various experiments in this project investigate the behavioral properties, neurophysiological basis, and anatomical substrate of context-specific learning, using otolith (gravity) signals as a context cue. In the following, we outline the methods for all experiments in this project, and provide details and results on selected experiments.

  20. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  1. A multinational Mars mission for the International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University's 1991 design project activity has yielded a report on the organization and implementation of a multinational program for manned exploration of Mars; the organization encompasses a political as well as a technical component. This International Manned Mission employs an artificial-gravity spacecraft with nuclear-electric propulsion for interplanetary transfer. An unmanned cargo mission precedes the piloted flights to increase the mass deliverable to Mars, as well as to serve as a testbed for interplanetary vehicle design.

  2. Walking on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, G. A.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.

    1998-06-01

    Sometime in the near future humans may walk in the reduced gravity of Mars. Gravity plays an essential role in walking. On Earth, the body uses gravity to `fall forwards' at each step and then the forward speed is used to restore the initial height in a pendulum-like mechanism. When gravity is reduced, as on the Moon or Mars, the mechanism of walking must change. Here we investigate the mechanics of walking on Mars onboard an aircraft undergoing gravity-reducing flight profiles. The optimal walking speed on Mars will be 3.4 km h-1 (down from 5.5 km h-1 on Earth) and the work done per unit distance to move the centre of mass will be half that on Earth.

  3. Rotational Dynamics and Time-variable Gravity of Mars and Implications for Volatile Cycling and Atmospheric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The seasonal motion of atmospheric material, its deposition and sublimation at the poles, represent a minute redistribution of the planet's mass which has been detected in the motion of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. These observations have enabled us to estimate the quantity of material involved. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. The JUMP student project: two weeks of space simulation in a Mars-like environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Crombrugghe, Guerric; de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Denies, Jonathan; Jago, Alban; Le Maire, Victor

    JUMP is a student initiative which aim is to simulate during two weeks the life of astronauts in a Mars-like environment. The simulation will be held in the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) a habitat installed by the Mars Society (MS) in the Utah desert. The crew is composed of six students, helped by a remote support of four students, all from different background (engineering, physics, mathematics, biology, and architecture) and degree (bachelor, master, PhD), under the supervision of researchers from several institutes. Several researches will be conducted during the simulation. We shall report on the science and technical results, and implications for Earth-Mars comparative studies. JASE: The Jump Astronaut Safety Experiment (JASE) consists in a deployable Yagi antenna with basic elec-tronics, providing an extremely light and simple way to prevent the solar flares and observe Jupiter bursts. JADE: The Jump Angular Detection Experiment (JADE) is an innovative an-gular particle detector used to determine the irradiation of the surface and monitor the charged particle distribution in Mars' atmosphere. Even if its resolution is low, it is a very light solution compared to pixel detectors. JAPE: The Jump Astronaut Potatoes Experiment (JAPE) will try to grow and eat in a space-like environment high-performance potatoes developed by the Groupe de Recherche en Physiologie Végétale (GRPV) of the UCL in the frame of the Micro-e Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project of the ESA. JABE: The Jump soil Analysis with a Backpack drill Experiment (JABE) aim to validate a sample procedure, generate vertical profiles of the humidity with a MEMS sensor, and analyze soil samples with a spectrometer. The crew will therefore use a backpack drill, which is portable, fast and easy to use. JARE: The goal of the Jump Astronaut-Rover interaction Experiment (JARE) is to determine how a rover can help an astronaut in his task, and how it is possible to improve this

  5. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  7. Low-gravity homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [Apollo-Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    The III-V semiconducting compound AlSb shows promise as a highly efficient solar cell material, but it has not been commercially exploited because of difficulties in compound synthesis. Liquid state homogenization and solidification of AlSb were carried out in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Experiment MA-044 in the hope that compositional homogeneity would be improved by negating the large density difference between the two constituents. Post-flight analysis and comparative characterization of the space-processed and ground-processed samples indicate that there are major homogeneity improvements in the low-gravity solidified material.

  8. Signatures and Characteristics of Internal Gravity Waves in the Venus' and Mars' Atmospheres as Revealed by the Radio Occultation Temperature Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander; Andreev, Vitali; Salimzyanov, Rishat; Pavelyev, Alexey

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that internal gravity waves (IGWs) affect the structure and mean circulation of the Earth' middle and upper atmosphere by transporting energy and horizontal momentum upward from the lower atmosphere. The IGWs modulate the background atmospheric structure, producing a periodic pattern of spatial and temporal variations in the wind velocity, temperature and density. Similar effects are anticipated for the Venus and Mars since IGWs are a characteristic of stably stratified atmosphere. For instance, Yakovlev et al. (1991) and Gubenko et al. (2008a) used the radio occultation (RO) data from Venera 15 and 16 missions to investigate the thermal structure and layering of the Venus' middle atmosphere. They noted that a wavelike periodic structure commonly appears in retrieved vertical profiles at altitudes above 60 km in the atmosphere where the static stability is large. Through comparisons between Magellan RO observations in the Venus' atmosphere, Hinson and Jenkins (1995) have demonstrated that small scale variations in retrieved temperature profiles at altitudes from 60 to 90 km are caused by a spectrum of vertical propagating IGWs. Temperature profiles from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) measurements reveal vertical wavelike structures assumed to be atmospheric IGWs in the Mars' lower atmosphere (Creasey et al., 2006). The very large IGW amplitudes inferred from MGS RO data imply a very significant role for IGWs in the atmospheric dynamics of Mars as well. There is one general problem inherent to all measurements of IGWs. Observed wavelike variations may alternatively be caused by the IGWs, turbulence or persistent layers in the atmosphere, and it is necessary to have an IGW identification criterion for the correct interpretation of obtained results. In this context, we have developed an original method for the determination of internal gravity wave parameters from a single vertical temperature profile measurement in a planetary atmosphere (Gubenko et

  9. The Human Mars Mission: Transportation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Larry

    1998-01-15

    If funding is available, and for NASA planning purposes, the Human Mars Mission (HMM) is baselined to take place during the 2011 and 2013/2014 Mars opportunities. Two cargo flights will leave for Mars during the first opportunity, one to Mars orbit and the second to the surface, in preparation for the crew during the following opportunity. Each trans-Mars injection (TMI) stack will consist of a cargo/payload portion (currently coming in at between 65 and 78 mt) and a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) stage (currently coming in at between 69 and 77 mt loaded with propellant) for performing the departure {delta}Vs to get on to the appropriate Mars trajectories. Three 66,700 N thrust NTP engines comprise the TMI stage for each stack and perform a {delta}V ranging from 3580 to 3890 m/s as required by the trajectory (with gravity losses and various performance margins added to this for the total TMI {delta}V performed). This paper will discuss the current application of this NTP stage to a Human Mars mission, and project what implications a nuclear trans-Earth injection (TEI) stage as well as a bi-modal NTP stage could mean to a human visit to Mars.

  10. The Human Mars Mission: Transportation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kos, Larry

    1998-01-01

    If funding is available, and for NASA planning purposes, the Human Mars Mission (HMM) is baselined to take place during the 2011 and 2013/2014 Mars opportunities. Two cargo flights will leave for Mars during the first opportunity, one to Mars orbit and the second to the surface, in preparation for the crew during the following opportunity. Each trans-Mars injection (TMI) stack will consist of a cargo / payload portion (currently coming in at between 65 and 78 mt) and a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) stage (currently coming in at between 69 and 77 mt loaded with propellant) for performing the departure (Delta)Vs to get on to the appropriate Mars trajectories. Three 66,700 N thrust NTP engines comprise the TMI stage for each stack and perform a (Delta)V ringing from 3580 to 3890 m/s is required by the trajectory (with gravity losses and various performance margins to this for the total TMI (Delta)V performed). This paper will discuss the current application of this NTP stage to a Human Mars mission, and project what implications a nuclear trans-Earth injection (TEI) stage as well as a bi-modal NTP stage could mean to a human visit to Mars.

  11. Operational psychology countermeasures during the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project.

    PubMed

    Holland, A W; Curtis, K

    1998-01-01

    The Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center conducted a series of human-rated tests, termed the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), designed to advance technology in closed life support systems. As the duration of these tests lengthened, the psychological factors associated with placing humans in these environments became increasingly salient to successful mission completion. A number of psychological activities were conducted to ensure successful operations and protect crew member well-being, including individual crew member selection, crew composition, training and preparation, family inclusion, educational briefings, in-mission tracking, operational interventions, and postmission repatriation. This article describes these activities, the rationale behind their design, the similarities and differences to techniques utilized for spaceflight, and considerations related to designing psychological countermeasures for confined environments. In addition to testing physical and engineering systems, the LMLSTP series functioned as an effective testbed for developing operational concepts and countermeasures for extended space missions. PMID:11871454

  12. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    PubMed

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  13. Long-term variations of absolute and superconducting gravity values in Southeast Alaska, observed by the ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, T.; Hideaki, H.; Miura, S.; Kaufman, M.; Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that gravity values have been decreasing in Southeast Alaska, mainly due to glacier mass changes from the end of the Little Ice Age to the present. For example, absolute gravity measurements made by the ISEA1 project (2006-2008) showed a maximum gravity change rate of -5.6 micro-gal/year (Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012a), which was consistent with large uplift rates obtained from GPS data (Larsen et al., 2005). However, the newly-obtained absolute gravity values in 2012 were about 10 micro-gal greater than expected based on the gravity trends of Sun et al. (2010), possibly because of above-average snowfall in the winter of 2011-2012 (Sato et al., 2012b). In order to monitor spatiotemporal gravity changes associated with glacier mass changes, seasonal hydrological gravity changes should be quantified via continuous gravity observations and/or hydrological modeling. We thus installed a superconducting gravimeter iGrav (serial number: 003) at Egan Library, University of Alaska Southeast in June 2012, as part of the ISEA2 project (2011-2015). The mass position (unit: volts) and air pressure have been recorded every second since June 2012, and the gravity value was then calculated from the mass position, using the scale factor of -89.561 micro-gal/V (Sato et al., 2012b). After the removal of tidal gravity changes using the BAYTAP software (Tamura et al., 1991), a gravity change of 4 micro-gal in peak to peak was extracted from the long-term superconducting gravity data from June 2012 to July 2013. Note that this non-tidal gravity change includes the instrumental drift, although the drift rate was very small (less than 1 micro-gal/year) according to the linear regression to the gravity change. We will discuss possible physical mechanisms of the non-tidal gravity change associated with water redistribution, using a hydrological model (e.g., Kazama et al., 2012) and/or long-term weather data. In addition, we also measured absolute gravity values at 6

  14. Haughton-Mars Project (HMP)/NASA 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.

    2006-01-01

    Medical requirements are currently being developed for NASA's space exploration program. Lunar surface operations for crews returning to the moon will be performed on a daily basis to conduct scientific research and construct a lunar habitat. Inherent to aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crew members. To develop an evidence-base for handling medical contingencies on the lunar surface, a simulation project was conducted using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic. A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crew members provided a knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity. Objectives were established to 1) demonstrate stabilization, field extraction and transfer an injured crew member to the habitat and 2) evaluate audio, visual and biomedical communication capabilities with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. The simulation project s objectives were achieved. Among these objectives were 1) extracting a crew member from a sloped terrain by a two-member team in a 1-g analog environment, 2) establishing real-time communication to multiple space centers, 3) providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crew members, and 4) establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. The simulation project provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods needed for planetary space exploration. During the project, the crew members were confronted with a number of unexpected scenarios including environmental, communications, EVA suit, and navigation challenges. These trials provided insight into the challenges of carrying out a medical contingency in an austere environment. The knowledge gained from completing the objectives of this project will be incorporated into the exploration medical requirements involving an incapacited

  15. A mission design for International Manned Mars Mission - From the 1991 International Space University (ISU) Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1991-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) conducted a study of an international program to support human exploration of Mars as its annual Design Project activity during its 1991 summer session in Toulouse, France. Although an ISU Design Project strives to produce an in-depth analysis during the intense 10-week summer session, the International Mars Mission (IMM) project was conducted in a manner designed to provide a learning experience for young professionals working in an unusual multidisciplinary and multinational environment. The breadth of the IMM study exceeds that of most Mars mission studies of the past, encompassing political organization for long-term commitment, multinational management structure, cost analysis, mission architecture, vehicle configuration, crew health, life support, Mars surface infrastructure, mission operations, technology evaluation, risk assessment, scientific planning, exploration, communication networks, and Martian resource utilization. The IMM Final Report has particular value for those seeking insight into the choices made by a multinational group working in an apolitical environment on the problems of international cooperation in space.

  16. Non-invasive panel tests for gastrointestinal motility monitoring within the MARS-500 Project

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Guardigli, Massimo; Simoni, Patrizia; Festi, Davide; Afonin, Boris; Vasilyeva, Galina

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To develop an integrated approach for monitoring gastrointestinal motility and inflammation state suitable for application in long-term spaceflights. METHODS: Breath tests based on the oral administration of 13C-labeled or hydrogen-producing substrates followed by the detection of their metabolites (13CO2 or H2) in breath were used to measure gastrointestinal motility parameters during the 520-d spaceflight ground simulation within the MARS-500 Project. In particular, the gastric emptying rates of solid and liquid contents were evaluated by 13C-octanoic acid and 13C-acetate breath tests, respectively, whereas the orocecal transit time was assessed by an inulin H2-breath test, which was performed simultaneously with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. A ready-to-eat, standardized pre-packaged muffin containing 100 mg of 13C-octanoic acid was used in the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to avoid the extemporaneous preparation of solid meals. In addition, a cassette-type lateral flow immunoassay was employed to detect fecal calprotectin, a biomarker of intestinal inflammation. Because no items could be introduced into the simulator during the experiment, all materials and instrumentation required for test performance during the entire mission simulation had to be provided at the beginning of the experiment. RESULTS: The experiments planned during the simulation of a manned flight to Mars could be successfully performed by the crewmembers without any external assistance. No evident alterations (i.e., increasing or decreasing trends) in the gastric emptying rates were detected using the 13C-breath tests during the mission simulation, as the gastric emptying half-times were in the range of those reported for healthy subjects. In contrast to the 13C-breath tests, the results of the inulin H2-breath test were difficult to interpret because of the high variability of the H2 concentration in the breath samples, even within the same subject. This variability suggested that

  17. Biosphere 2: a prototype project for a permanent and evolving life system for Mars base.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J P; Dempster, W F

    1992-01-01

    As part of the ground-based preparation for creating long-term life systems needed for space habitation and settlement, Space Biospheres Ventures (SBV) is undertaking the Biosphere 2 project near Oracle, Arizona. Biosphere 2, currently under construction, is scheduled to commence its operations in 1991 with a two-year closure period with a crew of eight people. Biosphere 2 is a facility which will be essentialy materially-closed to exchange with the outside environment. It is open to information and energy flow. Biosphere 2 is designed to achieve a complex life-support system by the integration of seven areas or "biomes"--rainforest, savannah, desert, marsh, ocean, intensive agriculture and human habitat. Unique bioregenerative technologies, such as soil bed reactors for air purification, aquatic waste processing systems, real-time analytic systems and complex computer monitoring and control systems are being developed for the Biosphere 2 project. Its operation should afford valuable insight into the functioning of complex life systems necessary for long-term habitation in space. It will serve as an experimental ground-based prototype and testbed for the stable, permanent life systems needed for human exploration of Mars. PMID:11537067

  18. ExoHab Pilot Project & Field Tests for Moon-Mars Human Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We studied concepts for a minimal Moon-Mars habitat, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture. We validated experimentally the Habitat and Laboratory ExoHab concept constraints during EuroGeoMars campaign in Utah desert research station (from 24 Jan. to 28 Feb. 2009) and EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX campaigns in Nov 2009 and February-April 2010. We discuss from the ILEWG ExoHab concept studies and field simulations the specifics of human exploration, with focus on habitability and human performance. In the ExoHab pilot concept project (supported by ILEWG, ESA NASA), we justify the case for a scientific and exploration outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of planets and life, geophysical and geo-chemical studies, astrobiology and life sciences, observation sciences, technology demonstration, resource utilisation, human exploration and settlement). In this modular concept, we consider various infra structure elements: core habitat, Extra Vehicular activity (EVA), crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. We review some studies space agencies' architecture proposals, with landers, orbiters, rovers, habitats, surface operations and protocols. We focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation and exploration, but not immediately autonomous. Through a modular concept, this outpost will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the

  19. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  20. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - a new Horizon2020 project to serve the international community and improve the accessibility to gravity field products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Weigelt, Matthias; Flechtner, Frank; Guentner, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Martinis, Sandro; Bruinsma, Sean; Flury, Jakob; Bourgogne, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    A proposal for a European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) has been submitted in response to the Earth Observation Call EO-1-2014 of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. The EGSIEM project has recently started in January 2015. We present the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  1. ExoHab Pilot Project & Field Tests for Moon-Mars Human Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We studied concepts for a minimal Moon-Mars habitat, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture. We validated experimentally the Habitat and Laboratory ExoHab concept constraints during EuroGeoMars campaign in Utah desert research station (from 24 Jan. to 28 Feb. 2009) and EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX campaigns in Nov 2009 and February-April 2010. We discuss from the ILEWG ExoHab concept studies and field simulations the specifics of human exploration, with focus on habitability and human performance. In the ExoHab pilot concept project (supported by ILEWG, ESA NASA), we justify the case for a scientific and exploration outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of planets and life, geophysical and geo-chemical studies, astrobiology and life sciences, observation sciences, technology demonstration, resource utilisation, human exploration and settlement). In this modular concept, we consider various infra structure elements: core habitat, Extra Vehicular activity (EVA), crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. We review some studies space agencies' architecture proposals, with landers, orbiters, rovers, habitats, surface operations and protocols. We focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation and exploration, but not immediately autonomous. Through a modular concept, this outpost will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the

  2. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  3. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Systems Engineering Approach for Astronaut Missions to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to design and develop a new generation of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation systems to hlfill the Nation s strategic goals and objectives. These launch vehicles will provide the capability for astronauts to conduct scientific exploration that yields new knowledge from the unique vantage point of space. American leadership in opening new fi-ontiers will improve the quality of life on Earth for generations to come. The Exploration Launch Projects office is responsible for delivering the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) that will loft the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low-Earth orbit (LEO) early next decade, and for the heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) that will deliver the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to LEO for astronaut return trips to the Moon by 2020 in preparation for the eventual first human footprint on Mars. Crew travel to the International Space Station will be made available as soon possible after the Space Shuttle retires in 2010.

  4. Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project. Phase 2; Human Factors and Crew Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Hurlbert, K. M.; Kirby, G.; Lewis, J. F.; ORear, P.

    1997-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project was conducted in June and July of 1996 at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The primary objective of Phase 2 was to demonstrate and evaluate an integrated physicochemical air revitalization and regenerative water recovery system capable of sustaining a human crew of four for 30 days inside a closed chamber. The crew (3 males and 1 female) was continuously present inside a chamber throughout the 30-day test. The objective of this paper was to describe crew interactions and human factors for the test. Crew preparations for the test included training and familiarization of chamber systems and accommodations, and medical and psychological evaluations. During the test, crew members provided metabolic loads for the life support systems, performed maintenance on chamber systems, and evaluated human factors inside the chamber. Overall, the four crew members found the chamber to be comfortable for the 30-day test. The crew performed well together and this was attributed in part to team dynamics, skill mix (one commander, two system experts, and one logistics lead), and a complementary mix of personalities. Communication with and support by family, friends, and colleagues were identified as important contributors to the high morale of the crew during the test. Lessons learned and recommendations for future testing are presented by the crew in this paper.

  5. Computer simulations for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission through NASA's 'Project Spectra!'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    'Project Spectra!' is a standards-based light science and engineering program on solar system exploration that includes both hands-on paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games where students experience and manipulate the information makes abstract concepts accessible. Visualizing lessons with multi-media tools solidifies understanding and retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As a part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new 'Project Spectra!' interactives that go hand-in-hand with a paper and pencil activity. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature and how they contribute. Students are asked to create a scenario in which a planet they build and design is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider Mars and the conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives were pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  6. Computer simulations for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission through NASA's "Project Spectra!"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofferson, R.; Wood, E. L.; Euler, G.

    2012-12-01

    "Project Spectra!" is a standards-based light science and engineering program on solar system exploration that includes both hands-on paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games where students experience and manipulate the information makes abstract concepts accessible. Visualizing lessons with multi-media tools solidifies understanding and retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As a part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new "Project Spectra!" interactives that go hand-in-hand with a paper and pencil activity. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature and how they contribute. Students are asked to create a scenario in which a planet they build and design is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider Mars and the conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives are currently being pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  7. Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Rudolf X.; Baker, Myles; Melko, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was designed to be propelled by a nuclear-thermal propulsion system. Several Mars transportation system architectures and their associated space vehicles were designed.

  8. The main goals of experiments with the higher plants in the project MARS - 500.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Gushin, Vadim; Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott

    At the present step of development of manned flight to Mars there is a current opinion that including a greenhouse in the composition of Life Support Systems (LSS) of Martian expedition would essentially improve a spacecraft habitat conditions and also would have impact to preventing of a number of possible consequences of continuous presence of human in artificial environment. Development of design objectives of future space greenhouses applicable for conditions of Martian expedition should be based, in our opinion, not only on the results of real space experiments, conducted onboard of orbital stations, but also on the results of ground-based experiments. In connection with above considerations there is a number of technological, biological and psychological experiments is planned to be conducted in the frame of MARS-500 project to resolve questions related to incorporation of higher plants in LSS of inter-planetary flights. The questions include: testing of developed elements of the greenhouse construction and methods for cultivation of vegetables under conditions of imitation of the flight of Martian expedition; selection of breeds and species of vegetables, characterized by high speed of biomass accumulation, attractive taste and appearance; investigation of growth, development and metabolism of plants under long-term continuous cultivation in manned pressurized object; comparison of the productivity of the plants as a function of utilization of different light source; determination of maximum amount of planted biomass of the plants and number of possible vegetation under conditions of long-term utilization of vegetation chamber of the greenhouse without substrate replacement; investigation of crops dietetic preferences of crew members; estimation of quality of plant biomass using seeding of the plants by microorganisms and nitrates and vitamins content as markers; development and approbation of methodical approaches to estimation of psychological factors of

  9. Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Moore and Howard [1] reported the discovery of large alluvial fans in craters on Mars. Their initial survey from 0-30 S found that these fans clustered in three distinct regions and occurred at around the +1 km MOLA defined Mars datum. However, due to incomplete image coverage, Moore and Howard [1]could not conduct a comprehensive survey. They also recognized, though did not quantitatively address, gravity scaling issues. Here, we briefly discuss the identification of alluvial fans on Mars, then consider the general equations governing the deposition of alluvial fans and hypothesize a method for learning about grain size in alluvial fans on Mars.

  10. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  11. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-09-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  12. International Space University variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1994-03-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness, and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that will be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. This report describes the VGRF design that was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation; engineering, architecture; in-space physiological, materials, and life science experimentation; data communications; and business and management.

  13. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30,60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  14. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  15. An analytical study of the interaction of technological and administrative decision-making in the defining of Mars Project Viking. Ph.D. Thesis - Union College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the history and background of the Mars Project Viking is presented. The organization and functions of the engineering group responsible for the project are defined. The design and configuration of the proposed space vehicle are examined. Illustrations and tables of data are provided to complete the coverage of the project.

  16. Manned Mars Explorer project: Guidelines for a manned mission to the vicinity of Mars using Phobos as a staging outpost; schematic vehicle designs considering chemical and nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Sean; Neubek, Deb; Baxmann, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Manned Mars Explorer (MME) project responds to the fundamental problems of sending human beings to Mars in a mission scenario and schematic vehicle designs. The mission scenario targets an opposition class Venus inbound swingby for its trajectory with concentration on Phobos and/or Deimos as a staging base for initial and future Mars vicinity operations. Optional vehicles are presented as a comparison using nuclear electric power/propulsion technology. A Manned Planetary Vehicle and Crew Command Vehicle are used to accomplish the targeted mission. The Manned Planetary Vehicle utilizes the mature technology of chemical propulsion combined with an advanced aerobrake, tether and pressurized environment system. The Crew Command Vehicle is the workhorse of the mission performing many different functions including a manned Mars landing, and Phobos rendezvous.

  17. Hazard Evaluation in Valparaíso: the MAR VASTO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indirli, Maurizio; Razafindrakoto, Hoby; Romanelli, Fabio; Puglisi, Claudio; Lanzoni, Luca; Milani, Enrico; Munari, Marco; Apablaza, Sotero

    2011-03-01

    The Project "MAR VASTO" (Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso), funded by BID/IADB (Banco InterAmericano de Desarrollo/InterAmerican Development Bank), has been managed by ENEA, with an Italian/Chilean joined partnership and the support of local institutions. Valparaíso tells the never-ending story of a tight interaction between society and environment and the city has been declared a Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO since 2003. The main goals of the project have been to evaluate in the Valparaíso urban area the impact of main hazards (earthquake, tsunami, fire, and landslide), defining scenarios and maps on a geo-referenced GIS database. In particular, for earthquake hazard assessment the realistic modelling of ground motion is a very important base of knowledge for the preparation of groundshaking scenarios which serve as a valid and economic tool to be fruitfully used by civil engineers, supplying a particularly powerful tool for the prevention aspects of Civil Defense. When numerical modelling is successfully compared with records (as in the case of the Valparaíso, 1985 earthquake), the resulting synthetic seismograms permit the generation of groundshaking maps, based upon a set of possible scenario earthquakes. Where no recordings are available for the scenario event, synthetic signals can be used to estimate ground motion without having to wait for a strong earthquake to occur (pre-disaster microzonation). For the tsunami hazard, the available reports, [e.g., SHOA (1999) Carta de Inundacion por Tsunami para la bahia de Valparaíso, Chile, http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/citsu/citsu.php], have been used as the reference documents for the hazard assessment for the Valparaíso site. The deep and detailed studies already carried out by SHOA have been complemented with (a) sets of parametric studies of the tsunamigenic potential of the 1985 and 1906 scenario earthquakes; and (b) analytical modelling of tsunami waveforms for different

  18. Experiment MA-028 crystal growth. [low gravity manufacturing of single crystals from Apollo/Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    A crystal growth experiment is reported on orbital space flights. The experiment was performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The Crystal Growth Experiment assessed a novel process for growing single crystals of insoluble substances by allowing two or more reactant solutions to diffuse toward each other through a region of pure solvent in zero gravity. The experiment was entirely successful and yielded crystals of about the expected size, quality, and number.

  19. Project Exodus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Rodney (Compiler); Dillon, Jennifer (Compiler); Grewe, George (Compiler); Mcmorrow, Jim (Compiler); Melton, Craig (Compiler); Rainey, Gerald (Compiler); Rinko, John (Compiler); Singh, David (Compiler); Yen, Tzu-Liang (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    A design for a manned Mars mission, PROJECT EXODUS is presented. PROJECT EXODUS incorporates the design of a hypersonic waverider, cargo ship and NIMF (nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel) shuttle lander to safely carry out a three to five month mission on the surface of Mars. The cargo ship transports return fuel, return engine, surface life support, NIMF shuttle, and the Mars base to low Mars orbit (LMO). The cargo ship is powered by a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system which allows the cargo ship to execute a spiral trajectory to Mars. The waverider transports ten astronauts to Mars and back. It is launched from the Space Station with propulsion provided by a chemical engine and a delta velocity of 9 km/sec. The waverider performs an aero-gravity assist maneuver through the atmosphere of Venus to obtain a deflection angle and increase in delta velocity. Once the waverider and cargo ship have docked the astronauts will detach the landing cargo capsules and nuclear electric power plant and remotely pilot them to the surface. They will then descend to the surface aboard the NIMF shuttle. A dome base will be quickly constructed on the surface and the astronauts will conduct an exploratory mission for three to five months. They will return to Earth and dock with the Space Station using the waverider.

  20. Interactive Design Environment: Tools for Facilitating Communication and Collaboration Among Universities on Projects Related to a Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    The HEDS-UP program is comprised of student groups from many different universities across the United States working independently on various aspects of the grand objective - a manned mission to Mars. The inherent value of the program is in the nature of the students working in it. Students offer a different perspective on an existing project. Their contribution is in bringing the off the wall ideas to the table, among others. Students are unbounded by tradition and precedents in methodology. This enables them to approach the problem from a unique angle. They have the potential to bring fresh ideas and new dimensions to the overall project, thus contributing something original rather than mimicking existing projects. With proper facilitation the HEDS-UP program can become an evolutionary dynamic im environment in which ideas are proposed and tested under pressure and those with sufficient merit survive. Moreover, the incredibly cheap price of student labor gives the HEDS-UP program enormous potential to provide a substantial and lasting contribution to the Mars mission. The potential value of the projects completed by the HEDS-UP universities is limited by the geographical and academic separation of the universities, the short term nature of the projects, and insufficient input from NASA. If communication exists between the universities at all, it is minimal and limited to the conference, The projects are limited by the school term and the turn over rate of the participants is exceedingly high with an influx of new students each semester. This means that much of the work from previous semesters is lost as it is improperly passed on, incompletely understood, and consequently disregarded. There is no consistent method employed across the universities for storing the information and making it accessible to others in the field. Moreover the projects suffer from a dislocation from NASA itself. The insufficient feedback and inadequate resources for the projects limit

  1. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  2. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 15: Environmental assessment: Proposed 1-megawatt radar transmitter at the Mars site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-10-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 64.5 km (40 mi) north of Barstow, California. and about 258 km (160 mi) northeast of Pasadena, California, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's larger and more sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC support the operation of six parabolic dish antennas located at five separate sites called Deep Space Stations (DSS's). Four sites, named Echo, Mars, Uranus, and Apollo, are operational for space missions, while the remaining Venus Site is devoted to research and development activities. The Mars Site at the GDSCC contains two antennas: the Uranus antenna (DSS 15, 34 m) and the Mars antenna (DSS 14, 70 m). This present volume deals solely with the DSS-14 Mars antenna. The Mars antenna not only can act as a sensitive receiver to detect signals from spacecraft, but it also can be used in radar astronomy as a powerful transmitter to send out signals to probe the solar system. At present, the Mars antenna operates as a continuous-wave microwave system at a frequency of 8.51 GHz at a power level of 0.5 MW. JPL has plans to upgrade the Mars antenna to a power level of 1 MW. Because of the anticipated increase in the ambient levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR), JPL retained Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL), Richland, Washington, to conduct an environmental assessment with respect to this increased RFR. This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the BPNL report titled Environmental Assessment of the Goldstone Solar System Radar, which was submitted to JPL in Nov. 1991. This BPNL report concluded that the operation of the upgraded Mars antenna at the

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 15: Environmental assessment: Proposed 1-megawatt radar transmitter at the Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 64.5 km (40 mi) north of Barstow, California. and about 258 km (160 mi) northeast of Pasadena, California, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's larger and more sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC support the operation of six parabolic dish antennas located at five separate sites called Deep Space Stations (DSS's). Four sites, named Echo, Mars, Uranus, and Apollo, are operational for space missions, while the remaining Venus Site is devoted to research and development activities. The Mars Site at the GDSCC contains two antennas: the Uranus antenna (DSS 15, 34 m) and the Mars antenna (DSS 14, 70 m). This present volume deals solely with the DSS-14 Mars antenna. The Mars antenna not only can act as a sensitive receiver to detect signals from spacecraft, but it also can be used in radar astronomy as a powerful transmitter to send out signals to probe the solar system. At present, the Mars antenna operates as a continuous-wave microwave system at a frequency of 8.51 GHz at a power level of 0.5 MW. JPL has plans to upgrade the Mars antenna to a power level of 1 MW. Because of the anticipated increase in the ambient levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR), JPL retained Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL), Richland, Washington, to conduct an environmental assessment with respect to this increased RFR. This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the BPNL report titled Environmental Assessment of the Goldstone Solar System Radar, which was submitted to JPL in Nov. 1991. This BPNL report concluded that the operation of the upgraded Mars antenna at the

  5. Mars Micro-Meteorology Station Electronic Design, Assembly and Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twiggs, Robert J.; Merrihew, Seven; Engberg, Brian; Hicks, Michael; Tillier, Clemens

    1996-01-01

    The Micro-Met mission is a micro-meteorological experiment for Mars designed to take globally distributed pressure measurements for at least one martian year. A series of 16 landers equally spaced over the planet's surface will take pressure and temperature data and relay it to investigators on Earth. Measurements will be logged once every hour and transmitted to an orbiter once every thirty days using Mars Balloon Relay protocol. Micro-Met data will aid tremendously in the development and refinement of a global model of Martian weather.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars; 2) Mapping Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields on Mars with Electron Reflectometry; 3) Analytic Signal in the Interpretation of Mars Southern Highlands Magnetic Field; 4) Modeling of Major Martian Magnetic Anomalies: Further Evidence for Polar Reorientations During the Noachian; 5) An Improved Model of the Crustal Structure of Mars; 6) Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars; 7) Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region; 8) Localized Tharsis Loading on Mars: Testing the Membrane Surface Hypothesis; 9) Thermal Stresses and Tharsis Loading: Implications for Wrinkle Ridge Formation on Mars; 10) What Can be Learned about the Martian Lithosphere from Gravity and Topography Data? 11) A Gravity Analysis of the Subsurface Structure of the Utopia Impact Basin; 12) Mechanics of Utopia Basin on Mars; 13) Burying the 'Buried Channels' on Mars: An Alternative Explanation.

  7. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  8. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  9. Chapter 3: Circum-Arctic mapping project: New magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaina, C.; Werner, S.C.; Saltus, R.; Maus, S.; Aaro, S.; Damaske, D.; Forsberg, R.; Glebovsky, V.; Johnson, K.; Jonberger, J.; Koren, T.; Korhonen, J.; Litvinova, T.; Oakey, G.; Olesen, O.; Petrov, O.; Pilkington, M.; Rasmussen, T.; Schreckenberger, B.; Smelror, M.

    2011-01-01

    New Circum-Arctic maps of magnetic and gravity anomalies have been produced by merging regional gridded data. Satellite magnetic and gravity data were used for quality control of the long wavelengths of the new compilations. The new Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic, gravity and some of their derivatives have been analyzed together with other freely available regional and global data and models in order to provide a consistent view of the tectonically complex Arctic basins and surrounding continents. Sharp, linear contrasts between deeply buried basement blocks with different magnetic properties and densities that can be identified on these maps can be used, together with other geological and geophysical information, to refine the tectonic boundaries of the Arctic domain. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  10. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  11. Seismic and tsunami hazard investigation in Valparaiso in the framework of the project "MAR VASTO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, F.; Razafindrakoto, H.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project ("Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso"), completed in 2008 and funded by BID/IDB (Banco InterAmericano de Desarrollo/ InterAmerican Development Bank), managed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), with the participation of Italian and Chilean partners and the support of local stakeholders, the most important hazards have been investigated carried out. Valparaíso represents a distinctive case of growth, inside a remarkable landscape, of an important Pacific Ocean seaport (over the 19th and 20th centuries), up to reaching a strategic importance in shipping trade, declined after the Panama Canal opening (1914). Thus, Valparaíso tells the never-ending story of a tight interaction between society and environment, stratifying different urban and architectonic layers, sometimes struck by disasters and always in danger. Certainly, the city has been subjected to various natural hazards (seismic events, but also tsunamis, landslides, etc.) and anthropic calamities (mainly wild and human-induced fires). These features make Valparaíso a paradigmatic study case about hazard mitigation, and risk factors must be very well evaluated during the restoration phases to be planned in the future. Seismic Hazrad. The major goal is to provide a dataset of synthetic time series representative of the potential ground motion at the bedrock of Valparaiso, especially at selected sites (e.g. the three important churches located in the Valparaiso urban area: La Matriz, San Francisco, Las Hermanitas de la Providencia), for different scenarios; the characteristics of the calculated signals (e.g. amplitude, frequency content and duration of shaking) are determined by the earthquake source process and the wave propagation effects of the path between the source and the site. The synthetic signals, to be used as seismic input in a subsequent engineering analysis, have been produced at a very low

  12. Search for past/present life on Mars, studies of organics biomarkers: the MOMIE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, S.; Coll, C.; Szopa, S.; Raulin, R.

    The life on Mars remains an open question because lack of obvious proof of its past apparition and its current presence We still dispose insufficient data because only the Viking landers in the Seventies and meteorite ALH84001 discovered in the Antarctic were likely to prove a Martian biological activity existence In these two cases the answers were puzzling the results of the experiments of the Viking landers could as well to be explained by the presence of life forms that by abiotic processes in addition no organic molecules was detected Many biomarkers potentially Martians were present on ALH84001 but they had also an abiotic explanation moreover nothing did not exclude a contamination by terrestrial organisms However recent data of Mars Express orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem show different proofs of a past environment with liquid water and mild temperatures favorable for life Among the biomarkers we seek the organic molecules are primordial because they are necessary to the origin of life as we know it However these molecules except methane recently discovered have never been detected on Mars by the in situ analyzes of the Viking landers A key question is to know if organic molecules are indeed present in which concentration and under which form Indeed even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized those brought by exogenous sources like interplanetary dust should be present in detectable amount Moreover the track of the endogenous organic molecules should not be dropped out because these molecules are able to

  13. Development of the lunar gravity field model GrazLGM300b in the framework of project GRAZIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Sandro; Klinger, Beate; Wirnsberger, Harald; Baur, Oliver; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The objective of project GRAZIL is to compile a high-accurate gravity field model of the Moon based on measurements provided by the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. In order to reach this goal we perform dynamic precise orbit determination from radio science observations (Doppler range-rates) in combination with the analysis of inter-satellite ranging observations. We present an updated version of the lunar gravity field models GrazLGM200a (Klinger et al. 2014; doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.001) and GrazLGM300a (prepared for the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting) derived from inter-satellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) observations collected by GRAIL during the primary mission phase (March 1 to May 29, 2012). We exploit the KBR data by an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs. The basic idea behind this technique is to reformulate Newton's equation of motion as a boundary value problem. In this contribution particular attention is paid to processing details associated with the error structure of the observations and the incorporation of non-gravitational accelerations (with emphasis on solar radiation pressure, lunar albedo and self-shadowing). We validate our results against recent GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.

  14. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (3) Absolute gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schiel, A.

    2006-12-01

    The southeast Alaska is undergoing a rapid ice-melting and land uplift due to the effect of global warming in the last three hundred years. The corresponding crustal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound has been clearly detected by modern geodetic techniques, e.g., GPS and tidal gauge measurements (Larsen et al., 2004; Sato et al., 2005). The geodetic deformation provides us useful information in evaluating ice-melting rate, effect of global warming, and even the viscosity beneath the crust. For this purpose, however, integrated geodetic observation, especially including gravity measurement, is considered very important (Miura et al., a separate presentation at the same AGU conference; Wahr et al., 1995). Therefore, to detect the crutal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound and to study the viscoelastic structure of the earth in the southeast Alaska, a joint team of Japanese and U.S. researchers has begun a three year project of GPS, earth tide, and absolute gravity measurements. In this presentation, results of the absolute gravity observation carried out between June 3 and June 18, 2006 are reported. During the 2006 observation campaign, a network of absolute gravity was for the first time established which is composed of five sites about 100 km around of Juneau: Bartlett Cove at Gustavus, Russell Island, Hains Fairground at Hains, UAS Egan Library at Juneau and Mendenhall Glacier Visitors Center at Juneau, Alaska. Absolute gravity data were acquired at the five sites using a Micro-LaCoste absolute gravimeter, serial number 111. A typical occupation recorded a set of 100 single measurements every half hour. At each site data were collected over a 48~62 hour period. Due to the bad ocean model in this area, ocean loading correction seems not efficient because large tidal residuals remain in the observed results. To carry out an accurate tidal correction, on site tidal observation was also performed. Detail discussions on tidal observation and

  15. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  16. Mars Observer Lecture: Mars Orbit Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R. (Personal Name)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a lecture by Suzanne R. Dodd, the Mission Planning Team Chief for the Mars Observer Project. Ms Dodd begins with a brief overview of the mission and the timeline from the launch to orbital insertion. Ms Dodd then reviews slides showing the trajectory of the spacecraft on its trip to Mars. Slides of the spacecraft being constructed are also shown. She then discusses the Mars orbit insertion and the events that will occur to move the spacecraft from the capture orbit into a mapping orbit. During the trip to Mars, scientists at JPL had devised a new strategy, called Power In that would allow for an earlier insertion into the mapping orbit. The talk summarizes this strategy, showing on a slide the planned transition orbits. There are shots of the Martian moon, Phobos, taken from the Viking spacecraft, as Ms Dodd explains that the trajectory will allow the orbiter to make new observations of that moon. She also explains the required steps to prepare for mapping after the spacecraft has achieved the mapping orbit around Mars. The lecture ends with a picture of Mars from the Observer on its approach to the planet.

  17. Mars @ ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  18. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  19. Gravity and crustal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar gravitational properties were analyzed along with the development of flat moon and curved moon computer models. Gravity anomalies and mascons were given particular attention. Geophysical and geological considerations were included, and comparisons were made between the gravitional fields of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon.

  20. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (4) Gravity tide observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Miura, S.; Sun, W.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Heavner, M.

    2006-12-01

    The southeastern Alaska shows a large uplift rate as 30 mm/yr at most, which is considered to be closely related to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) including two effects of the past and present-day ice melting (Larsen et al., 2004). So, this area is important to improve our knowledge of the viscoelastic property of the earth and to consider the global changes. Combing the displacement and gravity observations is useful to constrain the model computation results for GIA (Sato et al., 2006). In order to progress the previous work by the group of Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), an observation project by Japan and USA groups was started in 2005 (Miura et al., this meeting). Under this project, June 2006, the continuous GPS measurements started (M. Kufman et al., this meeting) and the absolute gravity (AG) measurements were conducted (W. Sun et al., this meeting). Precise correction for the effect of ocean tide loading is one of the key to increase the observation accuracy of the GPS and gravity observations, especially for the AG measurement. Thanks for the satellite sea surface altimeters such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, the accuracy of global ocean tide models based on these data has been much improved, and its accuracy is estimated at a level better than 1.3 cm as a RMS error of the vector differences of the 8 main tidal waves (Matsumoto et al., 2006). However, on the other hand, it is known that the southeastern Alaska is a place that shows a large discrepancy among the proposed global ocean tide models mainly due to a complex topography and bathymetry of the fjord area. In order to improve the accuracy of the ocean tide correction, we started the gravity tide observation at Juneau from June 2006. Two kinds of gravimeters are used for the observation. Sampling interval of the data is at every 1 min. We analyzed the 1 month data from the beginning of the observation and compared the tidal analysis results with the model tide including both effects of the

  1. Mariner Mars 1971 project. Volume 3: Mission operations system implementation and standard mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 mission which was another step in the continuing program of planetary exploration in search of evidence of exobiological activity, information on the origin and evolution of the solar system, and basic science data related to the study of planetary physics, geology, planetology, and cosmology is reported. The mission plan was designed for two spacecraft, each performing a separate but complementary mission. However, a single mission plan was actually used for Mariner 9 because of failure of the launch vehicle for the first spacecraft. The implementation is described, of the Mission Operations System, including organization, training, and data processing development and operations, and Mariner 9 spacecraft cruise and orbital operations through completion of the standard mission from launch to solar occultation in April 1972 are discussed.

  2. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  3. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission. [project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

  4. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.

  5. Crustal Structure across Southern Islas Marías (Nayarit, Mexico) from Wide-Angle Data (TSUJAL Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, D.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Danobeitia, J.; Garcia Millan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Pacific Margin is an interesting geological and tectonic study region due to the subduction processes that involve Rivera plate, North American plates and Jalisco Block. This region has been recently studied by the TSUJAL geophysical experiment during 2014. The main goal of this project is to achieve a better knowledge about this active margin and the seismic and tsunamigenic potential structural sources. To carry out this objective a set of multibeam bathymetric, potential fields, high resolution seismic, MCS and WAS data were obtained. In the frame of this study, we present the most significant results of wide angle seismic profile RTSIM04 carried out across the southern region of Islas Marías perpendicular to the coast towards Tepic in Nayarit with 220 km of length and SW-NE orientated. This profile is made of by a network of 4 OBS and 30 land seismic stations, deployed specially for this project, which registered the air gun shots provided by RRS James Cook every 120 s. Data obtained after processing and interpretation characterize seismically the contact zone between Rivera and North American plates from 30 to 60 km of model distance. Moreover, a cortical thickening from 9 to 20 km is observed towards to the coast. In the upper mantle, P-wave velocities of 7.9-8.4 km/s up to maximum depth of 50 km have been determined.

  6. The 1992-1993 advanced design program. Part 1: The Mars methane engine project. Part 2: The Mars oxygen processor new furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Stephen; Hoover, Scott; Lawrence, Lori; Paparistodemou, Christos; Taylor, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Three constituents of the Martian atmosphere, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, can be used for internal combustion in engines utilized for future space exploration on Mars. These three gases, considered as the test case in this research, will be examined to determine required flow rates needed for combustion and optimization of engine performance. Results of the test case are examined in relation to a base case of methane and air for comparative purposes. Testing of exhaust temperatures, cylinder pressure, and exhaust gas analysis were performed for the base case and test case. Also described is a study utilizing a zirconia cell to convert carbon dioxide into usable oxygen to help support future Mars missions.

  7. Mars Without Borders: Creating a Global Community with the HiTranslate Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoza, A.

    2013-12-01

    The HiTranslate Project by HiRISE (MRO) is the most unique outreach program for an active NASA mission. Utilizing social media, we have built up a network of volunteers across the world to translate captioned images into various languages to reach a global audience with limited-to-no English skills. The result is a volunteer group of over 150 people making over 1,000 translated HiRISE captions and counting. The HiTranslate Project has also created specific media channels for each of these audiences, including other languages not traditionally represented in American-led science outreach efforts, like Icelandic, Greek, Arabic and Hebrew. This session will outline results of the Project and how it is a model for other science-based outreach efforts that can build up a global audience and communicate more effectively with the general public to grow interest in science.

  8. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  9. Space agriculture in micro- and hypo-gravity: A comparative study of soil hydraulics and biogeochemistry in a cropping unit on Earth, Mars, the Moon and the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Federico; Pallud, Céline

    2010-12-01

    Increasing interest is developing towards soil-based agriculture as a long-term bioregenerative life support during space and planetary explorations. Contrary to hydroponics and aeroponics, soil-based cropping would offer an effective approach to sustain food and oxygen production, decompose organic wastes, sequester carbon dioxide, and filter water. However, the hydraulics and biogeochemical functioning of soil systems exposed to gravities lower than the Earth's are still unknown. Since gravity is crucial in driving water flow, hypogravity will affect nutrient and oxygen transport in the liquid and gaseous phases, and could lead to suffocation of microorganisms and roots, and emissions of toxic gases. A highly mechanistic model coupling soil hydraulics and nutrient biogeochemistry previously tested on soils on Earth ( g=9.806 m s -2) is used to highlight the effects of gravity on the functioning of cropping units on Mars (0.38 g), the Moon (0.16 g), and in the international space station (ISS, nearly 0 g). For each scenario, we have compared the net leaching of water, the leaching of NH 3, NH 4+, NO 2- and NO 3- solutes, the emissions of NH 3, CO 2, N 2O, NO and N 2 gases, the concentrations profiles of O 2, CO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil, the pH, and the dynamics of various microbial functional groups within the root zone against the same control variables in the soil under terrestrial gravity. The response of the soil ecodynamics was relatively linear; gravitational accelerations lower than the Earth's resulted in 90-100% lower water leaching rates, 95-100% lower nutrient leaching rates, and lower emissions of NH 3 and NO gases (80-95% and 30-40%, respectively). Lower N loss through leaching resulted in 60-100% higher concentration of the microbial biomass, but did not alter the vertical stratification of the microbial functional groups with respect to the stratification on Earth. However, the higher biomass concentration produced higher

  10. Mission to Mars: A Collaborative Project Infusing Technology and Telecommunications into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Dorothy Valcarcel; Stewart, Jaci

    1997-01-01

    Describes a collaborative project involving third and fifth graders that focused on integrating computer technology into the earth science curriculum. Electronic research, telecommunications, science software, and an interdisciplinary approach are discussed; and a list of classroom resources and three worksheets are included. (LRW)