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Sample records for project mars gravity

  1. The Mars Gravity Simulation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korienek, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Human beings who make abrupt transitions between one gravitational environment and another undergo severe disruptions of their visual perception and visual- motor coordination, frequently accompanied by "space sickness." Clearly, such immediate effects of exposure to a novel gravitational condition have significant implications for human performance. For example, when astronauts first arrive in Earth orbit their attempts to move about in the spacecraft and to perform their duties are uncoordinated, inaccurate, and inefficient. Other inter-gravitational transitions for which these difficulties can be expected include going from the 0 g of the spacecraft to the. 16 g of the Moon, from 0 g to the .38 g of Mars, and from 0 g back to the 1.0 g of Earth. However, after astronauts have actively interacted with their new gravitational environment for several days, these problems tend to disappear, evidence that some sort of adaptive process has taken place. It would be advantageous, therefore, if there were some way to minimize or perhaps even to eliminate this potentially hazardous adaptive transition period by allowing astronauts to adapt to the altered gravitational conditions before actually entering them. Simultaneous adaptations to both the altered and the normal gravitational environment as a result of repeatedly adapting to one and readapting to the other, a phenomenon known as dual adaptation. The objective of the Mars Gravity Simulator (MGS) Project is to construct a simulation of the visual and bodily effects of altered gravity. This perceptual-motor simulation is created through the use of: 1) differential body pressure to produce simulated hypo-gravity and 2) treadmill-controlled virtual reality to create a corresponding visual effect. It is expected that this combination will produce sensory motor perturbations in the subjects. Both the immediate and adaptive behavioral (postural and ambulatory) responses to these sensory perturbations will be assessed.

  2. The Mars Gravity Simulation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korienek, Gene

    1998-10-01

    Human beings who make abrupt transitions between one gravitational environment and another undergo severe disruptions of their visual perception and visual- motor coordination, frequently accompanied by "space sickness." Clearly, such immediate effects of exposure to a novel gravitational condition have significant implications for human performance. For example, when astronauts first arrive in Earth orbit their attempts to move about in the spacecraft and to perform their duties are uncoordinated, inaccurate, and inefficient. Other inter-gravitational transitions for which these difficulties can be expected include going from the 0 g of the spacecraft to the. 16 g of the Moon, from 0 g to the .38 g of Mars, and from 0 g back to the 1.0 g of Earth. However, after astronauts have actively interacted with their new gravitational environment for several days, these problems tend to disappear, evidence that some sort of adaptive process has taken place. It would be advantageous, therefore, if there were some way to minimize or perhaps even to eliminate this potentially hazardous adaptive transition period by allowing astronauts to adapt to the altered gravitational conditions before actually entering them. Simultaneous adaptations to both the altered and the normal gravitational environment as a result of repeatedly adapting to one and readapting to the other, a phenomenon known as dual adaptation. The objective of the Mars Gravity Simulator (MGS) Project is to construct a simulation of the visual and bodily effects of altered gravity. This perceptual-motor simulation is created through the use of: 1) differential body pressure to produce simulated hypo-gravity and 2) treadmill-controlled virtual reality to create a corresponding visual effect. It is expected that this combination will produce sensory motor perturbations in the subjects. Both the immediate and adaptive behavioral (postural and ambulatory) responses to these sensory perturbations will be assessed.

  3. The U.S. Rosetta Project: Mars Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Claudia; Holmes, Dwight P.; Goldstein, R.; Parker, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Since launch on March 2, 2004, the International Rosetta Mission has flown by the Earth/Moon system one time and conducted several distant observations of comets, including support for the Deep Impact measurements of comet 9 P/Tempel 1. In 2007, Rosetta flew by Mars for a gravity assist, and conducted observations of the Martian upper atmosphere as well as extended observations, in support of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter, of the Jovian magnetotail and Io torus. In late 2007 Rosetta had its second encounter with the Earth/Moon system. NASA's contribution to the Rosetta mission consists of three hardware experiments, and the portion of the electronics package for a fourth, as well as the participation of an Interdisciplinary Scientist (IDS); backup tracking, telecommunications, and navigation assurance provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN); support for the scientific participation of U.S. investigators on non-U.S. PI-led experiments. Collectively these elements are known as the U.S. Rosetta Project. In this paper we will update the status of the instruments following the both the Mars and Earth/Moon gravity assists. In addition, we will present a summary of the science observations for both Mars and Jupiter. 12.

  4. Artificial gravity Mars spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1989-01-01

    Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.

  5. Mars mission gravity profile simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to determine the need for artificial gravity for Mars mission architectures at earlier stages of the design process is proposed. The Soviet Mir space station, the NASA Space Shuttle, and the resources of NASA Ames Research Center would be used to duplicate in the terrestrial environment the complete Mars-mission gravity profile in order to assess the need for artificial gravity. All mission phases of 1 G would be on earth; all mission phases of zero or micro G would be in space aboard Mir; and all launch, ascent, orbit, deorbit, approach, departure, and descent G loads would be provided by actual spacecraft in operations that could be designed to simulate the actual G loads, while the Mars stay time would be simulated on earth or in a variable-gravity research facility in space. Methods of simulating activities on the Martian surface are outlined along with data monitoring, countermeasures, and launch site and vehicle selection criteria.

  6. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.

  7. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  8. Gravity and topography. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, P. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lindal, G. F.; Sjogren, W. L.; Slade, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes the fundamental gravity field constants for Mars and a brief historical review of early determinations and current-day accurate estimates. These include the planetary gravitational constant, global figure, dynamical oblateness, mean density, and rotational period. Topographic results from data acquired from the 1967 opposition to the most recent, 1988, opposition are presented. Both global and selected local topographic variations and features are discussed. The inertia tensor and the nonhydrostatic component of Mars are examined in detail. The dimensionless moment of inertia about the rotational axis is 0.4 for a body of uniform density and 0.37621 if Mars were in hydrostatic equilibrium. By comparing models of both gravity and topography, inferences are made about the degree and depth of compensation in the interior and stresses in the lithosphere.

  9. A manned Mars artificial gravity vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, David N.; Rupp, Charles C.; Hajos, Gregory A.; Butler, John M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented on an artificial-gravity vehicle that is being designed for a manned Mars mission, using a 'split-mission' concept, in which an unmanned cargo vehicle is sent earlier and stored in a Mars orbit for a rendezvous with a manned vehicle about 1.5 years later. Special attention is given to the vehicle trajectory and configuration, the tether design, and the vehicle weight and launch requirements. It is shown that an artificial-G vehicle for a manned Mars missions is feasible technically and programmatically. Using an artificial-G vehicle instead of a zero-G vehicle for the piloted portion of a split mission provides physiological and human-factor-related benefits, does not eliminate requirements for zero-G countermeasures research (since zero-G is an abort mode), and could possibly reduce some life science activities. Diagrams are included.

  10. International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity (IMAG) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts of the International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity Project. Specifically it reviews the NASA Exploration Planning Status, NASA Exploration Roadmap, Status of Planning for the Moon, Mars Planning, Reference health maintenance scenario, and The Human Research Program.

  11. [MaRS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  12. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.

  13. Gravity Field Mapping of Mars with MGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    Tracking of the MGS spacecraft in orbit at Mars by the Deep Space Network since last September has provided doppler and range measurements that are being used to improve the model of the Mars gravity field. During most of October 1997, April 1998, and June thru August 1998 high quality tracking data were obtained while the periapse was in the northern hemisphere at altitudes in the 170 to 190 km range. The eccentric orbit had a period of about 11.5 hrs and an inclination of about 96.2 degrees so that low altitude tracking was obtained over most of the northern hemisphere, including the north polar icecap. Data from the earlier Mariner 9 and Viking missions have been added to the MGS data and a series of experimental gravity models developed from the combined datasets. These models have generally been of degree and order 70 and are a significant improvement over earlier models that did not include the MGS data. Gravity anomalies over the north polar cap region of Mars are generally less than 50 to 100 mgals and show no obvious correlation with the topography. Successive MGS orbits derived using these new models are showing agreement at the 100 meter level, and this has been confirmed with the laser altimeter (MOLA) on MGS These comparisons are expected to improve significantly as more tracking data get included in the solution and the MGS orbit becomes more circular giving a more balanced geographical distribution of data at low altitude. This will happen early in 1999 as the orbit approaches the mapping configuration of a circular orbit at about 400 Km.

  14. Crustal Structure of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Tyler, G. L.; Aharonson, O.; Balmino, G.; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, J. W.; Johnson, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    In this analysis we invert global models of Mars' topography from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from Doppler tracking obtained during the mapping mission of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We analyze the distribution of Martian crust and discuss implications for Mars' thermal history.

  15. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  16. Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.

  17. An improved JPL Mars gravity field and orientation from Mars orbiter and lander tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Folkner, William M.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars gravity field resolution is mostly determined by the lower altitude Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) tracking data. With nearly four years of additional MRO and Mars Odyssey tracking data since the last JPL released gravity field MRO110C and lander tracking from the MER Opportunity Rover, the gravity field and orientation of Mars have been improved. The new field, MRO120D, extends the maximum spherical harmonic degree slightly to 120, improves the determination of the higher degree coefficients as demonstrated by improved correlation with topography and reduces the uncertainty in the corresponding Mars orientation parameters by up to a factor of two versus previously combined gravity and orientation solutions. The new precession solution is ψ˙ = - 7608.3 ± 2.1 mas / yr and is consistent with previous results but with a reduced uncertainty by 40%. The Love number solution, k2 = 0.169 ± 0.006, also shows a similar result to previous studies.

  18. Time-variable and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have significantly contributed to the determination of global high-resolution global gravity fields of Mars for the last 16 years. All three spacecraft were located in sun-synchronous, near-circular polar mapping orbits for their primary mission phases at different altitudes and Local Solar Time (LST). X-Band tracking data have been acquired from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) providing information on the time-variable and static gravity field of Mars. MGS operated between 1999 and 2006 at 390 km altitude. ODY and MRO are still orbiting Mars with periapsis altitudes of 400 km and 255 km, respectively. Before entering these mapping phases, all three spacecraft collected radio tracking data at lower altitudes (˜170-200 km) that help improve the resolution of the gravity field of Mars in specific regions. We analyzed the entire MGS radio tracking data set, and ODY and MRO radio data until 2015. These observations were processed using a batch least-squares filter through the NASA GSFC GEODYN II software. We combined all 2- and 3-way range rate data to estimate the global gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, the seasonal variations of gravity harmonic coefficients C20, C30, C40 and C50 and the Love number k2. The gravity contribution of Mars atmospheric pressures on the surface of the planet has been discerned from the time-varying and static gravity harmonic coefficients. Surface pressure grids computed using the Mars-GRAM 2010 atmospheric model, with 2.5° x2.5° spatial and 2-h resolution, are converted into gravity spherical harmonic coefficients. Consequently, the estimated gravity and tides provide direct information on the solid planet. We will present the new Goddard Mars Model (GMM-3) of Mars gravity field in spherical harmonics to degree and order 120. The solution includes the Love number k2 and the 3-frequencies (annual, semi-annual, and tri

  19. Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sediment sorting on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment in water is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is more uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. In reality, such considerations have to be applied with great caution because the shape of a particle strongly influences drag. Drag itself can only be calculated directly for an irregularly shaped particle with great computational effort, if at all. Therefore, even for terrestrial applications, sediment settling velocities are often determined directly, e.g. by measurements using settling tubes. Experiments: In this study the results of settling tube tests conducted under reduced gravity during three Mars Sedimentation Experiment (MarsSedEx I, II and III) flights, conducted between 2012 and 2015, are presented. Ten types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Results: The experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx reduced gravity experiments showed that the violation of fluid dynamics caused by using empirical models and parameter values developed for sediment transport on Earth lead to significant miscalculations for Mars, specifically an underetsimation of settling velcoity because of an overestimation of turbulant drag. The error is caused by the flawed representation of particle drag on Mars. Drag coefficients are not a property of a sediment particle, but a property of the flow around the particle, and thus strongly affected by gravity. Conlcusions: The observed errors in settling velocity when using terrestrial models

  20. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  1. 2001 Mars Odyssey Project Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David A.; Gibbs, Roger G.; Mase, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Project is the latest in an ongoing series of robotic missions to Mars within NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The Program goals include the global observation of Mars, to enable understanding of the Mars climatic and geologic history, including the search for liquid water and the evidence of prior or extant life. The Odyssey orbiter carries scientific payloads that will determine surface elemental composition, mineralogy and morphology, and measure the Mars radiation environment from orbit. In addition, the orbiter will serve as a data relay for future landers. Odyssey was designed and developed through a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colorado. Odyssey was launched atop a Boeing 7925 launch vehicle on April 7, 2001, from Kennedy Space Center. The 200-day journey to Mars was marked by four trajectory correction maneuvers, and numerous spacecraft and payload calibration activities. The final maneuver was performed 12 days prior to encounter, and successfully targeted the spacecraft to the desired arrival conditions 300 km above the North Pole of Mars. The 20-minute orbit insertion burn was the only use of the bipropellant propulsion system on the spacecraft. The burn executed as planned on October 24, 2001, capturing the spacecraft into an 18.6-hour orbit around Mars. The subsequent aerobraking phase was designed to gradually reduce the orbit period by flying through the upper atmosphere of Mars on each orbit, allowing atmospheric drag to remove energy from the orbit. Aerobraking was the most demanding operational phase of the mission, requiring continuous monitoring and control of the spacecraft to ensure health and safety. The aerobraking phase was successfully completed on January 11, 2002 after 76 days and 332 drag passes through the Martian atmosphere. Following completion of the aerobraking phase, a series of five propulsive maneuvers were performed to

  2. Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.

    PubMed

    Kiss, J Z

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration. PMID:23889757

  3. Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

  4. Lithospheric Structure from Mars Global Surveyor Topography and Gravity and Implications for the Early Thermal Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Aharonson, Oded; Balmino, Georges; Banerdt, W. B.; Head, James W.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2000-01-01

    Regional variations in the thickness of the elastic lithosphere on Mars derived from a combined analysis of topography and gravity anomalies determined by Mars Global Surveyor provide new insight into the planet's thermal history.

  5. The Mars Express - NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Horttor, Richard L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.; Asmar, S. W.; Goltz, G.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the Mars Express NASA Project at JPL. The contents include: 1) Mars Express/NASA Project Overview; 2) Experiment-Investigator Matrix; 3) Mars Express Support of NASA's Mars Exploration Objectives; 4) U.S./NASA Support of Mars Express; 5) Mars Express Schedule (2003-2007); 6) Mars Express Data Rates; 7) MARSIS Overview Results; 8) MARSIS with Antennas Deployed; 9) MARSIS Science Objectives; 10) Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) Experiment Overview; 11) Mars Express Orbit Evolution; 12) MARSIS Science - Subsurface Sounding; 13) MARSIS-North Polar Ice Cap; 14) MARSIS Data-Buried Basin; 15) MARSIS over a Crater Basin; 16) MARSIS-Buried Basin; 17) Ionogram - Orbit 2032 (example from Science paper); 18) Ionogram-Orbit 2018 (example from Science paper); and 19) Recent MARSIS Results ESA Press Releases.

  6. The JPL Mars gravity field, Mars50c, based upon Viking and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the current JPL efforts of generating a Mars gravity field from Viking 1 and 2 and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data. The Mars 50c solution is a complete gravity field to degree and order 50 with solutions as well for the gravitational mass of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos. The constants and models used to obtain the solution are given and the method for determining the gravity field is presented. The gravity field is compared to the best current gravity GMM1 of Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Design of Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Cryogenic System for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Lemoine, F. G.; Paik, H. J.; Zagarola, M.; Shirron, P. J.; Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of a planet's gravity field provides fundamental information about the planet's mass properties. The static gravity field reveals information about the internal structure of the planet, including crustal density variations that provide information on the planet's geological history and evolution. The time variations of gravity result from the movement of mass inside the planet, on the surface, and in the atmosphere. NASA is interested in a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) with which to measure the gravity field of a planet from orbit. An SGG instrument is under development with the NASA PICASSO program, which will be able to resolve the Mars static gravity field to degree 200 in spherical harmonics, and the time-varying field on a monthly basis to degree 20 from a 255 x 320 km orbit. The SGG has a precision two orders of magnitude better than the electrostatic gravity gradiometer that was used on the ESA's GOCE mission. The SGG operates at the superconducting temperature lower than 6 K. This study developed a cryogenic thermal system to maintain the SGG at the design temperature in Mars orbit. The system includes fixed radiation shields, a low thermal conductivity support structure and a two-stage cryocooler. The fixed radiation shields use double aluminized polyimide to emit heat from the warm spacecraft into the deep space. The support structure uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic, which has low thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature and very high stress. The low vibration cryocooler has two stages, of which the high temperature stage operates at 65 K and the low temperature stage works at 6 K, and the heat rejection radiator works at 300 K. The study also designed a second option with a 4-K adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and two-stage 10-K turbo-Brayton cooler.

  8. Design of Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Cryogenic System for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.; Paik, H. J.; Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S. C.; Zagarola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of a planets gravity field provides fundamental information about the planets mass properties. The static gravity field reveals information about the internal structure of the planet, including crustal density variations that provide information on the planets geological history and evolution. The time variations of gravity result from the movement of mass inside the planet, on the surface, and in the atmosphere. NASA is interested in a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) with which to measure the gravity field of a planet from orbit. An SGG instrument is under development with the NASA PICASSO program, which will be able to resolve the Mars static gravity field to degree 200 in spherical harmonics, and the time-varying field on a monthly basis to degree 20 from a 255 x 320 km orbit. The SGG has a precision two orders of magnitude better than the electrostatic gravity gradiometer that was used on the ESAs GOCE mission. The SGG operates at the superconducting temperature lower than 6 K. This study developed a cryogenic thermal system to maintain the SGG at the design temperature in Mars orbit. The system includes fixed radiation shields, a low thermal conductivity support structure and a two-stage cryocooler. The fixed radiation shields use double aluminized polyimide to emit heat from the warm spacecraft into the deep space. The support structure uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic, which has low thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature and very high stress. The low vibration cryocooler has two stages, of which the high temperature stage operates at 65 K and the low temperature stage works at 6 K, and the heat rejection radiator works at 300 K. The study also designed a second option with a 4-K adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and two-stage 10-K turbo-Brayton cooler.

  9. Estimating the k2 Tidal Gravity Love Number of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria; Torrence, Mark; Dunn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the orbits of spacecraft can be used to infer global tidal parameters. For Mars, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been used to estimate the second degree Love number, k2 from the tracking DSN tracking Doppler and range data by several authors. Unfortunately, neither of the spacecraft presently in orbit are ideally suited to tidal recovery because they are in sun-synchronous orbits that vary only slightly in local time; and, further, the sub-solar location only varies by about 25 degrees in latitude. Never-the less respectable estimates of the k2 tide have been made by several authors. We present an updated solution of the degree 2 zonal Love number, compare with previous dues, and analyze the sensitivity of the solution to orbital parameters, spacecraft maneuvers, and solution methodology. Estimating the k2 Tidal Gravity Love Number of Mars.

  10. A Revolution in Mars Topography and Gravity and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) at Mars in September 1997 and the subsequent beginning of observations of the planet there has been a constant stream of surprises and puzzling observations that have kept scientists looking at new 'out of the box' explanations. Observations of the shape and topography have shown a planet with one hemisphere, the southern, several kilometers higher than the north and a northern hemisphere that is so flat and smooth in places that it's difficult to imagine it was not once the bottom of an ocean. And yet the ocean idea presents some enormous difficulties. The measurements of gravity derived from the tracking of MGS have shown that several Mars volcanoes are enormous positive gravity anomalies much larger than we see on Earth and revealed small errors in the orbit of Mars and or Earth. And the magnetic field is found to be composed of a number of extremely large crustal anomalies; but as far as can be ascertained there is no main dipole field such as we have on Earth. Understanding these diverse observations and placing them in the sequence of the evolution of the planet will be a long, challenging but rewarding task.

  11. The Mystery of the Mars North Polar Gravity-Topography Correlation(Or Lack Thereof)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Johnson, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Maps of moderately high resolution gravity data obtained from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity calibration orbit campaign and high precision topography obtained from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) experiment reveal relationships between gravity and topography in high northern latitudes of Mars. Figure 1 shows the results of a JPL spherical harmonic gravity model bandpass filtered between degrees 6 and 50 contoured over a MOLA topographic image. A positive gravity anomaly exists over the main North Polar cap, but there are at least six additional positive gravity anomalies, as well as a number of smaller negative anomalies, with no obvious correlation to topography. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Mars Gravity Field and Upper Atmosphere from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA orbital missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have been exploring and monitoring the planet Mars since 1997. MGS executed its mapping mission between 1999 and 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis altitude at ~370 km and the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 pm Local Solar Time (LST). The spacecraft was equipped with onboard instrumentation to acquire radio science data and to measure spacecraft ranges to the Martian surface (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter). These measurements resulted in static and time-varying gravity field and high-resolution global topography of the planet. ODY and MRO are still orbiting about Mars in two different sun-synchronous orbits, providing radio tracking data that indirectly measure both the static and time-varying gravity field and the atmospheric density. The orbit of ODY has its periapsis at ~390 km altitude and descending node at 4-5 pm LST. However, the spacecraft also collected measurements at lower altitudes (~220 km) in 2002 prior to the mapping phase. Since November 2006, MRO is in a low-altitude orbit with a periapsis altitude of 255 km and descending node at 3 pm LST. Radio data from MRO help improve the resolution of the static gravity field and measure the mass distribution of the polar caps, but the atmospheric drag at those altitudes may limit the benefits of these radio tracking observations. We present a combined solution of the Martian gravity field to degree and order 110 and atmospheric density profiles with radio tracking data from MGS, ODY and MRO. The gravity field solution is combined with the MOLA topography yielding an updated map of Mars crustal thickness. We also show our solution of the Love number k2 and time-variable gravity zonal harmonics (C20 and C30, in particular). The recovered atmospheric density profiles may be used in atmospheric models to constrain the long-term variability of the

  13. On the model structure of the gravity field of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    A discussion is presented about the constraints used in constructing a model for the internal structure of Mars. The most important fact is that the Martian chemical model proposed by Wänke and Dreibus (WD) has stood the test of time. This means that the chondritic ratio Fe/Si = 1.71 can be used as a constraint in constructing an interior structure model of the planet. Consideration is given to the constructing of the reference surface of Mars. It is concluded that the effectively hydrostatic-equilibrium model of Mars is well suited for this purpose. The areoid heights and gravity anomalies in the model of Mars are calculated. The results are shown in the figures (maps) and comments made. The results are compared with the similar data for the Earth. Mars deviates much more strongly from the hydrostatic equilibrium than the Earth. It is suggested that the average thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere should exceed that of the Earth's continental lithosphere.

  14. Analyses of Mars Topography, Gravity and Aroid: Implications for Tharsis and Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Shcherbakov, R.; Malamud, B. D.; Kucinskas, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Correlations between topography, gravity, and aroid can provide important constraints on the structure and tectonic evolution of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.

  16. (abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.

  17. Mars' gravity field and upper atmosphere with MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO radio science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars exploration program conducted by NASA during the last decade has enabled continuous observations of the planet from orbit with three different missions: the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These spacecraft were equipped with on board instrumentation dedicated to collect radio tracking data in the X-band. The analysis of these data has provided a high-resolution gravity field model of Mars. MGS and ODY were inserted into two separate frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbits with different local times, with their periapsis altitude at ~370 km and ~390 km, respectively. MGS was in orbit around Mars between 1999 and 2006, whereas ODY has been orbiting the planet since January 2002. Using the radio science data of these two spacecraft, gravity models with a maximum resolution of degree and order 95 in spherical harmonics (spatial resolution of 112 km) have been determined. MRO has been orbiting Mars since August 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous orbit with a periapsis at 255 km altitude. Therefore, its radio data helped significantly improve Mars' gravity field model, up to degree and order 110 (spatial resolution of 96 km). However, mismodeling of the atmospheric drag, which is the strongest non-conservative force acting on the spacecraft at MRO's low altitude, compromises the estimation of the temporal variations of the gravity field zonal harmonics that provide crucial information on the seasonal mass of carbon dioxide in the polar caps. For this reason, we implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM)-Mars model (Bruinsma and Lemoine 2002) into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II. We estimated key model parameters to adequately reproduce variations in temperatures and (partial) density along the spacecraft trajectories. Our new model allows us to directly estimate the long-term periodicity of the major constituents at MGS, ODY, and MRO altitudes (~255-450 km). In this

  18. Need for artificial gravity on a manned Mars mission?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing upon the extensive Soviet and Skylab medical observations, the need for artificial gravity (g) on a manned Mars mission is discussed. Little hard data derived from well done experiments exist. This dearth of information is primarily due to two factors. Inability to collect tissues from astronauts for ethical or operational reasons. Second, there was not opportunities to fly animals in space to systematically evaluate the extent of the problem, and to develop and then to prove the effectiveness of countermeasures. The Skylab and space station will provide the opportunity to study these questions and validate suggested solutions.

  19. The MarsQuest Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    1998-09-01

    The upcoming decade of Mars exploration will provide numerous opportunities for a variety of educational efforts. One of these, MarsQuest, is a travelling exhibition being developed by the Space Science Institute with partial funding from NSF and NASA. MarsQuest's Education and Outreach Program will take advantage of the many Mars-related educational resources currently available, as well as those in the planning stages. Materials reflecting the exhibit content will be disseminated to teachers at sites where the exhibit is visiting and via presentations at annual and regional meetings of the National Science Teachers Association, and via a web site containing interactive educational resources. The goals of the MarsQuest Education Program are to: 1) Make use of the rich educational resources and coincident occurrence of ongoing Mars missions; 2) Captivate broad public interest in Mars exploration and use it to promote scientific literacy; 3) Provide opportunities for teachers, students, and families to connect in real-time to the Mars missions, the people involved, and the science experiments underway; 4) Enhance the overall education experience of the MarsQuest exhibition. The MarsQuest Education Program is focused on teacher training/enhancement and parental involvement. The main mechanism for teacher enhancement and encouragement of parental participation will be through two education workshops organized by MarsQuest personnel at each host site. The first will target museum staff and "master" K-12 teachers. The second will target local K-12 teachers. The MarsQuest Education Program will also provide museum staff, exhibit liaisons, and astronomy volunteers information on offering one-day workshops designed for family groups. The MarsQuest project will provide a wide ranging dissemination effort, ultimately reaching an estimated two to three million people during its three-year tour.

  20. Crustal structure of Mars from gravity and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Wieczorek, M. A.; McGovern, P. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography and gravity models from 5 years of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft tracking provide a window into the structure of the Martian crust and upper mantle. We apply a finite-amplitude terrain correction assuming uniform crustal density and additional corrections for the anomalous densities of the polar caps, the major volcanos, and the hydrostatic flattening of the core. A nonlinear inversion for Moho relief yields a crustal thickness model that obeys a plausible power law and resolves features as small as 300 km wavelength. On the basis of petrological and geophysical constraints, we invoke a mantle density contrast of 600 kg m-3; with this assumption, the Isidis and Hellas gravity anomalies constrain the global mean crustal thickness to be >45 km. The crust is characterized by a degree 1 structure that is several times larger than any higher degree harmonic component, representing the geophysical manifestation of the planet's hemispheric dichotomy. It corresponds to a distinction between modal crustal thicknesses of 32 km and 58 km in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The Tharsis rise and Hellas annulus represent the strongest components in the degree 2 crustal thickness structure. A uniform highland crustal thickness suggests a single mechanism for its formation, with subsequent modification by the Hellas impact, erosion, and the volcanic construction of Tharsis. The largest surviving lowland impact, Utopia, post-dated formation of the crustal dichotomy. Its crustal structure is preserved, making it unlikely that the northern crust was subsequently thinned by internal processes.

  1. Exploring the Moon and Mars Using an Orbiting Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Ho Jung; Strayer, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity measurement is fundamental to understanding the interior structure, dynamics, and evolution of planets. High-resolution gravity maps will also help locating natural resources, including subsurface water, and underground cavities for astronaut habitation on the Moon and Mars. Detecting the second spatial derivative of the potential, a gravity gradiometer mission tends to give the highest spatial resolution and has the advantage of requiring only a single satellite. We discuss gravity missions to the Moon and Mars using an orbiting Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer and discuss the instrument and spacecraft control requirements.

  2. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.

  3. The Mars Exploration Rover Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    In mid-2003 NASA will launch two identical rovers to Mars. The Mars Exploration Rovers will be delivered using cruise, entry, and landing systems with Mars Pathfinder heritage. After landing in January of 2004, the rovers will use their set of instruments -- the Athena Science Payload -- to test hypotheses for the presence of past water at two separate sites on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable for life. Particular emphasis will be placed on assessing environmental conditions at the time of water activity. The landing sites are being selected on the basis of community-wide study of orbital data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and other missions. Possibilities include former lakebeds or hydrothermal deposits. The Athena Science Payload includes two mast-mounted remote-sensing instruments: a color stereo imager (Pancam) and a thermal emission infrared point spectrometer (Mini-TES). Mounted on the end of a five degree-of-freedom robotic arm are three more in-situ instruments: an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer, a Mössbauer Spectrometer, and a Microscopic Imager. A Rock Abrasion Tool is also mounted on the arm, and will be used to remove the surface layers of rocks and expose underlying material for investigation. The rovers are substantially larger than Mars Pathfinder's Sojourner rover. They have substantial onboard autonomy capability, and can traverse many tens of meters per martian day. The combined capabilities of the MER rovers and the Athena payload will make these rovers the first robotic field geologists to operate on another planet.

  4. Software for Tracking Costs of Mars Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Alvin; Warfield, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Cost Tracking Model is a computer program that administers a system set up for tracking the costs of future NASA projects that pertain to Mars. Previously, no such tracking system existed, and documentation was written in a variety of formats and scattered in various places. It was difficult to justify costs or even track the history of costs of a spacecraft mission to Mars. The present software enables users to maintain all cost-model definitions, documentation, and justifications of cost estimates in one computer system that is accessible via the Internet. The software provides sign-off safeguards to ensure the reliability of information entered into the system. This system may eventually be used to track the costs of projects other than only those that pertain to Mars.

  5. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.; Asmar, S. W.; Goltz, G.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL is presented. The topics include: 1) Mars Express Mission Experiments and Investigators; 2) Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Soundig (MARSIS) Overview; 3) MARSIS Experiment Overview; 4) Interoperability Concept; 5) Mars Express Science Operations; 6) Mars Express Schedule (2003-2007);

  6. Mars Pathfinder Project: Planetary Constants and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D.; Vaughn, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a common set of astrodynamic constants and planetary models for use by the Mars pathfinder Project. It attempts to collect in a single reference all the quantities and models in use across the project during development and for mission operations.

  7. Gravity Waves and their Effects on the Mean State and Variability of Mars' Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, John E.

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has revealed the presence of gravity waves in Mars' lower atmosphere and thermosphere. From perturbations in radio occultation temperature profiles of the lower atmosphere, global distributions of gravity wave potential energy density were calculated. The potential energy density distributions served as the basis to compute gravity wave source momentum flux used in a Mars dynamical model, marking the first time that a numerical study of Mars' gravity waves was observationally constrained. The gravity wave source spectrum is believed to include a stationary component from topographic forcing and a non-stationary component from atmospheric tides with large zonal wavenumbers. The model used was a Mars-specific version of the Hybrid Lindzen-Matsuno gravity wave parameterization that was created and integrated into the time-dependent, two-dimensional QNLM model for Mars. Due to the non-stationary waves in the gravity wave spectrum, the effect on predicted zonal wind and temperature fields was profound, particularly in the upper atmosphere above 100 km altitude where Mars' atmosphere is poorly observed. At solstice, the middle atmosphere zonal jets were closed near 80 km, and upper atmosphere zonal winds were significantly diminished from 120--140 m s-1 to near zero. Meridional circulation increased to over 50 m s-1 at altitudes where gravity wave breaking occurred, and adiabatic heating above the winter pole was enhanced. The model results were particularly sensitive to the prescribed phase speed distribution, and multiple phase speed spectra were evaluated to assess sensitivity. The effects of the non-stationary tidal components in the gravity wave spectrum indicate that Mars' GCMs may be underestimating their contribution to middle and upper atmosphere forcing, but open questions remain with respect to the phase speed distribution of non-stationary components and the relative contribution to momentum flux of

  8. Status of the ExoMars Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Vago, Jorge; Gianfiglio, Giacinto; Haldemann, Albert; Elfving, Anders; Pinel, Jacques; McCoy, Don

    The ExoMars mission will deploy two science elements on the Martian surface: a rover and a small, fixed package. The fixed Humboldt science package, will measure planetary geophysics parameters important for understanding Mars's evolution and habitability, identify possible surface hazards to future human missions, and study the environment. The Rover Pasteur science package will search for signs of past and present life on Mars, and characterise the water and geochemical environment with depth by collecting and analysing subsurface samples down to 2 meters. The very powerful combination of surface mobility and subsurface access to locations where organic molecules may be well-preserved is unique to this mission. ExoMars is currently in Phase B prior to PDR. This presentation will provide an update on the project status, including instrument and technology developments.

  9. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  10. From Mars to Greenland: Charting gravity with space and airborne instruments - Fields, tides, methods, results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.

  11. Mars Pathfinder Project: Planetary Constants and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Robin

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a common set of astrodynamic constants and planetary models for use by the Mars Pathfinder Project. It attempts to collect in a single reference all the quantities and models in use across the project during development and for mission operations. These models are central to the navigation and mission design functions, but they are also used in other aspects of the project such as science observation planning and data reduction.

  12. Mars Propellant Production with Ionic Liquids Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a single vessel for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and electrolysis for in situ Mars propellant production by eliminating several steps of CO2 processing, two cryocoolers, a high temperature reactor, a recycle pump, and a water condenser; thus greatly reducing mass, volume, and power.

  13. Curiosity: the Mars Science Laboratory Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Curiosity rover landed successfully in Gale Crater, Mars on August 5, 2012. This event was a dramatic high point in the decade long effort to design, build, test and fly the most sophisticated scientific vehicle ever sent to Mars. The real achievements of the mission have only just begun, however, as Curiosity is now searching for signs that Mars once possessed habitable environments. The Mars Science Laboratory Project has been one of the most ambitious and challenging planetary projects that NASA has undertaken. It started in the successful aftermath of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover project and was designed to take significant steps forward in both engineering and scientific capabilities. This included a new landing system capable of emplacing a large mobile vehicle over a wide range of potential landing sites, advanced sample acquisition and handling capabilities that can retrieve samples from both rocks and soil, and a high reliability avionics suite that is designed to permit long duration surface operations. It also includes a set of ten sophisticated scientific instruments that will investigate both the geological context of the landing site plus analyze samples to understand the chemical & organic composition of rocks & soil found there. The Gale Crater site has been specifically selected as a promising location where ancient habitable environments may have existed and for which evidence may be preserved. Curiosity will spend a minimum of one Mars year (about two Earth years) looking for this evidence. This paper will report on the progress of the mission over the first few months of surface operations, plus look retrospectively at lessons learned during both the development and cruise operations phase of the mission..

  14. Progress in the development of the GMM-2 gravity field model for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    Last year we published the GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1) gravity model for Mars. We have completely re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner 9 tracking data in the development of the new field, designated GMM-2. The model is complete to degree and order 70. Various aspects of the model are discussed.

  15. Effect of gravity on terminal particle settling velocity on Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, StokeśLaw, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle moving in a gas of liquid assumes a linear relationship between terminal velocity and gravity. For terrestrial applications, this "error" is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on Mars. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks on Mars. Wrong interpretations may occur, for example, when the texture of sedimentary rocks is linked to the amount and hydraulics of runoff and thus ultimately the environmental conditions on Mars at the time of their formation. A good understanding of particle behaviour in liquids on Mars is therefore essential. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can also be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and gas or liquid. However, the use of such analogues simulating the lower gravity on Mars on Earth is creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under Martian gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling tests within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation we report the results of such a test conducted during a reduced gravity flight in November 2012. The results explore the strength of the non-linearity in the gravity-settling velocity relationship for terrestrial, lunar and Martian gravity.

  16. India's mission to Mars cost less than the movie Gravity: Multidimensional View in Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Meenu; Kumar, Pawan; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    Over the years, Mars has been the centre of attraction for science fiction writers, Hollywood movie makers, astrologers, astronomers and the scientific community. For scientists and technologists, Mars continues to be an enigma. This is essentially because even tough humans have dreamt for long about human colonisation of Mars. Indian space programme had a very humble beginning during the early 1960s. India launched its first satellite in 1975 with assistance from the erstwhile USSR. India achieved the status of space-faring nation2 by 1980, and by the end of 2014 has launched around 75 satellites. India has become the first nation to reach Mars on its maiden attempt after its Mars Orbiter Mission completed its 10-month journey and successfully entered the Red Planet's orbit. The Mars Orbiter Mission, a low-cost 74 million project, blasted off from Earth on November 5, 2013, aboard an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. At its initial stage, the rocket booster placed the probe into Earth's orbit before the craft fired the engines to break free of Earth's gravity en route to Mars. This is India's first mission into such deep space to search for evidence of life on the Red Planet. But the mission's primary objective is technological-if successful, the country will be joining an elite club of nations: the United States, Russia and Europe. India is becoming known for low-cost innovation in diverse fields such as healthcare and education. The technological capability being demonstrated and the knowledge gained from the operations of the mission will be invaluable in future developments and also in the training of the flight operations and mission control staff. All of this capability can be carried forward to future launches and operations. The sustained presence of methane observed by previous missions suggests that an active production mechanism is at work, most likely tectonic in nature, although there are some suggestions that it may point to a biological origin

  17. Lithospheric flexure and gravity spreading of Olympus Mons volcano, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Holohan, E. P.; Cailleau, B.; Platz, T.; Dumke, A.; Walter, T. R.; Williams, D. A.; Gasselt, S.

    2016-03-01

    The structural architecture of large volcanoes is governed substantially by gravity-driven deformation that is manifest as distinct processes such as basement flexure or volcanic spreading. Temporal effects and the mutual interplay of these processes have been investigated only to a limited extent, and so we present novel numerical models of the time-dependent deformation associated with them. The models simulate the combined effects of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading during growth increments of an elastoplastic volcanic cone. Different spreading scenarios are considered by a variable coupling decoupling behavior at the interface between volcano and basement. We apply our models to Olympus Mons on Mars, which is characterized by upper to middle flank terraces on the shield, is encircled by a basal scarp that has an average slope of 30° and is surrounded by distant deposits that resemble large-scale slumping features on Earth. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that terraces on Olympus Mons' flanks form by thrust faulting that results from lithospheric flexure. The presence and expression of terraces depend on the coupling of volcano and basement, on the time of volcano growth relative to mantle relaxation, and on the cohesion of the edifice. The encircling scarp may be related to a very low friction detachment at the edifice base, which leads to a normal fault regime on the lowermost flanks. With time and volcano growth, predicted stress and faulting regimes migrate only slightly, indicating that the structural architecture of volcanoes is largely set in the very early stages of formation.

  18. Trajectories to the outer planets using aero-gravity assist flybys of Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, David F.

    1992-01-01

    The trajectory concept used here is to flyby Venus and then Mars with moderately high speeds expecting to use both gravity and aeroassisted (wave rider) turns in the atmospheres of the planets in order to form fast trajectories to the planets beyond Jupiter. The first part of the paper contains a description of the development of earth-Venus-Mars trajectories yielding the required speeds at Mars in the interval 2001 to 2015. The second part consists in identifying cases in which Mars is at the proper longitude for each target and obtaining trajectories. Trajectories to Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto have been found.

  19. Taking advantage of the MEMO orbiter to improve the determination of Mars' gravity field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, P.; Le Maitre, S.; Marty, J. C.; Duron, J.; Dehant, V.

    2007-08-01

    In the context of future ESA's mission to Mars, it is proposed an orbiter named MEMO (Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter) to especially improve the measurement of the atmospheric escape and the magnetic field of the planet. Its orbit is planned to have an inclination of 77 degrees and periapsis and apoapsis altitude of 130 km and 1000 km, respectively. In addition, such an orbit is scheduled to be maintained during one Martian year. This differs from the usual near-polar, near-circular orbit with a periapsis altitude of at least 200 km, such as for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Even if the MEMO orbiter is not dedicated to Mars' gravity field investigation, we propose to take this opportunity to improve our knowledge of Mars' gravity field. Indeed, the sensitivity of an orbiter to the gravity field strongly depends on the semi-major axis, inclination and eccentricity of its orbit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the improvement on the determination of local gravity anomalies, of seasonal variations of the first zonal harmonics and of the k2 Love number of Mars. We base our work on both analytical and numerical approaches in order to simulate the Mars' gravity field determination from spacecraft tracking data from the Earth.We also add in our simulations the possibility to have an accelerometer onboard the MEMO spacecraft. Indeed, if it is placed at the center of mass of the spacecraft, it could provide measurements of the non-gravitational forces acting on it, especially the atmospheric drag. A good determination of the contribution of this force to the spacecraft motion would bring information about the atmospheric density at altitude between 100 and 200 km, and would improve the gravity field determination from tracking data of the spacecraft.

  20. Automated design of gravity-assist trajectories to Mars and the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Williams, Steve N.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach to planetary mission design is described which automates the search for gravity-assist trajectories. This method finds all conic solutions given a range of launch dates, a range of launch energies and a set of target planets. The new design tool is applied to the problems of finding multiple encounter trajectories to the outer planets and Venus gravity-assist trajectories to Mars. The last four-planet grand tour opportunity (until the year 2153) is identified. It requires an earth launch in 1996 and encounters Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Venus gravity-assist trajectories to Mars for the 30 year period 1995-2024 are examined. It is shown that in many cases these trajectories require less launch energy to reach Mars than direct ballistic trajectories.

  1. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport developed on Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of the gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates fromed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  2. Joint Inversion and Forward Modeling of Gravity and Magnetic Data in the Ismenius Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milbury, C. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Jewell, J. B.; Smrekar, S. E.; Schubert, G.

    2005-01-01

    The unexpected discovery of remanent crustal magnetism on Mars was one of the most intriguing results from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. The origin of the pattern of magnetization remains elusive. Correlations with gravity and geology have been examined to better understand the nature of the magnetic anomalies. In the area of the Martian dichotomy between 50 and 90 degrees E (here referred to as the Ismenius Area), we find that both the Bouguer and the isostatic gravity anomalies appear to correlate with the magnetic anomalies and a buried fault, and allow for a better constraint on the magnetized crust].

  3. Gravity wave vertical coupling on Earth and Mars: similarities and peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexander S.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves play a major role in the dynamical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere both on Earth and Mars. A significant progress with understanding gravity wave phenomena in the Martian atmosphere has been achieved over the last decade. We present some of these findings focusing on comparison with the terrestrial atmosphere. Gravity waves are stronger on Mars, thanks to more violent meteorology and rougher topography. They transport energy and momentum upon propagation to the mesosphere and thermosphere, and affect the circulation there. Gravity waves facilitate a formation of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, and cause a strong thermospheric response to dust storms in the troposphere. This talk promotes a view of coupling processes not only as an Earth phenomenon, but as a universal mechanism in planetary atmospheres.

  4. Mars gravity derived from the long-period motion of Mariner 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.; Christensen, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The spherical harmonic coefficients in the Mars gravity field are determined using a two-stage filtering process. In the first stage, a weighted least-squares orbit determination processor is applied to Mariner 9 radio data to estimate the mean Kepler elements of each orbit. A finite difference method is then used to generate orbital element rates. In the second stage, the gravity coefficients are determined using another weighted least-squares processor which fits the long period Lagrange perturbation equations to the estimated rates. The resulting gravity potential and associated equipotential surface is presented and error sources discussed. Gravity field results are applied to various physical properties of Mars, such as moments of inertia.-

  5. Send Your Students to Mars for Their next Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) is led by the Arizona State University (ASU) Mars Education Program, a major partner of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. MSIP is based on the National Science Education Standards and includes curriculum on terrestrial planet characteristics, experimental design, and proposal writing. Three spacecraft…

  6. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine r&searchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual I-IMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas. 1. Classes of Supply: First, we wanted to understand what supply items existed at the HMP research station in support of planetary science and exploration research at and around the Haughton Crater. We also wanted to quantify the total amount of imported mass at HMP and compare this with predictions from existing parametric lunar base demand models. 2. Macro-Logistics Transportation Network: Our second objective was to understand the nodes, transportation routes, vehicles, capacities and crew and cargo mass flow rates required to support the HMP logistics network. 3. Agent and Asset Tracking: Since the current inventory management system on ISS relies heavily on barcodes and manual tracking, we wanted to test new automated technologies and procedures such as radio frequency identification RFID) to support exploration logistics. 4. Micro-Logistics (EVA): Finally, we wanted to understand the micro-logistical requirements of conducting both short (<1 day) and long traverses in the Mars-analog terrain on Devon Island. Micro-logistics involves the movement of surface vehicles, people and supplies from base to various exploration sites over short distances (<100 km).

  7. A manned Mars mission concept with artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.

    1986-01-01

    A series of simulated manned Mars missions was analyzed by a computer model. Numerous mission opportunities and mission modes were investigated. Sensitivity trade studies were performed of the vehicle all-up mass and propulsion stage sizes as a function of various levels of conservatism in mission velocity increment margins, payload mass and propulsive stage characteristics. The longer duration but less energetic type of conjunction class mission is emphasized. The specific mission opportunity reviewed was for a 1997 departure. From the trade study results, a three and one-half stage vehicle concept evolved, utilizing a Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) first stage derived from the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET).

  8. Structure and Dynamics of the Polar Regions of Mars from MGS Topography and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been engaged in systematic mapping of Mars since insertion into Mars orbit in September, 1997. The objectives of the MGS mission are to globally map Mars as well as to quantify seasonal changes on the planet. MGS geophysical/geodetic observations of topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from the Radio Science investigation are providing significant new insights on both static and time-varying aspects of the polar regions of Mars. These observations have implications for polar processes on diurnal seasonal and climatic timescales. Thus far, MOLA has collected over 300 million precise measurements of Martian topography and cloud heights. The instrument has also provided measurements of the width of the backscattered optical pulse and of the 1064 nm reflectivity of the Martian surface and atmosphere. The along-track resolution of MOLA ground shots is approx. 300 m and the across-track spacing in the polar regions is a maximum of about four kilometers. The vertical accuracy of the topography is determined by the precision recovery of spacecraft orbits from the Radio Science investigation, which includes MOLA altimetry in the form of crossovers. This accuracy is currently approx. one meter. The gravity field is derived from X-band Doppler tracking with typical accuracy of 0.03 to 0.05 mm/s averaged over ten seconds. Current Mars gravity fields are to approximately degree and order 80 but are interpretable to the approximate degree and order 60 (spatial resolution < 180 km), which represents an estimate of the approximate coefficient limit of a field that can be produced without a power law constraint on the gravitational field inversion, which is commonly imposed for solution stability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar and Mars Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the experiences of the Apollo missions, it is evident that the off nominal center of gravity (CG) induced by the portable life support system (PLSS) had significant impact on the locomotion stability of the crew. This in turn is believed to have been a major contributor to the high numbers of falls and high metabolic rates experienced by the crew, and thus significantly hampered the crew s performance. With this in mind, the EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) group at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been conducting tests to assess how spacesuit CG location impacts human performance in simulated lunar and Mars gravity. The results acquired to date show correlations between CG location and performance. However, noticeable variations in the performance data have been observed across subjects for fixed CG configurations. Consequently, it was hypothesized that this variability may be attributed to the anthropometrics of the different test subjects. It was further hypothesized that trunk-to-height ratio (THR) may be directly correlated to performance in reduced gravity; i.e. subjects with increased THR may have increased performance. To test this hypothesis, lunar and Mars gravity test data acquired over three years during NASA Neural Buoyancy Lab (NBL) tests and NASA Extreme Environment Missions Operation (NEEMO) missions were analyzed against THR, height, trunk length, and subject body mass/weight. The results of the study supported the hypothesis relating THR and performance, while the other three anthropometric parameters did not provide consistent correlations with performance. This in turn suggests that human performance in reduced gravity may be more dependent on anthropometric proportions than on body segment lengths and mass/weight.

  10. Lunar/Mars Surface Habitat Mockups Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Daues, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Surface habitats play a centric role with respect to integration of the crew operations and supporting surface systems for external operations on the moon and Mars. Up to now the only planetary surface habitat NASA has ever developed is the 2-person, 3-day duration Lunar Module from the 1960 s-era Apollo Program. Today s National Vision for Space Exploration pushes far beyond the safety, performance and operational requirements of the Lunar Module, and NASA needs to develop a basis for making habitat design decisions Experience has shown that using mockups very early in a project s life cycle is extremely beneficial, providing data that influences requirements for human design, volumetrics, functionality, systems hardware and operations. Evaluating and comparing a variety of habitat configurations will provide NASA with a cost-effective basis for trades to support lunar and Martian habitat design selection. This paper describes the NASA project that recently has been created to undertake the development and evaluation of a series of planetary surface habitat mockups. This project is in direct response to the Advanced Space Platforms and Systems (ASPS) Element Program s request for novel systems approaches for robust and reconfigurable habitation systems.

  11. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.

  12. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  13. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nikolaus J. Kuhn (1), Brigitte Kuhn (1), and Andres Gartmann (2) (1) University of Basel, Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland (nikolaus.kuhn@unibas.ch), (2) Meteorology, Climatology, Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport on Mars developed for Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of such gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates formed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  14. Gravity-wave induced CO2 clouds on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO2 condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the whole atmosphere GW parameterization of Yiǧit et al. (2008)}. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO2 cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date. Reference: Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.

  15. Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment - Gravity field and pole direction of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, J.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Laing, P. A.; Martin, W. L.; Sjogren, W. L.; Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Slater, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the Mariner 9 radio-tracking data shows that the Martian gravity field is rougher than that of earth or the moon, and that the accepted direction of the Mars rotation axis is in error by about 0.5 deg. Contours of equivalent surface heights deduced from a sixth-degree solution for the Martian gravity field are presented. These contours represent the deviations from sphericity of a uniformly dense body with an external potential which is given by the first sixth-degree solution. In addition to Doppler observations, ranging or group-delay measurements have been made regularly since orbit insertion.

  16. Mars gravity derived from long-period motion of Mariner 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.; Christensen, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The spherical harmonic coefficients in the gravity field of Mars are determined using a two stage filtering process. In the first stage, a weighted least squares orbit determination processor is applied to Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data to estimate Kepler elements and rates. In the second stage, the Kepler element rates are used as input to another weighted least squares processor that estimates gravity coefficients using the Lagrange perturbation equations. The novelty in this method is the fitting of element rates rather than the elements themselves. This procedure decouples the results from the effects of internal spacecraft dynamics.

  17. NASA/Haughton-Mars Project 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing NASA's Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) medical requirements and lunar surface operations is shown. The topics onclude: 1) Mission Purpose/ Overview; 2) HMP as a Moon/Mars Analog; 3) Simulation objectives; 4) Discussion; and 5) Forward work.

  18. Artificial gravity considerations for a mars exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial gravity (AG), as a means of preventing physiological deconditioning of astronauts during long-duration space flights, presents certain special challenges to the otolith organs and the adaptive capabilities of the CNS. The key issues regarding the choice of AG acceleration, radius, and rotation rate are reviewed from the viewpoints of physiological requirements and human factors disturbances. Head movements and resultant Coriolis forces on the rotating platform may limit the usefulness of economical short centrifuges for other than brief periods of intermittent stimulation.

  19. Artificial gravity considerations for a mars exploration mission.

    PubMed

    Young, L R

    1999-05-28

    Artificial gravity (AG), as a means of preventing physiological deconditioning of astronauts during long-duration space flights, presents certain special challenges to the otolith organs and the adaptive capabilities of the CNS. The key issues regarding the choice of AG acceleration, radius, and rotation rate are reviewed from the viewpoints of physiological requirements and human factors disturbances. Head movements and resultant Coriolis forces on the rotating platform may limit the usefulness of economical short centrifuges for other than brief periods of intermittent stimulation. PMID:10372085

  20. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittance and Correlation Spectra on Mars: Implications for Regional and Global Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.

    2002-01-01

    [i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.

  1. Tunable Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer for Mars Climate, Atmosphere, and Gravity Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, C. E.; Paik, H. J.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a compact tensor superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) for obtaining gravimetric measurements from planetary orbits. A new and innovative design gives a potential sensitivity of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2)( 1 E = 10(sup -9 S(sup -2) in the measurement band up to 0.1 Hz (suitale for short wavelength static gravity) and of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2) in the frequency band less than 1 mHz (for long wavelength time-variable gravity) from the same device with a baseline just over 10 cm. The measurement band and sensitiy can be optimally tuned in-flight during the mission by changing resonance frequencies, which allows meaurements of both static and time-variable gravity fields from the same mission. Significant advances in the technologies needed for space-based cryogenic instruments have been made in the last decade. In particular, the use of cryocoolers will alleviate the previously severe constraint on mission lifetime imposed by the use of liquid helium, enabling mission durations in the 5 - 10 year range.

  2. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. MARS Gravity-Assist to Improve Missions towards Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Lorenzo; Colasurdo, Guido

    fain-belt asteroids are one of the keys to the investigation of the processes that lead to the solar electric propulsion (SEP) with ion thrusters is a mature technology for the exploration of the bolar system. NASA is currently planning the DAWN mission towards two asteroids of the main s with Vesta in 2010 and Ceres in 2014. A mission to an asteroid of the main belt requires a large velocity increment (V) and the use of high-specific-impulse thrusters, such as ion thrusters, p m ovides a large improvement of the payload and, consequently, of the scientific return of the of this kind of trajectory is a non-trivial task, since many local optima exist and performance can be improved by increasing the trip-time and the number of revolutions around the sun, in order to use t the propellant only in the most favorable positions (namely, perihelia, aphelia and nodes) along the Mars is midway between the Earth and the main belt; even though its gravity is quite small, a gravity assist from Mars can remarkably improve the trajectory performance and is considered in this paper. p he authors use an indirect optimization procedure based on the theory of optimal control. The Mars) spheres of influence is neglected; the equations of motion are therefore integrated only in the heliocentric reference frame, whereas the flyby is treated as a discontinuity of the spacecraft's velocity. The paper analyzes trajectories, which exploit chemical propulsion to escape from the E variable-power, constant-specific-impulse propulsion system is assumed. The optimization procedure provides departure, flyby and arrival dates, the hyperbolic excess velocity on leaving the t arth's sphere of influence, which must be provided by the chemical propulsion system, and the E e ass at rendezvous, when the trip time is assigned. As far as the thrust magnitude is concerned, m either full-thrust arcs or coast arcs are required, and the procedure provides the times to switch the g low and the spacecraft

  4. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program --now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human Exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines be opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  5. Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Briggs, Geoffrey; Saunders, R. Stephen; Gilmore, Martha; Soderblom, Larry

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program -- now a cooperative program led by NASA and CNES along with other international partners -- is underway. It has the primary science objective of furthering our understanding of the biological potential and possible biological history of Mars and has the complementary objective of improving our understanding of martian climate evolution and planetary history. The missions will develop technology and acquire data necessary for eventual human exploration. Launches of orbiters, landers and rovers will take place in 2001 and in 2003; in 2005 a complete system will be launched capable of returning samples to Earth by 2008. A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract 1) reports on the status of the landing site selection process that begins with the 2001 lander mission and 2) outlines the opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the landing site selection process.

  6. Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.

  7. Mars in this century: The Olympia Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Manned exploration of the inner solar system --- typified by a manned expedition to Mars --- this side of the indefinite future involves fitting a technical peg into the political hole. If Apollo-level resources are assumed unavailable for such exploratory programs, then non-Apollo means and methods must be employed, involving greater technical and human risks, or else such exploration must be deferred indefinitely. Sketched here is an example of such a relatively high-risk alternative, one which could land men on Mars in the next decade, and return them to earth. Two of its key features are a teleoperated rocket fuel-generating facility on the lunar surface and an interplanetary mission-staging space station at L{sub 4}, which would serve to enable a continuing solar system exploratory program, with annual mission commencements to points as distant as the Jovian moons. The estimated cost-to-execute this infrastructure-building manned Mars mission is $3 billion, with follow-on missions estimated to cost no more than $1 billion each. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  9. The SIMPSONS project: An integrated Mars transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Matthew; Carlson, Eric; Bradfute, Sherie; Allen, Kent; Duvergne, Francois; Hernandez, Bert; Le, David; Nguyen, Quan; Thornhill, Brett

    In response to the Request for Proposal (RFP) for an integrated transportation system network for an advanced Martian base, Frontier Transportation Systems (FTS) presents the results of the SIMPSONS project (Systems Integration for Mars Planetary Surface Operations Networks). The following topics are included: the project background, vehicle design, future work, conclusions, management status, and cost breakdown. The project focuses solely on the surface-to-surface transportation at an advanced Martian base.

  10. Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment: gravity field and pole direction of Mars.

    PubMed

    Lorell, J; Born, G H; Christensen, E J; Jordan, J F; Laing, P A; Martin, W L; Sjogren, W L; Shapiro, I I; Reasenberg, R D; Slater, G L

    1972-01-21

    Analysis of the Mariner 9 radio-tracking data shows that the Martian gravity field is rougher than that of Earth or the moon, and that the accepted direction of Mars's rotation axis is in error by about 0.5 degrees . The new value for the pole direction for the epoch 1971.9, referred to the mean equatorial system of 1950.0, is right ascension alpha= 317.3 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees , declination delta = 52.6 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees . The values found for the coefficients of the low-order harmonics of Mars's gravity field are as follows: J(2)=(1.96+/-0.01)x10(-3), referred to an equatorial radius of 3394 kilometers; C(22) = -(5 +/- 1) x 10(-5); and S(22) = (3 +/- 1) x 10(-5). The value for J(2) is in excellent agreement with the result from, Wilkins' analysis of the observations of Phobos. The other two coefficients imply a value of (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-4) for the fractional difference in the principal equatorial moments of inertia; the axis of the minimum moment passes near 105 degrees W. PMID:17814540

  11. Gravity Monitoring of the Weber River Aquifer Storage Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, P.; Hurlow, H.; Chapman, D. S.; Harris, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    Repeated precision gravity measurements provide an economical way to track aquifer storage changes through time. In early 2004, the Weber River Water Conservancy District in northern Utah began an aquifer storage and recovery pilot project by infiltrating river water into a depleted aquifer. We are tracking the infiltrated water by measuring gravity changes over the aquifer through time. A network of 28 stations around the infiltration location was established, with an additional station in the nearby mountains for a stable reference. Gravity surveys are conducted at approximately two week intervals; monthly rapid-static GPS campaigns monitor ground deformation across the network. Gravity monitoring commenced in Feburary 2004, to establish a baseline before infiltration and investigate the magnitudes of natural signals and measurment noise. Infiltration commenced six weeks after the start of monitoring and by early July 2004, nearly 750 000 m3 of water were infiltrated; gravity changes at the infiltration site reached a peak of ˜100 μ Gal. Gaussian integration of the peak gravity signal is consistent with the total volume of infiltrated water. Continued monitoring during infiltration tracked the horizontal migration of infiltration water south and west of the site, consistent with known hydraulic gradients. Infiltration ended in July 2004 and gravity measurements show a declining recharge mound, with the peak decreasing to ˜60 μ Gal one month later. The spatial and temporal changes in gravity will be used to refine and enhance reservoir modeling around the infiltration site.

  12. Overview of the MARS Laser Communications Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edward, Bernard L.; Townes, Stephen A.; Bondurant, Roy S.; Scozzafava, Joseph J.; Boroson, Don M.; Parvin, Ben A.; Biswas, Abhijit; Pillsbury, Alan D.; Khatri, Farzana I.; Burnside, Jamie W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Laser Communications Demonstration Project, a joint project between NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL). It reviews the strawman designs for the flight and ground segments, the critical technologies required, and the concept of operations. It reports preliminary conclusions from the Mars Lasercom Study conducted at MIT/LL and on additional work done at JPL and GSFC. The lasercom flight terminal will be flown on the Mars Telecom Orbiter (MTO) to be launched by NASA in 2009, and will demonstrate a technology which has the potential of vastly improving NASA s ability to communicate throughout the solar system.

  13. Artificial Gravity for Mars Missions: The Different Design and Development Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus; Arno, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major impediments to human Mars missions is the development of appropriate countermeasures for long term physiological response to the micro-gravity environment. A plethora of countermeasure approaches have been advanced from strictly pharmacological measures to large diameter rotating spacecraft that would simulate a 1-g environment (the latter being the most conservative from a human health perspective). The different approaches have significantly different implications not only on the overall system design of a Mars Mission Vehicle (MMV) but on the necessary earth-orbiting platform that would be required to qualify the particular countermeasure system. it is found that these different design options can be conveniently categorized in terms of the order of magnitude of the rotation diameter required (100's, 10's, 1's, 0 meters). From this, the different mass penalties associated with each category can be generally compared. The overall objective of the countermeasure system should be to maximize crew safety and comfort, minimize exercise protocol time (i.e., the time per day that each crew member would have to participate in the exercise/countermeasure), maximize countermeasure effectiveness, and minimize the associated system mass penalty of the Mars Mission Vehicle (in terms of fraction of IMLEO - Injected Mass in Low Earth Orbit).

  14. Project MARS, Leominster, Massachusetts. Compensatory Education, Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Project Make All Reading Serviceable (MARS) offers special reading instruction to over 200 public and parochial school disadvantaged children in grades one through four. The primary objective is to raise the reading performance of students to a level consistent with their potential reading ability. The program also aims to foster academic…

  15. World Gravity Map (WGM) Project: Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, S.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Moreaux, G.; Sarrailh, M.; Fayard, T.

    2009-12-01

    The WGM project is a gravity mapping project undertaken under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) to complement a set of global geological and geophysical digital maps published and updated by CGMW, such as the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM), released in 2007. This new global digital map aims to provide a high-resolution picture of the gravity anomalies of the world (free-air and topography-corrected Bouguer) based on the available information on the Earth gravity field, with the final objective to contribute to research and educational projects. The WGM project is conducted by the International Gravimetric Bureau (IGB), a center of the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), with the support of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Major contributions to the WGM are provided by the EGM08 global model, recently released by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA, USA), as well as the new global marine gravity fields derived from satellite altimetry (DNSC08 computed at the Danish National Space Center, and V18.1 computed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography). The WGM also aims to improve the gravity anomalies at regional scale, using available products from recent regional compilations of land, marine and airborne surveys (possibly derived from BGI or other global or regional databases). As other geophysical maps published by CGMW, the WGM maps and digital products should be regularly updated according to the incoming gravity datasets. We present here the current status of the WGM project.

  16. Finite Difference Simulations of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Applications to INSIGHT NASA Mission and Mars Microphone Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R.; Brissaud, Q.; Martin, R.; Rolland, L. M.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    A simulation tool of acoustic and gravity wave propagation through finite differences is applied to the case of Mars atmosphere.The details of the code and its validation for Earth atmosphere are presented in session SA003.The simulations include the modeling of both acoustic and gravity waves in the same run, an effects of exponential density decrease, winds and attenuation.The application to Mars requires the inclusion of a specific attenuation effect related to the relaxation induced by vibrational modes of carbon dioxide molecules.Two different applications are presented demonstrating the ability of the simulation tool to work at very different scale length and frequencies.First the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves due to a bolide explosion in the atmosphere of Mars are simulated.This case has a direct application to the atmospheric pressure and seismic measurements that will be performed by INSIGHT NASA discovery mission next year.Then, we also present simulations of sound wave propagation on a scale of meters that can be used to infer the feasability microphone measurements for future Mars missions.

  17. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of "zero-gravity" (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5-1.2 year long stays in LEO (Low Earth Orbit). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity (AG) Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced "bimodal" nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (I (sub sp)) capability of approximately 900 s - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional NTP carry twin cylindrical "ISS-type" habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own "closed" secondary helium-xenon gas loop and Brayton rotating unit that can generate tens of kilowatts (kW (sub e)) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase eliminating the need for large PVAs. A single inflatable

  18. High Performance Mars Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Whitlock, David; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is enough of a challenge and in the gravity of Mars, improvements in mobility will enable the suited crew member to efficiently complete EVA objectives. The idea proposed is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area in order to free up the arms and legs by removing the liquid tubes currently used in the ISS EVA suit in the limbs. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased to provide the entire liquid cooling requirement and increase mobility by freeing up the arms and legs. Additional potential benefits of this approach include reduced LCVG mass, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development.

  19. Plume Mitigation for Mars Terminal Landing: Soil Stabilization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has led the efforts for lunar and Martian landing site preparation, including excavation, soil stabilization, and plume damage prediction. There has been much discussion of sintering but until our team recently demonstrated it for the lunar case there was little understanding of the serious challenges. Simplistic sintering creates a crumbly, brittle, weak surface unsuitable for a rocket exhaust plume. The goal of this project is to solve those problems and make it possible to land a human class lander on Mars, making terminal landing of humans on Mars possible for the first time.

  20. The Ph-D project: Manned expedition to the Moons of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. Fred

    2000-01-01

    The Ph-D (Phobos-Deimos) mission involves the transfer of six to eight men (and women), including two medical scientists, from Earth orbit to Deimos, the outer satellite of Mars. There follows a sequential program of unmanned exploration of the surface of Mars by means of some ten to twenty unmanned rover vehicles, each of which returns Mars samples to the Deimos laboratory. A two-man sortie descends to the surface of Mars to gain a direct geological perspective and develop priorities in selecting samples. At the same time, other astronauts conduct a coordinated program of exploration (including sample studies) of Phobos and Deimos. Bringing men close to Mars to control exploration is shown to have scientific and other advantages over either (i) (manned) control from the Earth, or (ii) manned operations from Mars surface. The mission is envisaged to take place after 2010, and to last about two years (including a three-to six-month stay at Deimos). Depending on then-available technology, take-off weight from Earth orbit is of the order of 300 tons. A preferred mission scheme may preposition propellants and equipment at Deimos by means of ``slow freight,'' possibly using a ``gravity boost'' from Venus. It is then followed by a ``manned express'' that conveys the astronauts more rapidly to Deimos. Both chemical and electric propulsion are used in this mission, as appropriate. Electric power is derived from solar and nuclear sources. Assuming that certain development costs can be shared with space-station programs, the incremental cost of the project is estimated as less than $40 billion (in 1998 dollars), expended over a 15-year period. The potential scientific returns are both unique and important: (i) Establishing current or ancient existence of life-forms on Mars; (ii) Understanding the causes of climate change by comparing Earth and Mars; (iii) Martian planetary history; (iv) Nature and origin of the Martian moons. Beyond the Ph-D Project, many advanced programs

  1. An Inversion of Gravity and Topography for Mantle and Crustal Structure on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Bills, Bruce G.; Nerem, R. Steven

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars presently provides our primary quantitative constraints on the internal structure of Mars. We present an inversion of the long-wavelength (harmonic degree less than or equal to 10) gravity and topography of Mars for lateral variations of mantle temperature and crustal thickness. Our formulation incorporates both viscous mantle flow (which most prior studies have neglected) and isostatically compensated density anomalies in the crust and lithosphere. Our nominal model has a 150-km-thick high-viscosity surface layer over an isoviscous mantle, with a core radius of 1840 km. It predicts lateral temperature variations of up to a few hundred degrees Kelvin relative to the mean mantle temperature, with high temperature under Tharsis and to a lesser extent under Elysium and cool temperatures elsewhere. Surprisingly, the model predicts crustal thinning beneath Tharsis. If correct, this implies that thinning of the crust by mantle shear stresses dominates over thickening of the crust by volcanism. The major impact basins (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis, Chryse, and Utopia) are regions of crustal thinning, as expected. Utopia is also predicted to be a region of hot mantle, which is hard to reconcile with the surface geology. An alternative model for Utopia treats it as a mascon basin. The Utopia gravity anomaly is consistent with the presence of a 1.2 to 1.6 km thick layer of uncompensated basalt, in good agreement with geologic arguments about the amount of volcanic fill in this area. The mantle thermal structure is the dominant contributor to the observed geoid in our inversion. The mantle also dominates the topography at the longest wavelengths, but shorter wavelengths (harmonic degrees greater than or equal to 4) are dominated by the crustal structure. Because of the uncertainty about the appropriate numerical values for some of the model's input parameters, we have examined the sensitivity of the model results to the planetary

  2. Mars gravity field model from Mariner 9, Viking 1 and 2 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmino, G.; Moynot, B.; Christensen, E. J.; Roucher, P.; Vales, N.

    1979-01-01

    Earth artificial satellite methods are extended by means of two way Doppler data, to the computation of very accurate orbiter trajectories around another planet, and to the determination of its gravity field. It is reported that in the case of Mars, all observations collected by 10 Deep Space Network stations located at three different sites during the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed and used to compute a full twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model of the gravitational potential. It is concluded that the aeroid derived from the model shows very large correlations with the Martian topography, raising questions as to the deep structure of the planet which cannot be interpreted on the basis of topographic and isostatic considerations alone.

  3. Implications of the Utopia Gravity Anomaly for the Resurfacing of the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas the surface units of the northern plain of Mars generally exhibit ages ranging from late Hesperian to Amazonian, interpretation of precise topographic measurements indicate that the age of the underlying "basement" is early Noachian, or almost as old as the southern highlands. This suggests that widespread but relatively superficial resurfacing has occurred throughout the northern plains since the end of early heavy bombardment. In this abstract I examine some of the possible implications of the subsurface structure inferred for the Utopia basin from gravity data on the nature of this resurfacing. The large, shallow, circular depression in Utopia Planitia has been identified as a huge impact basin, based on both geological evidence and detailed analysis of MOLA topography. Its diameter (approx. 3000 km) is equivalent to that of the Hellas basin, as is its inferred age (early Noachian). However, whereas Hellas is extremely deep with rough terrain and large slopes, the Utopia basin is a smooth, shallow, almost imperceptible bowl. Conversely, Utopia displays one of the largest (non-Tharsis-related) positive geoid anomalies on Mars, in contrast to a much more subdued negative anomaly over Hellas.

  4. Gravity. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Keith; Osborne, Roger

    One area explored in the second (in-depth) phase of the Learning in Science Project was "children's science," defined as views of the world and the meanings for words that children have and bring with them to science lessons. The investigation reported focuses on students' thinking regarding their views on gravity. Students (N=42) were…

  5. Project Genesis: Mars in situ propellant technology demonstrator mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Francisco Garcia; Anderson, Scott; Andrews, Jason; Deger, Matt; Hedman, Matt; Kipp, Jared; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Marcelo, Mohrli; Mark, Karen; Matheson, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Project Genesis is a low cost, near-term, unmanned Mars mission, whose primary purpose is to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. The essence of the mission is to use indigenously produced fuel and oxidizer to propel a ballistic hopper. The Mars Landing Vehicle/Hopper (MLVH) has an Earth launch mass of 625 kg and is launched aboard a Delta 117925 launch vehicle into a conjunction class transfer orbit to Mars. Upon reaching its target, the vehicle performs an aerocapture maneuver and enters an elliptical orbit about Mars. Equipped with a ground penetrating radar, the MLVH searches for subsurface water ice deposits while in orbit for several weeks. A deorbit burn is then performed to bring the MLVH into the Martian atmosphere for landing. Following aerobraking and parachute deployment, the vehicle retrofires to a soft landing on Mars. Once on the surface, the MLVH begins to acquire scientific data and to manufacture methane and oxygen via the Sabatier process. This results in a fuel-rich O2/CH4 mass ratio of 2, which yields a sufficiently high specific impulse (335 sec) that no additional oxygen need be manufactured, thus greatly simplifying the design of the propellant production plant. During a period of 153 days the MLVH produces and stores enough fuel and oxidizer to make a 30 km ballistic hop to a different site of scientific interest. At this new location the MLVH resumes collecting surface and atmospheric data with the onboard instrumentation. Thus, the MLVH is able to provide a wealth of scientific data which would otherwise require two separate missions or separate vehicles, while proving a new and valuable technology that will facilitate future unmanned and manned exploration of Mars. Total mission cost, including the Delta launch vehicle, is estimated to be $200 million.

  6. Convective generation and vertical propagation of fast gravity waves on Mars: One- and two-dimensional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.

  7. Radio Science Observations of the Mars Express December 2013 Phobos Flyby and Implications for the Satellite's Gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, T.; Paetzold, M.; Rosenblatt, P.; Lainey, V.; Pasewaldt, A.; Oberst, J.; Jaumann, R.; Thuillot, W.; Remus, S.; Gurvits, L.; Pogrebenko, S.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T.; Cimo, G.; Duev, D.; Molera Calves, G.

    2014-12-01

    On 29th December 2013, the European spacecraft Mars Express performed a very close flyby at the Martian moon Phobos dedicated to the radio science experiment MaRS. The flyby distance was 58 km, the closest ever. Almost 32 hours of continuous tracking data were collected by ESTRACK (35 m) and DSN (70 m) ground station antennas. 31 VLBI antennas worldwide also recorded the radio signal. The tracking data were interrupted by occultations of approximately 1 hour duration in each orbit revolution, when the spacecraft in Mars orbit disappeared behind the planet as seen from the ground station. Images were taken with the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard Mars Express before and after the flyby in order to improve the ephemeris of Phobos. The gravity field of Phobos was estimated from a close MEX flyby in 2010 at a distance of 77 km. The derived second degree and order gravity coefficients, however, showed large errors and could not resolve the interior structure of Phobos. Hence, the close flyby in 2013 was the opportunity to estimate the gravity field of Phobos at a higher precision because of the closer flyby distance, improved Phobos ephemeris obtained from the HRSC/SRC camera, and longer observation times with the ground station antennas. We aim at measurements of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22, which are linked with the main moments of inertia of the body. By comparison with the Phobos shape model and assuming a homogeneous mass distribution these can help in interpretations of the internal structure of Phobos. The main contribution to the error budget of the gravity field is caused by the uncertainty of the Phobos ephemeris, which potentially can be improved by HRSC/SRC observations.

  8. The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.

    2008-12-01

    This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is

  9. Project Minerva: A low-cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Anderson, Hobie; Caviezel, Kelly; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hamling, Steven; Johnson, Bryan; Kalberer, Martin; Machula, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface, using only two sets of two launches. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the senario originally proposed by R. Zubrin of Martin Marietta. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low earth orbit (LEO): one consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles, and the second consists of the upper stage/trans-Mars injection (TMI) booster. In LEO, the two payloads are joined and inserted into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis-type process to combine six tons of hydrogen brought from earth with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce 100 tons of liquid oxygen and methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. Once the in-situ propellant production is completed, approximately two years after the first set of launches, the manned portion of the mission leaves earth. This set of two launches is similar to that of the unmanned vehicles; the two payloads are the Manned Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and the upper stage/TMI booster. The MTV contains the manned rover and the habitat which houses the astronauts enroute to Mars and on the Martian surface. During the 180-day trip to Mars, artificial gravity is created by tethering the MTV to the TMI booster and inducing rotation. Upon arrival the MTV performs aerobraking maneuvers to land near the fully-fueled ERV, which will be used by the crew a year and a half later to return to earth. The mission entails moderate travel times with relatively low-energy conjunction-class trajectories and allows ample time for scientific

  10. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Project and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Gavit, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Project, or Deep Space 2 (DS2), is the second of the New Millennium Program planetary missions and is designed to enable future space science network missions through flight validation of new technologies. A secondary goal is the collection of meaningful science data. Two micropenetrators will be deployed to carry out surface and subsurface science. The penetrators are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring and will be launched in January 1999. The microprobe has no active control, attitude determination, or propulsive systems. It is a single stage from separation until landing and will passively orient itself due to its aerodynamic design. The aeroshell will be made of a nonerosive heat shield material, Silicon impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA), developed at Ames Research Center. The aeroshell shatters on impact, at which time the probe separates into an aftbody that remains at the surface and a forebody that penetrates into the subsurface. Each probe has a total mass of up to 3 kg, including the aeroshell. The impact velocity will be about 180 meters per second. The forebody will experience up to 30,000 g's and penetrate between 0.3 and 2 meters, depending on the ice content of the soil. The aftbody deceleration will be up to 80,000 g. The penetrators arrive in December 1999. The landing ellipse latitude range is 73 deg-77 deg S. The longitude will be selected by the Mars Surveyor Project to place the lander on the polar layered deposits in the range of 180 deg -230 deg W. The two micropenetrators are likely to land within 100 km of the Mars Surveyor Lander, on the polar deposits. The likely arrival date is L(sub s) = 256, late southern spring. The nominal mission lasts 2 days. A science team was selected in April 1998.

  11. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Project and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Gavit, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Project, or Deep Space 2 (DS2), is the second of the New Millennium Program planetary missions and is designed to enable future space science network missions through flight validation of new technologies. A secondary goal is the collection of meaningful science data. Two micropenetrators will be deployed to carry out surface and subsurface science. The penetrators are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring and will be launched in January 1999. The microprobe has no active control, attitude determination, or propulsive systems. It is a single stage from separation until landing and will passively orient itself due to its aerodynamic design. The aeroshell will be made of a nonerosive heat shield material, Silicon impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator(SIRCA), developed at Ames Research Center. The aeroshell shatters on impact, at which time the probe separates into an aftbody that remains at the surface and a forebody that penetrates into the subsurface. Each probe has a total mass of up to 3 kg, including the aeroshell. The impact velocity will be about 180 meters per second. The forebody will experience up to 30,000 g's and penetrate between 0.3 and 2 meters, depending on the ice content of the soil. The aftbody deceleration will be up to 80,000 g. The penetrators arrive in December 1999. The landing ellipse latitude range is 73 deg-77 deg S. The longitude will be selected by the Mars Surveyor Project to place the lander on the polar layered deposits in the range of 180 deg -230 deg W. The two micropenetrators are likely to land within 100 km of the Mars Surveyor Lander, on the polar deposits. The likely arrival date is Ls = 256, late southern spring. The nominal mission lasts 2 days. A science team was selected in April 1998.

  12. Russian contribution to the ExoMars project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Korablev, O.; Rodionov, D.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukyanchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    goal of the descent module consists of the delivery of the 300-kg rover on the surface. The full mass of the module should not exceed 2000 kg. An aerodynamic shield and a parachute system assure the entry phase. A descent scenario with integrated retro-propulsion engines and landing on feet is being developed. Subsystems of the descend module are supplied by both Roscosmos and ESA. On the rover, Russia contributes two science instruments. ADRON-RM is a passive neutron detector to assess water contents in the Mars surface along the rover track. ISEM is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer mounted at the mast of the rover and is primarily dedicated for the assessment of mineralogical composition, operating in coordination with high-resolution channel of PANCAM. Both instruments will assist with planning rover traverse, rover targeting operations, and sample selection. A major effort of the Russian science is concentrated on the 2018 landing platform. This is the part of the descent module remaining immobile after the rover egress. The platform, or the longliving geophysical station shall have guaranteed lifetime of one Martian year, and will be able to accommodate up to 50 kg of science payload. The final list of science investigations, which is yet to be finalized, includes the meteorological station, instruments to analyse atmospheric composition, geophysical instruments. Other investigations will provide analyses of the surface/shallow subsurface material complimentary to these on the rover, and other experiments, if resources permit. Current status of the project and the developments will be presented

  13. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  14. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  15. Density and lithospheric thickness of the Tharsis Province from MEX MaRS and MRO gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthe, M.; Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Pätzold, M.; Dehant, V.

    2012-04-01

    Radio science tracking of Mars Express (MaRS experiment) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter produced high resolution Martian gravity data. Applying localized spectral analysis on the new gravity data sets, we study the surface density and lithospheric elastic thickness in the Tharsis province. The gravity signal is predicted with geophysical models either including bottom loading (top/bottom model) or taking into account the loading history (top/top model). Volcanic shields are mainly composed of high-density lava but their construction could have begun with lower density lava, with the exception of Ascraeus Mons which has a top of lower density. Buoyant bottom loading may have been present in the form of a mantle plume under Olympus Mons. The elastic thickness was much larger at Olympus Mons than at other volcanoes, suggesting large spatial variations of heat flux during the Hesperian. Alternatively, small elastic thicknesses could be artifacts reflecting the presence of very localized high-density crustal intrusions beneath the volcanoes. Thaumasia highlands were probably supported by a mantle plume at the time of formation. In Valles Marineris, top/bottom models predict low densities and large elastic thicknesses, in conflict with the basaltic rock composition and Hesperian age of the valley. Dense mafic dikes underlie the western part of the valley. The top/top model serves to test another scenario in which the trough is formed with sedimentary infilling removed much later by erosion, the elastic thickness increasing in between. At the large volcanoes, the relation between gravity and topography is anisotropic probably because of density variations.

  16. Use of Gravity Simulator in the International Space Station for Mars Terraformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    The future international manned exploration of planet Mars will require some independency of food and oxygen supplies to the crews on Mars. Vegetables, growing inside secure vessels on the Martian ground, are the best candidates for supplying a quasi-continuous production of proteins, salt minerals, water and oxygen to the astronauts working in a semi-permanent possible future living facility at Mars' surface, for a future, possible secure and controlled Mars terraformation.

  17. Haughton-Mars Project: Lessons for the Selection of Landing Site/Exploration Zone for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P.; Braham, S.; Fong, T.; Glass, B.; Hoffman, S. J.; Hoftun, C.; Huffman, S.; Johansen, B. W.; Lorber, K.; McKay, C. P.; Mueller, R.; Schutt, J. W.; Schwartz, K.; Weaver, J. T.

    2015-10-01

    Important lessons for designing, planning and implementing future human Mars surface activities have been learned from science and exploration investigations at the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island, High Arctic.

  18. Absolute gravity measurements in Southeast Alaska and continuous gravity observation in Juneau by ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kazama, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Okubo, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Kaufman, M.; Herreid, S. J.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that Southeast Alaska (SE-AK) shows a large uplift rates exceeding 32 mm/year at the maximum mainly due to the three ice changes in ages, i.e. in the Large Glacier Maximum, the Little Ice Age and the present day. Comparisons between rates of change obtained from GPS and absolute gravimeter (AG) observations and the rates predicted by model computations based on independently estimated ice mass changes indicate the existence of a very thin lithosphere (on the order of 60 km) and a low viscousity upper mantle (on the order of 1.E18 Pa s) beneath SE-AK (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al, 2011; Sato et al., 2012). On the other hand, it is also known that there are very large oceanic tidal loading effects in SE-AK, i.e. exceeding 2.7 cm and 8 microGals for the M2 constituent of the vertical displacement and gravity, respectively (Sato et al., 2008; Inazu et al., 2009; Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012). These regional large loading and unloading effects provide good signals to study the viscoelastic structure beneath SE-AK. A joint observation project (ISEA2) between Japan and USA groups has restarted as a five years project beginning in 2012. In June 2012, we conducted the AG measurements at the 6 sites in SE-AK at where the AG measurements were conducted by the previous ISEA1 project (Sun et al., 2010). Continuous gravity observation started also on June 2012 with a portable super conducting gravimeter (iGrav) at the EGAN library of UAS. We will introduce the results for these observations and comparisons with the previous observations and model computations. It is noted that the precipitation during the period from the winter in 2011 to the spring in 2012 was very large compared with the usual amount. We evaluate this effect on our gravity observations with a hydrological model computation (Kazama and Okubo, 2009) using the observed precipitation data as an input data. The observation with the iGrav super conducting gravimeter shall give us a useful data

  19. The geological mapping project of the Mars Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; di Iorio, A.

    2003-04-01

    The ESA mission Mars Express will send three instruments with geological mapping capability: HRSC, OMEGA, and MARSIS. The HRSC is a camera that will provide medium to high-resolution images (about 10m/pixel to 2m/pixel) in colour and stereo. OMEGA will provide maps of the surface mineralogy. MARSIS is a subsurface penetrating radar that will bring back data at depth in excess of 2000 metres. The data of Mars Express will provide a good opportunity to match different geological data sets including the subsurface geology. ESA through a peer-reviewed open competition has selected a project dealing with the geological mapping of the Mars Express data and their distribution in electronic formats. The aim of the project is to perform the geological mapping of the surface and subsurface data from HRSC, OMEGA, and MARSIS. The mapping operations will be coordinated by a scientific panel that will take care of the distribution among the scientific community of the tasks, the standardization of the geological nomenclature and of the interpretation of the data sets, and the evaluation and validation of the final products. The distribution of the tasks to the mapping teams will be done through a peer-reviewed process by the scientific panel. In order to have in Europe a community ready for such a kind of large-scale planetary project, a continuing educational programme is under way. This programme is financed by the Commission of the European Union, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. Short Courses, summer schools, and workshop have been organized in 2001 and 2002 and more will be held in the next two years. The response to this activity has been positive and the interested community has grown up to cover a large number of scientists from State members of the European Union and other European Countries. The current activity of the project deals with two tasks. The first one is to provide the proper electronic configurations and formats (hardware and

  20. Moon and Mars gravity environment during parabolic flights: a new European approach to prepare for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Clervoy, Jean-Fran; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe; Rosier, Patrice

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballis-tic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 more than fifty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 600 experiments were conducted spanning several fields in Physical Sciences and Life Sciences, namely Fluid Physics, Combustion Physics, Ma-terial Sciences, fundamental Physics and Technology tests, Human Physiology, cell and animal Biology, and technical tests of Life Sciences instrumentation. Since 1997, ESA uses the Airbus A300 'Zero G', the largest airplane in the world used for this type of experimental research flight and managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the French space agency CNES. From 2010 onwards, ESA and Novespace will offer the possibility of flying Martian and Moon parabolas during which reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars will be achieved repetitively for periods of more than 20 seconds. Scientists are invited to submit experiment proposals to be conducted at these partial gravity levels. This paper presents the technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 Zero-G aircraft used by ESA to support and conduct investigations at Moon-, Mars-and micro-gravity levels to prepare research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions. Some Physiology and Technology experiments performed during past ESA campaigns at 0, 1/6 an 1/3 g are presented to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations.

  1. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  2. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast.

    This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.; Asmar, S.; Goltz, G.

    2005-01-01

    ESA s Mars Express Mission involves international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of this mission is to search for hydrologic resources on the surface of Mars. Mars Express was launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on June 2, 2003 and arrived at Mars on December 25, 2003. Orbital science observations started in January 2004.

  4. Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines hundreds of exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm appears cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Buried and Visible Impact Basin Distribution on Mars: Comparison with Magnetization, Gravity and Crustal Thickness Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The large population of buried impact basins found in MOLA elevation data on Mars provides compelling evidence for a pre-Noachian crust below the oldest visible Early Noachian surface units, and lowland crust below the younger plains that is Early Noachian in age, older than much of the visible highlands, but not as old as the buried pre-Noachian highlands. The large (D greater than 200 km) buried basins are suggested by Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) that are not apparent in image data, and include features up to 3000 lun diameter in both the lowlands (Utopia) and highlands (a newly found "Ares Basin"). There are about a dozen QCDs larger than 1000 km diameter. We have placed these large features in a relative age sequence based on superimposed smaller QCD. Only the youngest and most obvious of these (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis) lack magnetic anomalies within their main rings. These all have an N(200) cumulative crater density of less than 2.5. Somewhat older lowland-making basins (Utopia, Chryse, Acidalia) with an N(200) age of approximately 3.0, have weak magnetic anomalies, and the oldest, most subdued basins (including Ares) with N(200) greater than 3.5 have many strong magnetic anomalies within their main ring. These older basins likely formed before the main magnetic field died. We have compared our inventory of large QCDs with the distribution of gravity anomalies and with a crustal thickness model which shows many roughly circular areas of thinner crust completely or partly surrounded by narrow regions of thicker crust. These have the structure expected for impact basins, and many of them do correspond to the visible or buried QCDs we previously identified. But there are cases where the crustal thickness feature is offset from the QCD found in topography alone, and there are also several, sometimes large examples of such features which do not coincide with QCDs previously identified. For example, we find several likely buried basins revealed in the crustal

  6. Gravity and lithospheric stress on the terrestrial planets with reference to the Tharsis region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    On Mars and Venus, a strong positive correlation is found between geoid height and topography. The Tharsis region of Mars provides an exhibition of this correlation. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin of Tharsis. For purposes of explanation, three end-member dynamic hypotheses are considered. A hypothesis that the flexural doming of Tharsis resulted from uplift caused by some force acting on the base of the lithosphere can be rejected. According to another hypothesis, Tharsis is associated with a lithospheric load, while a third one considers that Tharsis is primarily isostatically compensated. In the present study, improved stress models for isostatic compensation on Mars are obtained. The strains inferred from fracture patterns on Mars are compared with the stresses predicted by the isostatic theory. It is found that the computed stresses are in reasonable agreement with tectonic features on Mars.

  7. Telerobotic Perception During Asteroid and Mars Regolith Operations Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Steven; Zeitlin, Nancy (Compiler); Mueller, Robert (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current space telerobotic systems are constrained to only operating in bright light and dust-free conditions. This project will study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on telerobotic perception systems to better assess and refine regolith operations on other neighboring celestial bodies. In partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and Caterpillar, Inc., optical, LiDAR and RADAR sensing equipment will be used in performing the study. This project will create a known dust environment in the Swamp Works Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) Laboratory regolith test bin to characterize the behavior of the sensing equipment in various calibrated lighting and dust conditions. It will also identify potential methods for mitigating the impacts of these undesirable conditions on the performance of the sensing equipment. Enhancing the capability of telerobotic perception systems will help improve life on earth for those working in dangerous, dusty mining conditions, as well as help advance the same technologies used for safer self-driving automobiles in various lighting and weather conditions. It will also prove to be a critical skill needed for advancing robotic and human exploration throughout our solar system, for activities such as mining on an asteroid or pioneering the first colony on Mars.

  8. Bayesian Approach to the Joint Inversion of Gravity and Magnetic Data, with Application to the Ismenius Area of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Raymond, C.; Smrekar, S.; Millbury, C.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a Bayesian approach to the inversion of gravity and magnetic data with specific application to the Ismenius Area of Mars. Many inverse problems encountered in geophysics and planetary science are well known to be non-unique (i.e. inversion of gravity the density structure of a body). In hopes of reducing the non-uniqueness of solutions, there has been interest in the joint analysis of data. An example is the joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data, with the assumption that the same physical anomalies generate both the observed magnetic and gravitational anomalies. In this talk, we formulate the joint analysis of different types of data in a Bayesian framework and apply the formalism to the inference of the density and remanent magnetization structure for a local region in the Ismenius area of Mars. The Bayesian approach allows prior information or constraints in the solutions to be incorporated in the inversion, with the "best" solutions those whose forward predictions most closely match the data while remaining consistent with assumed constraints. The application of this framework to the inversion of gravity and magnetic data on Mars reveals two typical challenges - the forward predictions of the data have a linear dependence on some of the quantities of interest, and non-linear dependence on others (termed the "linear" and "non-linear" variables, respectively). For observations with Gaussian noise, a Bayesian approach to inversion for "linear" variables reduces to a linear filtering problem, with an explicitly computable "error" matrix. However, for models whose forward predictions have non-linear dependencies, inference is no longer given by such a simple linear problem, and moreover, the uncertainty in the solution is no longer completely specified by a computable "error matrix". It is therefore important to develop methods for sampling from the full Bayesian posterior to provide a complete and statistically consistent

  9. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Barbieri, A. J.; Zamani, P.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; No, S.

    2004-01-01

    ESA's Mars Express Mission is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of the mission is to conduct a search for potential hydrologic resources from orbit and on the surface of Mars. Launch was from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on June 2, 2003; arrival at Mars was on December 25, 2003.

  10. The Mars Express/NASA Project at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Acton, C. H., Jr.; Arroyo, B.; Butman, S.; Jepsen, P. L.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Plaut, J. J.; Holmes, D. P.; Vaisnys, A.

    2003-01-01

    ESA's Mars Express Mission is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European space agencies with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a junior partner. The primary objective of the mission is to conduct a search for potential hydrologic resources from orbit and on the surface of Mars. Launch will be from Baikonur, Kazakhstan in late May 2003; arrival at Mars will be in late December 2003.

  11. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2003-12-01

    More than any other planet, Mars has captured our attention and fueled our speculations. Much of this interest relates to the possibility of martian life, as championed by Percival Lowell in the last century and subsequently in scientific papers and science fiction. Lowell's argument for life on Mars was based partly on geochemistry, in that his assessmentof the planet's hospitable climate was dependent on the identification of H2O ice rather than frozen CO2 in the polar caps. Although this reasoning was refuted by Alfred Wallace in 1907, widespread belief in extant martian life persisted within the scientific community until the mid-twentieth century (Zahnle, 2001). In 1965 the Mariner 4 spacecraft flyby suddenly chilled this climate, by demonstrating that the martian atmosphere was thin and the surface was a cratered moonscape devoid of canals. This view of Mars was overturned again in 1971, when the Mariner 9 spacecraft discovered towering volcanoes and dry riverbeds, implying a complex geologic history. The first geochemical measurements on Mars, made by two Viking landers in 1976, revealed soils enriched in salts suggesting exposure to water, but lacking organic compounds which virtually ended discussion of martian life.The suggestion that a small group of achondritic meteorites were martian samples (McSween and Stolper, 1979; Walker et al., 1979; Wasson and Wetherill, 1979) found widespread acceptance when trapped gases in them were demonstrated to be compositionally similar to the Mars atmosphere ( Bogard and Johnson, 1983; Becker and Pepin, 1984). The ability to perform laboratory measurements of elements and isotopes present in trace quantities in meteorites has invigorated the subject of martian geochemistry. Indeed, because of these samples, we now know more about the geochemistry of Mars than of any other planet beyond the Earth-Moon system. Some studies of martian meteorites have prompted a renewed search for extraterrestrial life using chemical

  13. The spinning artificial gravity environment: A design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignataro, Robert; Crymes, Jeff; Marzec, Tom; Seibert, Joe; Walker, Gary

    1987-01-01

    The SAGE, or Spinning Artificial Gravity Environment, design was carried out to develop an artificial gravity space station which could be used as a platform for the performance of medical research to determine the benefits of various, fractional gravity levels for astronauts normally subject to zero gravity. Desirable both for its medical research mission and a mission for the study of closed loop life-support and other factors in prolonged space flight, SAGE was designed as a low Earth orbiting, solar powered, manned space station.

  14. The Mars Exploration Rover Project : 2005 surface operations results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, James K.; Callas, John L.; Haldemann, Albert F. C.

    2005-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide the aerospace community a status report of the progress of the Mars Rovers exploration of the Martian surface, picking up after the landings and continuing through fiscal year 2005.

  15. Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

  16. Survey of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics efforts carried out in the frame of Mars exploration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynier, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is a survey of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics data related to Mars entry. The survey includes the studies carried out in the frame of projects aiming at preparing exploration missions involving entry probes into Mars atmosphere and the efforts have been concentrated on the aerothermodynamics developments. Russian (including former Soviet Union), European and NASA aerothermodynamics developments for preparing such missions have been accounted for. If a focus has been dedicated to the flight data gathered during Viking and Mars Pathfinder entries, the experimental and numerical activities carried out for the different projects have been also considered. The emphasis has been put on the post-flight analysis of flight experiments. The objective of the activity has been to develop a database of the developments performed for Mars entry that will be of interest for the preparation of future missions and for testing new models related to radiative transfer, and chemical kinetics schemes based on a state-to-state approach.

  17. Mars 2024/2026 Pathfinder Mission: Mars Architectures, Systems, and Technologies for Exploration and Resources Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Mueller, Robert; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Integrate In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) sub-systems and examine advanced capabilities and technologies to verify Mars 2024 Forward architecture precursor pathfinder options: Integrated spacecraft/surface infrastructure fluid architecture: propulsion, power, life support center dot Power system feed and propellant scavenging from propulsion system center dot High quality oxygen for life support and EVA Fluid/cryogenic zero-loss transfer and long-term storage center dot Rapid depot-to-rover/spacecraft center dot Slow ISRU plant-to-ascent vehicle Integration of ISRU consumable production center dot Oxygen only from Mars atmosphere carbon dioxide center dot Oxygen, fuel, water, from extraterrestrial soil/regolith Test bed to evaluate long duration life, operations, maintenance on hardware, sensors, and autonomy

  18. Project Ares: A systems engineering and operations architecture for the exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglioranzi, Michael J.; Berger, Jeff M.; Blaufuss, David J.; Boltz, Richard W.; Dunn, Michael T.

    1992-03-01

    The authors, a group of 18 veteran space operations officers, explored the concept of placing a permanently manned station on Mars - Project Ares. Using a five phase plan involving an early moon base and three scientific missions to Mars followed by cargo missions and eventually manned trips to the planet, the authors analyzed, designed, and documented their approach. The report focuses on the second phase of the project - scientific expansion of our knowledge of Mars and proof of a reliable transportation system. Among the subjects discussed in the report are management, mission profile and environment, and mission systems. The latter subject contains a variety of systems proposed by various authorities in the space industry and selected to fulfill the unique requirements of the project. Because this phase is an integral part of the project, emphasis was on reusability and versatility.

  19. Scientific results of the NASA-sponsored study project on Mars: Evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C. (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor); Zimbelman, James R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonics, and Volatiles (MEVTV) project are to outline the volcanic and tectonic history of Mars; to determine the influence of volatiles on Martian volcanic and tectonic processes; and to attempt to determine the compositional, thermal, and volatile history of Mars from its volcanic and tectonic evolution. Available data sets were used to test general models of the volcanic and tectonic history of Mars.

  20. Planetary protection issues for Mars sample acquisition flight projects.

    PubMed

    Barengoltz, J B

    2000-01-01

    The planned NASA sample acquisition flight missions to Mars pose several interesting planetary protection issues. In addition to the usual forward contamination procedures for the adequate protection of Mars for the sake of future missions, there are reasons to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by terrestrial microbes from the acquisition mission. Recent recommendations by the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Research Council (United States), would indicate that the scientific integrity of the sample is a planetary protection concern (SSB, 1997). Also, as a practical matter, a contaminated sample would interfere with the process for its release from quarantine after return for distribution to the interested scientists. These matters are discussed in terms of the first planned acquisition mission. PMID:12038483

  1. Project Hyreus: Mars sample return mission utilizing in situ propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita; Bair, Chris; Hink, Anthony; Kim, Jae; Koch, Amber; Kruse, Ross; Ngo, Dung; Nicholson, Heather; Nill, Laurie; Perras, Craig

    1993-01-01

    Project Hyreus is an unmanned Mars sample return mission that utilizes propellants manufactured in situ from the Martian atmosphere for the return voyage. A key goal of the mission is to demonstrate the considerable benefits of using indigenous resources and to test the viability of this approach as a precursor to manned Mars missions. The techniques, materials, and equipment used in Project Hyreus represent those that are currently available or that could be developed and readied in time for the proposed launch date in 2003. Project Hyreus includes such features as a Mars-orbiting satellite equipped with ground-penetrating radar, a large rover capable of sample gathering and detailed surface investigations, and a planetary science array to perform on-site research before samples are returned to Earth. Project Hyreus calls for the Mars Landing Vehicle to land in the Mangala Valles region of Mars, where it will remain for approximately 1.5 years. Methane and oxygen propellant for the Earth return voyage will be produced using carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere and a small supply of hydrogen brought from Earth. This process is key to returning a large Martian sample to Earth with a single Earth launch.

  2. The Mars Project: Avoiding Decompression Sickness on a Distant Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    A cost-effective approach for Mars exploration is to use available resources, such as water and atmospheric gases. Nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) are available and could form the inert gas component of a habitat atmosphere at 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0 pounds per square inch (psia). The habitat and space suit are designed as an integrated system: a comfortable living environment about 85% of the time and a safe working environment about 15% of the time. A goal is to provide a system that permits unrestricted exploration of Mars, but the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) during the extravehicular activity in a 3.75-psia suit, after exposure to any of the three habitat conditions, may limit unrestricted exploration. I evaluate here the risk of DCS since a significant proportion of a trinary breathing gas in the habitat might contain Ar. I draw on past experience and published information to extrapolate into untested, multivariable conditions to evaluate risk. A rigorous assessment of risk as a probability of DCS for each habitat condition is not yet possible. Based on many assumptions about Ar in hypobaric decompressions, I conclude that the presence of Ar significantly increases the risk of DCS. The risk is significant even with the best habitat option: 2.56 psia oxygen, 3.41 psia N2, and 2.20 psia Ar. Several hours of prebreathing 100% 02, a higher suit pressure, or a combination of other important variables such as limited exposure time on the surface or exercise during prebreathe would be necessary to reduce the risk of DCS to an acceptable level. The acceptable level for DCS risk on Mars has not yet been determined. Mars is a great distance from Earth and therefore from primary medical care. The acceptable risk would necessarily be defined by the capability to treat DCS in the Rover vehicle, in the habitat, or both.

  3. The Mars Project: Avoiding Decompression Sickness on a Distant Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2000-05-01

    A cost-effective approach for Mars exploration is to use available resources, such as water and atmospheric gases. Nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) are available and could form the inert gas component of a habitat atmosphere at 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0 pounds per square inch (psia). The habitat and space suit are designed as an integrated system: a comfortable living environment about 85% of the time and a safe working environment about 15% of the time. A goal is to provide a system that permits unrestricted exploration of Mars, but the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) during the extravehicular activity in a 3.75-psia suit, after exposure to any of the three habitat conditions, may limit unrestricted exploration. I evaluate here the risk of DCS since a significant proportion of a trinary breathing gas in the habitat might contain Ar. I draw on past experience and published information to extrapolate into untested, multivariable conditions to evaluate risk. A rigorous assessment of risk as a probability of DCS for each habitat condition is not yet possible. Based on many assumptions about Ar in hypobaric decompressions, I conclude that the presence of Ar significantly increases the risk of DCS. The risk is significant even with the best habitat option: 2.56 psia oxygen, 3.41 psia N2, and 2.20 psia Ar. Several hours of prebreathing 100% 02, a higher suit pressure, or a combination of other important variables such as limited exposure time on the surface or exercise during prebreathe would be necessary to reduce the risk of DCS to an acceptable level. The acceptable level for DCS risk on Mars has not yet been determined. Mars is a great distance from Earth and therefore from primary medical care. The acceptable risk would necessarily be defined by the capability to treat DCS in the Rover vehicle, in the habitat, or both.

  4. Environmental Test Program for the Mars Exploration Rover Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Terry C.; VanVelzer, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    On June 10 and July 7, 2003 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida for a six (6) months flight to the Red Planet, Mars. The two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft landed safely on the planet in January 2004. Prior to the successful launch, both of the spacecraft were involved in a comprehensive test campaign that included development, qualification, and protoflight test programs. Testing was performed to simulate the environments associated with launch, inter-planetary cruise, landing on the planet and Mars surface operations. Unique test requirements included operating the spacecraft while the chamber pressure was controlled to simulate the decent to the planet from deep space, high impact landing loads and rover operations on the surface of the planet at 8 Torr and -130 C. This paper will present an overview of the test program that included vibration, pyro-shock, landing loads, acoustic noise, thermal vacuum and solar simulation testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Environmental Test Laboratory facilities in Pasadena, California.

  5. Mars Surface Analog Project: Preparing for Astronauts' First Hours on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J.; Evanoff, J.; Johnson, M.; Loerch, L.; Whelan, S.; Amonette, W.; Sanders, J.; Haralson, C.; Paloski, W.

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut missions to Mars may be decades in the future, but contemporary estimates of the physical capabilities of the crewmembers upon arrival after prolonged transit can guide development of operational requirements to be imposed on them. Requirements for functional capacities will differ depending on whether they land in a spartan ascent vehicle or in a well-equipped habitat, but each of those options brings with it certain operational risks. Rehabilitation will be an important factor for crew health, safety and efficiency after the multi-month transit from Earth. Specific recommendations will be stipulated for the time to be allotted for on-planet rehabilitation before the first planned surface excursion, such as the transfer from the ascent-lander to the habitat-lander. Three sequential workshops (the third including extramural experts in appropriate fields) examined the likely capabilities of crewmembers shortly after landing on Mars, the predicted operational requirements they will face, and the near-term steps to close the gap between the requirements and capabilities.

  6. Exercise Countermeasures Demonstration Project During the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase 2A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Williams, W. Jon; Greenisen, M. C.; Fortney, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This demonstration project assessed the crew members' compliance to a portion of the exercise countermeasures planned for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the outcomes of their performing these countermeasures. Although these countermeasures have been used separately in other projects and investigations, this was the first time they'd been used together for an extended period (60 days) in an investigation of this nature. Crew members exercised every day for six days, alternating every other day between aerobic and resistive exercise, and rested on the seventh day. On the aerobic exercise days, subjects exercised on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a protocol that has been previously shown to maintain aerobic capacity in subjects exposed to a space flight analogue. On the resistive exercise days, crew members performed five major multijoint resistive exercises in a concentric mode, targeting those muscle groups and bones we believe are most severely affected by space flight. The subjects favorably tolerated both exercise protocols, with a 98% compliance to aerobic exercise prescription and a 91% adherence to the resistive exercise protocol. After 60 days, the crew members improved their peak aerobic capacity by an average 7%, and strength gains were noted in all subjects. These results suggest that these exercise protocols can be performed during ISS, lunar, and Mars missions, although we anticipate more frequent bouts with both protocols for long-duration spaceflight. Future projects should investigate the impact of increased exercise duration and frequency on subject compliance, and the efficacy of such exercise prescriptions.

  7. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Public Mapping Project is a web-based education and public outreach tool developed by the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. This tool allows the general public to identify and map geologic features on Mars, utilizing Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible images, allowing public participation in authentic scientific research. In addition, participants are able to rate each image (based on a 1 to 5 star scale) to help build a catalog of some of the more appealing and interesting martian surface features. Once participants have identified observable features in an image, they are able to view a map of the global distribution of the many geologic features they just identified. This automatic feedback, through a global distribution map, allows participants to see how their answers compare to the answers of other participants. Participants check boxes "yes, no, or not sure" for each feature that is listed on the Mars Public Mapping Project web page, including surface geologic features such as gullies, sand dunes, dust devil tracks, wind streaks, lava flows, several types of craters, and layers. Each type of feature has a quick and easily accessible description and example image. When a participant moves their mouse over each example thumbnail image, a window pops up with a picture and a description of the feature. This provides a form of "on the job training" for the participants that can vary with their background level. For users who are more comfortable with Mars geology, there is also an advanced feature identification section accessible by a drop down menu. This includes additional features that may be identified, such as streamlined islands, valley networks, chaotic terrain, yardangs, and dark slope streaks. The Mars Public Mapping Project achieves several goals: 1) It engages the public in a manner that encourages active participation in scientific research and learning about geologic features and processes. 2) It helps to

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Boot Robustness Testing Project Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Brian

    2011-01-01

    On the surface of Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory will boot up its flight computers every morning, having charged the batteries through the night. This boot process is complicated, critical, and affected by numerous hardware states that can be difficult to test. The hardware test beds do not facilitate testing a long duration of back-to-back unmanned automated tests, and although the software simulation has provided the necessary functionality and fidelity for this boot testing, there has not been support for the full flexibility necessary for this task. Therefore to perform this testing a framework has been build around the software simulation that supports running automated tests loading a variety of starting configurations for software and hardware states. This implementation has been tested against the nominal cases to validate the methodology, and support for configuring off-nominal cases is ongoing. The implication of this testing is that the introduction of input configurations that have yet proved difficult to test may reveal boot scenarios worth higher fidelity investigation, and in other cases increase confidence in the robustness of the flight software boot process.

  9. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  10. Dropouts, Stopouts, Optouts at Del Mar College: Spring 1991. Report of a Joint Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Jo Ann I.; Bonham, L. Adrianne

    A research project investigated 2,313 persons who attended Del Mar College (Texas) during fall 1990 but did not enroll for spring 1991. Four sets of data were collected: (1) limited demographic information on the total student body; (2) demographic information drawn from school records to describe all nonreturnees; (3) demographic information…

  11. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, A. C.; Hintze, P. E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Bayliss, J. A.; Karr, L. J.; Paley, M. S.; Marone, M. J.; Gibson, T. L.; Surma, J. M.; Mansell, J. M.; Lunn, G. M.; Devor, R. W.; Berggren, M.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASA's Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100% of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon is under construction.

  12. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Bayliss, Jon; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Steve; Marone, Matt; Gibson, Tracy; Surma, Jan; Mansell, Matt; Lunn, Griffin; Devor, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is 96 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASAs Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100 of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon has been tested with encouraging results.

  13. Deployment of a Prototype Plant GFP Imager at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse of the Haughton Mars Project

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Bamsey, Matthew; Berinstain, Alain; Braham, Stephen; Neron, Philip; Murdoch, Trevor; Graham, Thomas; Ferl, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the past decades, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. However, most of the analytical procedures involve laboratory examination of the biosensor plants. With the advent of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a biosensor molecule, it became at least theoretically possible for analyses of gene expression to occur telemetrically, with the gene expression information of the plant delivered to the investigator over large distances simply as properly processed fluorescence images. Spaceflight and other extraterrestrial environments provide unique challenges to plant life, challenges that often require changes at the gene expression level to accommodate adaptation and survival. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wished to develop the plants and especially the imaging devices required to conduct such experiments robotically, without operator intervention, within extraterrestrial environments. This requires the development of an autonomous and remotely operated plant GFP imaging system and concomitant development of the communications infrastructure to manage dataflow from the imaging device. Here we report the results of deploying a prototype GFP imaging system within the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG) an autonomously operated greenhouse located within the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian High Arctic. Results both demonstrate the applicability of the fundamental GFP biosensor technology and highlight the difficulties in collecting and managing telemetric data from challenging deployment environments.

  14. Gravity-driven deformation of Olympus Mons volcano, Mars: plate flexure and volcanic spreading studied with finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, Stefanie; Cailleau, Béatrice; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Walter, Thomas R.; Williams, David A.; Dumke, Alexander; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Olympus Mons on Mars is an exceptional volcano, not only for its enormous size, but also for its structural inventory that includes faulting and mass movements. It is a basaltic shield volcano with a height of 22 km, a diameter of about 600 km, and an average flank slope of 5°. Its characteristics include a summit caldera complex, upper- to mid-flank terraces, a basal circumferential scarp of up to 8 km height, and widespread lobate deposits that extend several hundred kilometers from the basal scarp into the surrounding plains. The formation of these major structural elements and association to gravity tectonics remained unclear, however. This study investigated the combined effects of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading in the evolution of Olympus Mons. For this purpose, the deformation of an elastoplastic volcanic cone under Martian gravity was simulated with axisymmetric finite element models. To reproduce observed structural complexities, these models were combined with a viscoelastic mantle and a variable coupling-decoupling behaviour at the interface between volcano and underlying lithosphere. We found that the combination of lithospheric flexure and volcanic spreading is able to account for Olympus Mons upper-flank terraces and basal overthrusting. Terraces are explained with radial compression, with an extent and expression that is related to both lithospheric flexure and the nature of a basal detachment surface. As coupling along the basal detachment decreases, and spreading increases, the zone of flank terracing migrates toward the summit area. The presence of faults on the shield depends on the edifice cohesion and the time of volcano growth relative to mantle relaxation. To produce surface faults, a high edifice cohesion has to be combined with quasi instantaneous volcano emplacement. When edifice cohesion is an order of magnitude lower, however, an instantaneous volcano emplacement is unnecessary to produce surface faults. For a load growing

  15. Mars digital terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    The Mars Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is the result of a new project to: (1) digitize the series of 1:2,000,000-scale topographic maps of Mars, which are being derived photogrammetically under a separate project, and (2) reformat the digital contour information into rasters of elevation that can be readily registered with the Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars. Derivation of DTM's involves interpolation of elevation values into 1/64-degree resolution and transformation of them to a sinusoidal equal-area projection. Digital data are produced in blocks corresponding with the coordinates of the original 1:2,000,000-scale maps, i.e., the dimensions of each block in the equatorial belt are 22.5 deg of longitude and 15 deg of latitude. This DTM is not only compatible with the DIM, but it can also be registered with other data such as geologic units or gravity. It will be the most comprehensive record of topographic information yet compiled for the Martian surface. Once the DTM's are established, any enhancement of Mars topographic information made with updated data, such as data from the planned Mars Observer Mission, will be by mathematical transformation of the DTM's, eliminating the need for recompilation.

  16. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  17. Modified gravity N-body code comparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Hans A.; Schmidt, Fabian; Barreira, Alexandre; Arnold, Christian; Bose, Sownak; Llinares, Claudio; Baldi, Marco; Falck, Bridget; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu; Mota, David F.; Puchwein, Ewald; Smith, Robert E.; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Self-consistent N-body simulations of modified gravity models are a key ingredient to obtain rigorous constraints on deviations from general relativity using large-scale structure observations. This paper provides the first detailed comparison of the results of different N-body codes for the f (R), Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati and Symmetron models, starting from the same initial conditions. We find that the fractional deviation of the matter power spectrum from Λ cold dark matter agrees to better than 1 per cent up to k ˜ 5-10 h Mpc-1 between the different codes. These codes are thus able to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of upcoming observational surveys. All codes are also in good agreement in their results for the velocity divergence power spectrum, halo abundances and halo profiles. We also test the quasi-static limit, which is employed in most modified gravity N-body codes, for the Symmetron model for which the most significant non-static effects among the models considered are expected. We conclude that this limit is a very good approximation for all of the observables considered here.

  18. The Highland Terrain Hopper: a new locomotion system for exploration of Mars and other low-gravity planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Mege, Daniel; Rickman, Hans

    Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, reconstruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, conducting and interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. There are few limitations in the type of scientific payload conventional exploration rovers can carry, from geology and geophysics to geochemistry and exobiology. They lack two skills, however: the ability of working on rugged or unstable terrain, like in canyons and mountains, and on solid bodies having gravity too low for the friction between the wheels and the ground to generate robot displacement. ASTRONIKA Ltd. and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences are designing Galago, the Highland Terrain Hopper, a small (Ø~50-100 cm), light (5-10 kg), and robust locomotion system, which addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a commando. Galago is symmetric and can jump accurately to a height of 4.5 m on Mars, 9 m on the Moon, and much more on Phobos and other small bodies. For one Galago, a nominal horizontal travel distance of 5 km (1000 jumps) is currently planned with the considered energy source, a battery reloaded by solar panels. Galago may assist other types of robots, or humans, in accessing difficult terrain, or even replace them for specific measurements or campaigning. Its three independent legs make possible several types of motions: accurate jumping (to any place identified in advance

  19. Latest developments in lunar gravity field recovery within the project GRAZIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald; Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Baur, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The project GRAZIL addresses the highly accurate recovery of the lunar gravity field using intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) measurements collected by the Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS) of the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Dynamic precise orbit determination is an indispensable task in order to recover the lunar gravity field based on LGRS measurements. The concept of variational equations is adopted to determine the orbit of the two GRAIL satellites based on radio science data. In this contribution we focus on the S-band two-way Doppler data collected by the Deep Space Network. As far as lunar gravity field recovery is concerned, we apply an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs in the order of one hour. In this contribution special attention is given to the refinement of our processing strategy in conjunction with an increase of the spectral resolution. Based on these considerations we present the latest version of a lunar gravity field model developed in Graz which is based on KBR observations during the primary mission phase (March 1 to May 29, 2012). Our results are validated against GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.

  20. Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness and Magnetization Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the distribution of visible and buried impact basins (Quasi-Circular Depressions or QCDs) on Mars > 200 km in diameter with free air gravity, crustal thickness and magnetization models shows some QCDs have coincident gravity anomalies but most do not. Very few QCDs have closely coincident magnetization anomalies, and only the oldest of the very large impact basins have strong magnetic anomalies within their main rings. Crustal thickness data show a large number of Circular Thinned Areas (CTAs). Some of these correspond to known impact basins, while others may represent buried impact basins not always recognized as QCDs in topography data alone. If true, the buried lowlands may be even older than we have previously estimated.

  1. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Haughton-Mars Project Expedition 2005: Interplanetary Supply Chain Management & Logistics Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeck, Olivier; Simchi-Levi, David

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 expedition to the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) research station on Devon Island was part of a NASA-funded project on Space Logistics. A team of nine researchers from MIT went to the Canadian Arctic to participate in the annual HMP field campaign from July 8 to August 12, 2005. We investigated the applicability of the HMP research station as an analogue for planetary macro- and micro-logistics to the Moon and Mars, and began collecting data for modeling purposes. We also tested new technologies and procedures to enhance the ability of humans and robots to jointly explore remote environments. The expedition had four main objectives. We briefly summarize our key findings in each of these areas.

  3. Simulation of gait and gait initiation associated with body oscillating behavior in the gravity environment on the moon, mars and Phobos.

    PubMed

    Brenière, Y

    2001-04-01

    A double-inverted pendulum model of body oscillations in the frontal plane during stepping [Brenière and Ribreau (1998) Biol Cybern 79: 337-345] proposed an equivalent model for studying the body oscillating behavior induced by step frequency in the form of: (1) a kinetic body parameter, the natural body frequency (NBF), which contains gravity and which is invariable for humans, (2) a parametric function of frequency, whose parameter is the NBF, which explicates the amplitude ratio of center of mass to center of foot pressure oscillation, and (3) a function of frequency which simulates the equivalent torque necessary for the control of the head-arms-trunk segment oscillations. Here, this equivalent model is used to simulate the duration of gait initiation, i.e., the duration necessary to initiate and execute the first step of gait in subgravity, as well as to calculate the step frequencies that would impose the same minimum and maximum amplitudes of the oscillating responses of the body center of mass, whatever the gravity value. In particular, this simulation is tested under the subgravity conditions of the Moon, Mars, and Phobos, where gravity is 1/6, 3/8, and 1/1600 times that on the Earth, respectively. More generally, the simulation allows us to establish and discuss the conditions for gait adaptability that result from the biomechanical constraints particular to each gravity system. PMID:11324337

  4. Impact of far-side satellite tracking on gravity estimation in the SELENE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Heki, K.; Rowlands, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary results of numerical simulation are presented to examine the gravity estimation capability in the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer), which will be launched in 2003. One of the new characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry is 4-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of a low-altitude lunar orbiter by means of a high-altitude relay satellite. It is shown that planned satellites configuration will provide a good far-side data coverage of the lunar orbiter and will improve lunar gravity field as well as far-side selenoid.

  5. Scientific Results of the Nasa-sponsored Study Project on Mars: Evolution of Its Climate and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific highlights of the Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere (MECA) study project are reviewed and some of the important issues in Martian climate research that remain unresolved are discussed.

  6. Using the Mars Student Imaging Project to Integrate Science and English into Middle School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, C. F.; Troy, M. T.; Valderrama, P.

    2005-12-01

    Bringing science to life in a middle school classroom, and getting students excited about writing an English research paper can be a challenge. We met the challenge by using the exploration of Mars with Arizona State University`s (ASU) Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP). We replaced individuals writing their own research papers with teams writing scientific proposals for use of the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. The 126 students on our academic team divided themselves into 26 teams. Each team selected a Leader, Archivist, Publicist, and Bibliographer. I was the Principal Investigator for each team. For twelve weeks the teams formally met once a week to discuss their progress and plan strategies for the following week. We created a website to communicate our progress. During the twelve weeks, the major task was to narrow each general topic such as ``Volcanoes on Mars," to a specific topic that could be answered by an 18km by 60km visible light image such as ``Is it Possible to Find the Relative Age of Volcanic Depressions in a Lava Flow Using a Mars Odyssey Image?" In addition to traditional research methods, we also participated in four teleconferences with ASU scientists chaired by Paige Valderrama, Assistant Director of the Mars Education Program. As the project evolved, I guided the teams with content, while the English teacher provided strategies for writing a meaningful persuasive essay, using citations, and recording bibliographical entries. When the proposals were completed, each team created a PowerPoint presentation to introduce their proposal to everyone for peer review. The students were hard, but fair with their evaluations. In several cases, they did not cast one of their three votes for their own! They decided that ten proposals met the criteria established by ASU. Those teams selected one member to use the JMARS software to target locations on Mars. The imagers spent two intensive days learning the software and targeting the surface. When we received

  7. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  8. Computer Interactives for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission through NASA's "Project Spectra!"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    "Project Spectra!" is a standards-based E-M spectrum and engineering program that includes paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games, students experience and manipulate information making abstract concepts accessible, solidifying understanding and enhancing retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new interactives. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature. Students design a planet that is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives were pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  9. Using Participatory Exploration to Engage Classrooms in STEM Learning: A Case Study Using NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Graff, P.; Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Mars Program and Arizona State University’s Mars Education Program have partnered with Mars mission teams and Mars Principal Investigator Dr. Phil Christensen to develop and promote an ongoing STEM-based opportunity for students to become active participants in the exploration of the Red Planet. The Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) has, since 2002, given over 15,000 students from grades 5 through early college the opportunity to work with scientists, mission planners and Mars education specialists using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera. MSIP participants are involved in authentic Mars research by imaging and researching a site on Mars using the THEMIS visible wavelength camera onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. Students can participate one of three ways: on-site at ASU, through distance learning and using archived THEMIS images. Throughout the period of time that the Mars Student Imaging Project has been operating, many lessons-learned have been accumulated, assessed, and project adjustments have been made. To meet the needs of a changing educational landscape and audience needs, MSIP is changing as well. Many challenges and barriers are making it difficult for teachers to promote deep, hands-on research projects in the formal classroom. As high stakes testing is again becoming more of the focus for the classroom, there becomes a greater need to understand audience needs (schools, teachers, students) and where new opportunities might emerge for students to participate in authentic and data-driven research. Participatory Exploration is a new exciting way to help teachers bring authentic STEM to their students through our journeys through the solar system. By engaging students through technology and challenging them with space-related research opportunities, we can further enable this generation of technology natives toward STEM literacy in a hands-on, memorable way.

  10. Partial gravity habitat study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

  11. Monitoring Aquifer Storage and Recovery Using Repeat Gravity Measurements: the Weber River Project, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Sahm, E.; Gettings, P.

    2008-05-01

    Repeated high-precision gravity surveys were made over two annual infiltration cycles on an alluvial fan at the mouth of Weber Canyon, Northern Utah, as part of the Weber River Basin Aquifer Storage and Recovery Pilot Project (WRBASR). Gravity data collected before, during and after infiltration events provides dramatic confirmation that a groundwater mound formed during infiltration and that the mound decayed predictably and migrated gradually south-southwest from the infiltration ponds following infiltration. Maximum measured gravity changes associated with the recharge events were 110 μGal during the first event (2004) and an increment of about 130 μGal during the second event (2005) for a total maximum signal of 180 μGal. Gaussian integration of the spatial gravity anomaly predicts an anomalous mass within a factor of two of the 1 Tg (1 Mton) mass of water infiltrated in 2004. The spatial gravity field is consistent with a groundwater mound at the end of infiltration that mimics a cylindrical disc having a height of 12 m and radius of 300-400 m. After infiltration was stopped, the gravity anomalies decayed to about 50% of the original amplitude over characteristic time of two months; the decay is simulated extremely well by an analytical solution for the decay of a groundwater mound by flow through porous media. Modeling the decay places tight bounds on the hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial fan below the recharge site at a length scale of 300 m to a value between 3 and 100 m/day.

  12. Human Exploration Ethnography of the Haughton-Mars Project, 1998-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During the past two field seasons, July 1988 and 1999, we have conducted research about the field practices of scientists and engineers at Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, with the objective of determining how people will live and work on Mars. This broad investigation of field life and work practice, part of the Haughton-Mars Project lead by Pascal Lee, spans social and cognitive anthropology, psychology, and computer science. Our approach involves systematic observation and description of activities, places, and concepts, constituting an ethnography of field science at Haughton. Our focus is on human behaviors-what people do, where, when, with whom, and why. By locating behavior in time and place-in contrast with a purely functional or "task oriented" description of work-we find patterns constituting the choreography of interaction between people, their habitat, and their tools. As such, we view the exploration process in terms of a total system comprising a social organization, facilities, terrain/climate, personal identities, artifacts, and computer tools. Because we are computer scientists seeking to develop new kinds of tools for living and working on Mars, we focus on the existing representational tools (such as documents and measuring devices), learning and improvization (such as use of the internet or informal assistance), and prototype computational systems brought to the field. Our research is based on partnership, by which field scientists and engineers actively contribute to our findings, just as we participate in their work and life.

  13. New gravity map of the western Galicia margin: The Spanish exclusive economic zone project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó, A.; Muñoz, A.; Druet, M.; Llanes, P.; Álvarez, J.

    Since 1995, the most intensive mapping of the seafloor off the Spanish coast has been carried out in the framework of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone Project (ZEEE). The main objectives of this project are to obtain improved multibeam bathymetric cartography of the areas off Spanish coastlines, and to perform a geophysical survey, well-suited with a 10-knot navigation velocity (some techniques requires lower navigation velocity).The geophysical survey includes gravity, geomagnetism, and low-penetration seismic techniques in order to infer the geological structure of the seafloor. Other oceanographic variables such as current, surface salinity, and temperature profiles, can be recorded without compromising this systematic survey effort.

  14. Design of low-thrust gravity-assist trajectories for cycler missions to Mars and for non-Newtonian physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua

    We design and optimize low-thrust gravity-assist trajectories for several applications. For Earth-Mars cycling trajectories, we approach the problem by designing a low-thrust version of the well-known Aldrin cycler, and by "patching" together a series of ballistic semi-cyclers. These new cycler trajectories allow significant savings in terms of taxi rendezvous propellant expenditure over the original (nearly ballistic) Aldrin cycler and the semi-cyclers. Trade studies show that even though the propellant requirement on the low-thrust cycling vehicle is not insignificant, the overall architecture-level propellant cost savings is worthwhile. For the investigation of new physics, we design low-thrust trajectories that employ Jupiter gravity assists to reach a distance of 1000 AU from the Sun. Trajectories that allow close flybys of the Sun are also presented. In addition, we analyze the unexpected gamma-ray detection readings from the MESSENGER spacecraft, and the results may suggest interactions between spacecraft-Sun distance and radioactive decay rates. Besides these new trajectories for various applications, we also present a new design tool for low-thrust gravity-assist trajectories. This new design technique relies on an extension of the Tisser and graph, which tracks the changes in orbital shapes and energies from gravity assist maneuvers. Several simple low-thrust control schemes and their corresponding Tisserand graph curves are investigated and used to bridge gaps on the ballistic Tisserand graph (which could only be used for ballistic trajectories in its original formulation). We use the new low-thrust Tisserand graph to generate candidate (both direct and multi-flyby) rendezvous trajectories and show that the new tool can predict the mass-optimized DeltaV cost to within 15% in most cases.

  15. Third International Colloquium on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of papers concerning the geology and geophysics of Mars, volcanism on Mars, the Mars atmosphere, and the long term history of the atmosphere-cap-regolith volatile regime are presented. Formation of the Mars surface, climatology, gravity and magnetism, atmospheric boundary layers, and interpretation of Viking imagery and Earth-based observations are considered.

  16. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  17. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Status and project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer-Guerr, Torsten; Adrian, Jäggi; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Susnik, Andreja; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Flechtner, Frank; Gruber, Christian; Güntner, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Kvas, Andreas; Klinger, Beate; Flury, Jakob; Bruinsma, Sean; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zwenzner, Hendrik; Bourgogne, Stephane; Bandikova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) is a project of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. In the frame of EGSIEM three key services should established: 1) a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools. In this talk the status of the ongoing project is presented and selected results are discussed.

  18. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses (NSBRI Neurovestibular Project 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Goldberg, Jefim; Minor, Lloyd B.; Paloski, William H.; Young, Laurence R.; Zee, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of gaze and head stabilization reflexes can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force (gif) environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive capabilities of these mechanisms. We wish to determine to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others, and to what extent gravity serves as a context cue for inhibiting such transfer. We use the general approach of adapting a response (saccades, vestibuloocular reflex: VOR, or vestibulocollic reflex: VCR) to a particular change in gain or phase in one gif condition, adapting to a different gain or phase in a second gif condition, and then seeing if gif itself - the context cue - can recall the previously-learned adapted responses. Previous evidence indicates that unless there is specific training to induce context-specificity, reflex adaptation is sequential rather than simultaneous. Various experiments in this project investigate the behavioral properties, neurophysiological basis, and anatomical substrate of context-specific learning, using otolith (gravity) signals as a context cue. In the following, we outline the methods for all experiments in this project, and provide details and results on selected experiments.

  19. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Project Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Flechtner, F.; Gruber, C.; Guntner, A.; Gouweleeuw, B.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Kvas, A.; Martinis, S.; Zwenzer, H.; Bruinsma, S.; Lemoine, J. M.; Flury, J.; Bourgogne, S.

    2015-12-01

    The project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission has started in January 2015. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. We give an overview of the project and present first results from the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  20. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  1. A multinational Mars mission for the International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University's 1991 design project activity has yielded a report on the organization and implementation of a multinational program for manned exploration of Mars; the organization encompasses a political as well as a technical component. This International Manned Mission employs an artificial-gravity spacecraft with nuclear-electric propulsion for interplanetary transfer. An unmanned cargo mission precedes the piloted flights to increase the mass deliverable to Mars, as well as to serve as a testbed for interplanetary vehicle design.

  2. Walking on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, G. A.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.

    1998-06-01

    Sometime in the near future humans may walk in the reduced gravity of Mars. Gravity plays an essential role in walking. On Earth, the body uses gravity to `fall forwards' at each step and then the forward speed is used to restore the initial height in a pendulum-like mechanism. When gravity is reduced, as on the Moon or Mars, the mechanism of walking must change. Here we investigate the mechanics of walking on Mars onboard an aircraft undergoing gravity-reducing flight profiles. The optimal walking speed on Mars will be 3.4 km h-1 (down from 5.5 km h-1 on Earth) and the work done per unit distance to move the centre of mass will be half that on Earth.

  3. Rotational Dynamics and Time-variable Gravity of Mars and Implications for Volatile Cycling and Atmospheric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The seasonal motion of atmospheric material, its deposition and sublimation at the poles, represent a minute redistribution of the planet's mass which has been detected in the motion of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. These observations have enabled us to estimate the quantity of material involved. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. The JUMP student project: two weeks of space simulation in a Mars-like environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Crombrugghe, Guerric; de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Denies, Jonathan; Jago, Alban; Le Maire, Victor

    JUMP is a student initiative which aim is to simulate during two weeks the life of astronauts in a Mars-like environment. The simulation will be held in the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) a habitat installed by the Mars Society (MS) in the Utah desert. The crew is composed of six students, helped by a remote support of four students, all from different background (engineering, physics, mathematics, biology, and architecture) and degree (bachelor, master, PhD), under the supervision of researchers from several institutes. Several researches will be conducted during the simulation. We shall report on the science and technical results, and implications for Earth-Mars comparative studies. JASE: The Jump Astronaut Safety Experiment (JASE) consists in a deployable Yagi antenna with basic elec-tronics, providing an extremely light and simple way to prevent the solar flares and observe Jupiter bursts. JADE: The Jump Angular Detection Experiment (JADE) is an innovative an-gular particle detector used to determine the irradiation of the surface and monitor the charged particle distribution in Mars' atmosphere. Even if its resolution is low, it is a very light solution compared to pixel detectors. JAPE: The Jump Astronaut Potatoes Experiment (JAPE) will try to grow and eat in a space-like environment high-performance potatoes developed by the Groupe de Recherche en Physiologie Végétale (GRPV) of the UCL in the frame of the Micro-e Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project of the ESA. JABE: The Jump soil Analysis with a Backpack drill Experiment (JABE) aim to validate a sample procedure, generate vertical profiles of the humidity with a MEMS sensor, and analyze soil samples with a spectrometer. The crew will therefore use a backpack drill, which is portable, fast and easy to use. JARE: The goal of the Jump Astronaut-Rover interaction Experiment (JARE) is to determine how a rover can help an astronaut in his task, and how it is possible to improve this

  5. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  7. Low-gravity homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [Apollo-Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    The III-V semiconducting compound AlSb shows promise as a highly efficient solar cell material, but it has not been commercially exploited because of difficulties in compound synthesis. Liquid state homogenization and solidification of AlSb were carried out in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Experiment MA-044 in the hope that compositional homogeneity would be improved by negating the large density difference between the two constituents. Post-flight analysis and comparative characterization of the space-processed and ground-processed samples indicate that there are major homogeneity improvements in the low-gravity solidified material.

  8. Signatures and Characteristics of Internal Gravity Waves in the Venus' and Mars' Atmospheres as Revealed by the Radio Occultation Temperature Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander; Andreev, Vitali; Salimzyanov, Rishat; Pavelyev, Alexey

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that internal gravity waves (IGWs) affect the structure and mean circulation of the Earth' middle and upper atmosphere by transporting energy and horizontal momentum upward from the lower atmosphere. The IGWs modulate the background atmospheric structure, producing a periodic pattern of spatial and temporal variations in the wind velocity, temperature and density. Similar effects are anticipated for the Venus and Mars since IGWs are a characteristic of stably stratified atmosphere. For instance, Yakovlev et al. (1991) and Gubenko et al. (2008a) used the radio occultation (RO) data from Venera 15 and 16 missions to investigate the thermal structure and layering of the Venus' middle atmosphere. They noted that a wavelike periodic structure commonly appears in retrieved vertical profiles at altitudes above 60 km in the atmosphere where the static stability is large. Through comparisons between Magellan RO observations in the Venus' atmosphere, Hinson and Jenkins (1995) have demonstrated that small scale variations in retrieved temperature profiles at altitudes from 60 to 90 km are caused by a spectrum of vertical propagating IGWs. Temperature profiles from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) measurements reveal vertical wavelike structures assumed to be atmospheric IGWs in the Mars' lower atmosphere (Creasey et al., 2006). The very large IGW amplitudes inferred from MGS RO data imply a very significant role for IGWs in the atmospheric dynamics of Mars as well. There is one general problem inherent to all measurements of IGWs. Observed wavelike variations may alternatively be caused by the IGWs, turbulence or persistent layers in the atmosphere, and it is necessary to have an IGW identification criterion for the correct interpretation of obtained results. In this context, we have developed an original method for the determination of internal gravity wave parameters from a single vertical temperature profile measurement in a planetary atmosphere (Gubenko et

  9. The Human Mars Mission: Transportation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Larry

    1998-01-15

    If funding is available, and for NASA planning purposes, the Human Mars Mission (HMM) is baselined to take place during the 2011 and 2013/2014 Mars opportunities. Two cargo flights will leave for Mars during the first opportunity, one to Mars orbit and the second to the surface, in preparation for the crew during the following opportunity. Each trans-Mars injection (TMI) stack will consist of a cargo/payload portion (currently coming in at between 65 and 78 mt) and a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) stage (currently coming in at between 69 and 77 mt loaded with propellant) for performing the departure {delta}Vs to get on to the appropriate Mars trajectories. Three 66,700 N thrust NTP engines comprise the TMI stage for each stack and perform a {delta}V ranging from 3580 to 3890 m/s as required by the trajectory (with gravity losses and various performance margins added to this for the total TMI {delta}V performed). This paper will discuss the current application of this NTP stage to a Human Mars mission, and project what implications a nuclear trans-Earth injection (TEI) stage as well as a bi-modal NTP stage could mean to a human visit to Mars.

  10. The Human Mars Mission: Transportation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kos, Larry

    1998-01-01

    If funding is available, and for NASA planning purposes, the Human Mars Mission (HMM) is baselined to take place during the 2011 and 2013/2014 Mars opportunities. Two cargo flights will leave for Mars during the first opportunity, one to Mars orbit and the second to the surface, in preparation for the crew during the following opportunity. Each trans-Mars injection (TMI) stack will consist of a cargo / payload portion (currently coming in at between 65 and 78 mt) and a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) stage (currently coming in at between 69 and 77 mt loaded with propellant) for performing the departure (Delta)Vs to get on to the appropriate Mars trajectories. Three 66,700 N thrust NTP engines comprise the TMI stage for each stack and perform a (Delta)V ringing from 3580 to 3890 m/s is required by the trajectory (with gravity losses and various performance margins to this for the total TMI (Delta)V performed). This paper will discuss the current application of this NTP stage to a Human Mars mission, and project what implications a nuclear trans-Earth injection (TEI) stage as well as a bi-modal NTP stage could mean to a human visit to Mars.

  11. Operational psychology countermeasures during the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project.

    PubMed

    Holland, A W; Curtis, K

    1998-01-01

    The Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center conducted a series of human-rated tests, termed the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), designed to advance technology in closed life support systems. As the duration of these tests lengthened, the psychological factors associated with placing humans in these environments became increasingly salient to successful mission completion. A number of psychological activities were conducted to ensure successful operations and protect crew member well-being, including individual crew member selection, crew composition, training and preparation, family inclusion, educational briefings, in-mission tracking, operational interventions, and postmission repatriation. This article describes these activities, the rationale behind their design, the similarities and differences to techniques utilized for spaceflight, and considerations related to designing psychological countermeasures for confined environments. In addition to testing physical and engineering systems, the LMLSTP series functioned as an effective testbed for developing operational concepts and countermeasures for extended space missions. PMID:11871454

  12. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    PubMed

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  13. Haughton-Mars Project (HMP)/NASA 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.

    2006-01-01

    Medical requirements are currently being developed for NASA's space exploration program. Lunar surface operations for crews returning to the moon will be performed on a daily basis to conduct scientific research and construct a lunar habitat. Inherent to aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crew members. To develop an evidence-base for handling medical contingencies on the lunar surface, a simulation project was conducted using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic. A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crew members provided a knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity. Objectives were established to 1) demonstrate stabilization, field extraction and transfer an injured crew member to the habitat and 2) evaluate audio, visual and biomedical communication capabilities with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. The simulation project s objectives were achieved. Among these objectives were 1) extracting a crew member from a sloped terrain by a two-member team in a 1-g analog environment, 2) establishing real-time communication to multiple space centers, 3) providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crew members, and 4) establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. The simulation project provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods needed for planetary space exploration. During the project, the crew members were confronted with a number of unexpected scenarios including environmental, communications, EVA suit, and navigation challenges. These trials provided insight into the challenges of carrying out a medical contingency in an austere environment. The knowledge gained from completing the objectives of this project will be incorporated into the exploration medical requirements involving an incapacited

  14. Long-term variations of absolute and superconducting gravity values in Southeast Alaska, observed by the ISEA2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, T.; Hideaki, H.; Miura, S.; Kaufman, M.; Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that gravity values have been decreasing in Southeast Alaska, mainly due to glacier mass changes from the end of the Little Ice Age to the present. For example, absolute gravity measurements made by the ISEA1 project (2006-2008) showed a maximum gravity change rate of -5.6 micro-gal/year (Sun et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012a), which was consistent with large uplift rates obtained from GPS data (Larsen et al., 2005). However, the newly-obtained absolute gravity values in 2012 were about 10 micro-gal greater than expected based on the gravity trends of Sun et al. (2010), possibly because of above-average snowfall in the winter of 2011-2012 (Sato et al., 2012b). In order to monitor spatiotemporal gravity changes associated with glacier mass changes, seasonal hydrological gravity changes should be quantified via continuous gravity observations and/or hydrological modeling. We thus installed a superconducting gravimeter iGrav (serial number: 003) at Egan Library, University of Alaska Southeast in June 2012, as part of the ISEA2 project (2011-2015). The mass position (unit: volts) and air pressure have been recorded every second since June 2012, and the gravity value was then calculated from the mass position, using the scale factor of -89.561 micro-gal/V (Sato et al., 2012b). After the removal of tidal gravity changes using the BAYTAP software (Tamura et al., 1991), a gravity change of 4 micro-gal in peak to peak was extracted from the long-term superconducting gravity data from June 2012 to July 2013. Note that this non-tidal gravity change includes the instrumental drift, although the drift rate was very small (less than 1 micro-gal/year) according to the linear regression to the gravity change. We will discuss possible physical mechanisms of the non-tidal gravity change associated with water redistribution, using a hydrological model (e.g., Kazama et al., 2012) and/or long-term weather data. In addition, we also measured absolute gravity values at 6

  15. A mission design for International Manned Mars Mission - From the 1991 International Space University (ISU) Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1991-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) conducted a study of an international program to support human exploration of Mars as its annual Design Project activity during its 1991 summer session in Toulouse, France. Although an ISU Design Project strives to produce an in-depth analysis during the intense 10-week summer session, the International Mars Mission (IMM) project was conducted in a manner designed to provide a learning experience for young professionals working in an unusual multidisciplinary and multinational environment. The breadth of the IMM study exceeds that of most Mars mission studies of the past, encompassing political organization for long-term commitment, multinational management structure, cost analysis, mission architecture, vehicle configuration, crew health, life support, Mars surface infrastructure, mission operations, technology evaluation, risk assessment, scientific planning, exploration, communication networks, and Martian resource utilization. The IMM Final Report has particular value for those seeking insight into the choices made by a multinational group working in an apolitical environment on the problems of international cooperation in space.

  16. Non-invasive panel tests for gastrointestinal motility monitoring within the MARS-500 Project

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Guardigli, Massimo; Simoni, Patrizia; Festi, Davide; Afonin, Boris; Vasilyeva, Galina

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To develop an integrated approach for monitoring gastrointestinal motility and inflammation state suitable for application in long-term spaceflights. METHODS: Breath tests based on the oral administration of 13C-labeled or hydrogen-producing substrates followed by the detection of their metabolites (13CO2 or H2) in breath were used to measure gastrointestinal motility parameters during the 520-d spaceflight ground simulation within the MARS-500 Project. In particular, the gastric emptying rates of solid and liquid contents were evaluated by 13C-octanoic acid and 13C-acetate breath tests, respectively, whereas the orocecal transit time was assessed by an inulin H2-breath test, which was performed simultaneously with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. A ready-to-eat, standardized pre-packaged muffin containing 100 mg of 13C-octanoic acid was used in the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to avoid the extemporaneous preparation of solid meals. In addition, a cassette-type lateral flow immunoassay was employed to detect fecal calprotectin, a biomarker of intestinal inflammation. Because no items could be introduced into the simulator during the experiment, all materials and instrumentation required for test performance during the entire mission simulation had to be provided at the beginning of the experiment. RESULTS: The experiments planned during the simulation of a manned flight to Mars could be successfully performed by the crewmembers without any external assistance. No evident alterations (i.e., increasing or decreasing trends) in the gastric emptying rates were detected using the 13C-breath tests during the mission simulation, as the gastric emptying half-times were in the range of those reported for healthy subjects. In contrast to the 13C-breath tests, the results of the inulin H2-breath test were difficult to interpret because of the high variability of the H2 concentration in the breath samples, even within the same subject. This variability suggested that

  17. Biosphere 2: a prototype project for a permanent and evolving life system for Mars base.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J P; Dempster, W F

    1992-01-01

    As part of the ground-based preparation for creating long-term life systems needed for space habitation and settlement, Space Biospheres Ventures (SBV) is undertaking the Biosphere 2 project near Oracle, Arizona. Biosphere 2, currently under construction, is scheduled to commence its operations in 1991 with a two-year closure period with a crew of eight people. Biosphere 2 is a facility which will be essentialy materially-closed to exchange with the outside environment. It is open to information and energy flow. Biosphere 2 is designed to achieve a complex life-support system by the integration of seven areas or "biomes"--rainforest, savannah, desert, marsh, ocean, intensive agriculture and human habitat. Unique bioregenerative technologies, such as soil bed reactors for air purification, aquatic waste processing systems, real-time analytic systems and complex computer monitoring and control systems are being developed for the Biosphere 2 project. Its operation should afford valuable insight into the functioning of complex life systems necessary for long-term habitation in space. It will serve as an experimental ground-based prototype and testbed for the stable, permanent life systems needed for human exploration of Mars. PMID:11537067

  18. ExoHab Pilot Project & Field Tests for Moon-Mars Human Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We studied concepts for a minimal Moon-Mars habitat, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture. We validated experimentally the Habitat and Laboratory ExoHab concept constraints during EuroGeoMars campaign in Utah desert research station (from 24 Jan. to 28 Feb. 2009) and EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX campaigns in Nov 2009 and February-April 2010. We discuss from the ILEWG ExoHab concept studies and field simulations the specifics of human exploration, with focus on habitability and human performance. In the ExoHab pilot concept project (supported by ILEWG, ESA NASA), we justify the case for a scientific and exploration outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of planets and life, geophysical and geo-chemical studies, astrobiology and life sciences, observation sciences, technology demonstration, resource utilisation, human exploration and settlement). In this modular concept, we consider various infra structure elements: core habitat, Extra Vehicular activity (EVA), crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. We review some studies space agencies' architecture proposals, with landers, orbiters, rovers, habitats, surface operations and protocols. We focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation and exploration, but not immediately autonomous. Through a modular concept, this outpost will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the

  19. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  20. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - a new Horizon2020 project to serve the international community and improve the accessibility to gravity field products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Weigelt, Matthias; Flechtner, Frank; Guentner, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Martinis, Sandro; Bruinsma, Sean; Flury, Jakob; Bourgogne, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    A proposal for a European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) has been submitted in response to the Earth Observation Call EO-1-2014 of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. The EGSIEM project has recently started in January 2015. We present the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  1. ExoHab Pilot Project & Field Tests for Moon-Mars Human Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We studied concepts for a minimal Moon-Mars habitat, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture. We validated experimentally the Habitat and Laboratory ExoHab concept constraints during EuroGeoMars campaign in Utah desert research station (from 24 Jan. to 28 Feb. 2009) and EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX campaigns in Nov 2009 and February-April 2010. We discuss from the ILEWG ExoHab concept studies and field simulations the specifics of human exploration, with focus on habitability and human performance. In the ExoHab pilot concept project (supported by ILEWG, ESA NASA), we justify the case for a scientific and exploration outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of planets and life, geophysical and geo-chemical studies, astrobiology and life sciences, observation sciences, technology demonstration, resource utilisation, human exploration and settlement). In this modular concept, we consider various infra structure elements: core habitat, Extra Vehicular activity (EVA), crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. We review some studies space agencies' architecture proposals, with landers, orbiters, rovers, habitats, surface operations and protocols. We focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation and exploration, but not immediately autonomous. Through a modular concept, this outpost will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the

  2. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  3. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Systems Engineering Approach for Astronaut Missions to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to design and develop a new generation of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation systems to hlfill the Nation s strategic goals and objectives. These launch vehicles will provide the capability for astronauts to conduct scientific exploration that yields new knowledge from the unique vantage point of space. American leadership in opening new fi-ontiers will improve the quality of life on Earth for generations to come. The Exploration Launch Projects office is responsible for delivering the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) that will loft the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low-Earth orbit (LEO) early next decade, and for the heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) that will deliver the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to LEO for astronaut return trips to the Moon by 2020 in preparation for the eventual first human footprint on Mars. Crew travel to the International Space Station will be made available as soon possible after the Space Shuttle retires in 2010.

  4. Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project. Phase 2; Human Factors and Crew Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Hurlbert, K. M.; Kirby, G.; Lewis, J. F.; ORear, P.

    1997-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project was conducted in June and July of 1996 at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The primary objective of Phase 2 was to demonstrate and evaluate an integrated physicochemical air revitalization and regenerative water recovery system capable of sustaining a human crew of four for 30 days inside a closed chamber. The crew (3 males and 1 female) was continuously present inside a chamber throughout the 30-day test. The objective of this paper was to describe crew interactions and human factors for the test. Crew preparations for the test included training and familiarization of chamber systems and accommodations, and medical and psychological evaluations. During the test, crew members provided metabolic loads for the life support systems, performed maintenance on chamber systems, and evaluated human factors inside the chamber. Overall, the four crew members found the chamber to be comfortable for the 30-day test. The crew performed well together and this was attributed in part to team dynamics, skill mix (one commander, two system experts, and one logistics lead), and a complementary mix of personalities. Communication with and support by family, friends, and colleagues were identified as important contributors to the high morale of the crew during the test. Lessons learned and recommendations for future testing are presented by the crew in this paper.

  5. Computer simulations for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission through NASA's 'Project Spectra!'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    'Project Spectra!' is a standards-based light science and engineering program on solar system exploration that includes both hands-on paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games where students experience and manipulate the information makes abstract concepts accessible. Visualizing lessons with multi-media tools solidifies understanding and retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As a part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new 'Project Spectra!' interactives that go hand-in-hand with a paper and pencil activity. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature and how they contribute. Students are asked to create a scenario in which a planet they build and design is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider Mars and the conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives were pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  6. Computer simulations for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission through NASA's "Project Spectra!"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofferson, R.; Wood, E. L.; Euler, G.

    2012-12-01

    "Project Spectra!" is a standards-based light science and engineering program on solar system exploration that includes both hands-on paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games where students experience and manipulate the information makes abstract concepts accessible. Visualizing lessons with multi-media tools solidifies understanding and retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As a part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new "Project Spectra!" interactives that go hand-in-hand with a paper and pencil activity. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature and how they contribute. Students are asked to create a scenario in which a planet they build and design is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider Mars and the conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives are currently being pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  7. Ion engine propelled Earth-Mars cycler with nuclear thermal propelled transfer vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Rudolf X.; Baker, Myles; Melko, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a preliminary design of a long term, reusable transportation system between earth and Mars which would be capable of providing both artificial gravity and shelter from solar flare radiation. The heart of this system was assumed to be a Cycler spacecraft propelled by an ion propulsion system. The crew transfer vehicle was designed to be propelled by a nuclear-thermal propulsion system. Several Mars transportation system architectures and their associated space vehicles were designed.

  8. The main goals of experiments with the higher plants in the project MARS - 500.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Gushin, Vadim; Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott

    At the present step of development of manned flight to Mars there is a current opinion that including a greenhouse in the composition of Life Support Systems (LSS) of Martian expedition would essentially improve a spacecraft habitat conditions and also would have impact to preventing of a number of possible consequences of continuous presence of human in artificial environment. Development of design objectives of future space greenhouses applicable for conditions of Martian expedition should be based, in our opinion, not only on the results of real space experiments, conducted onboard of orbital stations, but also on the results of ground-based experiments. In connection with above considerations there is a number of technological, biological and psychological experiments is planned to be conducted in the frame of MARS-500 project to resolve questions related to incorporation of higher plants in LSS of inter-planetary flights. The questions include: testing of developed elements of the greenhouse construction and methods for cultivation of vegetables under conditions of imitation of the flight of Martian expedition; selection of breeds and species of vegetables, characterized by high speed of biomass accumulation, attractive taste and appearance; investigation of growth, development and metabolism of plants under long-term continuous cultivation in manned pressurized object; comparison of the productivity of the plants as a function of utilization of different light source; determination of maximum amount of planted biomass of the plants and number of possible vegetation under conditions of long-term utilization of vegetation chamber of the greenhouse without substrate replacement; investigation of crops dietetic preferences of crew members; estimation of quality of plant biomass using seeding of the plants by microorganisms and nitrates and vitamins content as markers; development and approbation of methodical approaches to estimation of psychological factors of

  9. Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Moore and Howard [1] reported the discovery of large alluvial fans in craters on Mars. Their initial survey from 0-30 S found that these fans clustered in three distinct regions and occurred at around the +1 km MOLA defined Mars datum. However, due to incomplete image coverage, Moore and Howard [1]could not conduct a comprehensive survey. They also recognized, though did not quantitatively address, gravity scaling issues. Here, we briefly discuss the identification of alluvial fans on Mars, then consider the general equations governing the deposition of alluvial fans and hypothesize a method for learning about grain size in alluvial fans on Mars.

  10. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  11. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-09-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  12. International Space University variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1994-03-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness, and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that will be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. This report describes the VGRF design that was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation; engineering, architecture; in-space physiological, materials, and life science experimentation; data communications; and business and management.

  13. An analytical study of the interaction of technological and administrative decision-making in the defining of Mars Project Viking. Ph.D. Thesis - Union College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the history and background of the Mars Project Viking is presented. The organization and functions of the engineering group responsible for the project are defined. The design and configuration of the proposed space vehicle are examined. Illustrations and tables of data are provided to complete the coverage of the project.

  14. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30,60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  15. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  16. Manned Mars Explorer project: Guidelines for a manned mission to the vicinity of Mars using Phobos as a staging outpost; schematic vehicle designs considering chemical and nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Sean; Neubek, Deb; Baxmann, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Manned Mars Explorer (MME) project responds to the fundamental problems of sending human beings to Mars in a mission scenario and schematic vehicle designs. The mission scenario targets an opposition class Venus inbound swingby for its trajectory with concentration on Phobos and/or Deimos as a staging base for initial and future Mars vicinity operations. Optional vehicles are presented as a comparison using nuclear electric power/propulsion technology. A Manned Planetary Vehicle and Crew Command Vehicle are used to accomplish the targeted mission. The Manned Planetary Vehicle utilizes the mature technology of chemical propulsion combined with an advanced aerobrake, tether and pressurized environment system. The Crew Command Vehicle is the workhorse of the mission performing many different functions including a manned Mars landing, and Phobos rendezvous.

  17. Project Exodus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Rodney (Compiler); Dillon, Jennifer (Compiler); Grewe, George (Compiler); Mcmorrow, Jim (Compiler); Melton, Craig (Compiler); Rainey, Gerald (Compiler); Rinko, John (Compiler); Singh, David (Compiler); Yen, Tzu-Liang (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    A design for a manned Mars mission, PROJECT EXODUS is presented. PROJECT EXODUS incorporates the design of a hypersonic waverider, cargo ship and NIMF (nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel) shuttle lander to safely carry out a three to five month mission on the surface of Mars. The cargo ship transports return fuel, return engine, surface life support, NIMF shuttle, and the Mars base to low Mars orbit (LMO). The cargo ship is powered by a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system which allows the cargo ship to execute a spiral trajectory to Mars. The waverider transports ten astronauts to Mars and back. It is launched from the Space Station with propulsion provided by a chemical engine and a delta velocity of 9 km/sec. The waverider performs an aero-gravity assist maneuver through the atmosphere of Venus to obtain a deflection angle and increase in delta velocity. Once the waverider and cargo ship have docked the astronauts will detach the landing cargo capsules and nuclear electric power plant and remotely pilot them to the surface. They will then descend to the surface aboard the NIMF shuttle. A dome base will be quickly constructed on the surface and the astronauts will conduct an exploratory mission for three to five months. They will return to Earth and dock with the Space Station using the waverider.

  18. Hazard Evaluation in Valparaíso: the MAR VASTO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indirli, Maurizio; Razafindrakoto, Hoby; Romanelli, Fabio; Puglisi, Claudio; Lanzoni, Luca; Milani, Enrico; Munari, Marco; Apablaza, Sotero

    2011-03-01

    The Project "MAR VASTO" (Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso), funded by BID/IADB (Banco InterAmericano de Desarrollo/InterAmerican Development Bank), has been managed by ENEA, with an Italian/Chilean joined partnership and the support of local institutions. Valparaíso tells the never-ending story of a tight interaction between society and environment and the city has been declared a Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO since 2003. The main goals of the project have been to evaluate in the Valparaíso urban area the impact of main hazards (earthquake, tsunami, fire, and landslide), defining scenarios and maps on a geo-referenced GIS database. In particular, for earthquake hazard assessment the realistic modelling of ground motion is a very important base of knowledge for the preparation of groundshaking scenarios which serve as a valid and economic tool to be fruitfully used by civil engineers, supplying a particularly powerful tool for the prevention aspects of Civil Defense. When numerical modelling is successfully compared with records (as in the case of the Valparaíso, 1985 earthquake), the resulting synthetic seismograms permit the generation of groundshaking maps, based upon a set of possible scenario earthquakes. Where no recordings are available for the scenario event, synthetic signals can be used to estimate ground motion without having to wait for a strong earthquake to occur (pre-disaster microzonation). For the tsunami hazard, the available reports, [e.g., SHOA (1999) Carta de Inundacion por Tsunami para la bahia de Valparaíso, Chile, http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/citsu/citsu.php], have been used as the reference documents for the hazard assessment for the Valparaíso site. The deep and detailed studies already carried out by SHOA have been complemented with (a) sets of parametric studies of the tsunamigenic potential of the 1985 and 1906 scenario earthquakes; and (b) analytical modelling of tsunami waveforms for different

  19. Experiment MA-028 crystal growth. [low gravity manufacturing of single crystals from Apollo/Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    A crystal growth experiment is reported on orbital space flights. The experiment was performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The Crystal Growth Experiment assessed a novel process for growing single crystals of insoluble substances by allowing two or more reactant solutions to diffuse toward each other through a region of pure solvent in zero gravity. The experiment was entirely successful and yielded crystals of about the expected size, quality, and number.

  20. Interactive Design Environment: Tools for Facilitating Communication and Collaboration Among Universities on Projects Related to a Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    The HEDS-UP program is comprised of student groups from many different universities across the United States working independently on various aspects of the grand objective - a manned mission to Mars. The inherent value of the program is in the nature of the students working in it. Students offer a different perspective on an existing project. Their contribution is in bringing the off the wall ideas to the table, among others. Students are unbounded by tradition and precedents in methodology. This enables them to approach the problem from a unique angle. They have the potential to bring fresh ideas and new dimensions to the overall project, thus contributing something original rather than mimicking existing projects. With proper facilitation the HEDS-UP program can become an evolutionary dynamic im environment in which ideas are proposed and tested under pressure and those with sufficient merit survive. Moreover, the incredibly cheap price of student labor gives the HEDS-UP program enormous potential to provide a substantial and lasting contribution to the Mars mission. The potential value of the projects completed by the HEDS-UP universities is limited by the geographical and academic separation of the universities, the short term nature of the projects, and insufficient input from NASA. If communication exists between the universities at all, it is minimal and limited to the conference, The projects are limited by the school term and the turn over rate of the participants is exceedingly high with an influx of new students each semester. This means that much of the work from previous semesters is lost as it is improperly passed on, incompletely understood, and consequently disregarded. There is no consistent method employed across the universities for storing the information and making it accessible to others in the field. Moreover the projects suffer from a dislocation from NASA itself. The insufficient feedback and inadequate resources for the projects limit

  1. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  2. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  3. Environmental projects. Volume 15: Environmental assessment: Proposed 1-megawatt radar transmitter at the Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 64.5 km (40 mi) north of Barstow, California. and about 258 km (160 mi) northeast of Pasadena, California, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's larger and more sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC support the operation of six parabolic dish antennas located at five separate sites called Deep Space Stations (DSS's). Four sites, named Echo, Mars, Uranus, and Apollo, are operational for space missions, while the remaining Venus Site is devoted to research and development activities. The Mars Site at the GDSCC contains two antennas: the Uranus antenna (DSS 15, 34 m) and the Mars antenna (DSS 14, 70 m). This present volume deals solely with the DSS-14 Mars antenna. The Mars antenna not only can act as a sensitive receiver to detect signals from spacecraft, but it also can be used in radar astronomy as a powerful transmitter to send out signals to probe the solar system. At present, the Mars antenna operates as a continuous-wave microwave system at a frequency of 8.51 GHz at a power level of 0.5 MW. JPL has plans to upgrade the Mars antenna to a power level of 1 MW. Because of the anticipated increase in the ambient levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR), JPL retained Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL), Richland, Washington, to conduct an environmental assessment with respect to this increased RFR. This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the BPNL report titled Environmental Assessment of the Goldstone Solar System Radar, which was submitted to JPL in Nov. 1991. This BPNL report concluded that the operation of the upgraded Mars antenna at the

  4. Mars Micro-Meteorology Station Electronic Design, Assembly and Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twiggs, Robert J.; Merrihew, Seven; Engberg, Brian; Hicks, Michael; Tillier, Clemens

    1996-01-01

    The Micro-Met mission is a micro-meteorological experiment for Mars designed to take globally distributed pressure measurements for at least one martian year. A series of 16 landers equally spaced over the planet's surface will take pressure and temperature data and relay it to investigators on Earth. Measurements will be logged once every hour and transmitted to an orbiter once every thirty days using Mars Balloon Relay protocol. Micro-Met data will aid tremendously in the development and refinement of a global model of Martian weather.

  5. Environmental projects. Volume 15: Environmental assessment: Proposed 1-megawatt radar transmitter at the Mars site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-10-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 64.5 km (40 mi) north of Barstow, California. and about 258 km (160 mi) northeast of Pasadena, California, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's larger and more sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC support the operation of six parabolic dish antennas located at five separate sites called Deep Space Stations (DSS's). Four sites, named Echo, Mars, Uranus, and Apollo, are operational for space missions, while the remaining Venus Site is devoted to research and development activities. The Mars Site at the GDSCC contains two antennas: the Uranus antenna (DSS 15, 34 m) and the Mars antenna (DSS 14, 70 m). This present volume deals solely with the DSS-14 Mars antenna. The Mars antenna not only can act as a sensitive receiver to detect signals from spacecraft, but it also can be used in radar astronomy as a powerful transmitter to send out signals to probe the solar system. At present, the Mars antenna operates as a continuous-wave microwave system at a frequency of 8.51 GHz at a power level of 0.5 MW. JPL has plans to upgrade the Mars antenna to a power level of 1 MW. Because of the anticipated increase in the ambient levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR), JPL retained Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL), Richland, Washington, to conduct an environmental assessment with respect to this increased RFR. This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the BPNL report titled Environmental Assessment of the Goldstone Solar System Radar, which was submitted to JPL in Nov. 1991. This BPNL report concluded that the operation of the upgraded Mars antenna at the

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) An Extraordinary Magnetic Field Map of Mars; 2) Mapping Weak Crustal Magnetic Fields on Mars with Electron Reflectometry; 3) Analytic Signal in the Interpretation of Mars Southern Highlands Magnetic Field; 4) Modeling of Major Martian Magnetic Anomalies: Further Evidence for Polar Reorientations During the Noachian; 5) An Improved Model of the Crustal Structure of Mars; 6) Geologic Evolution of the Martian Dichotomy and Plains Magnetization in the Ismenius Area of Mars; 7) Relaxation of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary in the Ismenius Region; 8) Localized Tharsis Loading on Mars: Testing the Membrane Surface Hypothesis; 9) Thermal Stresses and Tharsis Loading: Implications for Wrinkle Ridge Formation on Mars; 10) What Can be Learned about the Martian Lithosphere from Gravity and Topography Data? 11) A Gravity Analysis of the Subsurface Structure of the Utopia Impact Basin; 12) Mechanics of Utopia Basin on Mars; 13) Burying the 'Buried Channels' on Mars: An Alternative Explanation.

  7. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  8. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  9. Chapter 3: Circum-Arctic mapping project: New magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaina, C.; Werner, S.C.; Saltus, R.; Maus, S.; Aaro, S.; Damaske, D.; Forsberg, R.; Glebovsky, V.; Johnson, K.; Jonberger, J.; Koren, T.; Korhonen, J.; Litvinova, T.; Oakey, G.; Olesen, O.; Petrov, O.; Pilkington, M.; Rasmussen, T.; Schreckenberger, B.; Smelror, M.

    2011-01-01

    New Circum-Arctic maps of magnetic and gravity anomalies have been produced by merging regional gridded data. Satellite magnetic and gravity data were used for quality control of the long wavelengths of the new compilations. The new Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic, gravity and some of their derivatives have been analyzed together with other freely available regional and global data and models in order to provide a consistent view of the tectonically complex Arctic basins and surrounding continents. Sharp, linear contrasts between deeply buried basement blocks with different magnetic properties and densities that can be identified on these maps can be used, together with other geological and geophysical information, to refine the tectonic boundaries of the Arctic domain. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  10. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  11. Seismic and tsunami hazard investigation in Valparaiso in the framework of the project "MAR VASTO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, F.; Razafindrakoto, H.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project ("Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso"), completed in 2008 and funded by BID/IDB (Banco InterAmericano de Desarrollo/ InterAmerican Development Bank), managed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), with the participation of Italian and Chilean partners and the support of local stakeholders, the most important hazards have been investigated carried out. Valparaíso represents a distinctive case of growth, inside a remarkable landscape, of an important Pacific Ocean seaport (over the 19th and 20th centuries), up to reaching a strategic importance in shipping trade, declined after the Panama Canal opening (1914). Thus, Valparaíso tells the never-ending story of a tight interaction between society and environment, stratifying different urban and architectonic layers, sometimes struck by disasters and always in danger. Certainly, the city has been subjected to various natural hazards (seismic events, but also tsunamis, landslides, etc.) and anthropic calamities (mainly wild and human-induced fires). These features make Valparaíso a paradigmatic study case about hazard mitigation, and risk factors must be very well evaluated during the restoration phases to be planned in the future. Seismic Hazrad. The major goal is to provide a dataset of synthetic time series representative of the potential ground motion at the bedrock of Valparaiso, especially at selected sites (e.g. the three important churches located in the Valparaiso urban area: La Matriz, San Francisco, Las Hermanitas de la Providencia), for different scenarios; the characteristics of the calculated signals (e.g. amplitude, frequency content and duration of shaking) are determined by the earthquake source process and the wave propagation effects of the path between the source and the site. The synthetic signals, to be used as seismic input in a subsequent engineering analysis, have been produced at a very low

  12. Search for past/present life on Mars, studies of organics biomarkers: the MOMIE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, S.; Coll, C.; Szopa, S.; Raulin, R.

    The life on Mars remains an open question because lack of obvious proof of its past apparition and its current presence We still dispose insufficient data because only the Viking landers in the Seventies and meteorite ALH84001 discovered in the Antarctic were likely to prove a Martian biological activity existence In these two cases the answers were puzzling the results of the experiments of the Viking landers could as well to be explained by the presence of life forms that by abiotic processes in addition no organic molecules was detected Many biomarkers potentially Martians were present on ALH84001 but they had also an abiotic explanation moreover nothing did not exclude a contamination by terrestrial organisms However recent data of Mars Express orbiter and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity seem show different proofs of a past environment with liquid water and mild temperatures favorable for life Among the biomarkers we seek the organic molecules are primordial because they are necessary to the origin of life as we know it However these molecules except methane recently discovered have never been detected on Mars by the in situ analyzes of the Viking landers A key question is to know if organic molecules are indeed present in which concentration and under which form Indeed even if endogenous organic molecules were never synthesized those brought by exogenous sources like interplanetary dust should be present in detectable amount Moreover the track of the endogenous organic molecules should not be dropped out because these molecules are able to

  13. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  14. Development of the lunar gravity field model GrazLGM300b in the framework of project GRAZIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Sandro; Klinger, Beate; Wirnsberger, Harald; Baur, Oliver; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The objective of project GRAZIL is to compile a high-accurate gravity field model of the Moon based on measurements provided by the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. In order to reach this goal we perform dynamic precise orbit determination from radio science observations (Doppler range-rates) in combination with the analysis of inter-satellite ranging observations. We present an updated version of the lunar gravity field models GrazLGM200a (Klinger et al. 2014; doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2013.12.001) and GrazLGM300a (prepared for the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting) derived from inter-satellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) observations collected by GRAIL during the primary mission phase (March 1 to May 29, 2012). We exploit the KBR data by an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs. The basic idea behind this technique is to reformulate Newton's equation of motion as a boundary value problem. In this contribution particular attention is paid to processing details associated with the error structure of the observations and the incorporation of non-gravitational accelerations (with emphasis on solar radiation pressure, lunar albedo and self-shadowing). We validate our results against recent GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.

  15. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (3) Absolute gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schiel, A.

    2006-12-01

    The southeast Alaska is undergoing a rapid ice-melting and land uplift due to the effect of global warming in the last three hundred years. The corresponding crustal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound has been clearly detected by modern geodetic techniques, e.g., GPS and tidal gauge measurements (Larsen et al., 2004; Sato et al., 2005). The geodetic deformation provides us useful information in evaluating ice-melting rate, effect of global warming, and even the viscosity beneath the crust. For this purpose, however, integrated geodetic observation, especially including gravity measurement, is considered very important (Miura et al., a separate presentation at the same AGU conference; Wahr et al., 1995). Therefore, to detect the crutal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound and to study the viscoelastic structure of the earth in the southeast Alaska, a joint team of Japanese and U.S. researchers has begun a three year project of GPS, earth tide, and absolute gravity measurements. In this presentation, results of the absolute gravity observation carried out between June 3 and June 18, 2006 are reported. During the 2006 observation campaign, a network of absolute gravity was for the first time established which is composed of five sites about 100 km around of Juneau: Bartlett Cove at Gustavus, Russell Island, Hains Fairground at Hains, UAS Egan Library at Juneau and Mendenhall Glacier Visitors Center at Juneau, Alaska. Absolute gravity data were acquired at the five sites using a Micro-LaCoste absolute gravimeter, serial number 111. A typical occupation recorded a set of 100 single measurements every half hour. At each site data were collected over a 48~62 hour period. Due to the bad ocean model in this area, ocean loading correction seems not efficient because large tidal residuals remain in the observed results. To carry out an accurate tidal correction, on site tidal observation was also performed. Detail discussions on tidal observation and

  16. Mars Observer Lecture: Mars Orbit Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R. (Personal Name)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a lecture by Suzanne R. Dodd, the Mission Planning Team Chief for the Mars Observer Project. Ms Dodd begins with a brief overview of the mission and the timeline from the launch to orbital insertion. Ms Dodd then reviews slides showing the trajectory of the spacecraft on its trip to Mars. Slides of the spacecraft being constructed are also shown. She then discusses the Mars orbit insertion and the events that will occur to move the spacecraft from the capture orbit into a mapping orbit. During the trip to Mars, scientists at JPL had devised a new strategy, called Power In that would allow for an earlier insertion into the mapping orbit. The talk summarizes this strategy, showing on a slide the planned transition orbits. There are shots of the Martian moon, Phobos, taken from the Viking spacecraft, as Ms Dodd explains that the trajectory will allow the orbiter to make new observations of that moon. She also explains the required steps to prepare for mapping after the spacecraft has achieved the mapping orbit around Mars. The lecture ends with a picture of Mars from the Observer on its approach to the planet.

  17. Mars @ ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  18. Gravity and crustal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar gravitational properties were analyzed along with the development of flat moon and curved moon computer models. Gravity anomalies and mascons were given particular attention. Geophysical and geological considerations were included, and comparisons were made between the gravitional fields of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon.

  19. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  20. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (4) Gravity tide observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Miura, S.; Sun, W.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.; Freymueller, J. T.; Heavner, M.

    2006-12-01

    The southeastern Alaska shows a large uplift rate as 30 mm/yr at most, which is considered to be closely related to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) including two effects of the past and present-day ice melting (Larsen et al., 2004). So, this area is important to improve our knowledge of the viscoelastic property of the earth and to consider the global changes. Combing the displacement and gravity observations is useful to constrain the model computation results for GIA (Sato et al., 2006). In order to progress the previous work by the group of Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), an observation project by Japan and USA groups was started in 2005 (Miura et al., this meeting). Under this project, June 2006, the continuous GPS measurements started (M. Kufman et al., this meeting) and the absolute gravity (AG) measurements were conducted (W. Sun et al., this meeting). Precise correction for the effect of ocean tide loading is one of the key to increase the observation accuracy of the GPS and gravity observations, especially for the AG measurement. Thanks for the satellite sea surface altimeters such as TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1, the accuracy of global ocean tide models based on these data has been much improved, and its accuracy is estimated at a level better than 1.3 cm as a RMS error of the vector differences of the 8 main tidal waves (Matsumoto et al., 2006). However, on the other hand, it is known that the southeastern Alaska is a place that shows a large discrepancy among the proposed global ocean tide models mainly due to a complex topography and bathymetry of the fjord area. In order to improve the accuracy of the ocean tide correction, we started the gravity tide observation at Juneau from June 2006. Two kinds of gravimeters are used for the observation. Sampling interval of the data is at every 1 min. We analyzed the 1 month data from the beginning of the observation and compared the tidal analysis results with the model tide including both effects of the

  1. Mariner Mars 1971 project. Volume 3: Mission operations system implementation and standard mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 mission which was another step in the continuing program of planetary exploration in search of evidence of exobiological activity, information on the origin and evolution of the solar system, and basic science data related to the study of planetary physics, geology, planetology, and cosmology is reported. The mission plan was designed for two spacecraft, each performing a separate but complementary mission. However, a single mission plan was actually used for Mariner 9 because of failure of the launch vehicle for the first spacecraft. The implementation is described, of the Mission Operations System, including organization, training, and data processing development and operations, and Mariner 9 spacecraft cruise and orbital operations through completion of the standard mission from launch to solar occultation in April 1972 are discussed.

  2. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  3. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.

  4. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission. [project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

  5. Crustal Structure across Southern Islas Marías (Nayarit, Mexico) from Wide-Angle Data (TSUJAL Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, D.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Danobeitia, J.; Garcia Millan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Pacific Margin is an interesting geological and tectonic study region due to the subduction processes that involve Rivera plate, North American plates and Jalisco Block. This region has been recently studied by the TSUJAL geophysical experiment during 2014. The main goal of this project is to achieve a better knowledge about this active margin and the seismic and tsunamigenic potential structural sources. To carry out this objective a set of multibeam bathymetric, potential fields, high resolution seismic, MCS and WAS data were obtained. In the frame of this study, we present the most significant results of wide angle seismic profile RTSIM04 carried out across the southern region of Islas Marías perpendicular to the coast towards Tepic in Nayarit with 220 km of length and SW-NE orientated. This profile is made of by a network of 4 OBS and 30 land seismic stations, deployed specially for this project, which registered the air gun shots provided by RRS James Cook every 120 s. Data obtained after processing and interpretation characterize seismically the contact zone between Rivera and North American plates from 30 to 60 km of model distance. Moreover, a cortical thickening from 9 to 20 km is observed towards to the coast. In the upper mantle, P-wave velocities of 7.9-8.4 km/s up to maximum depth of 50 km have been determined.

  6. The 1992-1993 advanced design program. Part 1: The Mars methane engine project. Part 2: The Mars oxygen processor new furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Stephen; Hoover, Scott; Lawrence, Lori; Paparistodemou, Christos; Taylor, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Three constituents of the Martian atmosphere, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, can be used for internal combustion in engines utilized for future space exploration on Mars. These three gases, considered as the test case in this research, will be examined to determine required flow rates needed for combustion and optimization of engine performance. Results of the test case are examined in relation to a base case of methane and air for comparative purposes. Testing of exhaust temperatures, cylinder pressure, and exhaust gas analysis were performed for the base case and test case. Also described is a study utilizing a zirconia cell to convert carbon dioxide into usable oxygen to help support future Mars missions.

  7. Mars Without Borders: Creating a Global Community with the HiTranslate Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoza, A.

    2013-12-01

    The HiTranslate Project by HiRISE (MRO) is the most unique outreach program for an active NASA mission. Utilizing social media, we have built up a network of volunteers across the world to translate captioned images into various languages to reach a global audience with limited-to-no English skills. The result is a volunteer group of over 150 people making over 1,000 translated HiRISE captions and counting. The HiTranslate Project has also created specific media channels for each of these audiences, including other languages not traditionally represented in American-led science outreach efforts, like Icelandic, Greek, Arabic and Hebrew. This session will outline results of the Project and how it is a model for other science-based outreach efforts that can build up a global audience and communicate more effectively with the general public to grow interest in science.

  8. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  9. Mission to Mars: A Collaborative Project Infusing Technology and Telecommunications into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Dorothy Valcarcel; Stewart, Jaci

    1997-01-01

    Describes a collaborative project involving third and fifth graders that focused on integrating computer technology into the earth science curriculum. Electronic research, telecommunications, science software, and an interdisciplinary approach are discussed; and a list of classroom resources and three worksheets are included. (LRW)

  10. Space agriculture in micro- and hypo-gravity: A comparative study of soil hydraulics and biogeochemistry in a cropping unit on Earth, Mars, the Moon and the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Federico; Pallud, Céline

    2010-12-01

    Increasing interest is developing towards soil-based agriculture as a long-term bioregenerative life support during space and planetary explorations. Contrary to hydroponics and aeroponics, soil-based cropping would offer an effective approach to sustain food and oxygen production, decompose organic wastes, sequester carbon dioxide, and filter water. However, the hydraulics and biogeochemical functioning of soil systems exposed to gravities lower than the Earth's are still unknown. Since gravity is crucial in driving water flow, hypogravity will affect nutrient and oxygen transport in the liquid and gaseous phases, and could lead to suffocation of microorganisms and roots, and emissions of toxic gases. A highly mechanistic model coupling soil hydraulics and nutrient biogeochemistry previously tested on soils on Earth ( g=9.806 m s -2) is used to highlight the effects of gravity on the functioning of cropping units on Mars (0.38 g), the Moon (0.16 g), and in the international space station (ISS, nearly 0 g). For each scenario, we have compared the net leaching of water, the leaching of NH 3, NH 4+, NO 2- and NO 3- solutes, the emissions of NH 3, CO 2, N 2O, NO and N 2 gases, the concentrations profiles of O 2, CO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil, the pH, and the dynamics of various microbial functional groups within the root zone against the same control variables in the soil under terrestrial gravity. The response of the soil ecodynamics was relatively linear; gravitational accelerations lower than the Earth's resulted in 90-100% lower water leaching rates, 95-100% lower nutrient leaching rates, and lower emissions of NH 3 and NO gases (80-95% and 30-40%, respectively). Lower N loss through leaching resulted in 60-100% higher concentration of the microbial biomass, but did not alter the vertical stratification of the microbial functional groups with respect to the stratification on Earth. However, the higher biomass concentration produced higher

  11. Qualification Testing of Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) Sensors for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project under Extreme Temperatures to Assess Reliability and to Enhance Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Maki, Justin N.; Cucullu, Gordon C.

    2008-01-01

    Package Qualification and Verification (PQV) of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect technologies and various other types of qualification hardware for the Mars Exploration Rover/Mars Science Laboratory flight projects has been performed to enhance the mission assurance. The qualification of hardware (Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer, PRT) under extreme cold temperatures has been performed with reference to various project requirements. The flight-like packages, sensors, and subassemblies have been selected for the study to survive three times (3x) the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations and mission phases. Qualification has been performed by subjecting above flight-like qual hardware to the environmental temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures or degradation in electrical performance due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. Experiments of flight like hardware qualification test results have been described in this paper.

  12. Exploration technology surface systems: Artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, Murray

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: technical issues; current, state-of-the-art, and future programs; and Mars direct tether application for artificial gravity.

  13. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.a; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project develops and field tests a long-range, solarpowered, automated rover platform (Zo ) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is barely detectable over most of the driest desert on Earth. Its unique geological, climatic, and biological evolution have created a unique training site for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars.

  14. Mars Observer: Mission toward a basic understanding of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission will provide a spacecraft platform about Mars from which the entire Martian surface and atmosphere will be observed and mapped by remote sensing instruments for at least 1 Martian year. The scientific objectives for the Mission emphasize qualitative and quantitative determination of the elemental and mineralogical composition of the surface; measurement of the global surface topography, gravity field, and magnetic field; and the development of a synoptic data base of climatological conditions. The Mission will provide basic global understanding of Mars as it exists today and will provide a framework for understanding its past.

  15. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo

  16. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Arslan, Safa; Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 109 sites on October 2013, September 2014 and 2015. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness, and Magnetization Models; 2) The Early Thermal and Magnetic State of Terra Cimmeria, Southern Highlands of Mars; 3) Compatible Vector Components of the Magnetic Field of the Martian Crust; 4) Vertical Extrapolation of Mars Magnetic Potentials; 5) Rock Magnetic Fields Shield the Surface of Mars from Harmful Radiation; 6) Loading-induced Stresses near the Martian Hemispheric Dichotomy Boundary; 7) Growth of the Hemispheric Dichotomy and the Cessation of Plate Tectonics on Mars; 8) A Look at the Interior of Mars; 9) Uncertainties on Mars Interior Parameters Deduced from Orientation Parameters Using Different Radio-Links: Analytical Simulations; 10) Refinement of Phobos Ephemeris Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry Radiometry.

  18. RIO Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodriquez, N.; Davila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry and mineralogy on Mars surface characterized by the MER Opportunity Rover suggest that early Mars hosted acidic environments in the Meridiani Planum region [1, 2]. Such extreme paleoenvironments have been suggested to be a regional expression of the global Mars geological cycle that induced acidic conditions by sulfur complexation and iron buffering of aqueous solutions [3]. Under these assumptions, underground reservoirs of acidic brines and, thereby, putative acidic cryptobiospheres, may be expected. The MARTE project [4, 5] has performed a drilling campaign to search for acidic and anaerobic biospheres in R o Tinto basement [6] that may be analogs of these hypothetical communities occurring in cryptic habitats of Mars. This Rio Tinto geological region is characterized by the occurrence of huge metallic deposits of iron sulfides [7]. Late intensive diagenesis of rocks driven by a compressive regimen [8] largely reduced the porosity of rocks and induced a cortical thickening through thrusting and inverse faulting and folding. Such structures play an essential role in transporting and storing water underground as any other aquifers do in the Earth. Once the underground water reservoirs of the Ro Tinto basement contact the hydrothermal pyrite deposits, acidic brines are produced by the release of sulfates and iron through the oxidation of sulfides [9].

  19. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  20. Mars Lander/Rover vehicle development: An advanced space design project for USRA and NASA/OAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A design is proposed for a Mars Lander/Rover (MLR) for use in gathering needed environmental and surface information. The design focus will be upon a Mars Lander/Rover that will leave an orbit around Mars, reenter and soft land on the Martian surface, and move sequentially to widely scattered locations to sample, measure, and analyze the Martian environmental and surface conditions. Primary goals will be payload mass and size definition, characterization of the Martian atmosphere, selection of sampling locations, identification of alternative design concepts, selection of a preferred design, team organization, and preparation for the detailed design phase.

  1. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  2. Constructing an Educational Mars Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Working in the Educational Programs Office, my task this summer is to model a 3D habitat that will be part of a future Mars base. With the President's charge to further explore mars by way of robotic-led and human-led missions, there has been a surge in the activity regarding the "red planet". Since all present designs are merely conjecture, I have some creative freedom in deciding what the habitat will look like. To get ideas for what a Mars habitat might be like, I looked at several references including websites and NASA documents. One of these was a NASA Technical Memorandum about Space Transportation Systems that I looked at to get insight on spaceship design. Information about the planet's environment, such as the gravity and the weather, is useful as well when designing the structure. The main software that I am using is Lightwave 3D and Modeler 7.5 that comes along with it. Lightwave is very complex in that it lets you model, surface, and animate so there was a lot to learn. To learn the software I watched a series of instructional videos, looked at online tutorials, and referenced several books. Modeling is like shaping clay with a computer. Every item modeled is made of smaller shapes called polygons. For example, each side of a box would be a different polygon. Modelers must be careful to design with users' systems in mind. Having a model made with too many polygons can slow down a walk-through, but it usually improves the small details on a model. Getting speed and quality proved tricky. An important thing for me to remember when modeling the habitat was to save space. Also, I must consider that technology in the future will be much different than now, so I must be especially creative. My project will be used in an educational walkthough simulation in which users can interact with the environment. I worked closely with intern Stephen Henke who built a Mars Rover, terrain and programmed code for the simulation. This summer's project will help me with

  3. The conquest of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L. W.

    1984-08-01

    Concepts for a manned mission to Mars have been examined as early as 1962. In 1969, NASA studies showed Apollo moon technology to be adequate for a 600-day flight with a proposed landing for 1982. However, financial drain, shifting economic priorities and a downgrading of the 'space race' in the late 1960s contributed to the downfall of the project. The successful Mariner and Viking missions of the 1970s have enhanced understanding of the planet, and in the wake of these flights, numerous studies have been made for future unmanned missions. Some suggested projects include a Mars Orbiter, sensor outposts, a mobile lander, A Mars' Air Force', and a return sample mission. Following a full unmanned reconnaissance of the planet, advances in space propulsion, refuelling and large scale construction, a manned voyage to Mars could be achieved.

  4. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    For the first part of this briefing, see NONP-NASA-VT-2000081556. Marvin Traxler continues his discussion on signal tracking from the Mars Observer. Julie Webster, Lead Engineer, Telecommunications Subsystem, is introduced. She explains how signals coming back from Mars are detected. Dr. Pasquale Esposito talks about flyby orbits and capture orbits. He says that frequencies coming from the spacecraft can determine if the spacecraft has flown by Mars, or if a capture orbit has occurred. Charles Whetsel, System Engineer Spacecraft Team, presents a computer program. He shows where the signal will appear on the computer from the Spacecraft. Suzanne Dodd presents orbit insertion geometry. Dr. Arden Albee, Project Scientist Mars Observer Project, Cal Tech tech, says that Mars is studied to get more data to confirm their hypotheses derived from previous Mars Missions such as the Viking Mars Program and the Mariner Program. Dr. Albee also describes instrumentation on the Mars Observer such as the Ultra Stable Oscillator, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Magnetometer. The camera on the spacecraft is similar to a fax machine because it scans one line at a time as the spacecraft orbits Mars. Dr. Michael Malin, Principle Investigator Mars Observer Camera, Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., describe this process.

  5. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-12-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  6. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  7. Effects of Low Gravity on Superalloy Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Parr, R. A.; Curreri, P. A.; Alter, Wendy

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments on directional solidification on MAR-M246(Hf) superalloy in low gravity. Determines effects of reduction in gravity on growth of dendrites and on resultant interdendritic segregation of various constituents, particularly of additive hafnium. Interdendritic spacings and carbide contents increase.

  8. Variable artificial gravity facility for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The project selected by the U.S. Naval Academy and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the 1986-87 NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program was a variable artificial gravity facility, an adjunct to the Space Station. Recently, Goddard Space Flight Center had proposed that a formal study be conducted by NASA to investigate the question of whether an artificial gravity capability should be added to the Space Station. Therefore, not only does this project fit the goals of the Design Program, but it was a timely and interesting project. The variable artificial gravity was generated by a spinning module, and became an adjunct to the Space Station. It was planned that as much of the Space Station technology as possible be incorporated into the design. The components of the system were inserted into orbit. The specific design parameters were essentially open. The primary design objectives were: (1) The highest gravity level sufficient to prevent bone calcium loss in astronauts. (2) The cost of the Space Station should not be increased by more than 20 percent. (3) The number of launches to orbit the Space Station should not be increased by more than 30 percent. A secondary design objective was to investigate whether this design was suitable for a long duration space flight, such as a mission to Mars, or if the design is easily and inexpensively modified for such a mission.

  9. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  10. Mars - Surface Temperature South Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  12. Search for organic molecules at the Mars surface: The “Martian Organic Material Irradiation and Evolution” (MOMIE) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalport, F.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Raulin, F.

    2008-12-01

    The life on Mars remains an open question because of the lack of proof of its past emergence and its current presence. The only indices of a potential Martian life were provided by the Viking Landers, and the study of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 discovered in the Antarctic. In the two case, the results of experiments could be explained either by the presence of life forms or by abiotic processes. The recent data of Mars Express orbiter and Mars Exploration Rovers show different proofs of a past environment favourable for life. Among the targets we seek, the organic molecules are primordial because they are necessary to the origin of life. A key question is to know if they are present, in which concentration and under which form. Within the framework of a search for organic, we are developing an experimental setup simulating as close as possible the environmental conditions of Mars surface in order to determine how organic species evolve. We present here the first step of the development of this experiment which focuses on the study of the impact of the solar UV radiations reaching the Mars surface on glycine. First results show that glycine does not resist if directly exposed to UV radiations.

  13. Temporal aliasing effects on future gravity satellite missions and their assessment – Lessons from the ESA-SC4MGV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland; Visser, Pieter; Weigelt, Matthias; Iran-Pour, Siavash; Murböck, Michael; Gruber, Thomas; Texeira da Encarnação, Joao; Sneeuw, Nico; Tonetti, Stefania; Christian, Siemes; van den IJssel, Jose; Cornara, Stefania; van Dam, Tonie; Cesare, Stefano; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Temporal aliasing is expected to add up to the error budget of future gravity satellite missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type in such a way, that it could act as a constraining factor on their way to achieve the expected accuracy that new generation sensors could provide. Within the scope of the ESA-SC4MGV project, we investigate the impact of temporal aliasing on future gravity satellite missions as well as methods for its minimization. This is achieved on the one hand by optimizing the choice for the orbital configuration, and on the other by optimizing the gravity field retrieval techniques accordingly. In this study we investigate the contribution of all error sources to the error budget and prove that temporal aliasing errors are one of the biggest contributors. We explore the advantages of using two in-line pairs in reducing temporal aliasing errors. For this purpose, the optimized orbit constellation consisting of two in-line pairs of a Bender type configuration is used as our "baseline" scenario. Using the "baseline" scenario, we investigate gravity field processing methods that lead in a reduction of the temporal aliasing errors. As a first step we apply the so-called "Wiese" approach, which suggests co-estimating low resolution gravity fields at short time intervals in order to directly estimate the short-term signals that alias into the combined solution. We demonstrate the ability of the "Wiese" approach to minimize temporal aliasing errors for our "baseline" scenario. Moreover, we fine-tune the "Wiese" parameterization options such as the duration and the resolution of the gravity field solutions estimated at high frequency, in order to maximize the effectiveness of the method at reducing the temporal aliasing effects with respect to our chosen Bender constellation. As a step forward, we experiment with alternative parameterizations that combine low and medium spatial resolution gravity fields at different time intervals

  14. Lunar gravity - A harmonic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon gravity anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to be strong localized negative anomalies located in broad regions of positive gravity which correspond closely to the highlands. The rms pressure levels calculated from equivalent-surface height variations show that the moon and earth support nearly equal pressures, whereas Mars is appreciably stronger. The moon appears to support larger loads than earth owing to its weaker central gravity field and perhaps a colder upper lithosphere. Significant differences between the low-degree gravity and topography spectra indicate that the longer-wavelength topographic features are isostatically compensated.

  15. Multicomponent seismic reservoir characterization of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) heavy oil project, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiltz, Kelsey Kristine

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an in situ heavy oil recovery method involving the injection of steam in horizontal wells. Time-lapse seismic analysis over a SAGD project in the Athabasca oil sands deposit of Alberta reveals that the SAGD steam chamber has not developed uniformly. Core data confirm the presence of low permeability shale bodies within the reservoir. These shales can act as barriers and baffles to steam and limit production by prohibiting steam from accessing the full extent of the reservoir. Seismic data can be used to identify these shale breaks prior to siting new SAGD well pairs in order to optimize field development. To identify shale breaks in the study area, three types of seismic inversion and a probabilistic neural network prediction were performed. The predictive value of each result was evaluated by comparing the position of interpreted shales with the boundaries of the steam chamber determined through time-lapse analysis. The P-impedance result from post-stack inversion did not contain enough detail to be able to predict the vertical boundaries of the steam chamber but did show some predictive value in a spatial sense. P-impedance from pre-stack inversion exhibited some meaningful correlations with the steam chamber but was misleading in many crucial areas, particularly the lower reservoir. Density estimated through the application of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) trained using both PP and PS attributes identified shales most accurately. The interpreted shales from this result exhibit a strong relationship with the boundaries of the steam chamber, leading to the conclusion that the PNN method can be used to make predictions about steam chamber growth. In this study, reservoir characterization incorporating multicomponent seismic data demonstrated a high predictive value and could be useful in evaluating future well placement.

  16. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  17. Mars - The relationship of robotic and human elements in the IAA International Exploration of Mars study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Duke, Michael B.

    1993-10-01

    The roles of human and robotic missions in Mars exploration are defined in the context of the short- and long-term Mars programs. In particular, it is noted that the currently implemented and planned missions to Mars can be regarded as robotic precursor missions to human exploration. Attention is given to factors that must be considered in formulating the rationale for human flights to Mars and future human Mars settlements and justifying costly projects.

  18. Mars - The relationship of robotic and human elements in the IAA International Exploration of Mars study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marov, Mikhail YA.; Duke, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    The roles of human and robotic missions in Mars exploration are defined in the context of the short- and long-term Mars programs. In particular, it is noted that the currently implemented and planned missions to Mars can be regarded as robotic precursor missions to human exploration. Attention is given to factors that must be considered in formulating the rationale for human flights to Mars and future human Mars settlements and justifying costly projects.

  19. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. Mars geologic mapping program: Review and highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David H.

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Geologic Mapping (MGM) Program was introduced by NASA in 1987 as a new initiative in the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program. The overall purpose of the program is to support research on topical science problems that address specific questions. Among the objectives of the project are: (1) to produce highly detailed geologic maps that will greatly increase the knowledge of the materials and processes that have contributed to the evolutionary history of Mars; (2) to define areas of special interest for possible future investigation by planned missions (Mars Observer, Mars Sample Return); and (3) to maintain the interest of the planetary community in the development of new concepts and the re-evaluation of Martian geology as new data in usable form become available. Some interesting highlights of the geologic mapping indicate that multiple flood episodes occurred at different times during the Hesperian Period in both Kasei and Maja Valles. Studies of small channels in the Memnonia, Mangala, and Tharsis regions show that fluvial events appear to have occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters occurred during the Amazonian Period at equatorial latitudes. Flood waters from Mangala Valles may have seeped into surficial materials with the subsequent development of numerous sapping channels and debris flows; this suggests that the ancient highland terrain consists of relatively unconsolidated materials. Multiple layers were observed for the first time in the ridged plains lava flows covering large areas of Lunae Planum; some wrinkle ridges in this area are associated with grabens and collapse volcanic units at Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae indicates that the units may have been emplaced by gravity-driven pyroclastic flows. Unlike the north polar layered deposits, those in the south polar region show no angular unconformities or evidence of faulting and folding. Water ice in the south polar layered deposits may be protected

  1. French Participation in Mars Sample Return (and MARS Exploration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counil, Jean-Louis

    2000-10-01

    This presentation focused on high level contribution to the first MARS Sample Return mission. It further discusses leadership of the European Netlander project, Payload Instruments on the ESA-mission MARS-Express, Contribution to US Micro-missions, Instruments on Landers (PALOMA, Ma-FLUX), and Co-Is.

  2. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  3. Near-Mars space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The prevalent attributes of near-Mars space are described: the ambient interplanetary environment, the ionosphere, the upper atmosphere, and more remote regions that are affected by the presence of Mars. The descriptions are based on existing Martian data and/or models constructed from measurements made near Venus. Specific attention is given to the features of solar wind interaction with magnetospheric and ionospheric obstacles. The high-altitude plasma and field environment, the energetic particle environment, the ionosphere environment, and the neutral upper atmosphere environment are described with extensive graphic information, based on existing measurements collected from nine Martian missions. The ionospheric obstacle is assumed to prevail as a mechanism for describing the scenario. Martian perturbation of solar wind is theorized to be of a relatively small order. A distinctive local energetic particle population of planetary origin is shown to result from the direct interaction of solar wind plasma. This phenomenon is considered evidence of the important scavenging of planetary elements from Mars. The absence of a planetary dipole field around Mars, like its low gravity and distance from the sun, is considered important in determining the environment of this earthlike laboratory.

  4. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) : the US 2009 Mars rover mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Tampari, Leslie; Steltzner, Adam; Umland, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission is the 2009 United States Mars Exploration Program rover mission. The MSL Project expects to complete its pre-Phase A definition activity this fiscal year (FY2003), investigations in mid-March 2004, launch in 2009, arrive at Mars in 2010 during Northern hemisphere summer and then complete a full 687 day Mars year of surface exploration. MSL will assess the potential for habitability (past and present) of a carefully selected landing region on Mars by exploring for the chemical building blocks of life, and seeking to understand quantitatively the chemical and physical environment with which these components have interacted over the geologic history of the planet. Thus, MSL will advance substantially our understanding of the history of Mars and potentially, its capacity to sustain life.

  6. The Mars Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A.

    2002-01-01

    Future Mars missions require new capabilities that currently are not available. The Mars Technology Program (MTP) is an integral part of the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). Its sole purpose is to assure that required technologies are developed in time to enable the baselined and future missions. The MTP is a NASA-wide technology development program managed by JPL. It is divided into a Focused Program and a Base Program. The Focused Program is tightly tied to the proposed Mars Program mission milestones. It involves time-critical deliverables that must be developed in time for infusion into the proposed Mars 2005, and, 2009 missions. In addition a technology demonstration mission by AFRL will test a LIDAR as part of a joint NASNAFRL experiment. This program bridges the gap between technology and projects by vertically integrating the technology work with pre-project development in a project-like environment with critical dates for technology infusion. A Base Technology Program attacks higher riskhigher payoff technologies not in the critical path of missions.

  7. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.

  8. Hurry along please, for the Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Why the hurry? The deadline is set in the form of a favourable launch opportunity just five years from now. The positions of Earth and Mars in their orbits at that time will mean that a spacecraft can reach Mars more quickly, carrying a greater weight of instruments, than from any other launch date in the next decade. A decision to proceed taken towards the end of 1998 would leave less than five years to create, test and launch a complex spacecraft and meet that deadline. Most judgements about Mars Express and its instruments have therefore to be made in advance if the engineers and scientists are to make sure that everything is ready for lift-off in June 2003. The brisk pace is also fitting for the prototype of a new class of Flexi (flexible) missions. Mars Express is the first of what should become a series of relatively inexpensive and quick projects introduced into ESA's space science, to seize special opportunities to broaden the programme. At about one-quarter of the cost of the major Cornerstone missions, which have long lead-times, the Flexi missions replace the previous class of Medium missions, in ESA's forward planning. Streamlined management procedures for the Flexi missions help to keep down the costs to ESA while placing more responsibility on the industrial contractors and the participating scientists. Space scientists advising ESA recognized the special opportunity for Mars Express after the failure of the Russian Mars 96 mission, in November 1996. It left a gap in the international programme for the exploration of Mars, and some of the key instruments which fell into the Pacific Ocean with Mars 96 had been devised by space scientists in ESA member states. The strong scientific interest in Mars within Europe, and the predicted advantage of the mid-2003 launch, led to the proposal to add Mars Express to ESA's programme. A distinctive role in exploring Mars The search for water is one of the main tasks foreseen for Mars Express. The discovery of

  9. Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.

    PubMed

    Wickman, L A; Luna, B

    1996-10-01

    Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments. PMID:9025816

  10. EXPLORING MARS WITH SOLAR-POWERED ROVERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project landed two solar-powered rovers, "Spirit" and "Opportunity," on the surface of Mars in January of 2003. This talk reviews the history of solar-powered missions to Mars and looks at the science mission of the MER rovers, focusing on the solar energy and array performance.

  11. MARS14 Collimation and Shielding Studies for the 3 GeV Ring of J-PARC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Noriaki; Mokhov, Nikolai; Yamamoto, Kazami; Irie, Yoshiro; Drozhdin, Alexander

    2003-12-01

    MARS14 Monte Carlo simulations were performed for collimation and shielding studies of the J-PARC 3 GeV ring. A 400 MeV proton beam loss distribution, calculated with the STRUCT code, was used as a source term. The module locations in the ring and the curved tunnel sections were described by the MAD-MARS beam line builder and a deep penetration calculation with good statistics was carried out using a 3-dimensional multi-layer technique. Prompt dose-rate distributions were calculated inside and outside the concrete and soil shield, and an effective shielding design was made. The residual dose rates for various beam line materials were also calculated to estimate the external-exposures during maintenance. In this paper, the calculation results are exemplified for the region from the injection through the collimator.

  12. [Effects of long-term isolation and anticipation of significant event on sleep: results of the project "Mars-520"].

    PubMed

    Zavalko, I M; Rasskazova, E I; Gordeev, S A; Palatov, S Iu; Kovrov, G V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study effect of long-term isolation on night sleep. The data were collected during international ground simulation of an interplanetary manned flight--"Mars-500". The polysomnographic recordings of six healthy men were performed before, four times during and after 520-days confinement. During the isolation sleep efficiency and delta-latency decreased, while sleep latency increased. Post-hoc analysis demonstrate significant differences between background and the last (1.5 months before the end of the experiment) measure during isolation. Frequency of nights with low sleep efficiency rose on the eve of the important for the crew events (simulation of Mars landing and the end of the confinement). Two weeks after the landing simulation, amount of the nights with a low sleep efficiency significantly decreased. Therefore, anticipation of significant event under condition of long-term isolation might result in sleep worsening in previously healthy men, predominantly difficulties getting to sleep. PMID:25509171

  13. Mars Lander/Rover vehicle development: An advanced space design project for USRA and NASA/OAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The results of the studies on one particular part of the Mars Lander/Rover (MLR) system are contained: the Balloon Rover. This component vehicle was selected for further research and design because of the lack of technical literature on this subject, as compared to surface rover technology. Landing site selection; balloon system development and deployment; optics and communications; and the payload power supply are described.

  14. Mars solar conjunction prediction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kulshrestha, Shivali; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2016-01-01

    During the Mars solar conjunction, telecommunication and tracking between the spacecraft and the Earth degrades significantly. The radio signal degradation depends on the angular separation between the Sun, Earth and probe (SEP), the signal frequency band and the solar activity. All radiometric tracking data types display increased noise and signatures for smaller SEP angles. Due to scintillation, telemetry frame errors increase significantly when solar elongation becomes small enough. This degradation in telemetry data return starts at solar elongation angles of around 5° at S-band, around 2° at X-band and about 1° at Ka-band. This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting Mars superior solar conjunction for any Mars orbiting spacecraft. The described model is simulated for the Mars Orbiter Mission which experienced Mars solar conjunction during May-July 2015. Such a model may be useful to flight projects and design engineers in the planning of Mars solar conjunction operational scenarios.

  15. Considerations of broadband seismic observation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Kurita, K.; Araya, A.; Hori, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Shiraishi, H.; Kakuma, H.; Ishihara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The surface of Mars has been extensively investigated and huge amount of data have been acquired such as high Res images. On the other hand interior of the Mars has been only weakly constrained by the mean density, the moment of inertia and gravity data. The size of core is poorly constrained and negatively correlated with the core density. High dissipation state is reported for the mantle by tidal interaction (Bills et al 2006), which is against a conventional view of small,cool planet. To clarify these points seismic observation on Mars is deadly needed. Japan Mars exploration project(MELOS) is now under discussion and it includes seismic measurements for determination the interior structure of Mars such as the core size, its state and attenuation in the mantle. Our plan is to install broadband high sensitivity seismometers,which are intended to detect continuous excitation of free oscillation by atmospheric turbulence. In this presentation we would like to show a basic design of broadband high sensitivity seismometer as well as environment protection designs. The basic parts are composed of a long period pendulum, laser interferometry and its control feedback electricity. As for the environment protection design,the following factors are important. 1. Surface condition. Martian surface is composed of stones gravels and sand. Drift is expected to occur due to the sudden change in ground slope. We need a device for self adjustment to keep the horizontal. 2. Temperature. Surface temperature at Martian equator is expected to vary between 190 to 300K. We have to consider changes in spring tension, thermal expansion of components and changes in circuit constants. 3. Surface wind. Inhomogeneously heated surface and topographic effect generate wind over 20m per second. We have to consider to lessen the effect of seismometer,even if we install the seismometer on the ground. 4. Radiation. Radiation that rains down on Mars is stronger because of thin atmosphere. Radiation

  16. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  17. Density of Mars' south polar layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Smith, David E; Smrekar, Suzanne E

    2007-09-21

    Both poles of Mars are hidden beneath caps of layered ice. We calculated the density of the south polar layered deposits by combining the gravity field obtained from initial results of radio tracking of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with existing surface topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and basal topography from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the Mars Express spacecraft. The results indicate a best-fit density of 1220 kilograms per cubic meter, which is consistent with water ice that has approximately 15% admixed dust. The results demonstrate that the deposits are probably composed of relatively clean water ice and also refine the martian surface-water inventory. PMID:17885129

  18. Transportation: Destination Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eoff, Bill

    1998-01-01

    As the agency space transportation lead center, Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting transportation assessments for future robotic and human Mars missions to identify critical technologies. Five human Mars options are currently under assessment with each option including all transportation requirements from Earth to Mars and return. The primary difference for each option is the propulsion source from Earth to Mars. In case any of the options require heavy launch capability that is not currently projected as available, an in-house study has been initiated to determine the most cost effective means of providing such launch capability. This assessment is only considering launch architectures that support the overall human Mars mission cost goal of $25B. The guidelines for the launch capability study included delivery of 80 metric ton (176 KLB) payloads, 25 feet diameter x 92 feet long, to 220 nmi orbits at 28.5 degrees. The launch vehicle concept of the study was designated "Magnum" to differentiate from prior heavy launch vehicle assessments. This assessment along with the assessment of options for all transportation phases of a Mars mission are on-going.

  19. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-11-27

    This report summarizes the results of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) design study conducted by Fairchild Space Company at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of the Mars Rover and Sample Return mission under investigation at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. Cross Reference CID #7135 dated 10/1989. There is a duplicate copy. This document is not relevant to the OSTI Library. Do not send.

  20. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  1. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-05-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  2. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  3. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  4. "The Moon Village and Journey to Mars enable each other"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    NASA has proposed the Journey to Mars, a multi-decade collaborative international effort to establish permanent manned operations on the Martian surface as well as in orbit, most likely on the Martian moons. NASA's proposed the Journey to Mars has come under politically motivated attack as illusory, as beyond NASA's capabilities and anticipated NASA budgets in the foreseeable future. [1]. Other concerns come from various communities of researchers concerned about securing sustaining funding for their largely robotic research missions. ESA's Director General Dietrich Woerner's proposed Moon Village faces challenges ESA member states concerned about sustaining funding for projects already underway or in planning. Both the Journey to Mars and Moon Village raise the question - who will or who can pay for it? The 2013 US Research Council study suggested potential benefits to a mission to Mars from activities on the Moon [2]. The NASA funded Flexible Lunar Architecture study came to similar conclusions using a different methodology [3]. A logistics analysis by an MIT team suggested the possibility of cost savings through use of lunar water for propellant to reach Mars [4]. The highly promising private-public financing approach has been examined for potential application to funding the costs of reaching Mars [5]. Insofar as the feasibility of utilization of lunar water has not been determined these conclusions are speculative. This study will examine the following alternative scenarios for establishing sustainable, manned operations on Mars and permanent manned operations on the Moon: A. NASA-led Journey to Mars without an ESA-led Moon Village B. ESA-led Moon Village without NASA-led Journey to Mars C. NASA-led Journey to Mars with an ESA-led Moon Village D. Shared Infrastructure scenario - NASA-led Journey to Mars with ESA-led Moon Village and with a potential JAXA-led space-based-solar power initiative E. Space Industrialization scenario - Shared Infrastructure scenario

  5. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  6. An artificial gravity research facility for life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Larry G.

    1988-01-01

    To obtain data for the design of a Mars mission vehicle configured for artificial gravity, NASA is currently studying the design of a variable-gravity research facility (VGRF) in a low earth orbit. The VGRF could be flown as a coorbiting payload requiring periodic servicing, resupply, and contingency intervention from the Space Station. The reasons why artificial gravity is needed for long-term missions are discussed; preliminary designs of a Mars vehicle with artificial gravity (at a weight cost of about 20 percent) are described; and particular attention is given to the VGRF design and mission profile.

  7. Correlation of Geophysical and Geological Datasets for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic and gravity data for Mars have been compared to images of the martian surface, with the aim of determining the sources of the observed pattern of magnetic anomalies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Partial gravity habitat study: With application to lunar base design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kio; Bell, Larry; Trotti, Guillermo; Neubek, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment were investigated and then applied to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable gravity research facilities, or a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include: (1) locomotion changes in less than normal Earth gravity; (2) facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter and geometry; and (3) volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a Lunar Base, it was necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress. Radiation protection issues were addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew, and finally, the overall site was studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning was not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario was used as an outline for the Lunar Base application, which was then modified to meet the project needs.

  9. Frost on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows bluish-white frost seen on the Martian surface near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). Frost is expected to continue to appear in images as fall, then winter approach Mars' northern plains.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Rippled Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    29 July 2004 Hundreds of large ripples or small dunes cover the landscape in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The winds responsible for these dunes blew from the north-northwest (top/upper left). This scene is located near 8.8oS, 252.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  11. Venus gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  12. [Functional indices of the participants of the satellite experiments of the "Mars-500" project in the north of Russia in different seasons of a year].

    PubMed

    Solonin, Iu G; Markov, A L; Boĭko, E R; Potolitsyna, N N; Parshukova, O I

    2014-01-01

    17 male northerners participating in the satellite experiments of the '"Mars-500" project passed through the morphological, physiometric, psychological and biochemical studies. The prenosological health indices in different seasons were calculated using the hardware-software complex "Ecosan-2007". Seasonal sinusoidal fluctuations were detected for the thermoregulation (body and skin temperature), lipids metabolism (cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels in the blood), circulation regulation under physical exercise (the increase of "double product" and its recovery time). In the majority of the participants the unfavorable deviations of body mass index, "power" and "life" indices, simple visual-motor reaction time, Kerdo vegetative index, physical health levels and regulatory systems activity index (in comparison with the mid-latitude standards) were found. PMID:25711109

  13. Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William; Vano, Andrew; Rutherford, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Advanced Space Design Program has developed a sample Mars exploration scenario. The purpose of the design project is to enhance NASA and university interaction, to provide fresh ideas to NASA, and to provide real world design problems to engineering students. The Mars Transportation System in this paper is designed to transport a crew of six astronauts to the Martian surface and return them to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) starting in the year 2016. The proposed vehicle features such advanced technologies as nuclear propulsion, nuclear power generation, and aerobraking. Three missions are planned. Orbital trajectories are of the conjunction class with an inbound Venus swingby providing a 60-day surface stay at Mars and an average total trip time of 520 days.

  14. Mars Umbilical Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houshangi, Nasser

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a autonomous umbilical mating for the mars umbilical technology demonstrator. The Mars Umbilical Technology Demonstrator (MUTD) shall provide electrical power and fiber optic data cable connections between two simulated mars vehicles. The Omnibot is used to provide the mobile base for the system. The mate to umbilical plate is mounted on a three axis Cartesian table, which is installed on the Omnibot mobile base. The Omnibot is controlled in a teleoperated mode. The operator using the vision system will guide the Omnibot to get close to the mate to plate. The information received from four ultrasonic sensors is used to identify the position of mate to plate and mate the umbilical plates autonomously. A successful experimentation verifies the approach.

  15. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  16. Active Response Gravity Offload and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, Larry K. (Inventor); Valle, Paul S. (Inventor); Bankieris, Derek R. (Inventor); Lieberman, Asher P. (Inventor); Redden, Lee (Inventor); Shy, Cecil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A variable gravity field simulator can be utilized to provide three dimensional simulations for simulated gravity fields selectively ranging from Moon, Mars, and micro-gravity environments and/or other selectable gravity fields. The gravity field simulator utilizes a horizontally moveable carriage with a cable extending from a hoist. The cable can be attached to a load which experiences the effects of the simulated gravity environment. The load can be a human being or robot that makes movements that induce swinging of the cable whereby a horizontal control system reduces swinging energy. A vertical control system uses a non-linear feedback filter to remove noise from a load sensor that is in the same frequency range as signals from the load sensor.

  17. Mars Rover RTG Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-10-01

    Presented at the 40th Congress of the IAF, Oct. 7-13, 1989 in Torremolinos, Malaga-Spain. The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for powering the Mars Rover vehicle, which is a critical element of the unmanned Mars Rover and Sample Return mission (MRSR). The RTG design study was conducted by Fairchild Space for the U.S. DOE in support of the JPL MRSR Project. The paper briefly describes a reference mission scenario, an illustrative Rover design and activity pattern on Mars, and its power system requirements and environmental constraints, including the RTG cooling requirements during transit to Mars. It summarizes the baseline RTG's mass breakdown, and presents a detailed description of its thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analysis. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments. It provides a basis for selecting the optimum strategy for meeting the Mars Rover design goals with minimal programmatic risk and cost. There is a duplicate copy and three copies in the file.

  18. Simulating "Mars on Earth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    By now, everyone who's heard of the Haughton-Mars Project knows that we travel to Devon Island to learn how people will live and work on Mars. But how do we learn about Mars operations from what happens in the Arctic? We must document our experience--traverses, life in the hab, instrument deployment, communications, and so on. Then we must analyze and formally model what happens. In short, while most scientists are studying the crater, other scientists must be studying the expedition itself. That's what I have done in the past four field seasons. I study field science, both as it naturally occurs at Haughton (unconstrained by a "Mars Sam") and as a constrained experiment using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station. During the second week of July 2001, I lived and worked in the hab as part of the Phase 2 crew of six. Besides participating in all activities, I took many photographs and time lapse video. The result of my work will be a computer simulation of how we lived and worked in the hab. It won't be a model of particular people or even my own phase per se, but a pastiche that demonstrates (a proof of concept) that we have appropriate tools for simulating the layout of the hab and daily routines followed by the group and individual scientists. Activities-how people spend their time-are the focus of my observations for building such a simulation model.

  19. Mars Ascent Vehicle Gross Lift-off Mass Sensitivities for Robotic Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dux, Ian J.; Huwaldt, Joseph A.; McKamey, R. Steve; Dankanich, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars ascent vehicle is a critical element of the robotic Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The Mars ascent vehicle must be developed to survive a variety of conditions including the trans-Mars journey, descent through the Martian atmosphere and the harsh Martian surface environments while maintaining the ability to deliver its payload to a low Mars orbit. The primary technology challenge of developing the Mars ascent vehicle system is designing for all conditions while ensuring the mass limitations of the entry descent and landing system are not exceeded. The NASA In-Space Propulsion technology project has initiated the development of Mars ascent vehicle technologies with propulsion system performance and launch environments yet to be defined. To support the project s evaluation and development of various technology options the sensitivity of the Mars ascent vehicle gross lift-off mass to engine performance, inert mass, target orbits, and launch conditions has been completed with the results presented herein.

  20. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  1. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  2. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  3. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

  4. Mars Exploration Program and Mars Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetsel, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Program and constituent Mars Technology Program are described. Current, ongoing and future NASA-led missions are presented, including discussions of scientific accomplishments and objectives as well as technology validations accomplished and technological enablers for future missions. The missions summarized include (in order of actual or planned launch): Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars 'Smart' Lander, Mars Scouts, Mars Sample Return. Key technology areas hdiscussed include: Navigation, Entry, Descent and Landing, Science and Surface Operations, Orbital Transport and Sample Return Technologies.

  5. Human Exploration of Earth's Neighborhood and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The presentation examines Mars landing scenarios, Earth to Moon transfers comparing direct vs. via libration points. Lunar transfer/orbit diagrams, comparison of opposition class and conjunction class missions, and artificial gravity for human exploration missions. Slides related to Mars landing scenarios include: mission scenario; direct entry landing locations; 2005 opportunity - Type 1; Earth-mars superior conjunction; Lander latitude accessibility; Low thrust - Earth return phase; SEP Earth return sequence; Missions - 200, 2007, 2009; and Mission map. Slides related to Earth to Moon transfers (direct vs. via libration points (L1, L2) include libration point missions, expeditionary vs. evolutionary, Earth-Moon L1 - gateway for lunar surface operations, and Lunar mission libration point vs. lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR). Slides related to lunar transfer/orbit diagrams include: trans-lunar trajectory from ISS parking orbit, trans-Earth trajectories, parking orbit considerations, and landing latitude restrictions. Slides related to comparison of opposition class (short-stay) and conjunction class (long-stay) missions for human exploration of Mars include: Mars mission planning, Earth-Mars orbital characteristics, delta-V variations, and Mars mission duration comparison. Slides related to artificial gravity for human exploration missions include: current configuration, NEP thruster location trades, minor axis rotation, and example load paths.

  6. Gravity investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, D.L.

    1983-12-31

    A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  7. [Physiological problems of manned mission to Mars].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I

    2007-05-01

    Harsh environment and extreme factors related to the supposed exploration missions to Mars are considered as well as concomitant human organism reactions. Further investigations are required to get insight into the effects of gravity ranging from microgravity to hypogravity to hypergravity the crew will be exposed to during this voyage. A special emphasis should be placed on the studies of artificial gravity as an alternative to the existing in-flight countermeasures. Other issues to be attended include transitory states of human organism as a response to changes in gravity, effects of ionizing radiation and synergy of the variety of flight factors, and mechanisms of the hypomagnetic effects. PMID:17650616

  8. Chern-Simons gravity with (curvature){sup 2} and (torsion){sup 2} terms and a basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators

    SciTech Connect

    Helayeel-Neto, J. A.; Hernaski, C. A.; Pereira-Dias, B.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Vasquez-Otoya, V. J.

    2010-09-15

    The effects of (curvature){sup 2}- and (torsion){sup 2}-terms in the Einstein-Hilbert-Chern-Simons Lagrangian are investigated. The purposes are two-fold: (i) to show the efficacy of an orthogonal basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators recently proposed and to ascertain its adequacy for obtaining propagators of general parity-breaking gravity models in three dimensions; (ii) to analyze the role of the topological Chern-Simons term for the unitarity and the particle spectrum of the model squared-curvature terms in connection with dynamical torsion. Our conclusion is that the Chern-Simons term does not influence the unitarity conditions imposed on the parameters of the Lagrangian but significantly modifies the particle spectrum.

  9. Bone loss and human adaptation to lunar gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, T. S.; Strauss, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Long-duration space missions and establishment of permanently manned bases on the Moon and Mars are currently being planned. The weightless environment of space and the low-gravity environments of the Moon and Mars pose an unknown challenge to human habitability and survivability. Of particular concern in the medical research community today is the effect of less than Earth gravity on the human skeleton, since the limits, if any, of human endurance in low-gravity environments are unknown. This paper provides theoretical predictions on bone loss and skeletal adaptation to lunar and other nonterrestrial-gravity environments based upon the experimentally derived relationship, density approximately (mass x gravity)(exp 1/8). The predictions are compared to skeletal changes reported during bed rest, immobilization, certrifugation, and spaceflight. Countermeasures to reduce bone losses in fractional gravity are also discussed.

  10. Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John E.

    1997-03-01

    This book comprehensively describes all aspects of gravity flow, a physical process in the environment that is covered by many disciplines including meteorology, oceanography, the earth sciences and industrial processes. The first edition was very well received, and the author has brought the new edition completely up to date, with much new material. Simpson describes gravity currents with a variety of laboratory experiments, many from his own work. Gravity Currents is a valuable supplementary textbook for undergraduates and a reference work for research workers. The general reader will also find much of interest, since the author clearly describes the physics of flows involved without advanced mathematics, and with numerous photographs and illustrations.

  11. Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John E.

    1999-11-01

    This book comprehensively describes all aspects of gravity flow, a physical process in the environment that is covered by many disciplines including meteorology, oceanography, the earth sciences and industrial processes. The first edition was very well received, and the author has brought the new edition completely up to date, with much new material. Simpson describes gravity currents with a variety of laboratory experiments, many from his own work. Gravity Currents is a valuable supplementary textbook for undergraduates and a reference work for research workers. The general reader will also find much of interest, since the author clearly describes the physics of flows involved without advanced mathematics, and with numerous photographs and illustrations.

  12. Merry Christmas from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This morning, after a journey lasting 205 days and covering 400 million km, the European Mars Express space probe fired its main engine at 03:47 CET for a 37-minute burn in order to enter an orbit around the Mars. This firing gave the probe a boost so that it could match the higher speed of the planet on its orbit around the Sun and be captured by its gravity field, quite like climbing in a spinning merry-go-round. This orbit insertion manoeuvre was a complete success. This is a great achievement for Europe on its first attempt to send a space probe into orbit around another planet. At approximately the same time, the Beagle 2 lander, protected by a thermal shield, entered the Martian atmosphere at high velocity and is expected to have reached the surface at about 03:52 CET. However, the first attempt to communicate with Beagle 2, three hours after landing, via NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter, did not establish radio contact. The next contact opportunity will be tonight at 23h40 CET. The tiny lander was released from the orbiter six days ago on a collision course towards the planet. Before separation, its onboard computer was programmed to operate the lander as from its arrival on the surface, by late afternoon (Martian time). According to the schedule, the solar panels must deploy to recharge the onboard batteries before sunset. The same sequence also tells Beagle 2 to emit a signal in a specific frequency for which the Jodrell Bank Telescope, UK, will be listening late tonight. Further radio contacts are scheduled in the days to come. In the course of the coming week, the orbit of Mars Express will be gradually adjusted in order to prepare for its scientific mission. Mars Express is currently several thousand kilometres away from Mars, in a very elongated equatorial orbit. On 30 December, ESA's ground control team will send commands to fire the spacecraft's engines and place it in a polar, less elongated orbit (about 300 km pericenter, 10000 apocenter, 86

  13. Powering Mars Rovers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewert, Robin

    2010-01-01

    INL scientists are doing their best to help solve our energy problems here on Earth. But did you know the lab is playing a key role in the exploration of other worlds, too? Meet INL Engineer Robin Stewart helps build and test generators that power NASA missions to Pluto and Mars. You can learn more about INL projects at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  15. Powering Mars Rovers

    ScienceCinema

    Stewert, Robin;

    2013-05-28

    INL scientists are doing their best to help solve our energy problems here on Earth. But did you know the lab is playing a key role in the exploration of other worlds, too? Meet INL Engineer Robin Stewart helps build and test generators that power NASA missions to Pluto and Mars. You can learn more about INL projects at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  17. Gravity brake

    DOEpatents

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  18. The Decision to Send Humans Back to the Moon and on to Mars: Space Exploration Initiative History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    This folder contains working papers collected to date on a NASA-sponsored history project to document the events leading up to the July 20, 1989 speech setting forth the objectives of the Space Exploration Initiative. Included are a chronology of events, briefing papers produced by the NASA Working Group laying out proposal, briefing charts used to present the proposal, a copy of the President's speech, and an essay summarizing the events that led up to the announcement. Additionally, two fo the interviews conducted as part of the project are enclosed.

  19. Apollo-Soyuz test project. Volume 1: Astronomy, earth atmosphere and gravity field, life sciences, and materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The joint U.S.-USSR experiments and the U.S. conducted unilateral experiments performed during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are described. Scientific concepts and experiment design and operation are discussed along with scientific results of postflight analysis.

  20. Newberry Combined Gravity 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kelly Rose

    2016-01-22

    Newberry combined gravity from Zonge Int'l, processed for the EGS stimulation project at well 55-29. Includes data from both Davenport 2006 collection and for OSU/4D EGS monitoring 2012 collection. Locations are NAD83, UTM Zone 10 North, meters. Elevation is NAVD88. Gravity in milligals. Free air and observed gravity are included, along with simple Bouguer anomaly and terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly. SBA230 means simple Bouguer anomaly computed at 2.30 g/cc. CBA230 means terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly at 2.30 g/cc. This suite of densities are included (g/cc): 2.00, 2.10, 2.20, 2.30, 2.40, 2.50, 2.67.

  1. Design strategies for the International Space University's variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    A variable gravity research facility named 'Newton' was designed by 58 students from 13 countries at the International Space University's 1989 summer session at the Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourge, France. The project was comprehensive in scope, including a political and legal foundation for international cooperation, development and financing; technical, science and engineering issues; architectural design; plausible schedules; and operations, crew issues and maintenance. Since log-term exposure to zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body, the main goal was to design a unique variable gravity research facility which would find a practical solution to this problem, permitting a manned mission to Mars. The facility would not duplicate other space-based facilities and would provide the flexibility for examining a number of gravity levels, including lunar and Martian gravities. Major design alternatives included a truss versus a tether based system which also involved the question of docking while spinning or despinning to dock. These design issues are described. The relative advantages or disadvantages are discussed, including comments on the necessary research and technology development required for each.

  2. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project. PMID:16010756

  3. Mars 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-402, 25 June 2003

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment consists of 3 different cameras: a narrow angle imager that provides the black-and-white high resolution views (up to 1.4 meters per pixel) of Mars, and 2 wide angle cameras, observing in red and blue wavelengths, from which color views of the entire planet are assembled each day. The wide angle cameras provide a daily record of changes in martian weather and surface frost as the seasons progress. MGS MOC has obtained a record of martian weather spanning a little over 2 martian years since it began systematic observations in March 1999.

    The view of Mars shown here was assembled from MOC daily global images obtained on May 12, 2003. At that time, the northern hemisphere was in early autumn, and the southern hemisphere in early spring. At the left/center of this view are the four large Tharsis volcanoes: Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons. Stretching across the center of the globe is the 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) long Valles Marineris trough system. The seasonal south polar carbon dioxide frost cap is visible at the bottom of this view. A dust storm sweeps across the plains of northern Acidalia at the upper right. North is up, east is right, sunlight illuminates the planet from the left.

  4. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2013-12-01

    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  5. Mars Express wins unanimous support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    "The green light for Mars Express shows that Europe is perfectly capable of seizing special chances in exploring space," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "At a cost to ESA of 150 million ECU, Mars Express is the cheapest Mars mission ever, yet its importance and originality are far greater than the price tag suggests." Bonnet continued: "Mars Express has been advertised by the Science Programme Committee as a test case for new approaches in procuring and managing future science projects, with a view to achieving major savings. In the international arena, Mars Express will confirm Europe's interest in a major target for space research in the new century, when we make our forceful debut at the Red Planet. In fact, Mars Express is designed to be a pivotal element of an international multi-mission, global effort for the exploration of Mars." Development of the spacecraft will now proceed swiftly, to meet the deadline of an exceptionally favourable launch window early in June 2003. Mars Express will go into orbit around Mars at Christmas 2003. Seven scientific instruments on board will include a high-resolution camera, a range of spectrometers, and a radar to penetrate below the surface. For the first time in the history of the exploration of the Red Planet, scientists can hope to detect sub-surface water, whether it exists in the form of undergound rivers, pools, glaciers or permafrost. Signs of life on Mars, whether extinct or continuing today, may reveal themselves to a lander carried by Mars Express. This is Beagle 2, a project led by the Open University in the United Kingdom, with contributions from many other European countries. The lander also promises invaluable information about the chemistry of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Beagle 2 is to be independently funded. Some of the necessary funds have already been raised and ESA has agreed with the principal investigator to keep a place for Beagle 2 aboard Mars Express. The financial situation

  6. A Mars Riometer: Antenna Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Craig D.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on NASA Grant NAG5-9706. This project explored riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) antenna designs that would be practical for a Mars surface or balloon mission. The riometer is an important radio science instrument for terrestrial aeronomy investigations. The riometer measures absorption of cosmic radio waves by the overhead ionosphere. Studies have shown the instrument should work well on Mars, which has an appreciable daytime ionosphere. There has been concern that the required radio receiver antenna (with possibly a 10 meter scale size) would be too large or too difficult to deploy on Mars. This study addresses those concerns and presents several antenna designs and deployment options. It is found that a Mars balloon would provide an excellent platform for the riometer antenna. The antenna can be incorporated into the envelope design, allowing self-deployment of the antenna as the balloon inflates.

  7. 2031, an edaphological Mars odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón, Vidal

    2016-04-01

    NASA is projecting to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. In the PICO session we will make a 4D experience, a journey in space and time. Wéll connect with a meeting in the future mission "Edaphos one" travelling to Mars in 2031. In that meeting, an international scientific team with one geophysicist, one mineralogist and two agronomist will review the state of the art of the geo-edaphological knowledge of the martian surface, based on the main Mars missions using orbiters (Mariner), landers (Viking) and rovers (Pathfinder, Spirit-Opportunity, Curiosity). A special attention will be devoted to the mineralogy of the iron oxides, as important aquamarkers. Finally, they discuss about the biological, physical and chemical limitations for plants growth on Mars. You can see the trailer of the presentation in this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yRS0tPNpvFU

  8. Odyssey over Mars' South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft passes above Mars' south pole in this artist's concept illustration. The spacecraft has been orbiting Mars since October 24, 2001.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  10. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

  12. MARS Valley Networks Project: Martian Valley Network Analysis Run-off or Sapping? - A WebGIS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Kitts, K. B.; Young, P.; Schwantes, F. W.; Hung, W.

    2006-12-01

    We report the progress made in a two-year NASA funded EPO project, which takes advantage of the latest WebGIS technology to bring real NASA data to high school classrooms. The only requirement for the WebGIS is an Internet connection and a standard web browser allowing the widest possible accessibility. The overall goal of the project is to enhance the students' interest in science and to directly engage them in the actual process of conducting scientific research with a real scientific research question and real scientific datasets. The students will be exposed to the full process of conducting real scientific investigation: collecting evidence, analyzing data, formulating alternative hypotheses, and communicating and debating with their peers about their findings. Such opportunities are rarely available in the middle through high school level. We have set up the WebGIS (http://marsproject.niu.edu) and have completed the student and teacher tutorials. The standard-based student modules are being finalized and tested by two Master teachers this semester. A training workshop for teachers will be held Spring 2007. Approximately twenty classrooms will be participating fully by the 2007-08 school year.

  13. The H Corona of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael Scott

    The atmosphere of every planet is surrounded by a tenuous cloud of hydrogen gas, referred to as a hydrogen corona. At Mars, a substantial fraction of the H present in the corona is moving fast enough to escape the planet's gravity, permanently removing H from the Martian atmosphere. Because this H is ultimately derived from lower atmospheric water, loss of H from Mars is capable of drying and oxidizing the planet over geologic time. Understanding the processes that supply the H corona and control its escape is therefore essential for a complete understanding of the climate history of Mars and for assessing its habitability. In this thesis, I present the most complete analysis of the H corona ever attempted, surveying eight years of data gathered by the ultraviolet spectrograph SPICAM on Mars Express. Using a coupled radiative transfer and physical density model, I interpret brightness measurements of the corona in terms of escape rates of H from the planet, uncovering an order-of-magnitude variability in the H escape rate never before detected. These variations are interpreted using a completely new photochemical model of the atmosphere, demonstrating that newly discovered high altitude water vapor layers are sufficient to produce the observed variation. Finally, I present first results of the SPICAM successor instrument IUVS, an imaging ultraviolet spectrograph carried by NASA's MAVEN spacecraft. IUVS measurements are producing the most complete dataset ever gathered for the Martian H corona, enabling supply and loss processes to be assessed in more complete detail than ever before. This dataset will allow present-day loss rates to be extrapolated into the past, determining the absolute amount of water Mars has lost to space over the course of its history. Planets the size of Mars may be common throughout the universe; the work of this thesis is one step toward assessing the habitability of such planets in general.

  14. Happy Mars Solstice!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) in the late afternoon of the 30th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). This is hours after the beginning of Martian northern summer. SSI used its natural-color filters, therefore the color is the color you would see on Mars. The image shows shadows from the SSI (left) and from the meteorological station mast (right) stretching toward the east as the sun dropped low in the west.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  15. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory thermal control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Pauken, Michael; Paris, Anthony; Novak, Keith; Prina, Mauro; Ramirez, Brenda; Bame, David

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to land a large rover on Mars is being planned for launch in 2009. This paper will describe the basic architecture of the thermal control system, the challenges and the methods used to overcome them by the use of an innovative architecture to maximize the use of heritage from past projects while meeting the requirements for the design.

  17. MarsQuest: Bringing the Excitement of Mars Exploration to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J. B.

    2005-08-01

    We are in the midst of an extraordinary era of Mars exploration with missions like NASA's Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor and ESA's Mars Express spacecraft along with NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers returning results that expand our knowledge and understanding of the Red Planet. To bring the excitement of Mars exploration to the public, the Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, CO, has developed a comprehensive Mars Education Program that includes: 1) large and small traveling exhibits, 2) workshops for educators and docents, and 3) an interactive Web site called MarsQuest Online (in partnership with TERC and JPL). This program will be presented and offered as a good model for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to improve science education. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is on a six-year tour that began in 1998. The exhibit is currently at the Life Science Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. The Institute has also developed Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest that is designed for smaller venues. Workshops for educators and docents are conducted at host sites. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions to students and museum visitors. MarsQuest Online is a Web site that uses the MarsQuest exhibit as a framework for online interactives that delve deeper into Mars science. The Mars Education Program also provides a context for educational research on effective educational programming and web-based versus exhibit delivery of interactives. The results of this research inform subsequent exhibit projects, (e.g. Giant Planets) and are disseminated to the broader informal science community.

  18. Constraints on Mars' crustal and lithospheric properties from Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Kucinskas, A.; Yuan, D.

    2001-01-01

    We used comparisons of gravity and geoid with topography in the spatial and spectral domains, together with additional information from the geologic record, to constrain support mechanisms for loads on the surface of Mars and their implications for the planet's crustal and lithospheric properties and evolution.

  19. The Effect of Center of Gravity and Anthropometrics on Human Performance in Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Chappell, Steven P.; Skytland, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    NASA EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project at JSC has been investigating the effects of Center of Gravity and other factors on astronaut performance in reduced gravity. A subset of the studies have been performed with the water immersion technique. Study results show correlation between Center of Gravity location and performance. However, data variability observed between subjects for prescribed Center of Gravity configurations. The hypothesis is that Anthropometric differences between test subjects could be a source of the performance variability.

  20. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  1. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory at Work, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development for a launch opportunity in 2009. This picture is an artist's concept portraying what the advanced rover would look like when examining a rock outcrop on Mars. The arm extending from the front of the rover is designed both to position some of the rover's instruments close to selected targets and also to collect samples for onboard analysis by other instruments.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  3. The case for Mars; Proceedings of the Conference, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, April 29-May 2, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.

    The subjects investigated are related to mission strategy, spacecraft design, life support, surface activities and materials processing, and social and political aspects. The humanation of Mars is discussed along with reasons for considering Mars as an object for human exploration, the Viking fund, ballistic opportunities to Mars, a short guide to Mars, and the future of Mars. Attention is given to new approaches to space exploration, a manned mission to Phobos and Deimos, manned Mars mission landing and departure systems, the solar electric propulsion stage as a Mars exploration tool, modifications of conventional medical-surgical techniques for use in null gravity, surface sampling systems, a retrospective look at the Soviet Union's efforts to explore Mars, the cost of landing man on Mars, the atmosphere of Mars, and the utilization of the Shuttle external tank for earth to Mars transit. For individual items see A84-39227 to A84-39243

  4. The early thermal evolution of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, G. K.; Sahijpal, S.

    2016-01-01

    Hf-W isotopic systematics of Martian meteorites have provided evidence for the early accretion and rapid core formation of Mars. We present the results of numerical simulations performed to study the early thermal evolution and planetary scale differentiation of Mars. The simulations are confined to the initial 50 Myr (Ma) of the formation of solar system. The accretion energy produced during the growth of Mars and the decay energy due to the short-lived radio-nuclides 26Al, 60Fe, and the long-lived nuclides, 40K, 235U, 238U, and 232Th are incorporated as the heat sources for the thermal evolution of Mars. During the core-mantle differentiation of Mars, the molten metallic blobs were numerically moved using Stoke's law toward the center with descent velocity that depends on the local acceleration due to gravity. Apart from the accretion and the radioactive heat energies, the gravitational energy produced during the differentiation of Mars and the associated heat transfer is also parametrically incorporated in the present work to make an assessment of its contribution to the early thermal evolution of Mars. We conclude that the accretion energy alone cannot produce widespread melting and differentiation of Mars even with an efficient consumption of the accretion energy. This makes 26Al the prime source for the heating and planetary scale differentiation of Mars. We demonstrate a rapid accretion and core-mantle differentiation of Mars within the initial ~1.5 Myr. This is consistent with the chronological records of Martian meteorites.

  5. Crew Health and Performance on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegemoeller, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    The issues surrounding the health and performance on Mars of a human crew are discussed in this presentation. The work of Human Space Life Sciences Program Office (HSLSPO) in the preparation of a crew for a Martian mission is reviewed. This includes a review of issues relating to human health and performance (HHP) in space and microgravity. The Mars design reference mission requires the most rigorous life sciences critical path of any manned mission in the forseeable future. This mission will require a 30 months round trip, with 4 different transistions to different gravities, and two episodes of high gravity load, during the Mars and Earth Aerobraking exercises. A graph is presented which shows the number of subjects with human space flight experience greater than 30 days. A chart presents the physical challenges to HHP in terms of gravity and acceleration and the length of times the crew will be exposed to the various gravity loads. Another chart presents the radiation challenges to the HHP for the duration of the trip. The human element is the most complex element of the mission design. Some challenges (i.e., human engineering and life support) must be overcome, and some issues such as bone loss, and radiation exposure must be addressed prior to making a decision for a manned Martian mission.

  6. Protocol Development for the NASA-JSC Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) Phase 3 Project: A Report on Baseline Studies at KSC for Continuous Salad Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Vivenzio, H. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Phase 3 Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted in a 20-foot chamber at Johnson Space Center. The overall objective of the Phase 3 project was to conduct a 90-day regenerative life support system test involving 4 human subjects to demonstrate an integrated biological and physicochemical life support system. A secondary objective of the Phase 3 LMLSTP was to demonstrate the ability to produce salad-type vegetable by integration of a small benchtop growth chamber located within the crew habitat area. This small chamber, commercially manufactured as the Controlled Environment Research Ecosystem (CERES 2010(TM)), functioned as a means to continuously provide fresh lettuce crops for crew members. The CERES 2010(TM) growth chamber utilized hardware components developed for effective plant biomass production in spaceflight applications. These components included: (1) LED lighting; (2) Astroculture(TM) Root Trays; and (3) Zeoponic media. In planning for the LMLSTP Phase 3, a request was put forward for KSC scientists to generate a protocol for successful continuous planting, culturing, and harvesting of the salad-crop, lettuce. By conducting baseline tests with components of the CERES 2010(TM), a protocol was developed.

  7. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS). MPCS is an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is designed with these factors (1) Enabling plug and play architecture (2) MPCS has strong inheritance from GDS components that have been developed for other Flight Projects (MER, MRO, DAWN, MSAP), and are currently being used in operations and ATLO, and (3) MPCS components are Java-based, platform independent, and are designed to consume and produce XML-formatted data

  8. Gravity settling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Hyman R.; Long, R. H.; Simone, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Solids are separated from a liquid in a gravity settler provided with inclined solid intercepting surfaces to intercept the solid settling path to coalesce the solids and increase the settling rate. The intercepting surfaces are inverted V-shaped plates, each formed from first and second downwardly inclined upwardly curved intersecting conical sections having their apices at the vessel wall.

  9. Simulating Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  10. Transition from Pool to Flow Boiling: The Effect of Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhir, Vijay K.

    2004-01-01

    Applications of boiling heat transfer in space can be found in the areas of thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life support fluids, and for cooling of electronic packages for power systems associated with various instrumentation and control systems. Recent interest in exploration of Mars and other planets, and the concepts of in-situ resource utiliLation on Mars highlights the need to understand the effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at gravity levels varying from 1>= g/g(sub e) >=10(exp -6). The objective of the proposed work was to develop a mechanistic understanding of nucleate boiling and critical heat flux under low and micro-gravity conditions when the velocity of the imposed flow is small. For pool boiling, the effect of reduced gravity is to stretch both the length scale as well as the time scale for the boiling process. At high flow velocities, the inertia of the liquid determines the time and the length scales and as such the gravitational acceleration plays little role. However, at low velocities and at low gravity levels both liquid inertia and buoyancy are of equal importance. At present, we have little understanding of the interacting roles of gravity and liquid inertia on the nucleate boiling process. Little data that has been reported in the literature does not have much practical value in that it can not serve as a basis for design of heat exchange components to be used in space. Both experimental and complete numerical simulations of the low velocity, low-gravity nucleate boiling process were carried out. A building block type of approach was used in that first the growth and detachment process of a single bubble and flow and heat transfer associated with the sliding motion of the bubble over the heater surface after detachment was studied. Liquid subcooling and flow velocity were varied parametrically. The experiments were conducted at 1 g(sub e

  11. Why send humans to Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    The proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SDI) to launch a manned flight to Mars is examined in the current light of growing constraints in costs and other human requirements. Sharing the huge costs of such a program among a group of nations might become low enough for the project to be feasible. Robotic missions, equipped with enhanced artificial intelligence, appear to be capable of satisfying mission requirements at 10 percent or less, of the cost of a manned flight. Various additional pros and cons are discussed regarding both SDI generally and a Mars mission. It is suggested that R&D projects be pursued that can be better justified and can also contribute to human mission to Mars if eventually a decision to go is made.

  12. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  13. Mars Express — how to be fastest to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Mars Express is the first example of ESA’s new style of developing scientific missions: faster, smarter and more cost-effective, but without compromising reliability and quality - there have been no cuts in tests or pre-launch preparations. Mars Express will face demanding technical challenges during its trip to the Red Planet and ESA engineers have worked hard to make sure it meets them. "With Mars Express, Europe is building its own expertise in many fields. This ranges from the development of science experiments and new technologies - new for European industry - to the control of a mission that includes landing on another planet. We have never done this before,” says Rudi Schmidt, Mars Express Project Manager. Quicker, smarter…safe! Mars Express’s design and development phase has taken about four years, compared with about six years for previous similar missions. And its cost, 300 million euros, is much less than other comparable planetary missions. The ‘magic’ lies in the new managerial approach being used. This new approach includes the reuse of existing hardware and instruments. Also, the mission was developed by a smaller ESA team, who gave more responsibility to industry. Mars Express has been built by a consortium of 24 companies from ESA’s 15 Member States and the United States, led by Astrium as prime contractor. However, mission safety was never compromised. “Although we were under heavy pressure towards the end of the project, we did not drop any of the planned tests to save time. I call this a fast design phase, followed by thorough testing activity,” says Schmidt. This new streamlined development method will continue with Venus Express and probably other future missions. Launch Mars Express will be launched on 2 June on board a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The mission consists of an orbiter and a lander, called Beagle 2. In its launch configuration, Mars Express is a honeycombed aluminium box that

  14. The Application of Centrifuges 'Reduced Gravity' Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    It is shown that life has emerged on Earth somewhere in the early Archaean (3800-2500 million years ago). Since then life has evolved from single cell into to multicellular complex organism under unit gravity conditions. Little is known about how life would have been evolved under different gravity conditions. In light of the current quests for Earth-like planets by astronomers; what life forms could be expected on planets with different gravity fields? Also the human endeavors in spaceflight (microgravity) and exploration programs (Moon, Mars) it is interesting and might be even vital to know and understand how gravity acts upon the human body in long duration space flights. Hyper-gravity, any acceleration acceding 9.81 ms-2, can relatively easily be generated on Earth using centrifuges. Long duration hypo-gravity (¡9.81 ms-2) is more cumbersome. For real microgravity we need free falling satellites such as ISS. For simulation on ground one can use clinostats, random positioning machines or levitating magnets. But could centrifuges also be applied to study a reduced gravity environment? What I would explore in this paper are the possibilities how centrifuges could be applied to study the effects of a 'reduced gravity environment' in, especially, life sciences studies.

  15. Mars lander position estimation in the presence of ephemeris biases.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshear, W. T.; Tolson, R. H.; Day, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    The process of estimating the location of a spacecraft landed on the surface of Mars is investigated through the application of statistical estimation techniques to earth-based radio tracking data. The spacecraft location and the tracking geometry and schedule are consistent with Viking-type mission constraints. With mission control requirements in mind, the investigation is restricted to analysis of a short data arc (approximately 3 days). Statistics of the spacecraft location are obtained through analysis of (direct-link) tracking data for the landed spacecraft and through simultaneous analysis of tracking data for both a landed and an orbiting spacecraft. These estimates include the effects of model uncertainties in the ephemeris of Mars, tracking station locations, the Mars rotational period, the Mars gravity field, and the orientation of Mars axis of rotation. The most significant of these effects is shown to be due to the Mars ephemeris uncertainty. A dual spacecraft tracking technique is presented for substantially reducing these ephemeris effects.

  16. Permanent Habitats in Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol Orbit Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Project Outpost is a manned Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol platform that enables permanent occupation in deep space. In order to develop the program elements for this complex mission, Project Outpost will rely primarily on existing/nearterm technology and hardware for the construction of its components. For the purposes of this study, four mission requirements are considered: 1. Outpost - Man's 1st purpose-produced effort of space engineering, in which astructure is developed/constructed in an environment completely alien to currentpractices for EVA guidelines. 2. Newton - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development ofa modified Hohmann personnel orbital transport operating between Earth andMars. Newton would serve as the primary crew delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization. 3. Cruis - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development of amodified Hohmann cargo orbital transport operating between Earth and Mars.Cruis would serve as the primary equipment delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization, and 4. Ares/Diana - a more conventional space platform configuration for Lunar andMars orbit is included as a construction baseline. The operations of these assetsare supported, and used for the support, of the outpost. Outpost would be constructed over a 27-year period of launch opportunities into Earth-Sol or Mars-Sol Lagrange orbit (E-S/M-S L1, 4 or 5). The outpost consists of an operations core with a self-contained power generation ability, a docking and maintenance structure, a Scientific Research complex and a Habitation Section. After achieving initial activation, the core will provide the support and energy required to operate the outpost in a 365

  17. Cycler orbit between Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Dennis V.; Longuski, James M.; Aldrin, Buzz

    1993-01-01

    A periodic orbit between Earth and Mars has been discovered that, after launch, permits a space vehicle to cycle back and forth between the planets with moderate maneuvers at irregular intervals. A Space Station placed in this cycler orbit could provide a safe haven from radiation and comfortable living quarters for astronauts en route to Earth or Mars. The orbit is largely maintained by gravity assist from Earth. Numerical results from multiconic optimization software are presented for a 15-year period from 1995 through 2010.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Overview and MSL EDL Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umland, Jeffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) challenges is presented. The topics include: 1) MSL Project Overview; 2) Mars Science Laboratory Top Level Schedule (Single Launch); 3) EDL Challenges; 4) MSL Surface System; 5) Mars Rover Wheel Family Tree; 6) Gusev Comparisons; 7) Mars Surface Accessibility; 8) Atlas V 401 Launch Performance; 9) Parachute Deployment Altitude Variation with Time of Year and Latitude; 10) Dust Storms and Winds; 11) Nominal MSL EDL Timeline; and 12) Specific EDL Challenges.

  19. Alternative Strategies for Exploring Mars and the Moons of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Baker, John D.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Landau, Damon; Voels, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The human exploration of Mars represents one of civilizations next major challenges and is an enterprise that would confirm the potential of humans to leave our home planet system and make our way outward into the cosmos. As exploration endeavors begin to set sights beyond low-Earth orbit, exploration of the surface of Mars continues to serve as the horizon destination to help focus technology development and research efforts. Recent thoughts on exploration follow a flexible path approach beginning with missions which do not extend down into planetary gravity wells including surface exploration. Consistent with that flexible path strategy is the notion of exploring the moons of Mars, namely Phobos and Deimos, prior to exploring the surface. The premise behind this thought is that exploring Mars moons would be less costly and risky since these missions would avoid the difficulties associated with landing on the surface and subsequent ascent back to orbit. A complete assessment of this strategy has not been performed in the context of the flexible path approach and is needed to clearly understand all of the advantages and disadvantages. This paper examines the strategic implications of human exploration of the moons of Mars as a potential prelude to surface exploration. Various operational concepts for Phobos and Deimos exploration that include the infusion of different propulsion technologies are assessed in terms of mission duration, technologies required, overall risk and difficulty, and operational construct. Finally, the strategic implications of each concept are assessed to determine the overall key challenges and strategic links to other key flexible path destinations.

  20. Alternative Strategies for Exploring Mars and the Moons of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Baker, John D.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Landau, Damon; Voels, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The possible human exploration of Mars represents one of civilization s next major challenges and is an enterprise that would confirm the potential of humans to leave our home planet system and make our way outward into the cosmos. As exploration endeavors begin to set sights beyond low Earth orbit, potential exploration of the surface of Mars continues to serve as the horizon destination to help focus technology development and research efforts. Recent thoughts on exploration follow a flexible path approach beginning with missions that do not extend down into planetary gravity wells including surface exploration. Consistent with that flexible path strategy is the notion of exploring the moons of Mars, namely Phobos and Deimos, prior to exploring the surface. The premise behind this thought is that exploring Mars moons would be less costly and risky since these missions would avoid the difficulties associated with landing on the surface and subsequent ascent back to orbit. A complete assessment of this strategy has not been performed in the context of the flexible path approach and is needed to clearly understand all of the advantages and disadvantages. This paper examines the strategic implications of possible human exploration of the moons of Mars as a potential prelude to surface exploration. Various operational concepts for Phobos and Deimos exploration that include the infusion of different propulsion technologies are assessed in terms of mission duration, technologies required, overall risk and difficulty, and operational construct. Finally, the strategic implications of each concept are assessed to determine the overall key challenges and strategic links to other key flexible path destinations.

  1. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  2. Mars Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These two views of Mars are derived from the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) measurements of global broadband (0.3 - 3.0 microns) visible and near-infrared reflectance, also known as albedo. The range of colors are in dimensionless units. The values are the ratio of the amount of electromagnetic energy reflected by the surface to the amount of energy incident upon it from the sun (larger values are brighter surfaces).

    The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  3. Implications of Flexural Flanks at the Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Banerdt, W. B.; Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    The presence or absence of flexural flanks at the Valles Marineris (VM), Mars, have strong implications for the properties of the lithosphere, information which is critical for models of compensation state and formation of the troughs. Two hypotheses are favored for the formation of the VM, tectonic extension or subsurface withdrawal potentially related to dike emplacement; in either case, the formation of the large troughs at the VM requires a flexural response. After discussing preliminary models of flexure for VM from released Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography, this abstract considers the implications of flexure for gravity modeling and the lithosphere at VM. With future MGS topography and gravity data, and constraints on T(sub e) from this study, significantly better gravity modeling can be done to understand the state of the lithosphere at VM. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Mars Exploration Program and Mars Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetsel, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Program and constituent Mars Technology Program are described. Current ongoing and future NASA-led missions are presented, including discussions of scientific accomplishments and objectives as well as technology validations accomplished and technological enablers for future missions.

  5. Aeroshell for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    this image does not have the tiles.

    JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  6. Mars Pathfinder mission operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Dias, William C.; Nakata, Albert Y.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project plans a December 1996 launch of a single spacecraft. After jettisoning a cruise stage, an entry body containing a lander and microrover will directly enter the Mars atmosphere and parachute to a hard landing near the sub-solar latitude of 15 degrees North in July 1997. Primary surface operations last for 30 days. Cost estimates for Pathfinder ground systems development and operations are not only lower in absolute dollars, but also are a lower percentage of total project costs than in past planetary missions. Operations teams will be smaller and fewer than typical flight projects. Operations scenarios have been developed early in the project and are being used to guide operations implementation and flight system design. Recovery of key engineering data from entry, descent, and landing is a top mission priority. These data will be recorded for playback after landing. Real-time tracking of a modified carrier signal through this phase can provide important insight into the spacecraft performance during entry, descent, and landing in the event recorded data is never recovered. Surface scenarios are dominated by microrover activity and lander imaging during 7 hours of the Mars day from 0700 to 1400 local solar time. Efficient uplink and downlink processes have been designed to command the lander and microrover each Mars day.

  7. Cryptic Terrain on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    There is an enigmatic region near the south pole of Mars known as the 'cryptic' terrain. It stays cold in the spring, even as its albedo darkens and the sun rises in the sky.

    This region is covered by a layer of translucent seasonal carbon dioxide ice that warms and evaporates from below. As carbon dioxide gas escapes from below the slab of seasonal ice it scours dust from the surface. The gas vents to the surface, where the dust is carried downwind by the prevailing wind.

    The channels carved by the escaping gas are often radially organized and are known informally as 'spiders' (figure 1).

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003179_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 01-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 245.9 km (153.7 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.2 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:19 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 78 degrees, thus the sun was about 12 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 210.8 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  8. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  9. Mars aerobrake assembly simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.; Lee, Gordon K. F.; Garvey, John

    1992-01-01

    On-orbit assembly operation simulations in neutral buoyancy conditions are presently undertaken by a partial/full-scale Mars mission aerobrake mockup, whose design, conducted in the framework of an engineering senior students' design project, involved several levels of constraints for critical physical and operational features. Allowances had to be made for the auxiliary constraints introduced by underwater testing, as well as the subsegmenting required for overland shipment to the neutral-buoyancy testing facility. This mockup aerobrake's fidelity is determined by the numerous, competing design objectives.

  10. Effects of geophysical extra-terrestrial and terrestrial physical stimuli on living organisms - Effects of gravity fields on living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The biologic effects of greatly reduced gravity resulting from space flight are examined. Aspects of U.S. space biology during the period from 1960 to 1972 are discussed, giving attention to the Discoverer satellites, the Gemini series, the OV1-4 satellite, the biosatellite project, the orbiting frog otolith experiment, and the Apollo program. Other studies considered are related to the effects of galactic particles on nonproliferating cells, a recoverable tissue culture experiment, cell cycle maintenance in human lung cells, and effects of space flight on circadian rhythms. Viking will land on the planet Mars in 1975 in search for life forms.

  11. Expanding Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2005-04-01

    Newton's gravitational constant Gn and Laws of Gravity are based upon observations in our solar system. Mysteries appear when they are used far outside our solar system Apparently, Newton's gravitational constant can not be applied at large distances. Dark matter was needed to explain the observed flat rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies (Rubin), and of groups of remote galaxies (Zwicky). Our expansion of Newton's gravitational constant Gn as a power series in distance r, is sufficient to explain these observations without using dark matter. This is different from the MOND theory of Milgrom involving acceleration. Also, our Expanded Gravitational Constant (EGC) can show the correct use of the red shift. In addition to the Doppler contribution, there are three other contributions and these depend only upon gravity. Thus, velocity observations only based on the red shift can not be used to support the concept of the expanding universe, the accelerating expansion, or dark energy. Our expanded gravity constant can predict and explain Olbers' paradox (dark sky), and the temperature of the CMB (cosmic microwave background). Thus, CMB may not support the big bang and inflation.

  12. Feasibility Study on Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hidehiko; Takazawa, Yoshisada; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Takano, Yutaka; Namura, Eijiro

    1996-10-01

    This technical memorandum summarizes the results of an in-house study on lunar and Mars drone explorations - observation, landing and mobile explorations and sample returns for lunar and Mars respectively. So far, lunar and planet explorations have been primarily performed by the United States and the Soviet Union. ISAS and ESA have also contributed to some extent. The main purpose has been scientific exploration. There are some arguments that lunar and planet explorations should be performed for scientific purposes and the exploitation of them is not necessary. However, most scientific research involve the existence and survival of humankind, so it is not the fact that they cannot be organized from the side of exploitation. Especially, if NASDA makes approaches to lunar and Mars exploration, it should inevitably embrace exploitation plans. In this preface we provide the outline of lunar and Mars exploitation scenarios set up as a premise of the review on lunar and Mars unmanned exploration plans. Various reviews have been performed on whether the Moon or Mars would allow for human activities or survival. Among them, He mill, the solar powered satellite material mill and construction project of relay station to Mars as well as Mars teraforming plan have important issues. These projects have not yet become feasible because their expected investments are too large to make them practical. However, the present time seems the most appropriate to get with lunar and Mars exploitation projects under international cooperation since the realization of a space station is imminent and the international cooperation is being created with the participation of Russia. The international space station project will be continued until the year 2015. The post project has not yet been decided. Therefore, we expect that Japan would propose two successive projects, one is to construct an orbital service station combining manned abilities of the station and orbital service system and the

  13. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-07-15

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  14. Replenishable food supply on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The design team's present objective is to design a facility which will provide an environment to grow plants on the surface of Mars for a continuous supply of food for a ten-man crew. The main focus of the project is the design of a greenhouse. Concentration of the current design effort is on the outer structure, internal layout, and construction methods. The project was conducted by undergraduate students at Prairie View A&M University during Fall 1989 and Spring 1990.

  15. Earth to Mars - Scenarios for early manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Trajectories and mission types for a manned mission to Mars are reviewed, focusing on what can be undertaken relative to available technologies. The objectives of a manned mission are outlined and several mission scenarios are described. Space Station involvement, an interplanetary manned Mars space vehicle, and the role of artificial gravity are discussed. Possible launch vehicles, surface systems options, and space vehicle configurations are examined.

  16. Pancam Mast Assembly on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.; Cross, Mike; Harvison, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA) for the 2003 Mars Rover is a deployable structure that provides an elevated platform for several cameras. The PMA consists of several mechanisms that enable it to raise the cameras as well as point the cameras in all directions. This paper describes the function of the various mechanisms as well as a description of the mechanisms and some test parameters. Designing these mechanisms to operate on the surface of Mars presented several challenges. Typical spacecraft mechanisms must operate in zero-gravity and high vacuum. These mechanisms needed to be designed to operate in Martian gravity and atmosphere. Testing conditions were a little easier because the mechanisms are not required to operate in a vacuum. All of the materials are vacuum compatible, but the mechanisms were tested in a dry nitrogen atmosphere at various cold temperatures.

  17. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  18. Internal Dynamics and Crustal Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structure, crustal evolution, and thermal history of Mars by combining geophysical data analysis of topography, gravity and magnetics with results from analytical and computational modeling. Accomplishments thus far in this investigation include: (1) development of a new crustal thickness model that incorporates constraints from Mars meteorites, corrections for polar cap masses and other surface loads, Pratt isostasy, and core flattening; (2) determination of a refined estimate of crustal thickness of Mars from geoid/topography ratios (GTRs); (3) derivation of a preliminary estimate of the k(sub 2) gravitational Love number and a preliminary estimate of possible dissipation within Mars consistent with this value; and (4) an integrative analysis of the sequence of evolution of early Mars. During the remainder of this investigation we will: (1) extend models of degree-1 mantle convection from 2-D to 3-D; (2) investigate potential causal relationships and effects of major impacts on mantle plume formation, with primary application to Mars; (3) develop exploratory models to assess the convective stability of various Martian core states as relevant to the history of dynamo action; and (4) develop models of long-wavelength relaxation of crustal thickness anomalies to potentially explain the degree-1 structure of the Martian crust.

  19. Instrumentation and Methodology Development for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liang Albert

    2002-01-01

    The Mars environment comprises a dry, cold and low air pressure atmosphere with low gravity (0.38g) and high resistivity soil. The global dust storms that cover a large portion of Mars were observed often from Earth. This environment provides an idea condition for triboelectric charging. The extremely dry conditions on the Martian surface have raised concerns that electrostatic charge buildup will not be dissipated easily. If triboelectrically generated charge cannot be dissipated or avoided, then dust will accumulate on charged surfaces and electrostatic discharge may cause hazards for future exploration missions. The low surface temperature on Mars helps to prolong the charge decay on the dust particles and soil. To better understand the physics of Martian charged dust particles is essential to future Mars missions. We research and design two sensors, velocity/charge sensor and PZT momentum sensors, to detect the velocity distribution, charge distribution and mass distribution of Martian charged dust particles. These sensors are fabricated at NASA Kenney Space Center, Electromagnetic Physics Testbed. The sensors will be tested and calibrated for simulated Mars atmosphere condition with JSC MARS-1 Martian Regolith simulant in this NASA laboratory.

  20. An Improved Model of the Crustal Structure of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; McGovern, P. J.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    The first reliable model of the structure of the crust and upper mantle of Mars from remote observations was produced using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Radio Science investigation of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). That model assumed a uniform crustal density and solved for the global variations in crustal thickness using a gravity field derived from preliminary MGS tracking. In that study, spherical harmonic potential coefficients were derived to degree and order 80, but crustal structure was interpreted cautiously to degree 60, or 360 km wavelength, owing to the presence of noise. Tracking normal equations have since been generated to degree 75, to degree 80 (supplemented by altimetric crossovers), and recently to degree 90, using new constants for the orientation of the spin pole and the rotation rate of Mars provided by the IAU2000 rotation model. Gravity models now incorporate tracking data coverage from the Primary and Extended MGS missions and the early phases of the Mars Odyssey mission. In the present study we exploit these advances in gravity modeling to present a refined crustal inversion, which we also interpret in the context of Mars' internal structure and thermal evolution.

  1. Haughton-Mars Project/NASA 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation: Equipment and Methods for Medical Evacuation of an Injured Crewmember

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, S. P.; Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chase, T.; Gernhardt M.; Wilkinson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving NASA's Space Exploration Vision scientific objectives will require human access into cratered and uneven terrain for the purpose of sample acquisition to assess geological, and perhaps even biological features and experiments. Operational risk management is critical to safely conduct the anticipated tasks. This strategy, along with associated contingency plans, will be a driver of EVA system requirements. Therefore, a medical contingency EVA scenario was performed with the Haughton-Mars Project/NASA to develop belay and medical evacuation techniques for exploration and rescue respectively. Methods: A rescue system to allow two rescuer astronauts to evacuate one in incapacitated astronaut was evaluated. The systems main components were a hard-bottomed rescue litter, hand-operated winch, rope, ground picket anchors, and a rover-winch attachment adapter. Evaluation was performed on 15-25deg slopes of dirt with embedded rock. The winch was anchored either by adapter to the rover or by pickets hammered into the ground. The litter was pulled over the surface by rope attached to the winch. Results: The rescue system was utilized effectively to extract the injured astronaut up a slope and to a waiting rover for transport to a simulated habitat for advanced medical care, although several challenges to implementation were identified and overcome. Rotational stabilization of the winch was found to be important to get maximize mechanical advantage from the extraction system. Discussion: Further research and testing needs to be performed to be able to fully consider synergies with the other Exploration surface systems, in conducting contingency operations. Structural attachment points on the surface EVA suits may be critical to assist in incapacitated evacuation. Such attach points could be helpful in microgravity incapacitated crewmember transport as well. Wheeled utility carts or wheels that may be attachable to a litter may also aid in extraction and

  2. The Mars Orbiter Altimeter (MOLA) Investigation of the Shape and Topography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) is an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft that has been orbiting Mars since September 1997. After some preliminary observations in Sept/Oct, 1997 and in the spring and summer of 1998, the MGS spacecraft entered its mapping orbit of 400 km above the surface of Mars in February 1999. MGS began a 2 year program of systematically mapping the planet with a camera (MOC), thermal emission spectrometer (TES), magnetometer (MAG), laser altimeter (MOLA), and a radio science investigation for gravity and radio occultations. MOLA has a 48mJ, 1064 nrn ND:YAG, diode pumped laser with a 8 nanosecond pulse width, a pulse rate of 10 Hz, and a range precision of less than 40 cm. MOLA has been operating almost continuously for over two years and obtained over 600 million measurements of the radius of Mars. Using very precise orbits for the MGS spacecraft derived from the Doppler and range tracking of MGS by the Deep Space Network a topographical map of Mars has been developed with an average radial accuracy of a meter and a horizontal accuracy of 100 meters. This topographical map has revealed a new Mars, a planet with some of the flattest areas in the solar system and one of the largest impact basins. MOLA has revealed clear evidence of the effect of past fluid action on the surface and found icecaps that contain as much water ice today as the icecap of Greenland.

  3. Mars Observer Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Aftimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the future investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission.

  4. Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    Using topography collected over one martian year from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, we have measured temporal changes in the elevation of the martian surface that correlate with the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The greatest elevation change (1.5 to 2 meters) occurs at high latitudes ( above 80 degrees ), whereas the bulk of the mass exchange occurs at lower latitudes (below 75 degrees N and below 73 degrees S). An unexpected period of sublimation was observed during northern hemisphere autumn, coincident with dust storms in the southern hemisphere. Analysis of MGS Doppler tracking residuals revealed temporal variations in the flattening of Mars that correlate with elevation changes. The combined changes in gravity and elevation constrain the average density of seasonally deposited carbon dioxide to be 910 +/- 230 kilograms per cubic meter, which is considerably denser than terrestrial snow.

  5. Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Neumann, G A

    2001-12-01

    Using topography collected over one martian year from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, we have measured temporal changes in the elevation of the martian surface that correlate with the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The greatest elevation change (1.5 to 2 meters) occurs at high latitudes ( above 80 degrees ), whereas the bulk of the mass exchange occurs at lower latitudes (below 75 degrees N and below 73 degrees S). An unexpected period of sublimation was observed during northern hemisphere autumn, coincident with dust storms in the southern hemisphere. Analysis of MGS Doppler tracking residuals revealed temporal variations in the flattening of Mars that correlate with elevation changes. The combined changes in gravity and elevation constrain the average density of seasonally deposited carbon dioxide to be 910 +/- 230 kilograms per cubic meter, which is considerably denser than terrestrial snow. PMID:11739951

  6. Viking and Mars Rover exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Ohara, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    Other than Earth, Mars is the planet generating the greatest interest among those researching and contemplating the origin and distribution of life throughout the universe. The similarity of the early environments of Earth and Mars, and the biological evolution on early Earth provides the motivation to seriously consider the possibility of a primordial Martian biosphere. In 1975 the Viking project launched two unmanned spacecraft to Mars with the intent of finding evidence of the existence of present or past life on this planet. Three Viking Biology experiments were employed: the Labeled Release experiment, the Gas Exchange Experiment, and the Pyrolytic Release experiment. Each of these three experiments tested for microbial existence and utilization of a substrate by examining the gases evolved from specific chemical reactions. Although the results of these experiments were inconclusive, they inferred that there are no traces of extant life on Mars. However, the experiments did not specifically look for indication of extinct life. Therefore, most of the exobiologic strategies and experiments suggested for the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission involve searching for signature of extinct life. The most significant biological signatures and chemical traces to detect include: isotopic and chemical signatures of metabolic activity, anomalous concentrations of certain metals, trace and microfossils, organically preserved materials, carbonates, nitrates, and evaporites.

  7. Phoenix Mars Lander in Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars. PMID:25184481

  9. How Much Gravity Is Needed to Establish the Perceptual Upright?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Laurence R.; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars. PMID:25184481

  10. Device for Lowering Mars Science Laboratory Rover to the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is hardware for controlling the final lowering of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover to the surface of Mars from the spacecraft's hovering, rocket-powered descent stage.

    The photo shows the bridle device assembly, which is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from end to end, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the left is the descent brake. On the right is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion of the spool at far right. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Cockell, C. S.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.; Hock, A. N.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Ori, G. G.; Piatek, J. L.; Waggoner, A.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Weinstein, S.; Wyatt, M.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Smith, T.; Wagner, M.; Stubbs, K.; Thomas, G.; Glasgow, J.

    2005-03-01

    LITA develops and field tests a long-range automated rover and a science payload to search for microbial life in the Atacama. The Atacama's evolution provides a unique training ground for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the search for life on Mars.

  12. High Lakes Project -- Impact of Climate Variability and High UV Flux on Lake Habitat: Implications for Early Mars and Present-Day Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Bebout, L.; Chong, G.; Demergasso, C.; Fleming, E.; Gaete, V.; Gibson, J.; Häder, D. P.; Mack, J.; Minkley, E.; Pinto, E.; Rose, K.; Ukstins Peate, I.; Tambley, C.; Williamson, C.; Wynne, J. J.

    2009-03-01

    HLP studies lakes between 4,200-6,000 m elevation in the Central Andes. Its primary objective is to understand the impact of increased environmental stress on lake habitats and their evolution during rapid climate change as an analogy to early Mars.

  13. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  14. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical and functional tests of its pyrotechic petal deployer system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers and technicians in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). In the background is the Pathfinder cruise stage, which the lander will be mated to once its functional tests are complete. The lander will remain attached to this stage during its six-to-seven-month journey to Mars. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the Sojourner autonomous rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  16. MarsQuest: Bringing the Excitement of Mars Exploration to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J. B.; Klug, S. L.

    2002-09-01

    We are living in an extraordinary era of Mars exploration. NASA's Odyssey spacecraft has recently discovered vast amounts of hydrogen beneath the surface of Mars, suggesting the presence of sub-surface ice. Two Mars Exploration Rovers are scheduled to land in early 2004. To bring the excitement and discoveries of Mars exploration to the public, the Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, CO, has developed a comprehensive Mars Education Program that includes: 1) large and small traveling exhibits, 2) workshops for museum and classroom educators (in partnership with the Mars Education Program at Arizona State University (ASU)), and 3) an interactive Website called MarsQuest Online (in partnership with TERC and JPL). All three components will be presented and offered as a good model for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to improve science education in museums and the classroom. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. Workshops for museum educators, docents, and local teachers are conducted at host sites. These workshops were developed collaboratively by Dr. Cheri Morrow, SSI's Education and Public Outreach Manager, and Sheri Klug, Director of the Mars K-12 Education Program at ASU. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The MarsQuest Online project is developing a Website that will use the MarsQuest exhibit as a

  17. MarsQuest: Bringing the Excitement of Mars Exploration to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J. B.; Klug, S. L.

    2002-12-01

    We are living in an extraordinary era of Mars exploration. NASA's Odyssey spacecraft has recently discovered vast amounts of hydrogen beneath the surface of Mars, suggesting the presence of sub-surface ice. Two Mars Exploration Rovers are scheduled to land in early 2004. To bring the excitement and discoveries of Mars exploration to the public, the Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, CO, has developed a comprehensive Mars Education Program that includes: 1) large and small traveling exhibits, 2) workshops for museum and classroom educators (in partnership with the Mars Education Program at Arizona State University (ASU)), and 3) an interactive Website called MarsQuest Online (in partnership with TERC and JPL). All three components will be presented and offered as a good model for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to improve science education in museums and the classroom. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. Workshops for museum educators, docents, and local teachers are conducted at host sites. These workshops were developed collaboratively by Dr. Cheri Morrow, SSI's Education and Public Outreach Manager, and Sheri Klug, Director of the Mars K-12 Education Program at ASU. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The MarsQuest Online project is developing a Website that will use the MarsQuest exhibit as a

  18. Designing planetary protection into the Mars Observer mission.

    PubMed

    Sweetser, T H; Halsell, C A; Cesarone, R J

    1995-03-01

    Planetary protection has been an important consideration during the process of designing the Mars Observer mission. It affected trajectory design of both the interplanetary transfer and the orbits at Mars; these in turn affected the observation strategies developed for the mission. The Project relied mainly on the strategy of collision avoidance to prevent contamination of Mars. Conservative estimates of spacecraft reliability and Martian atmosphere density were used to evaluate decisions concerning the interplanetary trajectory, the orbit insertion phase at Mars, and operations in orbit at Mars and afterwards. Changes in the trajectory design, especially in the orbit insertion phase, required a refinement of those estimates. PMID:11539235

  19. Gravity Data for west-central Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-04-06

    Modeled Bouger Gravity data was extracted from the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies Gravity Database of the U.S. at http://irpsrvgis08.utep.edu/viewers/Flex/GravityMagnetic/GravityMagnetic_CyberShare/ on 2/29/2012. The downloaded text file was opened in an Excel spreadsheet. This spreadsheet data was then converted into an ESRI point shapefile in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection, showing location and gravity (in milligals). This data was then converted to grid and then contoured using ESRI Spatial Analyst. This dataset contains the original spreadsheet data, a point shapefile showing gravity station locations and Bouger gravity, and a line shapefile showing 1 milligal contours. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Gravity Contour Shapefile Extent: West -108.366690 East -105.478730 North 40.932318 South 36.961606 Gravity Point Shapefile Extent: West -108.366692 East -105.478847 North 40.932361 South 36.961606 Data from From University of Texas: Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies

  20. Design of a fast crew transfer vehicle to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A final report is made on the trajectory and vehicle requirements for a fast crew transfer vehicle to Mars which will complete an Earth to Mars (and Mars to Earth) transfer in 150 days and will have a stay time at Mars of 40 days. This vehicle will maximize the crew's effectiveness on Mars by minimizing detrimental physiological effects such as bone demineralization and loss of muscle tone caused by long period exposure to zero gravity and radiation from cosmic rays and solar flares. The crew transfer vehicle discussed will complete the second half of a Split Mission to Mars. In the Split Mission, a slow, unmanned cargo vehicle, nicknamed the Barge, is sent to Mars ahead of the crew vehicle. Once the Barge is in orbit around Mars, the fast crew vehicle will be launched to rendezvous with the Barge in Mars orbit. The vehicle presented is designed to carry six astronauts for a mission duration of one year. The vehicle uses a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear power system. Four crew modules, similar to the proposed Space Station Common Modules, are used to house the crew and support equipment during the mission. The final design also includes a command module that is shielded to protect the crew during radiation events.

  1. Known Locations of Carbonate Rocks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Green dots show the locations of orbital detections of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars, determined by analysis of targeted observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) acquired through January 2008. The spectrometer is on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The base map is color-coded global topography (red is high, blue is low) overlain on mosaicked daytime thermal infrared images. The topography data are from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The thermal infrared imagery is from the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

    The CRISM team, led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. Arizona State University, Tempe, operates the Thermal Emission Imaging System, which the university developed in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey projects for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiters.

  2. Mars scouts: an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars program institutes the Mars Scout Missions in order to address science goals in the program not otherwise covered in the baseline Mars plan. Mars Scout Missions will be Principle-Investigator (PI) led science missions. Analogous to the Discovery Program, PI led investigations optimize the use of limited resources to accomplish the best focused science and allow the flexibility to quickly respond to discoveries at Mars. Scout missions also require unique investments in technology and reliance upon Mars-based infrastructure such as telecom relay orbiters.

  3. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.

  4. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  5. Mariner IV Mission to Mars. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jack N.

    1965-01-01

    This technical report is a series of individual papers documenting the Mariner-Mars project from its beginning in 1962 following the successful Mariner-Venus mission. Part I is pre-encounter data. It includes papers on the design, development, and testing of Mariner IV, as well as papers detailing methods of maintaining communication with and obtaining data from the spacecraft during flight, and expected results during encounter with Mars. Part 11, post-encounter data, to be published later, will consist of documentation of the events taking place during Mariner IV's encounter with Mars and thereafter. The Mariner-Mars mission, the culmination of an era of spacecraft development, has contributed much new technology to be used in future projects.

  6. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  7. Mars Rover and Sample Return Mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Friedlander, Alan L.

    1989-01-01

    The current reference Mars Rover and Sample Return mission is described. Technical issues are outlined, including high-resolution image acquisition and reconstruction, approach navigation, ground and flight systems operational complexity, rover autonomy, autonomous rendezvous and docking in Mars orbit, aerocapture and aeromaneuver, estimating the probability of mission success, and end-to-end information system design. Focus is placed on lander hazard identification and avoidance, pinpoint landing guidance and control, Mars ascent vehicle guidance and control, planetary protection and quarantine, sample acquisition and preservation, project management and control, systems requirements and interface control, and costing. In addition, program issues such as international participation, fiscal constraints, and launch-vehicle availability are considered.

  8. Europe is going to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

  9. Simulation of sediment settling in reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Kuhn, Brigitte; Rüegg, Hans-Rudolf; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, Stokes' Law or similar empirical models, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle settling in a gas or liquid, carry the notion of a drag as a property of a particle, rather than a force generated by the flow around the particle. For terrestrial applications, this simplifying assumption is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on other planetary bodies. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks, e.g. on Mars and the search for traces of life. Simulating sediment settling velocities on other planets based on a numeric simulation using Navier-Stokes equations and Computational Fluid Dynamics requires a prohibitive amount of time and lacks measurements to test the quality of the results. The aim of the experiments presented in this study was therefore to quantify the error incurred by using settling velocity models calibrated on Earth at reduced gravities, such as those on the Moon and Mars. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and liquid. However, the use of such analogues creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under reduced gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling velocity measurements within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation, the results

  10. Mars 2020 Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricker, Moogega; Bernard, Douglas; Benardini, James Nick; Jones, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    The Mars 2020 (M2020) flight system consists of a cruise stage; an entry, descent and landing system (EDL); and a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) powered roving science vehicle that will land on the surface of Mars. The M2020 Mission is designed to investigate key question related to the habitability of Mars and will conduct assessments that set the stage for potential future human exploration of Mars. Per its Program Level Requirements, the project will also acquire and cache samples of rock, regolith, and/or procedural "blank" samples for possible return to Earth by a subsequent mission. NASA has assigned the M2020 Mission as a Category V Restricted Earth Return due to the possible future return of collected samples. As indicated in NPR8020.12D, Section 5.3.3.2, the outbound leg of a Category V mission that could potentially return samples to Earth, Mars 2020 would be expected to meet the requirements of a Category IVb mission. The entire flight system is subject to microbial reduction requirements, with additional specific emphasis on the sample acquisition and caching. A bioburden accounting tool is being used to track the microbial population on the surfaces to ensure that the biological cleanliness requirements are met. Initial bioburden estimates based on MSL heritage allows M2020 to gauge more precisely how the bioburden is allocated throughout each hardware element. Mars 2020 has completed a Planetary Protection Plan with Planetary Implementation Plans at a mature draft form. Planetary protection sampling activities have commenced with the start of flight system fabrication and assembly. The status of the Planetary Protection activities will be reported.

  11. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  12. Superalloy microstructural variations induced by gravity level during directional solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Curreri, P. A.; Parr, R. A.; Alter, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ni-base superalloy MAR-M246 (Hf) was directionally solidified during low gravity maneuvers aboard a NASA KC-135 aircraft. Gravity force variations during this process yielded a concomitant variation in microstructure and microsegregation. Secondary dendrite arm spacings are noted to be larger in the low-g portion; this, in turn, decreases the extent of interdendritic segregation. The amount of Hf in both the carbides and interdendritic eutectic increases as the gravity force diminishes. Fewer carbides are present in the low-g regions.

  13. The Crustal Thickness of Mars: Accuracy and Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2002-01-01

    Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft at Mars and its entry into its mapping orbit in February 1999, the radio tracking and altimetry data from the mission have been part of the systematic mapping of the planet and used to develop very precise models of the gravity field and topography of Mars. Until the altimetry function of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) failed on June 30, 2001, the instrument had acquired close to 700 million measurements of the planet's radius, the majority of which have been used to develop a model of the topography with horizontal resolution of about 500 m and radial accuracy of better than 1 m. Concurrently, Doppler and range tracking of MGS by the Deep Space Network at X-band frequencies, with accuracies of about 50 microns/s and about 5 m respectively, have provided orbital knowledge of MGS to the few meter level and enabled the gravity perturbations of the spacecraft to be used to develop a improved gravity models of Mars. The recent models have horizontal resolutions of about 200 km, or degree 65, when expressed in spherical harmonics, and have accuracies of the order of a few mGals at the poles and about 10 mGals at the equator at the highest resolution.

  14. MAVEN's Trajectory to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the cruise trajectory of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, which was launched on Nov. 18, 2013. It will arrive at Mars on Sept. 21, 2014, to explore th...

  15. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  16. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  17. An inversion of geoid and topography for mantle and crustal structure on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter; Bills, Bruce; Frey, Herb; Nerem, Steve; Roark, Jim; Zuber, Maria

    1993-01-01

    Mars has the largest amplitude geoid anomalies and surface topography known on the terrestrial planets. A number of prior studies have analyzed Martian gravity anomalies and topography in terms of isostasy and flexure of the crust and lithosphere. Other studies have emphasized the role of mantle convection in producing gravity anomalies and topography in some regions of Mars. Geoid and topography observations for simultaneous estimates of density anomalies in the crust and mantle of Mars are inverted. In performing this study, a recent degree 50 spherical harmonic expansion of the Martian gravity field (GMM-l) and a corresponding resolution expansion of the USGS Mars topography model are used. However, our analysis is restricted to harmonic degrees up to L equals 25, which are better determined than the higher harmonics. This provides a half-wavelength horizontal resolution of 425 km.

  18. Saltation transport on Mars.

    PubMed

    Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-05-11

    We present the first calculation of saltation transport and dune formation on Mars and compare it to real dunes. We find that the rate at which grains are entrained into saltation on Mars is 1 order of magnitude higher than on Earth. With this fundamental novel ingredient, we reproduce the size and different shapes of Mars dunes, and give an estimate for the wind velocity on Mars. PMID:17677662

  19. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  20. Various aspects of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Marcin

    2007-12-01

    This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

  1. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  2. Mars methane engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Hung; Coletta, Chris; Debois, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of an internal combustion engine operating on a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen has been verified by previous design groups for the Mars Methane Engine Project. Preliminary stoichiometric calculations examined the theoretical fuel-air ratios needed for the combustion of methane. Installation of a computer data acquisition system along with various ancillary components will enable the performance of the engine, running on the described methane mixture, to be optimized with respect to minimizing excess fuel. Theoretical calculations for stoichiometric combustion of methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixtures yielded a ratio of 1:2:4.79 for a methane-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixture. Empirical data shows the values to be closer to 1:2.33:3.69 for optimum operation.

  3. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  4. Rotorcraft as Mars Scouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.; Aiken, E. W.; Gulick, V.; Mancinelli, R.; Briggs, G. A.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for the robotic exploration of Mars is detailed in this paper: the use of small, ultralightweight, autonomous rotary-wing aerial platforms. Missions based on robotic rotorcraft could make excellent candidates for NASA Mars Scout program. The paper details the work to date and future planning required for the development of such 'Mars rotorcraft.'

  5. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  6. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  7. Mars: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Mars Exploration program for the current decade and beyond. The potential items for procurements for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are discussed, as well as future technology investments to enable to continued development of exploration of Mars by rovers and orbiters that are planned and envisioned for future missions.

  8. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  9. Dynamical systems techniques for designing libration point orbits in proximity of highly-inhomogeneous planetary satellites: Application to the Mars-Phobos elliptic three-body problem with additional gravity harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamaro, Mattia; Biggs, James D.

    2014-12-01

    The orbital dynamics around the Libration points of the classical circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) have been investigated in detail: in the last few decades, dynamical systems theory has provided invaluable analytical and numerical tools for understanding the dynamics of Libration Point Orbits (LPOs). The aim of this paper is to extend the model of the CR3BP to derive the LPOs in the vicinity of the Martian moon Phobos, which is becoming an appealing destination for scientific missions. The case of Phobos is particularly extreme, since the combination of both small mass-ratio and length-scale moves the collinear Libration manifold close to the moon's surface. Thus, a model of this system must consider additional dynamical perturbations, in particular the complete gravity field of Phobos, which is highly-inhomogeneous. This is accomplished using a spherical harmonics series expansion, deriving an enhanced elliptic three-body model. In this paper, we show how methodologies from dynamical systems theory are applied in differential correction continuation schemes to this proposed nonlinear model of the dynamics near Phobos, to derive the structure of the dynamical substitutes of the LPOs in this new system. Results obtained show that the structure of the LPOs differs substantially from the classical case without harmonics. The proposed methodology allows us to identify natural periodic and quasi-periodic orbits that would provide unique low-cost opportunities for close-range observations around Phobos and high-performance landing/take-off pathways to and from Phobos' surface, which could be exploited in upcoming missions targeting the exploration of this Martian moon.

  10. Entropy Transfer of Quantum Gravity Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2015-05-01

    We introduce the term smooth entanglement entropy transfer, a phenomenon that is a consequence of the causality-cancellation property of the quantum gravity environment. The causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity space removes the causal dependencies of the local systems. We study the physical effects of the causality-cancellation and show that it stimulates entropy transfer between the quantum gravity environment and the independent local systems of the quantum gravity space. The entropy transfer reduces the entropies of the contributing local systems and increases the entropy of the quantum gravity environment. We discuss the space-time geometry structure of the quantum gravity environment and the local quantum systems. We propose the space-time geometry model of the smooth entropy transfer. We reveal on a smooth Cauchy slice that the space-time geometry of the quantum gravity environment dynamically adapts to the vanishing causality. We prove that the Cauchy area expansion, along with the dilation of the Rindler horizon area of the quantum gravity environment, is a corollary of the causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity environment. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 (Secure quantum key distribution between two units on optical fiber network) project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  11. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  12. Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden; Battel, Steven; Brace, Richard; Burdick, Garry; Casani, John; Lavell, Jeffrey; Leising, Charles; MacPherson, Duncan; Burr, Peter; Dipprey, Duane

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Mars Surveyor Program (MSP) began in 1994 with plans to send spacecraft to Mars every 26 months. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), a global mapping mission, was launched in 1996 and is currently orbiting Mars. Mars Surveyor '98 consisted of Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL). Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) was the prime contractor for Mars Surveyor '98. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Surveyor Program for NASA's Office of Space Science. MPL was developed under very tight funding constraints. The combined development cost of MPL and MCO, including the cost of the two launch vehicles, was approximately the same as the development cost of the Mars Pathfinder mission, including the cost of its single launch vehicle. The MPL project accepted the challenge to develop effective implementation methodologies consistent with programmatic requirements.

  13. Properties of the gravity fields of terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, William M.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the gravity fields of the earth, Mars, and Venus, as expressed by spherical harmonic coefficients, are examined, using the harmonic expansions of the respective planetary topographies reported by Balmino et al. (1973), Bills and Ferrari (1978), and Bills and Kobrick (1985). The items examined include the spectral magnitudes and slopes of the gravity coefficients; the correlations between gravity and topography; and the correlations among different gravity harmonics, expressed by axiality and angularity. It was found that Venus differs from the other two planets in its great apparent depths of compensation, indicating a tectonics dominated by a stiff upper mantle. In addition, Venus has less activity deep in the mantle than do earth or Mars. Mars is marked by large gravity irregularities, as well as by their axial symmetry on a global scale. Although earth is probably the most peculiar planet, spherical harmonics do not bring out its varied characteristics. It is clearly a more active planet than Venus, with activity deep in the mantle. The lower magnitude of its higher harmonics is considered to be due to water recycled to the upper mantle.

  14. Dropping in on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2003-01-01

    Here I was: 26 years old, I had never worked on a flight project before, and all eyes were on me. Every time I walked by the Pathfinder project office, Tony Spear, the project manager, would throw his arm around me and announce, 'Hey everybody, the whole mission is riding on this guy right here.' Our task was to design and build airbags for Pathfinder s landing on Mars - an approach that had never been used on any mission. Airbags may seem like a simple, low-tech product, but it was eye-opening to discover just how little we knew about them. We knew that the only way to find out what we needed to learn was to build prototypes and test them. We just didn t know how ignorant we were going to be. Airbags seemed like a crazy idea to a lot of people. Nobody ever said that, mind you, but there seemed to be a widespread feeling that the airbags weren t going to work. 'We ll let you guys go off and fool around until you fall flat on your faces.' That was the unspoken message I received day after day.

  15. Landslides on Earth, Mars, Moon and Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Xiao, Zhiyong; Komatsu, Goro; Peruccacci, Silvia; Fiorucci, Federica; Cardinali, Mauro; Santangelo, Michele; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides play an important role in the evolution of landscapes on Earth and on other solid planets of the Solar System. On Earth, landslides have been recognized in all continents, and in subaerial and submarine environments. The spatial and temporal range of the observed slope failures is extremely large on Earth. Surface gravity is the main factor driving landslides in solid planets. Comparison of landslide characteristics, e.g. the landslide types and sizes (area, volume, fall height, length) on various planetary bodies may help in understanding the effect of surface gravity on failure initiation and propagation. In the last decades, planetary exploration missions have delivered an increasing amount of high-resolution imagery, which enables to resolve and identify morphologic structures on planetary surfaces in great detail. Here, we present three geomorphological inventories of extraterrestrial landslides on Mars, Moon and Mercury. To recognize and map the landslides on the three Solar System bodies, we adopt the same visual criteria commonly used by geomorphologists to identify terrestrial slope failures in aerial photographs or satellite images. Landslides are classified based on the morphological similarity with terrestrial ones. In particular, we focus on rock slides mapped in Valles Marineris, Mars, and along the internal walls of impact craters on the Moon and Mercury. We exploit the three inventories to study the statistical distributions of the failure sizes (e.g., area, volume, fall height, length), and we compare the results with similar distributions obtained for terrestrial landslides. We obtain indications on the effect of the different surface gravity on landslides on Earth and Mars through the relationship between the landslide area and volume on the two planets. From the analysis of the area, we hypothesize that the lack of medium size landslides on Mars is due to the absence of erosive processes, which are induced on Earth chiefly by water

  16. Successful communications test for ESA's Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    , it was the Stanford dish's turn to listen, as Mars Express had been programmed to turn MELACOM back towards Earth and begin transmitting. A faint but clear signal was heard proving MELACOM was ready to talk to Beagle 2. A way to overcome the under-performance of the spacecraft's power systems has been found. This was due to some intensive and creative thinking by ESA engineers and the team from Astrium Toulouse, led by Mars Express Project Manager Rudi Schmidt. Although only up to 70% of the spacecraft's expected power is available, all of its instruments can be switched on without any restrictions for 85% of the time. The remaining 15% of the time, some compromises need to be made, including optimising the power dissipation within the spacecraft subsystems. Most importantly, power will be saved by tilting the spacecraft to gain heating from the Sun. On its bottom surface the spacecraft has a silvered ring that attached the spacecraft to its rocket during launch. It has been found that if sunlight falls on the ring, it will conduct some heat inside Mars Express, allowing some of the heaters to be turned off thus saving electricity. The instruments can then use this extra power. "In the current situation, I am confident that we can achieve all mission goals." says Schmidt. The Mars Express team is now preparing for a series of Mars orbit insertion and Beagle 2 landing simulations to take place at ESOC during October and November. Meanwhile, Mars Express is safely continuing its journey to Mars, getting closer every day to the time of arrival, due in late December this year.

  17. Mars sample return: The critical next step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2007-06-01

    Before humans trek the mountains and canyons of Mars, a key event must happen. That vital undertaking will be to fly a roundtrip mission to Mars for acquiring representative surface materials and returning them to Earth. Mars sample return has also been a premier objective of planetary scientists for more than four decades. In the meantime, the Stardust mission has returned dust grains from a comet, and Genesis has collected and returned solar wind. Yet at this time, Mars sample return is no longer an official project in any space agency. Inestimable value would also accrue for engineering the systems needed for future human missions. Sample return from the surface will validate our collective ability to successfully accomplish such a roundtrip to Mars in absence of the ability for end-to-end testing on Earth. Embarking on a historic Mars surface sample return mission will provide the confirming signal that a space program is ready, willing, and capable to achieve the next major engineering challenge for exploration of our solar system. Beginning serious development of the missing critical link, the Mars Ascent Vehicle, will signal the beginning of this undertaking.

  18. Grid resolution and solution convergence for Mars Pathfinder forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettelhorst, Heather L.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Discovery Program, NASA Plans to launch a series of probes to Mars. The Mars Pathfinder project is the first of this series with a scheduled Mars arrival in July 1997. The entry vehicle will perform a direct entry into the atmosphere and deliver a lander to the surface. Predicting the entry vehicle's flight performance and designing the forebody heatshield requires knowledge of the expected aerothermodynamic environment. Much of this knowledge can be obtained through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis.

  19. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  20. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  1. Mars transportation system synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Archie C.; Mulqueen, John A.; Emrich, William J.

    Performance and requirements synthesized to support the manned Mars mission of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the Mars transportation system (MTS), which uses nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion technology associated with accomplishing the manned Mars mission. Data are also presented for a propulsion system options comparison of chemical/aerobrake and nuclear electric propulsion systems. Vehicle- and weight-scaling are used to determine the MTS mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission durations. The split sprint, opposition, and conjunction class mission modes are employed to determine the MTS requirements envelope. MTS sensitivity to Mars surface payload, crew size, Mars orbit payload, NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, and NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio are synthesized. A suggested NTR technology level to accomplish both cargo and piloted Mars missions is discussed.

  2. Newest is Biggest: Three Generations of NASA Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Full-scale models of three generations of NASA Mars rovers show the increase in size from the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder project that landed on Mars in 1997 (center), to the twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity that landed in 2004 (left), to the Mars Science Laboratory rover for a mission to land in 2012 (right).

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is about 9 feet wide, 10 feet long (not counting its robotic arm) and 7 feet tall.

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover will have a mass of about 875 kilograms (1,929 pounds), compared with 174 kilograms (384 pounds) for each of the Mars Exploration Rovers and with 11 kilograms (24 pounds) for Sojourner. The main reason for the growth is to carry a larger payload of science instruments: about 83 kilograms (183 pounds) for the Mars Science Laboratory rover compared with 16 kilograms (35 pounds) for the Mars Exploration Rover and 1.4 kilograms (3 pounds) for Sojourner.

    This image was taken in May 2008 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which has built the real Mars rovers and managed the rover missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  4. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a electrical test of its pyrotechnic system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineers Lorraine Garcia (foreground) and Linda Robeck in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). A wheel of the Sojourner autonomous rover, which is attached to one of the lander's petals, can be seen behind the lander. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  5. MARS PATHFINDER PYRO SYSTEMS SWITCHING ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder lander is subjected to a test of its pyrotechnic system by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer Jerry Gutierrez in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility (SAEF-2). A wheel of the Sojourner autonomous rover, which is attached to one of the lander's petals, can be seen behind the lander. When the lander touches down on the surface of Mars next year, the pyrotechnic system will deploy its three petals open like a flower and allow the rover to explore the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is scheduled for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle on Dec. 2, the beginning of a 24-day launch period. JPL is managing the Mars Pathfinder project for NASA.

  6. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  7. Constructing an Educational Mars Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    January 14th 2004, President George Bush announces his plans to catalyst the space program into a new era of space exploration and discovery. His vision encompasses a robotics program to explore our solar system, a return to the moon, the human exploration of Mars, and to promote international prosperity towards our endeavors. We at NASA now have the task of constructing this vision in a very real timeframe. I have been chosen to begin phase 1 of making this vision a reality. I will be working on creating an Educational Mars Simulation of human exploration of Mars to stimulate interest and involvement with the project from investors and the community. GRC s Computer Services Division (CSD) in collaboration with the Office of Education Programs will be designing models, constructing terrain, and programming this simulation to create a realistic portrayal of human exploration on mars. With recent and past technological breakthroughs in computing, my primary goal can be accomplished with only the aid of 3-4 software packages. Lightwave 3D is the modeling package we have selected to use for the creation of our digital objects. This includes a Mars pressurized rover, rover cockpit, landscape/terrain, and habitat. Once we have the models completed they need textured so Photoshop and Macromedia Fireworks are handy for bringing these objects to life. Before directly importing all of this data into a simulation environment, it is necessary to first render a stunning animation of the desired final product. This animation with represent what we hope to capture out of the simulation and it will include all of the accessories like ray-tracing, fog effects, shadows, anti-aliasing, particle effects, volumetric lighting, and lens flares. Adobe Premier will more than likely be used for video editing and adding ambient noises and music. Lastly, V-Tree is the real-time 3D graphics engine which will facilitate our realistic simulation. Additional information is included in the

  8. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  9. Theoretical models for Mars and their seismic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okal, E. A.; Anderson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical seismic properties of the planet Mars are investigated on the basis of the various models which have been proposed for the internal composition of the planet. The latest interpretation of gravity-field data, assuming a lower value of the moment of inertia, would require a less dense mantle and a larger core than previous models. If Mars is chondritic in composition, the most reasonable models are an incompletely differentiated H-chondrite or a mixture of H-chondrites and carbonaceous chondrites. Seismic profiles, travel times, and free oscillation periods are computed for various models, with the aim of establishing which seismic data is crucial for deciding among the alternatives. A detailed discussion is given of the seismic properties which could - in principle - help answer the questions of whether Mars' core is liquid or solid and whether Mars has a partially molten asthenosphere in its upper mantle.

  10. Task Adaptive Walking Robots for Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Hickey, Gregory; Kennedy, Brett; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2000-01-01

    There are exciting opportunities for robot science that lie beyond the reach of current manipulators, rovers, balloons, penetrators, etc. Examples include mobile explorations of the densely cratered Mars highlands, of asteroids, and of moons. These sites are believed to be rich in geologic history and mineralogical detail, but are difficult to robotically access and sample. The surface terrains are rough and changeable, with variable porosity and dust layering; and the small bodies present further challenges of low-temperature, micro-gravity environments. Even the more benign areas of Mars are highly variegated in character (>VL2 rock densities), presenting significant risk to conventional rovers. The development of compact walking robots would have applications to the current mission set for Mars surface exploration, as well as enabling future Mars Outpost missions, asteroid rendezvous missions for the Solar System Exploration Program (SSE) and the mechanical assembly/inspection of large space platforms for the Human Exploration and Development of Spaces (HEDS).

  11. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper details an architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS), an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is developed based on a set of small reusable components, implemented in Java, each designed with a specific function and well-defined interfaces. An industry standard messaging bus is used to transfer information among system components. Components generate standard messages which are used to capture system information, as well as triggers to support the event-driven architecture of the system. Event-driven systems are highly desirable for processing high-rate telemetry (science and engineering) data, and for supporting automation for many mission operations processes.

  12. The Mars Exploration Program: Past, Present and Future (?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Scott

    NASA's Mars Exploration Program was redesigned in 2000, following the twin losses of the Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in late 1999. The new science based program was grounded in community consensus based priorities and had as its aim understanding Mars as a system. The popular phrase used to describe the goals of the mission sequence was "Follow the Water". A new queue of missions was put in place for the decade 2001 - 2010 and a new community based competitive opportunity, the Mars Scout program, was initiated. The strategic mission implementation has been unchanged since the new program was announced in October 2000. Those projects successfully launched and deployed thus far include Mars Odyssey, the two Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Obiter and the Phoenix Scout Mission. The final project of the decade, the Mars Science Laboratory, is in the last stages of development with launch slated for the Fall of 2009. The President's budget announced in February 2008 for Fiscal 2009, contained little in the way of definitive objectives for Mars program in the decade 2011-2020 and proposed to reduce the Mars budget drastically over the five year budget period. This paper will review the programmatic and scientific progress thus far in meeting the original objectives as outlined in October 2000. A look ahead to the potential missions and goals for the next decade will be provided with particular emphasis on the status of Mars Sample Return mission. Bibliography: G. Scott Hubbard, Firouz M. Naderi, James B. Garvin, Following the water, the new program for Mars exploration, Acta Astronautica 51(1-9):337-350, 2002.

  13. Mars Exploration Rover Surface Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, J. K.; Adler, M.; Crisp, J.; Mishkin, A.; Welch, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Project is an ambitious mission to land two highly capable rovers on Mars and concurrently explore the Martian surface for three months each. Launching in 2003, surface operations will commence on January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing on January 25. The prime mission for the second rover will end on April 27, 2004. The science objectives of exploring multiple locations within each of two widely separated and scientifically distinct landing sites will be accomplished along with the demonstration of key surface exploration technologies for future missions. This paper will provide an overview of the planned mission, and also focus on the different operations challenges inherent in operating these two very off road vehicles, and the solutions adopted to enable the best utilization of their capabilities for high science return and responsiveness to scientific discovery.

  14. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  15. Evaluation of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2014-12-01

    From 2009-2014, NASA's Mars Public Engagement (MPE) Program developed and implemented project-level logic models and associated impacts and indicators tables using the NSF's "Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects" (Friedman, 2008) as a key guiding document. This Framework was selected given the national-expert-level evaluation committee who synthesized evaluation in a way that allows project-to-project comparisons in key areas of measurable change, while also allowing variation for appropriate project-specific measures and outcomes. These logic models, revisited and refined annually, provide guidance for all measures developed, tested, and implemented with MPE projects, including the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP), the Imagine Mars Project, and Mars Educator Professional Development. Project questionnaires were developed, tested, refined, retested, and finalized following standard procedures outlined in Converse & Presser (1986), Dillman, Smyth, & Christian (2009), Krosnick & Presser (2010), and Presser, et al. (2004). Interview questions were drafted, reviewed by project staff, and revised following established interview question development guidelines (e.g., Kvale, 1996; Maxwell, 2005; Maykut & Morehouse, 1994; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). For MSIP final projects, a rubric guided by Lantz (2004) was developed to evaluate systematically the quality and completeness of the final projects. We will discuss our instruments as well as the important issue of nonresponse error, which is relevant to a wide range of NASA programs because most data is collected from customers who are voluntary participants, as opposed to grantees who must report as a condition of their grant. NASA programs that consider data and report results from voluntary samples must be cautious about claims or decisions based on those data. We will discuss the ways in which we consider and address this challenge.

  16. Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook: Earth-to-Mars Mission Opportunities and Mars-to-Earth Return Opportunities 2009-2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, L. E.; Kos, L. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides information for trajectory designers and mission planners to determine Earth-Mars and Mars-Earth mission opportunities for the years 2009-2024. These studies were performed in support of a human Mars mission scenario that will consist of two cargo launches followed by a piloted mission during the next opportunity approximately 2 years later. "Porkchop" plots defining all of these mission opportunities are provided which include departure energy, departure excess speed, departure declination arrival excess speed, and arrival declinations for the mission space surrounding each opportunity. These plots are intended to be directly applicable for the human Mars mission scenario described briefly herein. In addition, specific trajectories and several alternate trajectories are recommended for each cargo and piloted opportunity. Finally, additional studies were performed to evaluate the effect of various thrust-to-weight ratios on gravity losses and total time-of-flight tradeoff, and the resultant propellant savings and are briefly summarized.

  17. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  19. Relays from Mars demonstrate international interplanetary networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    On 4 August at 14:24 CEST, as Mars Express flew over one of NASA’s Mars exploration rovers, Opportunity, it successfully received data previously collected and stored by the rover. The data, including 15 science images from the rover's nine cameras, were then downlinked to ESA’s European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt (Germany) and immediately relayed to the Mars Exploration Rovers team based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, USA. NASA orbiters Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor have so far relayed most of the data produced by the rovers since they landed in January. Communication compatibility between Mars Express and the rovers had already been demonstrated in February, although at a low rate that did not convey much data. The 4 August session, at a transmit rate of 42.6 megabits in about six minutes, set a new mark for international networking around another planet. The success of this demonstration is the result of years of groundwork and was made possible because both Mars Express and the Mars rovers use the same communication protocol. This protocol, called Proximity-1, was developed by the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, an international partnership for standardising techniques for handling space data. Mars Express was 1400 kilometres above the Martian surface during the 4 August session with Opportunity, with the goal of a reliable transfer of lots of data. Engineers for both agencies plan to repeat this display of international cooperation today, 10 August, with another set of Opportunity images. “We're delighted how well this has been working, and thankful to have Mars Express in orbit,” said Richard Horttor of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, project manager for NASA's role in Mars Express. JPL engineer Gary Noreen of the Mars Network Office said: “the capabilities that our international teamwork is advancing this month could be important in future exploration of Mars

  20. Improved Gravitational Models of Mars from Radio Tracking of Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Chinn, Douglas S.

    1999-01-01

    After a long period of aerobraking, Mars Global Surveyor entered a low altitude, near-circular and polar orbit about Mars on February 4, 1999. Since that time, the spacecraft has been tracked routinely by the antennae of the Deep Space Network (DSN). The X band tracking data for the first time provide us: with uniform low-altitude coverage over the entire planet. In terms of both quality and geographic distribution, these data supersede the S Band tracking obtained by the Viking Orbiters and Mariner 9. We have used all available tracking obtained by Mars Global Surveyor to determine improved models; of the Man geopotential to 70 x 70 in spherical harmonies. The new models provide an order of magnitude improvement in both accuracy and detail. For instance, the Valles Marimeris canyon system clearly appears in the gravity anomaly maps: with the new model. In this paper, we discuss the derivation of these new models, and we evaluate their performance in terms of observed features and orbit quality. We also discuss the use of altimeter data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) in the form of altimeter crossovers, and how these data can contribute to the determination of geopotential models for Mars.

  1. Thermospheric Studies with Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Bruinsma, S.; Chin, D. S.; Forbes, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has been located in a near-circular, polar, and low-altitude mapping orbit about Mars for six years, since February 1999. The spacecraft is tracked routinely by the antennae of the Deep Space Network (DSN), using the X Band radio system of the spacecraft. These tracking data have been used for routine spacecraft navigation, and for radio science studies, such as the estimation of the static and time-varying gravity field of Mars. In this paper we describe the methodology for reduction of these data in order to estimate the Mars atmospheric density (normalized to an altitude 380 km) over half a solar cycle, where we discern the correlation of the density with the incident solar flux, and the 27-day solar rotation. The results show that the density at the MGS altitude varies from a mean of 0.7 x 10(exp -17) grams/cu cm near aphelion to a mean of 3.0 x 10(exp -17)grams/cu cm near perihelion.

  2. Northwestern Tharsis Latent Outflow Activity Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Previously defined outflow channels, which are indicated by relict landforms similar to those observed on Earth, signify ancient catastrophic flood events on Mars. These conspicuous geomorphic features are some of the most remarkable yet profound discoveries made by geologists to date. These outflow channels, which debouched tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse, Utopia, Elysium, and Hellas Planitiae, may represent the beginning of warmer and wetter climatic periods unlike the present-day cold and dry Mars. In addition to the previously identified outflow channels, observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys, referred to as the northwestern slope valleys (NSV), that are located to the northwest of a huge shield volcano, Arsia Mons, western hemisphere of Mars. These features generally correspond spatially to gravity lows similar to the easternmost, circum-Chryse outflow channel systems. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the large valley system pre-dates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly Late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the circum-Chryse outflow channel systems that debouch into Chryse Planitia. This newly identified system, the NSV, potentially signifies the largest flood event(s) ever recorded for the solar system. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  3. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  4. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Tethered gravity laboratories study is presented. The following subject areas are covered: variable gravity laboratory; attitude tether stabilizer; configuration analysis (AIT); dynamic analysis (SAO); and work planned for the next reporting period.

  5. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  6. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  7. Sample Analysis At Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GCMS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

  8. Sample Analysis at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Coll, P.; Cornish, T. J.; Harpold, D. N.; Israel, G.; Niemann, H. B.; Owen, T.

    2003-01-01

    The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GC/MS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.

  9. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  10. Mars Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  11. Quick trips to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed.

  12. Far-Northern Destination for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The planned landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander lies at a latitude on Mars equivalent to northern Alaska on Earth. It is within the region designated 'D' on this global image.

    This is an orthographic projection with color-coded elevation contours and shaded relief based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Total vertical relief is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the top of the highest volcano (red) to the northern lowlands (blue). North pole is where the longitude lines converge.

  13. Bridle Device in Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory shows two of the stage's three spherical fuel tanks flanking the bridle device assembly. The photograph was taken in early October 2008 from the center of the descent stage looking outward. The top of the descent stage is toward the top of the image.

    The bridle device assembly is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from top to bottom, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the top is the descent brake. The conical-shaped mechanism below that is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  14. Project KEWL: Kinect Engineering With Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeff; Goza, Sharon; Shores, David

    2011-01-01

    Project KEWL is a joint project between NASA/JPL and NASA/JSC to stimulate interest of children in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) and bring the NASA space exploration experience to the classroom, museum and ultimately the living room. Using the Kinect game controller KEWL allows children to engage in NASA s missions in a fundamentally new way. KEWL allows children to experiment with gravity on Mars and the Moon; navigate through the International Space Station; fix a torn solar array on the ISS; drive a robot on Mars; visit an Asteroid; learn about the differences in gravity on different planets and control Robonaut 2 using their body as the input device. Project KEWL complements NASA s outreach investments in television, mobile platforms and the web by engaging the public through the rapidly expanding medium of console gaming. In 2008, 97% of teenagers played video games and 86% played on a home gaming console. (source: http://pewresearch.org/pubs/953/) As of March 2011, there have been more than 10 million Kinects sold. (source: http://www.itproportal.com/2011/03/10/kinect-record-breaking-sales-figures-top-10-million/) Project KEWL interacts with children on a platform on which they spend much of their time and teaches them information about NASA while they are having fun. Project KEWL progressed from completely custom C++ code written in house to using a commercial game engine. The art work and 3D geometry models come from existing engineering work or are created by the KEWL development team. Six different KEWL applications have been demonstrated at nine different venues including schools, museums, conferences, and NASA outreach events. These demonstrations have allowed the developers the chance to interact with players and observe the gameplay mechanics in action. The lessons learned were then incorporated into the subsequent versions of the applications.

  15. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  16. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^-23 Hz^-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  17. Mars: The Viking discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the Viking Mars probe is presented. The Viking spacecraft is described and a brief history of the earlier observations and exploration of Mars is provided. A number of the Viking photographs of the Martian surface are presented and a discussion of the experiments Viking performed including a confirmation of the general theory of relativity are reported. Martian surface chemistry is discussed and experiments to study the weather on Mars are reported.

  18. Mars at Opposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  19. Water System Architectures for Moon and Mars Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Water systems for human bases on the moon and Mars will recycle multiple sources of wastewater. Systems for both the moon and Mars will also store water to support and backup the recycling system. Most water system requirements, such as number of crew, quantity and quality of water supply, presence of gravity, and surface mission duration of 6 or 18 months, will be similar for the moon and Mars. If the water system fails, a crew on the moon can quickly receive spare parts and supplies or return to Earth, but a crew on Mars cannot. A recycling system on the moon can have a reasonable reliability goal, such as only one unrecoverable failure every five years, if there is enough stored water to allow time for attempted repairs and for the crew to return if repair fails. The water system that has been developed and successfully operated on the International Space Station (ISS) could be used on a moon base. To achieve the same high level of crew safety on Mars without an escape option, either the recycling system must have much higher reliability or enough water must be stored to allow the crew to survive the full duration of the Mars surface mission. A three loop water system architecture that separately recycles condensate, wash water, and urine and flush can improve reliability and reduce cost for a Mars base.

  20. Mars topography harmonics and geophysical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes an improved model of Martian global topography which has been obtained by fitting a sixteenth-degree harmonic series to occultation, radar, spectral, and photogrammetric measurements. Empirical elevation data based on photographic data are used to supplement the observations in areas without data. Values for the mean radius, the mean density, and the displacement of the center of the figure from the center of mass are presented. The reported geometric flattening is too great and the reported dynamic flattening is too small for Mars to be homogeneous and hydrostatic. Maps of the data distribution, global topography, and Bouguer gravity anomaly are interpreted in terms of a crustal thickness map which is consistent with gravity, topography, and recent preliminary Viking seismic results.