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Sample records for prokaryotic dna segregation

  1. Reconstitution of DNA Segregation Driven by Assembly of a Prokaryotic Actin Homolog

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Ethan C.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2010-01-01

    Multiple unrelated polymer systems have evolved to partition DNA molecules between daughter cells at division. To better understand polymer-driven DNA segregation, we reconstituted the three-component segregation system of the R1 plasmid from purified components. We found that the ParR/parC complex can construct a simple bipolar spindle by binding the ends of ParM filaments, inhibiting dynamic instability, and acting as a ratchet permitting incorporation of new monomers and riding on the elongating filament ends. Under steady-state conditions, the dynamic instability of unattached ParM filaments provides the energy required to drive DNA segregation. PMID:17332412

  2. The chromosome cycle of prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA undergoes replication, condensation-decondensation and segregation, sequentially, in some fixed order. Other conditions, like sister-chromatid cohesion (SCC), may span several chromosomal events. One set of these chromosomal transactions within a single cell cycle constitutes the “chromosome cycle”. For many years it was generally assumed that the prokaryotic chromosome cycle follows major phases of the eukaryotic one: -replication-condensation-segregation-(cell division)-decondensation-, with SCC of unspecified length. Eventually it became evident that, in contrast to the strictly consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes, all stages of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle run concurrently. Thus, prokaryotes practice “progressive” chromosome segregation separated from replication by a brief SCC, and all three transactions move along the chromosome at the same fast rate. In other words, in addition to replication forks, there are “segregation forks” in prokaryotic chromosomes. Moreover, the bulk of prokaryotic DNA outside the replication-segregation transition stays compacted. I consider possible origins of this concurrent replication-segregation and outline the “nucleoid administration” system that organizes the dynamic part of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle. PMID:23962352

  3. Co-polymer tracts in eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and organellar DNA.

    PubMed

    Behe, M J; Beasty, A M

    1991-01-01

    Large variations in DNA base composition and noticeable strand asymmetries are known to occur between different organisms and within different regions of the genomes of single organisms. Apparently such composition and sequence biases occur to fulfill structural rather than informational requirements. Here we report the wide occurrence of a more subtle biasing of DNA sequence that can have structural consequences: an increase or a suppression of the number of long tracts of two-base co-polymers. Strong biases were observed when the DNA sequences of the longest eukaryotic, prokaryotic, and organellar entries in the GenBank data base (totaling 773 kilobases) were analyzed for the number of occurrences of tracts of the two-base co-polymers (A,T)n, (G,C)n, and (A,C)n as a function of tract length. (The expression (A,T)n is used here to denote an uninterrupted tract, n nucleotides in length, of A and T bases in any proportion or order, terminated at each end by a G or C residue.) Characteristic differences are also observed in tract biases of eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic organisms. PMID:1799681

  4. Integrating prokaryotes and eukaryotes: DNA transposases in light of structure.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Alison Burgess; Chandler, Michael; Dyda, Fred

    2010-02-01

    DNA rearrangements are important in genome function and evolution. Genetic material can be rearranged inadvertently during processes such as DNA repair, or can be moved in a controlled manner by enzymes specifically dedicated to the task. DNA transposases comprise one class of such enzymes. These move DNA segments known as transposons to new locations, without the need for sequence homology between transposon and target site. Several biochemically distinct pathways have evolved for DNA transposition, and genetic and biochemical studies have provided valuable insights into many of these. However, structural information on transposases - particularly with DNA substrates - has proven elusive in most cases. On the other hand, large-scale genome sequencing projects have led to an explosion in the number of annotated prokaryotic and eukaryotic mobile elements. Here, we briefly review biochemical and mechanistic aspects of DNA transposition, and propose that integrating sequence information with structural information using bioinformatics tools such as secondary structure prediction and protein threading can lead not only to an additional level of understanding but possibly also to testable hypotheses regarding transposition mechanisms. Detailed understanding of transposition pathways is a prerequisite for the long-term goal of exploiting DNA transposons as genetic tools and as a basis for genetic medical applications. PMID:20067338

  5. Cell Biology of Prokaryotic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Dorothee; Byrne, Meghan; Komeili, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence in recent years has challenged the dogma that prokaryotes are simple and undefined cells devoid of an organized subcellular architecture. In fact, proteins once thought to be the purely eukaryotic inventions, including relatives of actin and tubulin control prokaryotic cell shape, DNA segregation, and cytokinesis. Similarly, compartmentalization, commonly noted as a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells, is also prevalent in the prokaryotic world in the form of protein-bounded and lipid-bounded organelles. In this article we highlight some of these prokaryotic organelles and discuss the current knowledge on their ultrastructure and the molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and maintenance. PMID:20739411

  6. Single-Molecule Observation of Prokaryotic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Nathan A.; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in optical imaging and molecular manipulation techniques have made it possible to observe the activity of individual enzymes and study the dynamic properties of processes that are challenging to elucidate using ensemble-averaging techniques. The use of single-molecule approaches has proven to be particularly successful in the study of the dynamic interactions between the components at the replication fork. In this section, we describe the methods necessary for in vitro single-molecule studies of prokaryotic replication systems. Through these experiments, accurate information can be obtained on the rates and processivities of DNA unwinding and polymerization. The ability to monitor in real time the progress of a single replication fork allows for the detection of short-lived, intermediate states that would be difficult to visualize in bulk-phase assays. PMID:19563119

  7. Single-molecule observation of prokaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Hylkje J; Duderstadt, Karl E; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2015-01-01

    Replication of DNA requires the coordinated activity of a number of proteins within a multiprotein complex, the replisome. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have enabled the observation of dynamic behavior of individual replisome components and of the replisome as a whole, aspects that previously often have been obscured by ensemble averaging in more classical solution-phase biochemical experiments. To improve robustness and reproducibility of single-molecule assays of replication and allow objective analysis and comparison of results obtained from such assays, common practices should be established. Here, we describe the technical details of two assays to study replisome activity. In one, the kinetics of replication are observed as length changes in DNA molecules mechanically stretched by a laminar flow applied to attached beads. In the other, fluorescence imaging is used to determine both the kinetics and stoichiometry of individual replisome components. These in vitro single-molecule methods allow for elucidation of the dynamic behavior of individual replication proteins of prokaryotic replication systems. PMID:25916715

  8. Biased DNA segregation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2013-01-01

    The immortal strand hypothesis, which emerged four decades ago, proposes that certain cells retain a template copy of chromosomal DNA to protect against replication-induced mutations. As the interest in stem cells rose in recent years, researchers speculated that stem cells, which must maintain proliferative capacity throughout the life of the organism, may be the population that most needs the strong protection afforded by immortal strand segregation. Alternative hypotheses have also been proposed to explain observed non-random sister chromatid segregation. We recently found that Drosophila male germline stem cells segregate sister chromatids non-randomly, but such bias was limited to the sex chromosomes. Interestingly, the biased segregation does not lead to immortal strand segregation. We will discuss the implications of this observation and molecular mechanisms, which might be applicable to non-random sister chromatid segregation in other systems as well. PMID:23707893

  9. Promoters responsive to DNA bending: a common theme in prokaryotic gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martín, J; Rojo, F; de Lorenzo, V

    1994-01-01

    The early notion of DNA as a passive target for regulatory proteins has given way to the realization that higher-order DNA structures and DNA-protein complexes are at the basis of many molecular processes, including control of promoter activity. Protein binding may direct the bending of an otherwise linear DNA, exacerbate the angle of an intrinsic bend, or assist the directional flexibility of certain sequences within prokaryotic promoters. The important, sometimes essential role of intrinsic or protein-induced DNA bending in transcriptional regulation has become evident in virtually every system examined. As discussed throughout this article, not every function of DNA bends is understood, but their presence has been detected in a wide variety of bacterial promoters subjected to positive or negative control. Nonlinear DNA structures facilitate and even determine proximal and distal DNA-protein and protein-protein contacts involved in the various steps leading to transcription initiation. PMID:8078436

  10. DnaK-Dependent Accelerated Evolutionary Rate in Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kadibalban, A Samer; Bogumil, David; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Many proteins depend on an interaction with molecular chaperones in order to fold into a functional tertiary structure. Previous studies showed that protein interaction with the GroEL/GroES chaperonine and Hsp90 chaperone can buffer the impact of slightly deleterious mutations in the protein sequence. This capacity of GroEL/GroES to prevent protein misfolding has been shown to accelerate the evolution of its client proteins. Whether other bacterial chaperones have a similar effect on their client proteins is currently unknown. Here, we study the impact of DnaK (Hsp70) chaperone on the evolution of its client proteins. Evolutionary parameters were derived from comparison of the Escherichia coli proteome to 1,808,565 orthologous proteins in 1,149 proteobacterial genomes. Our analysis reveals a significant positive correlation between protein binding frequency with DnaK and evolutionary rate. Proteins with high binding affinity to DnaK evolve on average 4.3-fold faster than proteins in the lowest binding affinity class at the genus resolution. Differences in evolutionary rates of DnaK interactor classes are still significant after adjusting for possible effects caused by protein expression level. Furthermore, we observe an additive effect of DnaK and GroEL chaperones on the evolutionary rates of their common interactors. Finally, we found pronounced similarities in the physicochemical profiles that characterize proteins belonging to DnaK and GroEL interactomes. Our results thus implicate DnaK-mediated folding as a major component in shaping protein evolutionary dynamics in bacteria and supply further evidence for the long-term manifestation of chaperone-mediated folding on genome evolution. PMID:27189986

  11. DnaK-Dependent Accelerated Evolutionary Rate in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Kadibalban, A. Samer; Bogumil, David; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Many proteins depend on an interaction with molecular chaperones in order to fold into a functional tertiary structure. Previous studies showed that protein interaction with the GroEL/GroES chaperonine and Hsp90 chaperone can buffer the impact of slightly deleterious mutations in the protein sequence. This capacity of GroEL/GroES to prevent protein misfolding has been shown to accelerate the evolution of its client proteins. Whether other bacterial chaperones have a similar effect on their client proteins is currently unknown. Here, we study the impact of DnaK (Hsp70) chaperone on the evolution of its client proteins. Evolutionary parameters were derived from comparison of the Escherichia coli proteome to 1,808,565 orthologous proteins in 1,149 proteobacterial genomes. Our analysis reveals a significant positive correlation between protein binding frequency with DnaK and evolutionary rate. Proteins with high binding affinity to DnaK evolve on average 4.3-fold faster than proteins in the lowest binding affinity class at the genus resolution. Differences in evolutionary rates of DnaK interactor classes are still significant after adjusting for possible effects caused by protein expression level. Furthermore, we observe an additive effect of DnaK and GroEL chaperones on the evolutionary rates of their common interactors. Finally, we found pronounced similarities in the physicochemical profiles that characterize proteins belonging to DnaK and GroEL interactomes. Our results thus implicate DnaK-mediated folding as a major component in shaping protein evolutionary dynamics in bacteria and supply further evidence for the long-term manifestation of chaperone-mediated folding on genome evolution. PMID:27189986

  12. Mobile DNA can drive lineage extinction in prokaryotic populations.

    PubMed

    Rankin, D J; Bichsel, M; Wagner, A

    2010-11-01

    Natural selection ultimately acts on genes and other DNA sequences. Adaptations that are good for the gene can have adverse effects at higher levels of organization, including the individual or the population. Mobile genetic elements illustrate this principle well, because they can self-replicate within a genome at a cost to their host. As they are costly and can be transmitted horizontally, mobile elements can be seen as genomic parasites. It has been suggested that mobile elements may cause the extinction of their host populations. In organisms with very large populations, such as most bacteria, individual selection is highly effective in purging genomes of deleterious elements, suggesting that extinction is unlikely. Here we investigate the conditions under which mobile DNA can drive bacterial lineages to extinction. We use a range of epidemiological and ecological models to show that harmful mobile DNA can invade, and drive populations to extinction, provided their transmission rate is high and that mobile element-induced mortality is not too high. Population extinction becomes more likely when there are more elements in the population. Even if elements are costly, extinction can still occur because of the combined effect of horizontal gene transfer, a mortality induced by mobile elements. Our study highlights the potential of mobile DNA to be selected at the population level, as well as at the individual level. PMID:20860700

  13. Novel actin filaments from Bacillus thuringiensis form nanotubules for plasmid DNA segregation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shimin; Narita, Akihiro; Popp, David; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Lee, Lin Jie; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.; Oda, Toshiro; Koh, Fujiet; Larsson, Mårten; Robinson, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the discovery of a bacterial DNA-segregating actin-like protein (BtParM) from Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms novel antiparallel, two-stranded, supercoiled, nonpolar helical filaments, as determined by electron microscopy. The BtParM filament features of supercoiling and forming antiparallel double-strands are unique within the actin fold superfamily, and entirely different to the straight, double-stranded, polar helical filaments of all other known ParMs and of eukaryotic F-actin. The BtParM polymers show dynamic assembly and subsequent disassembly in the presence of ATP. BtParR, the DNA-BtParM linking protein, stimulated ATP hydrolysis/phosphate release by BtParM and paired two supercoiled BtParM filaments to form a cylinder, comprised of four strands with inner and outer diameters of 57 Å and 145 Å, respectively. Thus, in this prokaryote, the actin fold has evolved to produce a filament system with comparable features to the eukaryotic chromosome-segregating microtubule. PMID:26873105

  14. Assessing diversity of DNA structure-related sequence features in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjie; Mrázek, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Prokaryotic genomes are diverse in terms of their nucleotide and oligonucleotide composition as well as presence of various sequence features that can affect physical properties of the DNA molecule. We present a survey of local sequence patterns which have a potential to promote non-canonical DNA conformations (i.e. different from standard B-DNA double helix) and interpret the results in terms of relationships with organisms' habitats, phylogenetic classifications, and other characteristics. Our present work differs from earlier similar surveys not only by investigating a wider range of sequence patterns in a large number of genomes but also by using a more realistic null model to assess significant deviations. Our results show that simple sequence repeats and Z-DNA-promoting patterns are generally suppressed in prokaryotic genomes, whereas palindromes and inverted repeats are over-represented. Representation of patterns that promote Z-DNA and intrinsic DNA curvature increases with increasing optimal growth temperature (OGT), and decreases with increasing oxygen requirement. Additionally, representations of close direct repeats, palindromes and inverted repeats exhibit clear negative trends with increasing OGT. The observed relationships with environmental characteristics, particularly OGT, suggest possible evolutionary scenarios of structural adaptation of DNA to particular environmental niches. PMID:24408877

  15. Assessing Diversity of DNA Structure-Related Sequence Features in Prokaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjie; Mrázek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotic genomes are diverse in terms of their nucleotide and oligonucleotide composition as well as presence of various sequence features that can affect physical properties of the DNA molecule. We present a survey of local sequence patterns which have a potential to promote non-canonical DNA conformations (i.e. different from standard B-DNA double helix) and interpret the results in terms of relationships with organisms' habitats, phylogenetic classifications, and other characteristics. Our present work differs from earlier similar surveys not only by investigating a wider range of sequence patterns in a large number of genomes but also by using a more realistic null model to assess significant deviations. Our results show that simple sequence repeats and Z-DNA-promoting patterns are generally suppressed in prokaryotic genomes, whereas palindromes and inverted repeats are over-represented. Representation of patterns that promote Z-DNA and intrinsic DNA curvature increases with increasing optimal growth temperature (OGT), and decreases with increasing oxygen requirement. Additionally, representations of close direct repeats, palindromes and inverted repeats exhibit clear negative trends with increasing OGT. The observed relationships with environmental characteristics, particularly OGT, suggest possible evolutionary scenarios of structural adaptation of DNA to particular environmental niches. PMID:24408877

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Prokaryotes in Environmental Water Using DNA Microarray Analysis and Whole Genome Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Akama, Takeshi; Kawashima, Akira; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Hayashi, Moyuru; Ishido, Yuko; Luo, Yuqian; Hata, Akihisa; Fujitani, Noboru; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The microflora in environmental water consists of a high density and diversity of bacterial species that form the foundation of the water ecosystem. Because the majority of these species cannot be cultured in vitro, a different approach is needed to identify prokaryotes in environmental water. A novel DNA microarray was developed as a simplified detection protocol. Multiple DNA probes were designed against each of the 97,927 sequences in the DNA Data Bank of Japan and mounted on a glass chip in duplicate. Evaluation of the microarray was performed using the DNA extracted from one liter of environmental water samples collected from seven sites in Japan. The extracted DNA was uniformly amplified using whole genome amplification (WGA), labeled with Cy3-conjugated 16S rRNA specific primers and hybridized to the microarray. The microarray successfully identified soil bacteria and environment-specific bacteria clusters. The DNA microarray described herein can be a useful tool in evaluating the diversity of prokaryotes and assessing environmental changes such as global warming. PMID:25437334

  17. Non-Gaussian statistics of anomalous diffusion: The DNA sequences of prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Buiatti, Marco; Grigolini, Paolo; West, Bruce J.

    1998-09-01

    We adopt a non-Gaussian indicator to measure the deviation from Gaussian statistics of a diffusion process generated by dichotomous fluctuations with infinite memory. We also make analytical predictions on the transient behavior of the non-Gaussian indicator as well as on its stationary value. We then apply this non-Gaussian analysis to the DNA sequences of prokaryotes adopting a theoretical model where the ``DNA dynamics'' are assumed to be determined by the statistical superposition of two independent generators of fluctuations: a generator of fluctuations with no correlation and a generator of fluctuations with infinite correlation ``time.'' We study also the influence that the finite length of the observed sequences has on the non-Gaussian statistics of diffusion. We find that these non-Gaussian effects are blurred by the joint action of short-range fluctuation and sequence truncation. Nevertheless, under proper conditions, fulfilled by all the DNA sequences of prokaryotes that have been examined, a non-Gaussian signature remains to signal the correlated nature of the driving process.

  18. Computational Model for DNA Organization Mediated by Protein Interaction in Prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, Karthik; Kharel, Savan

    2016-03-01

    In Escherichia Coli, there are several mechanisms that drive chromosomal organization. We know through experiments that the E. Coli chromosome is condensed into highly structured regions known as macrodomains (MDs). One of the regions known as the Terminus undergoes DNA-bridging condensation that form loops between distant DNA sites and it is known to be mediated by a Terminus specific protein, which binds to specific markers within the Terminus region. In the absence of Terminus specific protein, however, the Terminus region is known to not condense nearly as much, which will likely impede several biological processes including DNA replication. In order to understand the molecular basis of protein mediation in vivo several models of Terminus specific segregation have been constructed in silico which model DNA as polymer chains.

  19. Asymmetric segregation of template DNA strands in basal-like human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and methods Stem or progenitor cells from healthy tissues have the capacity to co-segregate their template DNA strands during mitosis. Here, we set out to test whether breast cancer cell lines also possess the ability to asymmetrically segregate their template DNA strands via non-random chromosome co-segregation, and whether this ability correlates with certain properties attributed to breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). We quantified the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA strands in 12 human breast cancer cell lines, and correlated the frequency to molecular subtype, CD44+/CD24-/lo phenotype, and invasion/migration ability. We tested if co-culture with human mesenchymal stem cells, which are known to increase self-renewal, can alter the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA in breast cancer. Results We found a positive correlation between asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the breast cancer basal-like and claudin-low subtypes. There was an inverse correlation between asymmetric segregation of template DNA and Her2 expression. Breast cancer samples with evidence of asymmetric segregation of template DNA had significantly increased invasion and borderline significantly increased migration abilities. Samples with high CD44+/CD24-/lo surface expression were more likely to harbor a consistent population of cells that asymmetrically segregated its template DNA; however, symmetric self-renewal was enriched in the CD44+/CD24-/lo population. Co-culturing breast cancer cells with human mesenchymal stem cells expanded the breast CSC pool and decreased the frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA. Conclusions Breast cancer cells within the basal-like subtype can asymmetrically segregate their template DNA strands through non-random chromosome segregation. The frequency of asymmetric segregation of template DNA can be modulated by external factors that influence expansion or self-renewal of CSC populations. Future

  20. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  1. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 100 cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 103 cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research. PMID:27334801

  2. Replication initiator DnaA binds at the Caulobacter centromere and enables chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Mera, Paola E.; Kalogeraki, Virginia S.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    During cell division, multiple processes are highly coordinated to faithfully generate genetically equivalent daughter cells. In bacteria, the mechanisms that underlie the coordination of chromosome replication and segregation are poorly understood. Here, we report that the conserved replication initiator, DnaA, can mediate chromosome segregation independent of replication initiation. It does so by binding directly to the parS centromere region of the chromosome, and mutations that alter this interaction result in cells that display aberrant centromere translocation and cell division. We propose that DnaA serves to coordinate bacterial DNA replication with the onset of chromosome segregation. PMID:25349407

  3. Rapid quantification and taxonomic classification of environmentalDNA from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins using a microarray

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Stone, Carol E.; Murray, Sonya R.; Moberg,Jordan P.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2005-02-22

    A microarray has been designed using 62,358 probes matched to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The array categorized environmental DNA to specific phylogenetic clusters in under 9 h. To a background of DNA generated from natural outdoor aerosols, known quantities of rRNA gene copies from distinct organisms were added producing corresponding hybridization intensity scores that correlated well with their concentrations (r=0.917). Reproducible differences in microbial community composition were observed by altering the genomic DNA extraction method. Notably, gentle extractions produced peak intensities for Mycoplasmatales and Burkholderiales, whereas a vigorous disruption produced peak intensities for Vibrionales,Clostridiales, and Bacillales.

  4. The precarious prokaryotic chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other "precarious" features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  5. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  6. Tissue-specific modulation of mitochondrial DNA segregation by a defect in mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Riikka; Marttinen, Paula; Stewart, James B; Neil Dear, T; Battersby, Brendan J

    2016-02-15

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that divide and fuse by remodeling an outer and inner membrane in response to developmental, physiological and stress stimuli. These events are coordinated by conserved dynamin-related GTPases. The dynamics of mitochondrial morphology require coordination with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to ensure faithful genome transmission, however, this process remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial division is linked to the segregation of mtDNA but how it affects cases of mtDNA heteroplasmy, where two or more mtDNA variants/mutations co-exist in a cell, is unknown. Segregation of heteroplasmic human pathogenic mtDNA mutations is a critical factor in the onset and severity of human mitochondrial diseases. Here, we investigated the coupling of mitochondrial morphology to the transmission and segregation of mtDNA in mammals by taking advantage of two genetically modified mouse models: one with a dominant-negative mutation in the dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 or Dnm1l) that impairs mitochondrial fission and the other, heteroplasmic mice segregating two neutral mtDNA haplotypes (BALB and NZB). We show a tissue-specific response to mtDNA segregation from a defect in mitochondrial fission. Only mtDNA segregation in the hematopoietic compartment is modulated from impaired Dnm1l function. In contrast, no effect was observed in other tissues arising from the three germ layers during development and in mtDNA transmission through the female germline. Our data suggest a robust organization of a heteroplasmic mtDNA segregating unit across mammalian cell types that can overcome impaired mitochondrial division to ensure faithful transmission of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:26681804

  7. Human mitochondrial transcription factor A is required for the segregation of mitochondrial DNA in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sumitani, Megumi; Endo, Hitoshi

    2011-01-15

    The segregation and transmission of the mitochondrial genome in humans are complicated processes but are particularly important for understanding the inheritance and clinical abnormalities of mitochondrial disorders. However, the molecular mechanism of the segregation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for the segregation of mtDNA in cultured cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of TFAM in HeLa cells resulted in the enlarged mtDNA, as indicated by the assembly of fluorescent signals stained with PicoGreen. Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed the enlarged mtDNA and further showed the existence of increased numbers of mitochondria lacking mtDNA signals in TFAM knockdown cells. By complementation analysis, the C-terminal tail of TFAM, which enhances its affinity with DNA, was found to be required for the appropriate distribution of mtDNA. Furthermore, we found that TFAM knockdown induced asymmetric segregation of mtDNA between dividing daughter cells. These results suggest an essential role for human TFAM in symmetric segregation of mtDNA. PMID:20955698

  8. Molecular cloaking of H2A.Z on mortal DNA chromosomes during nonrandom segregation.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yang Hoon; Sherley, James L

    2011-10-01

    Although nonrandom sister chromatid segregation is a singular property of distributed stem cells (DSCs) that are responsible for renewing and repairing mature vertebrate tissues, both its cellular function and its molecular mechanism remain unknown. This situation persists in part because of the lack of facile methods for detecting and quantifying nonrandom segregating cells and for identifying chromosomes with immortal DNA strands, the cellular molecules that signify nonrandom segregation. During nonrandom segregation, at each mitosis, asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs continuously cosegregate to themselves the set of chromosomes that contain immortal DNA strands, which are the oldest DNA strands. Here, we report the discovery of a molecular asymmetry between segregating sets of immortal chromosomes and opposed mortal chromosomes (i.e., containing the younger set of DNA template strands) that constitutes a new convenient biomarker for detection of cells undergoing nonrandom segregation and direct delineation of chromosomes that bear immortal DNA strands. In both cells engineered with DSC-specific properties and ex vivo-expanded mouse hair follicle stem cells, the histone H2A variant H2A.Z shows specific immunodetection on immortal DNA chromosomes. Cell fixation analyses indicate that H2A.Z is present on mortal chromosomes as well but is cloaked from immunodetection, and the cloaking entity is acid labile. The H2A.Z chromosomal asymmetry produced by molecular cloaking provides a first direct assay for nonrandom segregation and for chromosomes with immortal DNA strands. It also seems likely to manifest an important aspect of the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nonrandom sister chromatid segregation in DSCs. PMID:21905168

  9. Metakaryotic stem cell nuclei use pangenomic dsRNA/DNA intermediates in genome replication and segregation

    PubMed Central

    Thilly, William G; Gostjeva, Elena V; Koledova, Vera V; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Chung, Daniel; Fomina, Janna N; Darroudi, Firouz; Stollar, B David

    2014-01-01

    Bell shaped nuclei of metakaryotic cells double their DNA content during and after symmetric and asymmetric amitotic fissions rather than in the separate, pre-mitotic S-phase of eukaryotic cells. A parsimonious hypothesis was tested that the two anti-parallel strands of each chromatid DNA helix were first segregated as ssDNA-containing complexes into sister nuclei then copied to recreate a dsDNA genome. Metakaryotic nuclei that were treated during amitosis with RNase A and stained with acridine orange or fluorescent antibody to ssDNA revealed large amounts of ssDNA. Without RNase treatment metakaryotic nuclei in amitosis stained strongly with an antibody complex specific to dsRNA/DNA. Images of amitotic figures co-stained with dsRNA/DNA antibody and DAPI indicated that the entire interphase dsDNA genome (B-form helices) was transformed into two dsRNA/DNA genomes (A-form helices) that were segregated in the daughter cell nuclei then retransformed into dsDNA. As this process segregates DNA strands of opposite polarity in sister cells it hypothetically offers a sequential switching mechanism within the diverging stem cell lineages of development. PMID:24418910

  10. Quantitative Changes in Gimap3 and Gimap5 Expression Modify Mitochondrial DNA Segregation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Riikka; Lahtinen, Taina; Marttinen, Paula; Myöhänen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Pilvi; Yeung, Nicolas; Shvetsova, Antonina; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Öhman, Tiina; Nyman, Tuula A.; Weiler, Hartmut; Battersby, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a high-copy maternally inherited genome essential for aerobic energy metabolism. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to heteroplasmy, the co-occurence of two different mtDNA variants in the same cell, which can segregate in a tissue-specific manner affecting the onset and severity of mitochondrial dysfunction. To investigate mechanisms regulating mtDNA segregation we use a heteroplasmic mouse model with two polymorphic neutral mtDNA haplotypes (NZB and BALB) that displays tissue-specific and age-dependent selection for mtDNA haplotypes. In the hematopoietic compartment there is selection for the BALB mtDNA haplotype, a phenotype that can be modified by allelic variants of Gimap3. Gimap3 is a tail-anchored member of the GTPase of the immunity-associated protein (Gimap) family of protein scaffolds important for leukocyte development and survival. Here we show how the expression of two murine Gimap3 alleles from Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. castaneus differentially affect mtDNA segregation. The castaneus allele has incorporated a uORF (upstream open reading frame) in-frame with the Gimap3 mRNA that impairs translation and imparts a negative effect on the steady-state protein abundance. We found that quantitative changes in the expression of Gimap3 and the paralogue Gimap5, which encodes a lysosomal protein, affect mtDNA segregation in the mouse hematopoietic tissues. We also show that Gimap3 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and not mitochondria as previously reported. Collectively these data show that the abundance of protein scaffolds on the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes are important to the segregation of the mitochondrial genome in the mouse hematopoietic compartment. PMID:25808953

  11. Dbl2 Regulates Rad51 and DNA Joint Molecule Metabolism to Ensure Proper Meiotic Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hyppa, Randy W.; Benko, Zsigmond; Misova, Ivana; Schleiffer, Alexander; Smith, Gerald R.; Gregan, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    To identify new proteins required for faithful meiotic chromosome segregation, we screened a Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion mutant library and found that deletion of the dbl2 gene led to missegregation of chromosomes during meiosis. Analyses of both live and fixed cells showed that dbl2Δ mutant cells frequently failed to segregate homologous chromosomes to opposite poles during meiosis I. Removing Rec12 (Spo11 homolog) to eliminate meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) suppressed the segregation defect in dbl2Δ cells, indicating that Dbl2 acts after the initiation of meiotic recombination. Analyses of DSBs and Holliday junctions revealed no significant defect in their formation or processing in dbl2Δ mutant cells, although some Rec12-dependent DNA joint molecules persisted late in meiosis. Failure to segregate chromosomes in the absence of Dbl2 correlated with persistent Rad51 foci, and deletion of rad51 or genes encoding Rad51 mediators also suppressed the segregation defect of dbl2Δ. Formation of foci of Fbh1, an F-box helicase that efficiently dismantles Rad51-DNA filaments, was impaired in dbl2Δ cells. Our results suggest that Dbl2 is a novel regulator of Fbh1 and thereby Rad51-dependent DSB repair required for proper meiotic chromosome segregation and viable sex cell formation. The wide conservation of these proteins suggests that our results apply to many species. PMID:27304859

  12. Dbl2 Regulates Rad51 and DNA Joint Molecule Metabolism to Ensure Proper Meiotic Chromosome Segregation.

    PubMed

    Polakova, Silvia; Molnarova, Lucia; Hyppa, Randy W; Benko, Zsigmond; Misova, Ivana; Schleiffer, Alexander; Smith, Gerald R; Gregan, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    To identify new proteins required for faithful meiotic chromosome segregation, we screened a Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion mutant library and found that deletion of the dbl2 gene led to missegregation of chromosomes during meiosis. Analyses of both live and fixed cells showed that dbl2Δ mutant cells frequently failed to segregate homologous chromosomes to opposite poles during meiosis I. Removing Rec12 (Spo11 homolog) to eliminate meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) suppressed the segregation defect in dbl2Δ cells, indicating that Dbl2 acts after the initiation of meiotic recombination. Analyses of DSBs and Holliday junctions revealed no significant defect in their formation or processing in dbl2Δ mutant cells, although some Rec12-dependent DNA joint molecules persisted late in meiosis. Failure to segregate chromosomes in the absence of Dbl2 correlated with persistent Rad51 foci, and deletion of rad51 or genes encoding Rad51 mediators also suppressed the segregation defect of dbl2Δ. Formation of foci of Fbh1, an F-box helicase that efficiently dismantles Rad51-DNA filaments, was impaired in dbl2Δ cells. Our results suggest that Dbl2 is a novel regulator of Fbh1 and thereby Rad51-dependent DSB repair required for proper meiotic chromosome segregation and viable sex cell formation. The wide conservation of these proteins suggests that our results apply to many species. PMID:27304859

  13. DNA damage response during mitosis induces whole chromosome mis-segregation

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Samuel F.; Kabeche, Lilian; Murnane, John P.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Compton, Duane A.

    2014-01-01

    Many cancers display both structural (s-CIN) and numerical (w-CIN) chromosomal instabilities. Defective chromosome segregation during mitosis has been shown to cause DNA damage that induces structural rearrangements of chromosomes (s-CIN). In contrast, whether DNA damage can disrupt mitotic processes to generate whole chromosomal instability (w-CIN) is unknown. Here we show that activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) during mitosis selectively stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT) attachments to chromosomes through Aurora-A and Plk1 kinases, thereby increasing the frequency of lagging chromosomes during anaphase. Inhibition of DDR proteins, ATM or Chk2, abolishes the effect of DNA damage on k-MTs and chromosome segregation, whereas activation of the DDR in the absence of DNA damage is sufficient to induce chromosome segregation errors. Finally, inhibiting the DDR during mitosis in cancer cells with persistent DNA damage suppresses inherent chromosome segregation defects. Thus, DDR during mitosis inappropriately stabilizes k-MTs creating a link between s-CIN and w-CIN. PMID:25107667

  14. Physical Modeling of Chromosome Segregation in Escherichia coli Reveals Impact of Force and DNA Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Lampo, Thomas J.; Kuwada, Nathan J.; Wiggins, Paul A.; Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The physical mechanism by which Escherichia coli segregates copies of its chromosome for partitioning into daughter cells is unknown, partly due to the difficulty in interpreting the complex dynamic behavior during segregation. Analysis of previous chromosome segregation measurements in E. coli demonstrates that the origin of replication exhibits processive motion with a mean displacement that scales as t0.32. In this work, we develop a model for segregation of chromosomal DNA as a Rouse polymer in a viscoelastic medium with a force applied to a single monomer. Our model demonstrates that the observed power-law scaling of the mean displacement and the behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function is captured by accounting for the relaxation of the polymer chain and the viscoelastic environment. We show that the ratio of the mean displacement to the variance of the displacement during segregation events is a critical metric that eliminates the compounding effects of polymer and medium dynamics and provides the segregation force. We calculate the force of oriC segregation in E. coli to be ∼0.49 pN. PMID:25564861

  15. Microcompartments and Protein Machines in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic cell was once thought of as a “bag of enzymes” with little or no intracellular compartmentalization. In this view, most reactions essential for life occurred as a consequence of random molecular collisions involving substrates, cofactors and cytoplasmic enzymes. Our current conception of a prokaryote is far from this view. We now consider a bacterium or an archaeon as a highly structured, non-random collection of functional membrane-embedded and proteinaceous molecular machines, each of which serves a specialized function. In this article we shall present an overview of such microcompartments including (i) the bacterial cytoskeleton and the apparati allowing DNA segregation during cells division, (ii) energy transduction apparati involving light-driven proton pumping and ion gradient-driven ATP synthesis, (iii) prokaryotic motility and taxis machines that mediate cell movements in response to gradients of chemicals and physical forces, (iv) machines of protein folding, secretion and degradation, (v) metabolasomes carrying out specific chemical reactions, (vi) 24 hour clocks allowing bacteria to coordinate their metabolic activities with the daily solar cycle and (vii) proteinaceous membrane compartmentalized structures such as sulfur granules and gas vacuoles. Membrane-bounded prokaryotic organelles were considered in a recent JMMB written symposium concerned with membraneous compartmentalization in bacteria [Saier and Bogdanov, 2013]. By contrast, in this symposium, we focus on proteinaceous microcompartments. These two symposia, taken together, provide the interested reader with an objective view of the remarkable complexity of what was once thought of as a simple non-compartmentalized cell. PMID:23920489

  16. Segregation of Naturally Occurring Mitochondrial DNA Variants in a Mini-Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Tsai, Te-Sha; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Rossello, Fernando; Powell, David R; Rohrer, Gary; Cree, Lynsey; Trounce, Ian A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form within cells and harbors sequence variants (heteroplasmy). While a single mtDNA variant at high load can cause disease, naturally occurring variants likely persist at low levels across generations of healthy populations. To determine how naturally occurring variants are segregated and transmitted, we generated a mini-pig model, which originates from the same maternal ancestor. Following next-generation sequencing, we identified a series of low-level mtDNA variants in blood samples from the female founder and her daughters. Four variants, ranging from 3% to 20%, were selected for validation by high-resolution melting analysis in 12 tissues from 31 animals across three generations. All four variants were maintained in the offspring, but variant load fluctuated significantly across the generations in several tissues, with sex-specific differences in heart and liver. Moreover, variant load was persistently reduced in high-respiratory organs (heart, brain, diaphragm, and muscle), which correlated significantly with higher mtDNA copy number. However, oocytes showed increased heterogeneity in variant load, which correlated with increased mtDNA copy number during in vitro maturation. Altogether, these outcomes show that naturally occurring mtDNA variants segregate and are maintained in a tissue-specific manner across generations. This segregation likely involves the maintenance of selective mtDNA variants during organogenesis, which can be differentially regulated in oocytes and preimplantation embryos during maturation. PMID:26819245

  17. Plasmid protein TubR uses a distinct mode of HTH-DNA binding and recruits the prokaryotic tubulin homolog TubZ to effect DNA partition.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lisheng; Xu, Weijun; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Schumacher, Maria A

    2010-06-29

    The segregation of plasmid DNA typically requires three elements: a DNA centromere site, an NTPase, and a centromere-binding protein. Because of their simplicity, plasmid partition systems represent tractable models to study the molecular basis of DNA segregation. Unlike eukaryotes, which utilize the GTPase tubulin to segregate DNA, the most common plasmid-encoded NTPases contain Walker-box and actin-like folds. Recently, a plasmid stability cassette on Bacillus thuringiensis pBtoxis encoding a putative FtsZ/tubulin-like NTPase called TubZ and DNA-binding protein called TubR has been described. How these proteins collaborate to impart plasmid stability, however, is unknown. Here we show that the TubR structure consists of an intertwined dimer with a winged helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. Strikingly, however, the TubR recognition helices mediate dimerization, making canonical HTH-DNA interactions impossible. Mutagenesis data indicate that a basic patch, encompassing the two wing regions and the N termini of the recognition helices, mediates DNA binding, which indicates an unusual HTH-DNA interaction mode in which the N termini of the recognition helices insert into a single DNA groove and the wings into adjacent DNA grooves. The TubZ structure shows that it is as similar structurally to eukaryotic tubulin as it is to bacterial FtsZ. TubZ forms polymers with guanine nucleotide-binding characteristics and polymer dynamics similar to tubulin. Finally, we show that the exposed TubZ C-terminal region interacts with TubR-DNA, linking the TubR-bound pBtoxis to TubZ polymerization. The combined data suggest a mechanism for TubZ-polymer powered plasmid movement. PMID:20534443

  18. Self-organized patterning through the dynamic segregation of DNA and silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Joksimovic, Rastko; Watanabe, Shun; Riemer, Sven; Gradzielski, Michael; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Exotic pattern formation as a result of drying of an aqueous solution containing DNA and silica nanoparticles is reported. The pattern due to segregation was found to critically depend on the relative ratio of nanoparticles and DNA, as revealed by polarization microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The blurred radial pattern that is usually observed in the drying of a colloidal solution was shown to be vividly sharpened in the presence of DNA. Uniquely curved, crescent-shaped micrometer-scale domains are generated in regions that are rich in nanoparticles. The characteristic segregated patterns observed in the present study are interpreted in terms of a large aspect ratio between the persistence length (∼50 nm) and the diameter (∼2 nm) of double-stranded DNA, and the relatively small silica nanoparticles (radius: 5 nm). PMID:24413900

  19. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Gregory A.; Alawad, Mohammed A.; Schulze, Katharina V.; Hudson, André O.

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (≈GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an ‘accessory’ during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context. PMID:25200075

  20. Analysis of T-DNA integration and generative segregation in transgenic winter triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the genetic transformation of the major cereal crops has become relatively routine, to date only a few reports were published on transgenic triticale, and robust data on T-DNA integration and segregation have not been available in this species. Results Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of stable transgenic winter triticale cv. Bogo carrying the selectable marker gene HYGROMYCIN PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE (HPT) and a synthetic green fluorescent protein gene (gfp). Progeny of four independent transgenic plants were comprehensively investigated with regard to the number of integrated T-DNA copies, the number of plant genomic integration loci, the integrity and functionality of individual T-DNA copies, as well as the segregation of transgenes in T1 and T2 generations, which also enabled us to identify homozygous transgenic lines. The truncation of some integrated T-DNAs at their left end along with the occurrence of independent segregation of multiple T-DNAs unintendedly resulted in a single-copy segregant that is selectable marker-free and homozygous for the gfp gene. The heritable expression of gfp driven by the maize UBI-1 promoter was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusions The used transformation method is a valuable tool for the genetic engineering of triticale. Here we show that comprehensive molecular analyses are required for the correct interpretation of phenotypic data collected from the transgenic plants. PMID:23006412

  1. Stem Cells Propagate Their DNA by Random Segregation in the Flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    PubMed Central

    Verdoodt, Freija; Willems, Maxime; Mouton, Stijn; De Mulder, Katrien; Bert, Wim; Houthoofd, Wouter; Smith, Julian; Ladurner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cells are proposed to have acquired special features to prevent an accumulation of DNA-replication errors. Two such mechanisms, frequently suggested to serve this goal are cellular quiescence, and non-random segregation of DNA strands during stem cell division, a theory designated as the immortal strand hypothesis. To date, it has been difficult to test the in vivo relevance of both mechanisms in stem cell systems. It has been shown that in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts) are present in adult animals. We sought to address by which means M. lignano neoblasts protect themselves against the accumulation of genomic errors, by studying the exact mode of DNA-segregation during their division. In this study, we demonstrated four lines of in vivo evidence in favor of cellular quiescence. Firstly, performing BrdU pulse-chase experiments, we localized ‘Label-Retaining Cells’ (LRCs). Secondly, EDU pulse-chase combined with Vasa labeling demonstrated the presence of neoblasts among the LRCs, while the majority of LRCs were differentiated cells.We showed that stem cells lose their label at a slow rate, indicating cellular quiescence. Thirdly, CldU/IdU− double labeling studies confirmed that label-retaining stem cells showed low proliferative activity. Finally, the use of the actin inhibitor, cytochalasin D, unequivocally demonstrated random segregation of DNA-strands in LRCs. Altogether, our data unambiguously demonstrated that the majority of neoblasts in M. lignano distribute their DNA randomly during cell division, and that label-retention is a direct result of cellular quiescence, rather than a sign of co-segregation of labeled strands. PMID:22276162

  2. The prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger adopts a novel fold as revealed by the NMR structure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ros DNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Russo, Luigi; Esposito, Sabrina; Baglivo, Ilaria; Zaccaro, Laura; Pedone, Emilia M.; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Isernia, Carla; Pedone, Paolo V.; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The first putative prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain has been identified in the transcriptional regulator Ros from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, indicating that the Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain, originally thought to be confined to the eukaryotic kingdom, could be widespread throughout the living kingdom from eukaryotic, both animal and plant, to prokaryotic. In this article we report the NMR solution structure of Ros DNA-binding domain (Ros87), providing 79 structural characterization of a prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain. The NMR structure of Ros87 shows that the putative prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger sequence is indeed part of a significantly larger zinc-binding globular domain that possesses a novel protein fold very different from the classical fold reported for the eukaryotic classical zinc-finger. The Ros87 globular domain consists of 58 aa (residues 9–66), is arranged in a βββαα topology, and is stabilized by an extensive 15-residue hydrophobic core. A backbone dynamics study of Ros87, based on 15N R1, 15N R2, and heteronuclear 15N-{1H}-NOE measurements, has further confirmed that the globular domain is uniformly rigid and flanked by two flexible tails. Mapping of the amino acids necessary for the DNA binding onto Ros87 structure reveals the protein surface involved in the DNA recognition mechanism of this new zinc-binding protein domain. PMID:17956987

  3. Dipole angular entropy techniques for intron-exon segregation in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Nithya; Bose, R.

    2012-04-01

    We propose techniques for computing the angular entropies of DNA sequences, based on the orientations of the dipole moments of the nucleotide bases. The angles of the dipole moment vectors of the bases are used to compute the dipole angular entropy and the Fourier harmonics of the angles are used to compute the dipole angular spectral entropy for a given sequence. We also show that the coding (exons) and noncoding (introns) regions of the DNA can be segregated based on their dipole angular entropies and dipole angular spectral entropies. Segregation using these techniques is found to be computationally faster and more accurate than the previously reported methods. The proposed techniques can also be improvised to use the magnitude of the dipole moments of the bases in addition to the angles.

  4. DNA methyltransferase-3-dependent nonrandom template segregation in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Cousin, Wendy; Chen, Robert Y; Chooljian, Marc S; Pham, Joey T; Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J

    2013-10-14

    Asymmetry of cell fate is one fundamental property of stem cells, in which one daughter cell self-renews, whereas the other differentiates. Evidence of nonrandom template segregation (NRTS) of chromosomes during asymmetric cell divisions in phylogenetically divergent organisms, such as plants, fungi, and mammals, has already been shown. However, before this current work, asymmetric inheritance of chromatids has never been demonstrated in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and its molecular mechanism has remained unknown. Our results unambiguously demonstrate NRTS in asymmetrically dividing, differentiating human and mouse ESCs. Moreover, we show that NRTS is dependent on DNA methylation and on Dnmt3 (DNA methyltransferase-3), indicating a molecular mechanism that regulates this phenomenon. Furthermore, our data support the hypothesis that retention of chromatids with the "old" template DNA preserves the epigenetic memory of cell fate, whereas localization of "new" DNA strands and de novo DNA methyltransferase to the lineage-destined daughter cell facilitates epigenetic adaptation to a new cell fate. PMID:24127215

  5. DNA Damage Responses in Prokaryotes: Regulating Gene Expression, Modulating Growth Patterns, and Manipulating Replication Forks

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of bacterial DNA damage responses are reviewed here. The SOS pathway is still the major paradigm of bacterial DNA damage response, and recent studies have clarified the mechanisms of SOS induction and key physiological roles of SOS including a very major role in genetic exchange and variation. When considering diverse bacteria, it is clear that SOS is not a uniform pathway with one purpose, but rather a platform that has evolved for differing functions in different bacteria. Relating in part to the SOS response, the field has uncovered multiple apparent cell-cycle checkpoints that assist cell survival after DNA damage and remarkable pathways that induce programmed cell death in bacteria. Bacterial DNA damage responses are also much broader than SOS, and several important examples of LexA-independent regulation will be reviewed. Finally, some recent advances that relate to the replication and repair of damaged DNA will be summarized. PMID:24097899

  6. Cytokinesis in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Common Principles and Different Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Nanninga, Nanne

    2001-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires duplication of cellular structures followed by bipolarization of the predivisional cell. As a common principle, this applies to prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. With respect to eukaryotes, the discussion has focused mainly on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Escherichia coli and to a lesser extent Bacillus subtilis have been used as prokaryotic examples. To establish a bipolar cell, duplication of a eukaryotic origin of DNA replication as well as its genome is not sufficient. Duplication of the microtubule-organizing center is required as a prelude to mitosis, and it is here that the dynamic cytoskeleton with all its associated proteins comes to the fore. In prokaryotes, a cytoskeleton that pervades the cytoplasm appears to be absent. DNA replication and the concomitant DNA segregation seem to occur without help from extensive cytosolic supramacromolecular assemblies but with help from the elongating cellular envelope. Prokaryotic cytokinesis proceeds through a contracting ring, which has a roughly 100-fold-smaller circumference than its eukaryotic counterpart. Although the ring contains proteins that can be considered as predecessors of actin, tubulin, and microtubule-associated proteins, its macromolecular composition is essentially different. PMID:11381104

  7. Short prokaryotic DNA fragment binning using a hierarchical classifier based on linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Hongwei

    2010-12-01

    Metagenomics is an emerging field in which the power of genomic analysis is applied to an entire microbial community, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual microbial species. Assembling of metagenomic DNA fragments is very much like the overlap-layout-consensus procedure for assembling isolated genomes, but is augmented by an additional binning step to differentiate scaffolds, contigs and unassembled reads into various taxonomic groups. In this paper, we employed n-mer oligonucleotide frequencies as the features and developed a hierarchical classifier (PCAHIER) for binning short (≤ 1,000 bps) metagenomic fragments. The principal component analysis was used to reduce the high dimensionality of the feature space. The hierarchical classifier consists of four layers of local classifiers that are implemented based on the linear discriminant analysis. These local classifiers are responsible for binning prokaryotic DNA fragments into superkingdoms, of the same superkingdom into phyla, of the same phylum into genera, and of the same genus into species, respectively. We evaluated the performance of the PCAHIER by using our own simulated data sets as well as the widely used simHC synthetic metagenome data set from the IMG/M system. The effectiveness of the PCAHIER was demonstrated through comparisons against a non-hierarchical classifier, and two existing binning algorithms (TETRA and Phylopythia). PMID:21121023

  8. Full-Length cDNA, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rongli; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin, which widely exists in all vertebrates and in some invertebrates, is possibly a precursor of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, AMPs in the hemoglobin of invertebrates have been rarely investigated. This study is the first to report the full-length cDNA, prokaryotic expression, and antimicrobial activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus. The full-length cDNA sequence of UuHb-F-I was 780 bp with an open-reading frame of 429 bp encoding 142 amino acids. MALDI-TOF-MS suggested that the recombinant protein of UuHb-F-I (rUuHb-F-I) yielded a molecular weight of 15,168.01 Da, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MGLTGAQIDAIK. rUuHb-F-I exhibited different antimicrobial activities against microorganisms. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Micrococcus luteus was 2.78–4.63 μM. Our results may help elucidate the immune defense mechanism of U. unicinctus and may provide insights into new AMPs in drug discovery. PMID:27471730

  9. Full-Length cDNA, Prokaryotic Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Rongli; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin, which widely exists in all vertebrates and in some invertebrates, is possibly a precursor of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, AMPs in the hemoglobin of invertebrates have been rarely investigated. This study is the first to report the full-length cDNA, prokaryotic expression, and antimicrobial activity of UuHb-F-I from Urechis unicinctus. The full-length cDNA sequence of UuHb-F-I was 780 bp with an open-reading frame of 429 bp encoding 142 amino acids. MALDI-TOF-MS suggested that the recombinant protein of UuHb-F-I (rUuHb-F-I) yielded a molecular weight of 15,168.01 Da, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MGLTGAQIDAIK. rUuHb-F-I exhibited different antimicrobial activities against microorganisms. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Micrococcus luteus was 2.78-4.63 μM. Our results may help elucidate the immune defense mechanism of U. unicinctus and may provide insights into new AMPs in drug discovery. PMID:27471730

  10. Casposons: a new superfamily of self-synthesizing DNA transposons at the origin of prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immunity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diverse transposable elements are abundant in genomes of cellular organisms from all three domains of life. Although transposons are often regarded as junk DNA, a growing body of evidence indicates that they are behind some of the major evolutionary innovations. With the growth in the number and diversity of sequenced genomes, previously unnoticed mobile elements continue to be discovered. Results We describe a new superfamily of archaeal and bacterial mobile elements which we denote casposons because they encode Cas1 endonuclease, a key enzyme of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity systems of archaea and bacteria. The casposons share several features with self-synthesizing eukaryotic DNA transposons of the Polinton/Maverick class, including terminal inverted repeats and genes for B family DNA polymerases. However, unlike any other known mobile elements, the casposons are predicted to rely on Cas1 for integration and excision, via a mechanism similar to the integration of new spacers into CRISPR loci. We identify three distinct families of casposons that differ in their gene repertoires and evolutionary provenance of the DNA polymerases. Deep branching of the casposon-encoded endonuclease in the Cas1 phylogeny suggests that casposons played a pivotal role in the emergence of CRISPR-Cas immunity. Conclusions The casposons are a novel superfamily of mobile elements, the first family of putative self-synthesizing transposons discovered in prokaryotes. The likely contribution of capsosons to the evolution of CRISPR-Cas parallels the involvement of the RAG1 transposase in vertebrate immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, suggesting that recruitment of endonucleases from mobile elements as ready-made tools for genome manipulation is a general route of evolution of adaptive immunity. PMID:24884953

  11. Pathological ribonuclease H1 causes R-loop depletion and aberrant DNA segregation in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Gokhan; Desai, Radha; Bailey, Laura J.; Yasukawa, Takehiro; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Holmes, J. Bradley; Moss, Chloe F.; Mennuni, Mara; Houlden, Henry; Hanna, Michael G.; Pitceathly, Robert D. S.; Spinazzola, Antonella; Holt, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic information in mammalian mitochondrial DNA is densely packed; there are no introns and only one sizeable noncoding, or control, region containing key cis-elements for its replication and expression. Many molecules of mitochondrial DNA bear a third strand of DNA, known as “7S DNA,” which forms a displacement (D-) loop in the control region. Here we show that many other molecules contain RNA as a third strand. The RNA of these R-loops maps to the control region of the mitochondrial DNA and is complementary to 7S DNA. Ribonuclease H1 is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication; it degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, so the R-loop is a potential substrate. In cells with a pathological variant of ribonuclease H1 associated with mitochondrial disease, R-loops are of low abundance, and there is mitochondrial DNA aggregation. These findings implicate ribonuclease H1 and RNA in the physical segregation of mitochondrial DNA, perturbation of which represents a previously unidentified disease mechanism. PMID:27402764

  12. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-05-22

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates. PMID:24836002

  13. Conservation of DNA curvature signals in regulatory regions of prokaryotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui, Ruy; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Collado-Vides, Julio; Merino, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    DNA curvature plays a well-characterized role in many transcriptional regulation mechanisms. We present evidence for the conservation of curvature signals in putative regulatory regions of several archaeal and eubacterial genomes. Genes with highly curved upstream regions were identified in orthologous groups, based on the annotations of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. COGs possessing a significant number of genes with curvature signals were analyzed, and conserved properties were found in several cases. Curvature signals related to regulatory sites, previously described in single organisms, were located in a broad spectrum of bacterial genomes. Global regulatory proteins, such as HU, IHF and FIS, known to bind to curved DNA and to be autoregulated, were found to present conserved DNA curvature signals in their regulatory regions, emphasizing the fact that structural parameters of the DNA molecule are conserved elements in the process of transcriptional regulation of some systems. It is currently an open question whether these diverse systems are part of an integrated global regulatory response in different microorganisms. PMID:14627810

  14. DNA Distribution in Spermatid Nuclei of Normal and Segregation Distorter Males of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Hauschteck-Jungen, E.; Hartl, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the DNA-specific dye BAO [2,5-bis-(4'-aminophenyl-(1')]-1,3,4-oxadiazol), we have examined spermiogenesis in wild-type males of Drosophila melanogaster and in males carrying various combinations of the Sd and Rsp mutations involved in segregation distortion. Wild-type strains, even those newly collected from nature, are heterogeneous with respect to the incidence of spermiogenic abnormalities, principally in having a variable number of spermatid nuclei per cyst that fail to undergo complete elongation. Among segregation distorter males, Rsp/Rsp homozygotes have the greatest incidence of nuclear nonelongation or incomplete elongation, Rsp/Rsp + heterozygotes are intermediate, while Rsp+/ Rsp+ homozygotes have the least amount of abnormality. Indeed, Sd Rsp+/Sd+Rsp+ males have significantly fewer spermiogenic aberrations than do wild-type strains. PMID:17248826

  15. Depletion of RNase HI activity in Escherichia coli lacking DNA topoisomerase I leads to defects in DNA supercoiling and segregation

    PubMed Central

    Usongo, Valentine; Nolent, Flora; Sanscartier, Patrick; Tanguay, Cynthia; Broccoli, Sonia; Baaklini, Imad; Drlica, Karl; Drolet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Gyrase-mediated hypernegative supercoiling is one manifestation of R-loop formation, a phenomenon that is normally suppressed by topoisomerase I (topA) in Escherichia coli. Overproduction of RNase HI (rnhA), an enzyme that removes the RNA moiety of R-loops, prevents hypernegative supercoiling and allows growth of topA null mutants. We previously showed that topA and rnhA null mutations are incompatible. We now report that such mutants were viable when RNase HI or topoisomerase III was expressed from a plasmid-borne gene. Surprisingly, DNA of topA null mutants became relaxed rather than hypernegatively supercoiled following depletion of RNase HI activity. This result failed to correlate with the cellular concentration of gyrase or topoisomerase IV (the other relaxing enzyme in the cell) or with transcription-induced supercoiling. Rather, intracellular DNA relaxation in the absence of RNase HI was related to inhibition of gyrase activity both in vivo and in extracts. Cells lacking topA and rnhA also exhibited properties consistent with segregation defects. Overproduction of topoisomerase III, an enzyme that can carry out DNA decatenation, corrected the segregation defects without restoring supercoiling activity. Collectively these data reveal 1) the existence of a cellular response to loss of RNase HI that counters the supercoiling activity of gyrase and 2) supercoiling-independent segregation defects due to loss of RNase HI from topA null mutants. Thus RNase HI plays a more central role in DNA topology than previously thought. PMID:18554330

  16. Depletion of RNase HI activity in Escherichia coli lacking DNA topoisomerase I leads to defects in DNA supercoiling and segregation.

    PubMed

    Usongo, Valentine; Nolent, Flora; Sanscartier, Patrick; Tanguay, Cynthia; Broccoli, Sonia; Baaklini, Imad; Drlica, Karl; Drolet, Marc

    2008-08-01

    Gyrase-mediated hypernegative supercoiling is one manifestation of R-loop formation, a phenomenon that is normally suppressed by topoisomerase I (topA) in Escherichia coli. Overproduction of RNase HI (rnhA), an enzyme that removes the RNA moiety of R-loops, prevents hypernegative supercoiling and allows growth of topA null mutants. We previously showed that topA and rnhA null mutations are incompatible. We now report that such mutants were viable when RNase HI or topoisomerase III was expressed from a plasmid-borne gene. Surprisingly, DNA of topA null mutants became relaxed rather than hypernegatively supercoiled following depletion of RNase HI activity. This result failed to correlate with the cellular concentration of gyrase or topoisomerase IV (the other relaxing enzyme in the cell) or with transcription-induced supercoiling. Rather, intracellular DNA relaxation in the absence of RNase HI was related to inhibition of gyrase activity both in vivo and in extracts. Cells lacking topA and rnhA also exhibited properties consistent with segregation defects. Overproduction of topoisomerase III, an enzyme that can carry out DNA decatenation, corrected the segregation defects without restoring supercoiling activity. Collectively these data reveal (i) the existence of a cellular response to loss of RNase HI that counters the supercoiling activity of gyrase, and (ii) supercoiling-independent segregation defects due to loss of RNase HI from topA null mutants. Thus RNase HI plays a more central role in DNA topology than previously thought. PMID:18554330

  17. Prokaryote and eukaryote evolvability.

    PubMed

    Poole, Anthony M; Phillips, Matthew J; Penny, David

    2003-05-01

    The concept of evolvability covers a broad spectrum of, often contradictory, ideas. At one end of the spectrum it is equivalent to the statement that evolution is possible, at the other end are untestable post hoc explanations, such as the suggestion that current evolutionary theory cannot explain the evolution of evolvability. We examine similarities and differences in eukaryote and prokaryote evolvability, and look for explanations that are compatible with a wide range of observations. Differences in genome organisation between eukaryotes and prokaryotes meets this criterion. The single origin of replication in prokaryote chromosomes (versus multiple origins in eukaryotes) accounts for many differences because the time to replicate a prokaryote genome limits its size (and the accumulation of junk DNA). Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes appear to switch from genetic stability to genetic change in response to stress. We examine a range of stress responses, and discuss how these impact on evolvability, particularly in unicellular organisms versus complex multicellular ones. Evolvability is also limited by environmental interactions (including competition) and we describe a model that places limits on potential evolvability. Examples are given of its application to predator competition and limits to lateral gene transfer. We suggest that unicellular organisms evolve largely through a process of metabolic change, resulting in biochemical diversity. Multicellular organisms evolve largely through morphological changes, not through extensive changes to cellular biochemistry. PMID:12689728

  18. Microcompartments and protein machines in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Saier, Milton H

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic cell was once thought of as a 'bag of enzymes' with little or no intracellular compartmentalization. In this view, most reactions essential for life occurred as a consequence of random molecular collisions involving substrates, cofactors and cytoplasmic enzymes. Our current conception of a prokaryote is far from this view. We now consider a bacterium or an archaeon as a highly structured, nonrandom collection of functional membrane-embedded and proteinaceous molecular machines, each of which serves a specialized function. In this article we shall present an overview of such microcompartments including (1) the bacterial cytoskeleton and the apparati allowing DNA segregation during cell division; (2) energy transduction apparati involving light-driven proton pumping and ion gradient-driven ATP synthesis; (3) prokaryotic motility and taxis machines that mediate cell movements in response to gradients of chemicals and physical forces; (4) machines of protein folding, secretion and degradation; (5) metabolosomes carrying out specific chemical reactions; (6) 24-hour clocks allowing bacteria to coordinate their metabolic activities with the daily solar cycle, and (7) proteinaceous membrane compartmentalized structures such as sulfur granules and gas vacuoles. Membrane-bound prokaryotic organelles were considered in a recent Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology written symposium concerned with membranous compartmentalization in bacteria [J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2013;23:1-192]. By contrast, in this symposium, we focus on proteinaceous microcompartments. These two symposia, taken together, provide the interested reader with an objective view of the remarkable complexity of what was once thought of as a simple noncompartmentalized cell. PMID:23920489

  19. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

  20. Persistence of unselected transgenic DNA during a plastid transformation and segregation approach to herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guang-Ning; Colburn, Susan M; Xu, Charles W; Hajdukiewicz, Peter T J; Staub, Jeffrey M

    2003-09-01

    The use of a nonlethal selection scheme, most often using the aadA gene that confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin, has been considered critical for recovery of plastid transformation events. In this study, the plastid-lethal markers, glyphosate or phosphinothricin herbicides, were used to develop a selection scheme for plastids that circumvents the need for integration of an antibiotic resistance marker. The effect of selective agents on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mesophyll chloroplasts was first examined by transmission electron microscopy. We found that at concentrations typically used for selection of nuclear transformants, herbicides caused rapid disintegration of plastid membranes, whereas antibiotics had no apparent effect. To overcome this apparent herbicide lethality to plastids, a "transformation segregation" scheme was developed that used two independent transformation vectors for a cotransformation approach and two different selective agents in a phased selection scheme. One transformation vector carried an antibiotic resistance (aadA) marker used for early nonlethal selection, and the other transformation vector carried the herbicide (CP4 or bar) resistance marker for use in a subsequent lethal selection phase. Because the two markers were carried on separate plasmids and were targeted to different locations on the plastid genome, we reasoned that segregation of the two markers in some transplastomic lines could occur. We report here a plastid cotransformation frequency of 50% to 64%, with a high frequency (20%) of these giving rise to transformation segregants containing exclusively the initially nonselected herbicide resistance marker. Our studies indicate a high degree of persistence of unselected transforming DNA, providing useful insights into plastid chromosome dynamics. PMID:12970505

  1. Genetic variability and segregation analysis in Glossina moristans moristans (Diptera: Glossinidae) using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Blanchetot, A; Gooding, R H

    1994-04-01

    DNA hybridization, using the M13 sequence as a probe, was used to analyze the genetic variability in four inbred lines of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood. An average of 11.2 bands (ranging from 2 to 10 kb) were found per fly. An average of nine loci were detected in each line; 40% of the loci were polymorphic and the mean heterozygosity per locus varied from 0.098 to 0.29. Averaging the data across the four inbred lines, the band sharing estimates were 82.5% in males and 81.2% in females, and the mean band frequency estimates were 0.71 and 0.70 for males and females, respectively. Segregation of fragments, determined in "three generation" pedigrees, conformed to expected Mendelian ratios and two of seven fragments studied were linked to an X chromosome marker gene, ocra (body color). PMID:8200517

  2. Segregation distortion of T-DNA markers linked to the self-incompatibility (S) locus in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed Central

    Harbord, R M; Napoli, C A; Robbins, T P

    2000-01-01

    In plants with a gametophytic self-incompatibility system the specificity of the pollen is determined by the haploid genotype at the self-incompatibility (S) locus. In certain crosses this can lead to the exclusion of half the gametes from the male parent carrying a particular S-allele. This leads to pronounced segregation distortion for any genetic markers that are linked to the S-locus. We have used this approach to identify T-DNA insertions carrying a maize transposable element that are linked to the S-locus of Petunia hybrida. A total of 83 T-DNA insertions were tested for segregation distortion of the selectable marker used during transformation with Agrobacterium. Segregation distortion was observed for 12 T-DNA insertions and at least 8 of these were shown to be in the same linkage group by intercrossing. This indicates that differential transmission of a single locus (S) is probably responsible for all of these examples of T-DNA segregation distortion. The identification of selectable markers in coupling with a functional S-allele will allow the preselection of recombination events around the S-locus in petunia. Our approach provides a general method for identifying transgenes that are linked to gametophytic self-incompatibility loci and provides an opportunity for transposon tagging of the petunia S-locus. PMID:10757773

  3. Segregation of mtDNA Throughout Human Embryofetal Development: m.3243A > G as a Model System

    PubMed Central

    Monnot, Sophie; Gigarel, Nadine; Samuels, David C; Burlet, Philippe; Hesters, Laetitia; Frydman, Nelly; Frydman, René; Kerbrat, Violaine; Funalot, Benoit; Martinovic, Jelena; Benachi, Alexandra; Feingold, Josué; Munnich, Arnold; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Steffann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause a wide range of serious diseases with high transmission risk and maternal inheritance. Tissue heterogeneity of the heteroplasmy rate (“mutant load”) accounts for the wide phenotypic spectrum observed in carriers. Owing to the absence of therapy, couples at risk to transmit such disorders commonly ask for prenatal (PND) or preimplantation diagnosis (PGD). The lack of data regarding heteroplasmy distribution throughout intrauterine development, however, hampers the implementation of such procedures. We tracked the segregation of the m.3243A > G mutation (MT-TL1 gene) responsible for the MELAS syndrome in the developing embryo/fetus, using tissues and cells from eight carrier females, their 38 embryos and 12 fetuses. Mutant mtDNA segregation was found to be governed by random genetic drift, during oogenesis and somatic tissue development. The size of the bottleneck operating for m.3243A > G during oogenesis was shown to be individual-dependent. Comparison with data we achieved for the m.8993T > G mutation (MT-ATP6 gene), responsible for the NARP/Leigh syndrome, indicates that these mutations differentially influence mtDNA segregation during oogenesis, while their impact is similar in developing somatic tissues. These data have major consequences for PND and PGD procedures in mtDNA inherited disorders. Hum Mutat 32:116–125, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21120938

  4. The Epigenomic Landscape of Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Clark, Tyson A.; Daum, Chris G.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Fomenkov, Alexey; Fries, Roxanne; Froula, Jeff; Kang, Dongwan D.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Morgan, Richard D.; Posfai, Janos; Singh, Kanwar; Visel, Axel; Wetmore, Kelly; Zhao, Zhiying; Rubin, Edward M.; Korlach, Jonas; Pennacchio, Len A.; Roberts, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation acts in concert with restriction enzymes to protect the integrity of prokaryotic genomes. Studies in a limited number of organisms suggest that methylation also contributes to prokaryotic genome regulation, but the prevalence and properties of such non-restriction-associated methylation systems remain poorly understood. Here, we used single molecule, real-time sequencing to map DNA modifications including m6A, m4C, and m5C across the genomes of 230 diverse bacterial and archaeal species. We observed DNA methylation in nearly all (93%) organisms examined, and identified a total of 834 distinct reproducibly methylated motifs. This data enabled annotation of the DNA binding specificities of 620 DNA Methyltransferases (MTases), doubling known specificities for previously hard to study Type I, IIG and III MTases, and revealing their extraordinary diversity. Strikingly, 48% of organisms harbor active Type II MTases with no apparent cognate restriction enzyme. These active ‘orphan’ MTases are present in diverse bacterial and archaeal phyla and show motif specificities and methylation patterns consistent with functions in gene regulation and DNA replication. Our results reveal the pervasive presence of DNA methylation throughout the prokaryotic kingdoms, as well as the diversity of sequence specificities and potential functions of DNA methylation systems. PMID:26870957

  5. The SUMO Isopeptidase Ulp2p Is Required to Prevent Recombination-Induced Chromosome Segregation Lethality following DNA Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ming-Ta; Bakir, Abla A.; Nguyen, Kristen N.; Bachant, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    SUMO conjugation is a key regulator of the cellular response to DNA replication stress, acting in part to control recombination at stalled DNA replication forks. Here we examine recombination-related phenotypes in yeast mutants defective for the SUMO de-conjugating/chain-editing enzyme Ulp2p. We find that spontaneous recombination is elevated in ulp2 strains and that recombination DNA repair is essential for ulp2 survival. In contrast to other SUMO pathway mutants, however, the frequency of spontaneous chromosome rearrangements is markedly reduced in ulp2 strains, and some types of rearrangements arising through recombination can apparently not be tolerated. In investigating the basis for this, we find DNA repair foci do not disassemble in ulp2 cells during recovery from the replication fork-blocking drug methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), corresponding with an accumulation of X-shaped recombination intermediates. ulp2 cells satisfy the DNA damage checkpoint during MMS recovery and commit to chromosome segregation with similar kinetics to wild-type cells. However, sister chromatids fail to disjoin, resulting in abortive chromosome segregation and cell lethality. This chromosome segregation defect can be rescued by overproducing the anti-recombinase Srs2p, indicating that recombination plays an underlying causal role in blocking chromatid separation. Overall, our results are consistent with a role for Ulp2p in preventing the formation of DNA lesions that must be repaired through recombination. At the same time, Ulp2p is also required to either suppress or resolve recombination-induced attachments between sister chromatids. These opposing defects may synergize to greatly increase the toxicity of DNA replication stress. PMID:21483811

  6. SEARCHPATTOOL: a new method for mining the most specific frequent patterns for binding sites with application to prokaryotic DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Elloumi, Fathi; Nason, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Background Computational methods to predict transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) based on exhaustive algorithms are guaranteed to find the best patterns but are often limited to short ones or impose some constraints on the pattern type. Many patterns for binding sites in prokaryotic species are not well characterized but are known to be large, between 16–30 base pairs (bp) and contain at least 2 conserved bases. The length of prokaryotic species promoters (about 400 bp) and our interest in studying a small set of genes that could be a cluster of co-regulated genes from microarray experiments led to the development of a new exhaustive algorithm targeting these large patterns. Results We present Searchpattool, a new method to search for and select the most specific (conservative) frequent patterns. This method does not impose restrictions on the density or the structure of the pattern. The best patterns (motifs) are selected using several statistics, including a new application of a z-score based on the number of matching sequences. We compared Searchpattool against other well known algorithms on a Bacillus subtilis group of 14 input sequences and found that in our experiments Searchpattool always performed the best based on performance scores. Conclusion Searchpattool is a new method for pattern discovery relative to transcription factor binding sites for species or genes with short promoters. It outputs the most specific significant patterns and helps the biologist to choose the best candidates. PMID:17883842

  7. Promoter propagation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Matus-Garcia, Mariana; Nijveen, Harm; van Passel, Mark W J

    2012-11-01

    Transcriptional activation or 'rewiring' of silent genes is an important, yet poorly understood, phenomenon in prokaryotic genomes. Anecdotal evidence coming from experimental evolution studies in bacterial systems has shown the promptness of adaptation upon appropriate selective pressure. In many cases, a partial or complete promoter is mobilized to silent genes from elsewhere in the genome. We term hereafter such recruited regulatory sequences as Putative Mobile Promoters (PMPs) and we hypothesize they have a large impact on rapid adaptation of novel or cryptic functions. Querying all publicly available prokaryotic genomes (1362) uncovered >4000 families of highly conserved PMPs (50 to 100 long with ≥80% nt identity) in 1043 genomes from 424 different genera. The genomes with the largest number of PMP families are Anabaena variabilis (28 families), Geobacter uraniireducens (27 families) and Cyanothece PCC7424 (25 families). Family size varied from 2 to 93 homologous promoters (in Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus). Some PMPs are present in particular species, but some are conserved across distant genera. The identified PMPs represent a conservative dataset of very recent or conserved events of mobilization of non-coding DNA and thus they constitute evidence of an extensive reservoir of recyclable regulatory sequences for rapid transcriptional rewiring. PMID:22933716

  8. Genotypic stability, segregation and selection in heteroplasmic human cell lines containing np 3243 mutant mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, S K; Hance, N; El Meziane, A; Juhola, M K; Juhola, K M; Karhu, R; Spelbrink, J N; Holt, I J; Jacobs, H T

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial genotype of heteroplasmic human cell lines containing the pathological np 3243 mtDNA mutation, plus or minus its suppressor at np 12300, has been followed over long periods in culture. Cell lines containing various different proportions of mutant mtDNA remained generally at a consistent, average heteroplasmy value over at least 30 wk of culture in nonselective media and exhibited minimal mitotic segregation, with a segregation number comparable with mtDNA copy number (>/=1000). Growth in selective medium of cells at 99% np 3243 mutant mtDNA did, however, allow the isolation of clones with lower levels of the mutation, against a background of massive cell death. As a rare event, cell lines exhibited a sudden and dramatic diversification of heteroplasmy levels, accompanied by a shift in the average heteroplasmy level over a short period (<8 wk), indicating selection. One such episode was associated with a gain of chromosome 9. Analysis of respiratory phenotype and mitochondrial genotype of cell clones from such cultures revealed that stable heteroplasmy values were generally reestablished within a few weeks, in a reproducible but clone-specific fashion. This occurred independently of any straightforward phenotypic selection at the individual cell-clone level. Our findings are consistent with several alternate views of mtDNA organization in mammalian cells. One model that is supported by our data is that mtDNA is found in nucleoids containing many copies of the genome, which can themselves be heteroplasmic, and which are faithfully replicated. We interpret diversification and shifts of heteroplasmy level as resulting from a reorganization of such nucleoids, under nuclear genetic control. Abrupt remodeling of nucleoids in vivo would have major implications for understanding the developmental consequences of heteroplasmy, including mitochondrial disease phenotype and progression. PMID:10628996

  9. Genome Segregation and Packaging Machinery in Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus Is Reminiscent of Bacterial Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chelikani, Venkata; Ranjan, Tushar; Zade, Amrutraj; Shukla, Avi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome packaging is a critical step in the virion assembly process. The putative ATP-driven genome packaging motor of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) and other nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) is a distant ortholog of prokaryotic chromosome segregation motors, such as FtsK and HerA, rather than other viral packaging motors, such as large terminase. Intriguingly, APMV also encodes other components, i.e., three putative serine recombinases and a putative type II topoisomerase, all of which are essential for chromosome segregation in prokaryotes. Based on our analyses of these components and taking the limited available literature into account, here we propose for the first time a model for genome segregation and packaging in APMV that can possibly be extended to NCLDV subfamilies, except perhaps Poxviridae and Ascoviridae. This model might represent a unique variation of the prokaryotic system acquired and contrived by the large DNA viruses of eukaryotes. It is also consistent with previous observations that unicellular eukaryotes, such as amoebae, are melting pots for the advent of chimeric organisms with novel mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Extremely large viruses with DNA genomes infect a wide range of eukaryotes, from human beings to amoebae and from crocodiles to algae. These large DNA viruses, unlike their much smaller cousins, have the capability of making most of the protein components required for their multiplication. Once they infect the cell, these viruses set up viral replication centers, known as viral factories, to carry out their multiplication with very little help from the host. Our sequence analyses show that there is remarkable similarity between prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and large DNA viruses, such as mimivirus, vaccinia virus, and pandoravirus, in the way that they process their newly synthesized genetic material to make sure that only one copy of the complete genome is generated and is meticulously placed inside

  10. GENETIC LINKAGE MAP FOR WATERMELON: SEGREGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage map is being constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. About 51.0% and 31.8% of the markers in the testcross and F2 populations are skewed from the expected segregation ratios. AFLP markers appeared to be clustered on linkage regions, while IS...

  11. A critique of prokaryotic species concepts.

    PubMed

    Thane Papke, R

    2009-01-01

    Developments in DNA sequencing and population genetics analyses have revealed unanticipated complexity in prokaryotic variation. The observation that genetic traits are horizontally inherited at unexpected rates within and between closely related asexually reproducing lineages impacts our comprehension of prokaryotic evolution and ecology. As a result, the concepts that point to species as being discrete clusters or monophyletic lineages are at odds with most of the data, suggesting that taxon circumscription can only proceed by informed compromise, pragmatism, and subjectivity. PMID:19271197

  12. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  13. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1994-12-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  14. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M

    1994-01-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  15. Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

  16. The RECG1 DNA Translocase Is a Key Factor in Recombination Surveillance, Repair, and Segregation of the Mitochondrial DNA in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Le Ret, Monique; Bergdoll, Marc; Bichara, Marc; Dietrich, André

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondria of flowering plants have considerably larger and more complex genomes than the mitochondria of animals or fungi, mostly due to recombination activities that modulate their genomic structures. These activities most probably participate in the repair of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lesions by recombination-dependent processes. Rare ectopic recombination across short repeats generates new genomic configurations that contribute to mtDNA heteroplasmy, which drives rapid evolution of the sequence organization of plant mtDNAs. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana RECG1, an ortholog of the bacterial RecG translocase, is an organellar protein with multiple roles in mtDNA maintenance. RECG1 targets to mitochondria and plastids and can complement a bacterial recG mutant that shows defects in repair and replication control. Characterization of Arabidopsis recG1 mutants showed that RECG1 is required for recombination-dependent repair and for suppression of ectopic recombination in mitochondria, most likely because of its role in recovery of stalled replication forks. The analysis of alternative mitotypes present in a recG1 line and of their segregation following backcross allowed us to build a model to explain how a new stable mtDNA configuration, compatible with normal plant development, can be generated by stoichiometric shift. PMID:26462909

  17. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  18. Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L; Harman, J G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

  19. The Cold Shock Domain of YB-1 Segregates RNA from DNA by Non-Bonded Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kljashtorny, Vladislav; Nikonov, Stanislav; Ovchinnikov, Lev; Lyabin, Dmitry; Vodovar, Nicolas; Curmi, Patrick; Manivet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The human YB-1 protein plays multiple cellular roles, of which many are dictated by its binding to RNA and DNA through its Cold Shock Domain (CSD). Using molecular dynamics simulation approaches validated by experimental assays, the YB1 CSD was found to interact with nucleic acids in a sequence-dependent manner and with a higher affinity for RNA than DNA. The binding properties of the YB1 CSD were close to those observed for the related bacterial Cold Shock Proteins (CSP), albeit some differences in sequence specificity. The results provide insights in the molecular mechanisms whereby YB-1 interacts with nucleic acids. PMID:26147853

  20. Bioinformatics of prokaryotic RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Backofen, Rolf; Amman, Fabian; Costa, Fabrizio; Findeiß, Sven; Richter, Andreas S; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The genome of most prokaryotes gives rise to surprisingly complex transcriptomes, comprising not only protein-coding mRNAs, often organized as operons, but also harbors dozens or even hundreds of highly structured small regulatory RNAs and unexpectedly large levels of anti-sense transcripts. Comprehensive surveys of prokaryotic transcriptomes and the need to characterize also their non-coding components is heavily dependent on computational methods and workflows, many of which have been developed or at least adapted specifically for the use with bacterial and archaeal data. This review provides an overview on the state-of-the-art of RNA bioinformatics focusing on applications to prokaryotes. PMID:24755880

  1. Bioinformatics of prokaryotic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Backofen, Rolf; Amman, Fabian; Costa, Fabrizio; Findeiß, Sven; Richter, Andreas S; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The genome of most prokaryotes gives rise to surprisingly complex transcriptomes, comprising not only protein-coding mRNAs, often organized as operons, but also harbors dozens or even hundreds of highly structured small regulatory RNAs and unexpectedly large levels of anti-sense transcripts. Comprehensive surveys of prokaryotic transcriptomes and the need to characterize also their non-coding components is heavily dependent on computational methods and workflows, many of which have been developed or at least adapted specifically for the use with bacterial and archaeal data. This review provides an overview on the state-of-the-art of RNA bioinformatics focusing on applications to prokaryotes. PMID:24755880

  2. PprA Protein Is Involved in Chromosome Segregation via Its Physical and Functional Interaction with DNA Gyrase in Irradiated Deinococcus radiodurans Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Devigne, Alice; Guérin, Philippe; Lisboa, Johnny; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Armengaud, Jean; Sommer, Suzanne; Bouthier de la Tour, Claire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, was previously shown to be required for cell survival and accurate chromosome segregation after exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, we used an in vivo approach to determine, by shotgun proteomics, putative PprA partners coimmunoprecipitating with PprA when cells were exposed to gamma rays. Among them, we found the two subunits of DNA gyrase and, thus, chose to focus our work on characterizing the activities of the deinococcal DNA gyrase in the presence or absence of PprA. Loss of PprA rendered cells hypersensitive to novobiocin, an inhibitor of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. We showed that treatment of bacteria with novobiocin resulted in induction of the radiation desiccation response (RDR) regulon and in defects in chromosome segregation that were aggravated by the absence of PprA. In vitro, the deinococcal DNA gyrase, like other bacterial DNA gyrases, possesses DNA negative supercoiling and decatenation activities. These two activities are inhibited in vitro by novobiocin and nalidixic acid, whereas PprA specifically stimulates the decatenation activity of DNA gyrase. Together, these results suggest that PprA plays a major role in chromosome decatenation via its interaction with the deinococcal DNA gyrase when D. radiodurans cells are recovering from exposure to ionizing radiation. IMPORTANCE D. radiodurans is one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known. This bacterium is able to cope with high levels of DNA lesions generated by exposure to extreme doses of ionizing radiation and to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Here, we identified partners of PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, previously shown to be required for radioresistance. Our study leads to three main findings: (i) PprA interacts with DNA gyrase after irradiation, (ii) treatment of cells with novobiocin results in defects in chromosome segregation

  3. Chromosomal meiotic segregation, embryonic developmental kinetics and DNA (hydroxy)methylation analysis consolidate the safety of human oocyte vitrification.

    PubMed

    De Munck, N; Petrussa, L; Verheyen, G; Staessen, C; Vandeskelde, Y; Sterckx, J; Bocken, G; Jacobs, K; Stoop, D; De Rycke, M; Van de Velde, H

    2015-06-01

    Oocyte vitrification has been introduced into clinical settings without extensive pre-clinical safety testing. In this study, we analysed major safety aspects of human oocyte vitrification in a high security closed system: (i) chromosomal meiotic segregation, (ii) embryonic developmental kinetics and (iii) DNA (hydroxy)methylation status. Fresh and vitrified sibling oocytes from young donors after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were compared in three different assays. Firstly, the chromosomal constitution of the fertilized zygotes was deduced from array comparative genomic hybridization results obtained from both polar bodies biopsied at Day 1. Secondly, embryo development up to Day 3 was analysed by time-lapse imaging. Ten specific time points, six morphokinetic time intervals and the average cell number on Day 3 were recorded. Thirdly, global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns were analysed by immunostaining on Day 3 embryos. The nuclear fluorescence intensity was measured by Volocity imaging software. Comprehensive chromosomal screening of the polar bodies demonstrated that at least half of the zygotes obtained after ICSI of fresh and vitrified oocytes were euploid. Time-lapse analysis showed that there was no significant difference in cleavage timings, the predictive morphokinetic time intervals nor the average cell number between embryos developed from fresh and vitrified oocytes. Finally, global DNA (hydroxy)methylation patterns were not significantly different between Day 3 embryos obtained from fresh and from vitrified oocytes. Our data further consolidate the safety of the oocyte vitrification technique. Nevertheless, additional testing in young and older sub-fertile/infertile patients and sound follow-up studies of children born after oocyte cryopreservation remain mandatory. PMID:25833840

  4. Stochastic evolution and multifractal classification of prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Matthew J.; Allison, Andrew G.; Abbott, Derek

    2003-05-01

    We introduce a model for simulating mutation of prokaryote DNA sequences. Using that model we can then evaluated traditional techniques like parsimony and maximum likelihood methods for computing phylogenetic relationships. We also use the model to mimic large scale genomic changes, and use this to evaluate multifractal and related information theory techniques which take into account these large changes in determining phylogenetic relationships.

  5. [Prokaryotic expression systems].

    PubMed

    Porowińska, Dorota; Wujak, Magdalena; Roszek, Katarzyna; Komoszyński, Michał

    2013-01-01

    For overproduction of recombinant proteins both eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems are used. Choosing the right system depends, among other things, on the growth rate and culture of host cells, level of the target gene expression and posttranslational processing of the synthesized protein. Regardless of the type of expression system, its basic elements are the vector and the expression host. The most widely used system for protein overproduction, both on a laboratory and industrial scale, is the prokaryotic system. This system is based primarily on the bacteria E. coli, although increasingly often Bacillus species are used. The prokaryotic system allows one to obtain large quantities of recombinant proteins in a short time. A simple and inexpensive bacterial cell culture and well-known mechanisms of transcription and translation facilitate the use of these microorganisms. The simplicity of genetic modifications and the availability of many bacterial mutants are additional advantages of the prokaryotic system. In this article we characterize the structural elements of prokaryotic expression vectors. Also strategies for preparation of the target protein gene that increase productivity, facilitate detection and purification of recombinant protein and provide its activity are discussed. Bacterial strains often used as host cells in expression systems as well as the potential location of heterologous proteins are characterized. Knowledge of the basic elements of the prokaryotic expression system allows for production of biologically active proteins in a short time and in satisfactory quantities.  PMID:23475488

  6. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Weinbauer, Markus G

    2004-05-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment. PMID:15109783

  7. Bub3–BubR1-dependent sequestration of Cdc20Fizzy at DNA breaks facilitates the correct segregation of broken chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Derive, Nicolas; Landmann, Cedric; Montembault, Emilie; Claverie, Marie-Charlotte; Pierre-Elies, Priscillia; Goutte-Gattat, Damien; Founounou, Nabila; McCusker, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The presence of DNA double-strand breaks during mitosis is particularly challenging for the cell, as it produces broken chromosomes lacking a centromere. This situation can cause genomic instability resulting from improper segregation of the broken fragments into daughter cells. We recently uncovered a process by which broken chromosomes are faithfully transmitted via the BubR1-dependent tethering of the two broken chromosome ends. However, the mechanisms underlying BubR1 recruitment and function on broken chromosomes were largely unknown. We show that BubR1 requires interaction with Bub3 to localize on the broken chromosome fragments and to mediate their proper segregation. We also find that Cdc20, a cofactor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), accumulates on DNA breaks in a BubR1 KEN box–dependent manner. A biosensor for APC/C activity demonstrates a BubR1-dependent local inhibition of APC/C around the segregating broken chromosome. We therefore propose that the Bub3–BubR1 complex on broken DNA inhibits the APC/C locally via the sequestration of Cdc20, thus promoting proper transmission of broken chromosomes. PMID:26553926

  8. Segregation of relaxed replicated dimers when DNA ligase and DNA polymerase I are limited during oriC-specific DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, B R; Maier, P G; Greene, R S

    1989-01-01

    An in vitro Escherichia coli oriC-specific DNA replication system was used to investigate the DNA replication pathways of oriC plasmids. When this system was perturbed by the DNA ligase inhibitor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), alterations occurred in the initiation of DNA synthesis and processing of intermediates and DNA products. Addition of high concentrations of NMN soon after initiation resulted in the accumulation of open circular dimers (OC-OC). These dimers were decatenated to open circular monomers (form II or OC), which were then processed to closed circular supercoiled monomers (form I or CC) products. After a delay, limited ligation of the interlinked dimers (OC-OC to CC-OC and CC-CC) also occurred. Similar results were obtained with replication protein extracts from polA mutants. The presence of NMN before any initiation events took place prolonged the existence of nicked template DNA and promoted, without a lag period, limited incorporation into form II molecules. This DNA synthesis was nonspecific with respect to oriC, as judged by DnaA protein dependence, and presumably occurred at nicks in the template DNA. These results are consistent with oriC-specific initiation requiring closed supercoiled molecules dependent on DNA ligase activity. The results also show that decatenation of dimers occurs readily on nicked dimer and represents an efficient pathway for processing replication intermediates in vitro. Images PMID:2544556

  9. Photoregulation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Erin B; Crosson, Sean

    2008-04-01

    The spectroscopic identification of sensory rhodopsin I by Bogomolni and Spudich in 1982 provided a molecular link between the light environment and phototaxis in Halobacterium salinarum, and thus laid the foundation for the study of signal transducing photosensors in prokaryotes. In recent years, a number of new prokaryotic photosensory receptors have been discovered across a broad range of taxa, including dozens in chemotrophic species. Among these photoreceptors are new classes of rhodopsins, BLUF-domain proteins, bacteriophytochromes, cryptochromes, and LOV-family photosensors. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these receptors have demonstrated that they can regulate processes ranging from photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis to virulence. PMID:18400553

  10. Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression by eukaryotic-like enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Kellie; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Summary A growing body of evidence indicates that serine/threonine kinases (STK) and phosphatases (STP) regulate gene expression in prokaryotic organisms. As prokaryotic STKs and STPs are not DNA binding proteins, regulation of gene expression is accomplished through post-translational modification of their targets. These include two-component response regulators, DNA binding proteins and proteins that mediate transcription and translation. This review summarizes our current understanding of how STKs and STPs mediate gene expression in prokaryotes. Further studies to identify environmental signals that trigger the signaling cascade and elucidation of mechanisms that regulate cross-talk between eukaryotic-like signaling enzymes, two-component systems, and components of the transcriptional and translational machinery will facilitate a greater understanding of prokaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22221896

  11. Mitochondrial transmission during mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by mitochondrial fusion and fission and the intramitochondrial segregation of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nunnari, J; Marshall, W F; Straight, A; Murray, A; Sedat, J W; Walter, P

    1997-01-01

    To gain insight into the process of mitochondrial transmission in yeast, we directly labeled mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and observed their fate after the fusion of two cells. To this end, mitochondrial proteins in haploid cells of opposite mating type were labeled with different fluorescent dyes and observed by fluorescence microscopy after mating of the cells. Parental mitochondrial protein markers rapidly redistributed and colocalized throughout zygotes, indicating that during mating, parental mitochondria fuse and their protein contents intermix, consistent with results previously obtained with a single parentally derived protein marker. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of mitochondria in living cells with wide-field fluorescence microscopy indicated that mitochondria form a single dynamic network, whose continuity is maintained by a balanced frequency of fission and fusion events. Thus, the complete mixing of mitochondrial proteins can be explained by the formation of one continuous mitochondrial compartment after mating. In marked contrast to the mixing of parental mitochondrial proteins after fusion, mtDNA (labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromodeoxyuridine) remained distinctly localized to one half of the zygotic cell. This observation provides a direct explanation for the genetically observed nonrandom patterns of mtDNA transmission. We propose that anchoring of mtDNA within the organelle is linked to an active segregation mechanism that ensures accurate inheritance of mtDNA along with the organelle. Images PMID:9243504

  12. The Caulobacter crescentus smc gene is required for cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rasmus B.; Shapiro, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    The highly conserved SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) proteins function in chromosome condensation, segregation, and other aspects of chromosome dynamics in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A null mutation in the Caulobacter crescentus smc gene is conditionally lethal and causes a cell cycle arrest at the predivisional cell stage. Chromosome segregation in wild-type and smc null mutant cells was examined by monitoring the intracellular localization of the replication origin and terminus by using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In wild-type cells, the origin is located at the flagellated pole of swarmer cells and, immediately after the initiation of DNA replication in stalked cells, one of the origins moves to the opposite pole, giving a bipolar localization of the origins. The terminus moves from the end of the swarmer cell opposite the origin to midcell. A subpopulation of the smc null mutant cells had mislocalized origins or termini, showing that the smc null mutation gives DNA segregation defects. Nucleoid morphology was also abnormal. Thus, we propose that the Caulobacter chromosomal origins have specific cellular addresses and that the SMC protein plays important roles in maintaining chromosome structure and in partitioning. The specific cell cycle arrest in the smc null mutant indicates the presence of a cell cycle checkpoint that senses perturbations in chromosome organization or segregation. PMID:10485882

  13. Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

  14. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    PubMed Central

    Bermudes, D; Hinkle, G; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins. Images PMID:7968920

  15. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Hinkle, G.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins.

  16. Keeping the Wolves at Bay: Antitoxins of Prokaryotic Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2016-01-01

    In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I–VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA antitoxins. We shall

  17. Keeping the Wolves at Bay: Antitoxins of Prokaryotic Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2016-01-01

    In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I-VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA antitoxins. We shall

  18. Segregated growth kinetics of Escherichia coli DH5α-NH36 in exponential-fed perfusion culture for pDNA vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Soto, Rodolfo; García-Rendón, Aurora; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Guerrero-Germán, Patricia; Tejeda-Mansir, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The clinical demand of plasmid DNA (pDNA) has been increasing constantly. An exponential-fed perfusion (EFP) culture is a new mode for plasmid production for clinical trials and commercialization. However, the culture conditions may lead to cell filamentation and growth cessation. In this study, the variation of the physiological state and the plasmid contents of Escherichia coli DH5α hosting pVAX1-NH36 in an EFP culture for application as a Leishmaniasis vaccine was investigated. The culture performance was monitored using flow cytometry (FC) and real-time quantitative PCR. The FC studies showed a high viability of cell population and a constant distribution of complexity and size. A high homogeneity of pDNA (>95 % of supercoiled) was obtained, which might be attributed to a better culture environment. The obtained plasmid specific and volumetric yields of 1.8 mg/g dcw and 36.5 mg/L represent typical values for laboratory-scale plasmid production in a defined medium. A segregated kinetic model of the perfusion system was developed and fitted to the experimental data (R(2) > 0.96). A practical conclusion of this work is that a space-time yield analysis of a bioprocess requires a viability evaluation. This new strategy of culture operation might help in the efficient production of pDNA for therapeutic use. PMID:25556882

  19. Application of subtracted gDNA microarray-assisted Bulked Segregant Analysis for rapid discovery of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

    PubMed

    Gor, Mian Chee; Mantri, Nitin; Pang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    A Fragaria Discovery Panel (FDP; strawberry-specific SDA) containing 287 features was constructed by subtracting the pooled gDNA of nine non-angiosperm species from the pooled gDNA of five strawberry genotypes. This FDP was used for Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA) to enable identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality. Analysis of hybridisation patterns of a short day (SD) DNA bulk and three day-neutral (DN) DNA bulks varying in flowering strength allowed identification of a novel feature, FaP2E11, closely linked to CYTOKININ OXIDASE 1 (CKX1) gene possibly involved in promoting flowering under non-inductive condition. The signal intensities of FaP2E11 feature obtained from the strong DN bulk (DN1) is three fold higher than the short day bulk (SD), indicating that the putative marker may linked to a CKX1 variant allele with lower enzyme activity. We propose a model for flowering regulation based on the hypothesis that flowering strength may be regulated by the copy number of FaP2E11-linked CKX1 alleles. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the SDA-based BSA approach for the identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry. This innovative strategy is an efficient and cost-effective approach for molecular marker discovery. PMID:27586242

  20. Application of subtracted gDNA microarray-assisted Bulked Segregant Analysis for rapid discovery of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Mian Chee; Mantri, Nitin; Pang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    A Fragaria Discovery Panel (FDP; strawberry-specific SDA) containing 287 features was constructed by subtracting the pooled gDNA of nine non-angiosperm species from the pooled gDNA of five strawberry genotypes. This FDP was used for Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA) to enable identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality. Analysis of hybridisation patterns of a short day (SD) DNA bulk and three day-neutral (DN) DNA bulks varying in flowering strength allowed identification of a novel feature, FaP2E11, closely linked to CYTOKININ OXIDASE 1 (CKX1) gene possibly involved in promoting flowering under non-inductive condition. The signal intensities of FaP2E11 feature obtained from the strong DN bulk (DN1) is three fold higher than the short day bulk (SD), indicating that the putative marker may linked to a CKX1 variant allele with lower enzyme activity. We propose a model for flowering regulation based on the hypothesis that flowering strength may be regulated by the copy number of FaP2E11-linked CKX1 alleles. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the SDA-based BSA approach for the identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry. This innovative strategy is an efficient and cost-effective approach for molecular marker discovery. PMID:27586242

  1. Gigantism in a Bacterium, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Correlates with Complex Patterns in Arrangement, Quantity, and Segregation of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Bresler, V.; Montgomery, W. L.; Fishelson, L.; Pollak, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Epulopiscium fishelsoni, gut symbiont of the brown surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus) in the Red Sea, attains a larger size than any other eubacterium, varies 10- to 20-fold in length (and >2,000-fold in volume), and undergoes a complex daily life cycle. In early morning, nucleoids contain highly condensed DNA in elongate, chromosome-like structures which are physically separated from the general cytoplasm. Cell division involves production of two (rarely three) nucleoids within a cell, deposition of cell walls around expanded nucleoids, and emergence of daughter cells from the parent cell. Fluorescence measurements of DNA, RNA, and other cell components indicate the following. DNA quantity is proportional to cell volume over cell lengths of ∼30 μm to >500 μm. For cells of a given size, nucleoids of cells with two nucleoids (binucleoid) contain approximately equal amounts of DNA. And each nucleoid of a binucleoid cell contains one-half the DNA of the single nucleoid in a uninucleoid cell of the same size. The life cycle involves approximately equal subdivision of DNA among daughter cells, formation of apical caps of condensed DNA from previously decondensed and diffusely distributed DNA, and “pinching” of DNA near the middle of the cell in the absence of new wall formation. Mechanisms underlying these patterns remain unclear, but formation of daughter nucleoids and cells occurs both during diurnal periods of host feeding and bacterial cell growth and during nocturnal periods of host inactivity when mean bacterial cell size declines. PMID:9791108

  2. Waste segregation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures.

  3. Simple sequence repeats in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Mrázek, Jan; Guo, Xiangxue; Shah, Apurva

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA sequences are composed of tandem iterations of short oligonucleotides and may have functional and/or structural properties that distinguish them from general DNA sequences. They are variable in length because of slip-strand mutations and may also affect local structure of the DNA molecule or the encoded proteins. Long SSRs (LSSRs) are common in eukaryotes but rare in most prokaryotes. In pathogens, SSRs can enhance antigenic variance of the pathogen population in a strategy that counteracts the host immune response. We analyze representations of SSRs in >300 prokaryotic genomes and report significant differences among different prokaryotes as well as among different types of SSRs. LSSRs composed of short oligonucleotides (1–4 bp length, designated LSSR1–4) are often found in host-adapted pathogens with reduced genomes that are not known to readily survive in a natural environment outside the host. In contrast, LSSRs composed of longer oligonucleotides (5–11 bp length, designated LSSR5–11) are found mostly in nonpathogens and opportunistic pathogens with large genomes. Comparisons among SSRs of different lengths suggest that LSSR1–4 are likely maintained by selection. This is consistent with the established role of some LSSR1–4 in enhancing antigenic variance. By contrast, abundance of LSSR5–11 in some genomes may reflect the SSRs' general tendency to expand rather than their specific role in the organisms' physiology. Differences among genomes in terms of SSR representations and their possible interpretations are discussed. PMID:17485665

  4. Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cano, David J.; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Partida-Martínez, Laila P.; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Delaye, Luis

    2015-01-01

    As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ∼800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ∼140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria); metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature. PMID:25610432

  5. A DNA Microarray Platform Based on Direct Detection of rRNA for Characterization of Freshwater Sediment-Related Prokaryotic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Peplies, Jörg; Lachmund, Christine; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Manz, Werner

    2006-01-01

    A DNA microarray platform for the characterization of bacterial communities in freshwater sediments based on a heterogeneous set of 70 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and directly labeled environmental RNA was developed and evaluated. Application of a simple protocol for the efficient background blocking of aminosilane-coated slides resulted in an improved signal-to-noise ratio and a detection limit of 10 ng for particular 16S rRNA targets. An initial specificity test of the system using RNA from pure cultures of different phylogenetic lineages showed a fraction of false-positive signals of ∼5% after protocol optimization and a marginal loss of correct positive signals. Subsequent microarray analysis of sediment-related community RNA from four different German river sites suggested low diversity for the groups targeted but indicated distinct differences in community composition. The results were supported by parallel fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with sensitive catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). In comparisons of the data of different sampling sites, specific detection of populations with relative cellular abundances down to 2% as well as a correlation of microarray signal intensities and population size is suggested. Our results demonstrate that DNA microarray technology allows for the fast and efficient precharacterization of complex bacterial communities by the use of standard single-cell hybridization probes and the direct detection of environmental rRNA, also in methodological challenging habitats such as heterogeneous lotic freshwater sediments. PMID:16820477

  6. School Segregation, Residential Segregation: Some Speculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Nathan

    This essay addressed the question of to what extent does school segregation and school desegregation policy shape residential segregation. Census data, ethnic segregation, voluntary self-segregation, and attitude surveys are discussed in the residential segregation section. The Wolf and Lebeaux study is critically appraised in reference to school…

  7. Prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-03-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

  8. PEPR: pipelines for evaluating prokaryotic references.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nathan D; Zook, Justin M; Samarov, Daniel V; Jackson, Scott A; Salit, Marc L

    2016-04-01

    The rapid adoption of microbial whole genome sequencing in public health, clinical testing, and forensic laboratories requires the use of validated measurement processes. Well-characterized, homogeneous, and stable microbial genomic reference materials can be used to evaluate measurement processes, improving confidence in microbial whole genome sequencing results. We have developed a reproducible and transparent bioinformatics tool, PEPR, Pipelines for Evaluating Prokaryotic References, for characterizing the reference genome of prokaryotic genomic materials. PEPR evaluates the quality, purity, and homogeneity of the reference material genome, and purity of the genomic material. The quality of the genome is evaluated using high coverage paired-end sequence data; coverage, paired-end read size and direction, as well as soft-clipping rates, are used to identify mis-assemblies. The homogeneity and purity of the material relative to the reference genome are characterized by comparing base calls from replicate datasets generated using multiple sequencing technologies. Genomic purity of the material is assessed by checking for DNA contaminants. We demonstrate the tool and its output using sequencing data while developing a Staphylococcus aureus candidate genomic reference material. PEPR is open source and available at https://github.com/usnistgov/pepr . PMID:26935931

  9. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons: Structure and Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an assembly of filamentous proteins and a host of associated proteins that collectively serve functional needs ranging from spatial organization and transport to the production and transmission of forces. These systems can exhibit a wide variety of non-equilibrium, self-assembled phases depending on context and function. While much recent progress has been made in understanding the self-organization, rheology and nonlinear mechanical properties of such active systems, in this talk, we will concentrate on some emerging aspects of cytoskeletal physics that are promising. One such aspect is the influence of cytoskeletal network topology and its dynamics on both active and passive intracellular transport. Another aspect we will highlight is the interplay between chirality of filaments, their elasticity and their interactions with the membrane that can lead to novel conformational states with functional implications. Finally we will consider homologs of cytoskeletal proteins in bacteria, which are involved in templating cell growth, segregating genetic material and force production, which we will discuss with particular reference to contractile forces during cell division. These prokaryotic structures function in remarkably similar yet fascinatingly different ways from their eukaryotic counterparts and can enrich our understanding of cytoskeletal functioning as a whole.

  10. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation.

    PubMed

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly 1 mm long, approximately 1,000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and the impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation. PMID:26566111

  11. Translational Selection Is Ubiquitous in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Supek, Fran; Škunca, Nives; Repar, Jelena; Vlahoviček, Kristian; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Codon usage bias in prokaryotic genomes is largely a consequence of background substitution patterns in DNA, but highly expressed genes may show a preference towards codons that enable more efficient and/or accurate translation. We introduce a novel approach based on supervised machine learning that detects effects of translational selection on genes, while controlling for local variation in nucleotide substitution patterns represented as sequence composition of intergenic DNA. A cornerstone of our method is a Random Forest classifier that outperformed previous distance measure-based approaches, such as the codon adaptation index, in the task of discerning the (highly expressed) ribosomal protein genes by their codon frequencies. Unlike previous reports, we show evidence that translational selection in prokaryotes is practically universal: in 460 of 461 examined microbial genomes, we find that a subset of genes shows a higher codon usage similarity to the ribosomal proteins than would be expected from the local sequence composition. These genes constitute a substantial part of the genome—between 5% and 33%, depending on genome size—while also exhibiting higher experimentally measured mRNA abundances and tending toward codons that match tRNA anticodons by canonical base pairing. Certain gene functional categories are generally enriched with, or depleted of codon-optimized genes, the trends of enrichment/depletion being conserved between Archaea and Bacteria. Prominent exceptions from these trends might indicate genes with alternative physiological roles; we speculate on specific examples related to detoxication of oxygen radicals and ammonia and to possible misannotations of asparaginyl–tRNA synthetases. Since the presence of codon optimizations on genes is a valid proxy for expression levels in fully sequenced genomes, we provide an example of an “adaptome” by highlighting gene functions with expression levels elevated specifically in thermophilic

  12. Prophage Finder: a prophage loci prediction tool for prokaryotic genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Bose, M; Barber, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Prophage loci often remain under-annotated or even unrecognized in prokaryotic genome sequencing projects. A PHP application, Prophage Finder, has been developed and implemented to predict prophage loci, based upon clusters of phage-related gene products encoded within DNA sequences. This application provides results detailing several facets of these clusters to facilitate rapid prediction and analysis of prophage sequences. Prophage Finder was tested using previously annotated prokaryotic genomic sequences with manually curated prophage loci as benchmarks. Additional analyses from Prophage Finder searches of several draft prokaryotic genome sequences are available through the Web site (http://bioinformatics.uwp.edu/~phage/DOEResults.php) to illustrate the potential of this application. PMID:16922685

  13. ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, H. B.

    2005-07-13

    Support was provided by DOE for the 2nd ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Development. The final conference program and abstracts book is attached. The conference presentations are organized around topics that are central to the current research areas in prokaryotic development. The program starts with topics that involve relatively simple models systems and ends with systems that are more complex. The topics are: i) the cell cycle, ii) the cytoskeleton, iii) morphogenesis, iv) developmental transcription, v) signaling, vi) multicellularity, and vii) developmental diversity and symbiosis. The best-studied prokaryotic development model systems will be highlighted at the conference through research presentations by leaders in the field. Many of these systems are also model systems of relevance to the DOE mission including carbon sequestration (Bradyrizobium, Synechococcus), energy production (Anabaena, Rhodobacter) and bioremediation (Caulobacter, Mesorhizobium). In addition, many of the highlighted organisms have important practical applications; the actinomycetes and myxobacteria produce antimicrobials that are of commercial interest. It is certain that the cutting-edge science presented at the conference will be applicable to the large group of bacteria relevant to the DOE mission.

  14. NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.

    PubMed

    Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Badretdin, Azat; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Nawrocki, Eric P; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pruitt, Kim D; Borodovsky, Mark; Ostell, James

    2016-08-19

    Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence. A new gene finding tool, GeneMarkS+, uses the combined evidence of protein and RNA placement by homology as an initial map of annotation to generate and modify ab initio gene predictions across the whole genome. Thus, the new NCBI's Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) relies more on sequence similarity when confident comparative data are available, while it relies more on statistical predictions in the absence of external evidence. The pipeline provides a framework for generation and analysis of annotation on the full breadth of prokaryotic taxonomy. For additional information on PGAP see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/ and the NCBI Handbook, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174280/. PMID:27342282

  15. In vitro topological loading of bacterial condensin MukB on DNA, preferentially single-stranded DNA rather than double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hironori; Yano, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Condensin is the major driving force in the segregation of daughter chromosomes in prokaryotes. Core subunits of condensin belong to the SMC protein family, whose members are characterized by a unique ATPase activity and dimers with a V-shaped structure. The V-shaped dimers might close between head domains, forming a ring structure that can encircle DNA. Indeed, cohesin, which is a subfamily of SMC proteins, encircles double-stranded DNA to hold sister chromatids in eukaryotes. However, the question of whether or not condensin encircles the chromosomal DNA remains highly controversial. Here we report that MukB binds topologically to DNA in vitro, and this binding is preferentially single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) rather than double-stranded DNA. The binding of MukB to ssDNA does not require ATP. In fact, thermal energy enhances the binding. The non-SMC subunits MukF and MukE did stimulate the topological binding of MukB, although they hindered DNA-binding of MukB. Recent reports on the distribution of condensin in genomes reveal that actively transcribed genes in yeast and humans are enriched in condensin. In consideration of all these results, we propose that the binding specificity of condensin to chromosome is provided not by the DNA sequence but by the DNA structure, which is ssDNA. PMID:27387439

  16. In vitro topological loading of bacterial condensin MukB on DNA, preferentially single-stranded DNA rather than double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Hironori; Yano, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Condensin is the major driving force in the segregation of daughter chromosomes in prokaryotes. Core subunits of condensin belong to the SMC protein family, whose members are characterized by a unique ATPase activity and dimers with a V-shaped structure. The V-shaped dimers might close between head domains, forming a ring structure that can encircle DNA. Indeed, cohesin, which is a subfamily of SMC proteins, encircles double-stranded DNA to hold sister chromatids in eukaryotes. However, the question of whether or not condensin encircles the chromosomal DNA remains highly controversial. Here we report that MukB binds topologically to DNA in vitro, and this binding is preferentially single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) rather than double-stranded DNA. The binding of MukB to ssDNA does not require ATP. In fact, thermal energy enhances the binding. The non-SMC subunits MukF and MukE did stimulate the topological binding of MukB, although they hindered DNA-binding of MukB. Recent reports on the distribution of condensin in genomes reveal that actively transcribed genes in yeast and humans are enriched in condensin. In consideration of all these results, we propose that the binding specificity of condensin to chromosome is provided not by the DNA sequence but by the DNA structure, which is ssDNA. PMID:27387439

  17. Overcoming Triple Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are, after whites, the most segregated student group in the United States, and their segregation is closely tied to poor academic outcomes. Latinos experience a triple segregation: by race/ethnicity, poverty, and language. Racial segregation perpetuates negative stereotypes, reduces the likelihood of a strong teaching staff, and is often…

  18. Functional Advantages Conferred by Extracellular Prokaryotic Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Andrew J.; Kuehn, Meta J.

    2015-01-01

    The absence of subcellular organelles is a characteristic typically used to distinguish prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells. But recent discoveries do not support this dogma. Over the past 50 years, researchers have begun to appreciate and characterize Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane derived vesicles and Gram-positive and archaeal membrane vesicles. These extracellular, membrane-bound organelles can perform a variety of functions, including binding and delivery of DNA, transport of virulence factors, protection of the cell from outer membrane targeting antimicrobials, and ridding the cell of toxic envelope proteins. Here we review the contributions of these extracellular organelles to prokaryotic physiology and compare these with the contributions of the bacterial interior membrane bound organelles responsible for harvesting light energy and for generating magnetic crystals of heavy metals. Understanding the roles of these multifunctional extracellular vesicle organelles as microbial tools will help us to better realize the diverse interactions that occur in our polymicrobial world. PMID:23615201

  19. Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic chemosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Merigo, Flavia; Osculati, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    In the last decades, microbiologists demonstrated that microorganisms possess chemosensory capabilities and communicate with each other via chemical signals. In parallel, it was demonstrated that solitary eukaryotic chemosensory cells are diffusely located on the mucosae of digestive and respiratory apparatuses. It is now evident that on the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates, two chemoreceptorial systems (i.e. eukaryotic and prokaryotic) coexist in a common microenvironment. To date, it is not known if the two chemosensory systems reciprocally interact and compete for detection of chemical cues. This appears to be a fruitful field of study and future researches must consider that the mucosal epithelia possess more chemosensory capabilities than previously supposed. PMID:20347567

  20. The evolution of ecological tolerance in prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bauld, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ecological ranges of Archaeobacteria and Eubacteria are constrained by a requirement for liquid water and the physico-chemical stability limits of biomolecules, but within this broad envelope, prokaryotes have evolved adaptations that permit them to tolerate a remarkable spectrum of habitats. Laboratory experiments indicate that prokaryotes can adapt rapidly to novel environmental conditions, yet geological studies suggest early diversification and long-term stasis within the prokaryotic kingdoms. These apparently contradictory perspectives can be reconciled by understanding that, in general, rates and patterns of prokaryotic evolution reflect the developmental history of the Earth's surface environments. Our understanding of modern microbial ecology provides a lens through which our accumulating knowledge of physiology, molecular phylogeny and the Earth's history can be integrated and focussed on the phenomenon of prokaryotic evolution.

  1. Segregation and manifestations of the mtDNA tRNA[sup Lys] A[r arrow]G[sup (8344)] mutation of myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, N.G.; Tulinius, M.H.; Holme, E.; Oldfors, A.; Andersen, O.; Wahlstroem, J. ); Aasly, J. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors have studied the segregation and manifestations of the tRNA[sup Lys] A[r arrow]G[sup (8344)] mutation of mtDNA. Three unrelated patients with myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome were investigated, along with 30 of their maternal relatives. Mutated mtDNA was not always found in the offspring of women carrying the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation. Four women had 10%-33% of mutated mtDNA in lymphocytes, and no mutated mtDNA was found in 7 of their 14 investigated children. The presence of mutated mtDNA was excluded at a level of 3:1,000. Five women had a proportion of 43%-73% mutated mtDNA in lymphocytes, and mutated mtDNA was found in all their 12 investigated children. This suggests that the risk for transmission of mutated mtDNA to the offspring increases if high levels are present in the mother and that, above a threshold level of 35%-40%, it is very likely that transmission will occur to all children. The three patients with MERRF syndrone had, in muscle, both 94%-96% mutated mtDNA and biochemical and histochemical evidence of a respiratory-chain dysfunction. Four relatives had a proportion of 61%-92% mutated mtDNA in muscle, and biochemical measurements showed a normal respiratory-chain function in muscle in all cases. These findings suggest that >92% of mtDNA with the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation in muscle is required to cause a respiratory-chain dysfunction that can be detected by biochemical methods. There was a positive correlation between the levels of mtDNA with the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation in lymphocytes and the levels in muscle, in all nine investigated cases. The levels of mutated mtDNA were higher in muscle than in lymphocytes in all cases. 30 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Identification of replication origins in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Sernova, Natalia V; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2008-09-01

    The availability of hundreds of complete bacterial genomes has created new challenges and simultaneously opportunities for bioinformatics. In the area of statistical analysis of genomic sequences, the studies of nucleotide compositional bias and gene bias between strands and replichores paved way to the development of tools for prediction of bacterial replication origins. Only a few (about 20) origin regions for eubacteria and archaea have been proven experimentally. One reason for that may be that this is now considered as an essentially bioinformatics problem, where predictions are sufficiently reliable not to run labor-intensive experiments, unless specifically needed. Here we describe the main existing approaches to the identification of replication origin (oriC) and termination (terC) loci in prokaryotic chromosomes and characterize a number of computational tools based on various skew types and other types of evidence. We also classify the eubacterial and archaeal chromosomes by predictability of their replication origins using skew plots. Finally, we discuss possible combined approaches to the identification of the oriC sites that may be used to improve the prediction tools, in particular, the analysis of DnaA binding sites using the comparative genomic methods. PMID:18660512

  3. Nonmetropolitan Residential Segregation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 1980 and 1990 Censuses of Population and Housing for Texas found overall black-white and Anglo-Hispanic residential segregation declined substantially. Nonmetropolitan counties were more segregated than metropolitan counties in both years, but growing nonmetro places showed the greatest segregation declines. Analyses controlling for…

  4. Stygofauna enhance prokaryotic transport in groundwater ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Renee J.; Paterson, James S.; Launer, Elise; Tobe, Shanan S.; Morello, Eliesa; Leijs, Remko; Marri, Shashikanth; Mitchell, James G.

    2016-01-01

    More than 97% of the world’s freshwater reserves are found in aquifers, making groundwater one of the most important resources on the planet. Prokaryotic communities in groundwater underpin the turnover of energy and matter while also maintaining groundwater purity. Thus, knowledge of microbial transport in the subsurface is crucial for maintaining groundwater health. Here, we describe for the first time the importance of stygofauna as vectors for prokaryotes. The “hitch-hiking” prokaryotes associated with stygofauna may be up to 5 orders of magnitude higher in abundance and transported up to 34× faster than bulk groundwater flow. We also demonstrate that prokaryotic diversity associated with stygofauna may be higher than that of the surrounding groundwater. Stygofauna are a newly recognized prokaryotic niche in groundwater ecosystems that have the potential to transport remediating, water purifying and pathogenic prokaryotes. Therefore, stygofauna may influence ecosystem dynamics and health at a microbial level, and at a larger scale could be a new source of prokaryotic diversity in groundwater ecosystems. PMID:27597322

  5. Stygofauna enhance prokaryotic transport in groundwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee J; Paterson, James S; Launer, Elise; Tobe, Shanan S; Morello, Eliesa; Leijs, Remko; Marri, Shashikanth; Mitchell, James G

    2016-01-01

    More than 97% of the world's freshwater reserves are found in aquifers, making groundwater one of the most important resources on the planet. Prokaryotic communities in groundwater underpin the turnover of energy and matter while also maintaining groundwater purity. Thus, knowledge of microbial transport in the subsurface is crucial for maintaining groundwater health. Here, we describe for the first time the importance of stygofauna as vectors for prokaryotes. The "hitch-hiking" prokaryotes associated with stygofauna may be up to 5 orders of magnitude higher in abundance and transported up to 34× faster than bulk groundwater flow. We also demonstrate that prokaryotic diversity associated with stygofauna may be higher than that of the surrounding groundwater. Stygofauna are a newly recognized prokaryotic niche in groundwater ecosystems that have the potential to transport remediating, water purifying and pathogenic prokaryotes. Therefore, stygofauna may influence ecosystem dynamics and health at a microbial level, and at a larger scale could be a new source of prokaryotic diversity in groundwater ecosystems. PMID:27597322

  6. Functions of the high mobility group protein, Abf2p, in mitochondrial DNA segregation, recombination and copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zelenaya-Troitskaya, O; Newman, S M; Okamoto, K; Perlman, P S; Butow, R A

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have established that the mitochondrial high mobility group (HMG) protein, Abf2p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae influences the stability of wild-type (rho+) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and plays an important role in mtDNA organization. Here we report new functions for Abf2p in mtDNA transactions. We find that in homozygous deltaabf2 crosses, the pattern of sorting of mtDNA and mitochondrial matrix protein is altered, and mtDNA recombination is suppressed relative to homozygous ABF2 crosses. Although Abf2p is known to be required for the maintenance of mtDNA in rho+ cells growing on rich dextrose medium, we find that it is not required for the maintenance of mtDNA in p cells grown on the same medium. The content of both rho+ and rho- mtDNAs is increased in cells by 50-150% by moderate (two- to threefold) increases in the ABF2 copy number, suggesting that Abf2p plays a role in mtDNA copy control. Overproduction of Abf2p by > or = 10-fold from an ABF2 gene placed under control of the GAL1 promoter, however, leads to a rapid loss of rho+ mtDNA and a quantitative conversion of rho+ cells to petites within two to four generations after a shift of the culture from glucose to galactose medium. Overexpression of Abf2p in rho- cells also leads to a loss of mtDNA, but at a slower rate than was observed for rho+ cells. The mtDNA instability phenotype is related to the DNA-binding properties of Abf2p because a mutant Abf2p that contains mutations in residues of both HMG box domains known to affect DNA binding in vitro, and that binds poorly to mtDNA in vivo, complements deltaabf2 cells only weakly and greatly lessens the effect of overproduction on mtDNA instability. In vivo binding was assessed by colocalization to mtDNA of fusions between mutant or wild-type Abf2p and green fluorescent protein.These findings are discussed in the context of a model relating mtDNA copy number control and stability to mtDNA recombination. PMID:9581629

  7. Towards building a chromosome segregation machine

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Kerry; Joglekar, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    All organisms, from bacteria to humans, face the daunting task of replicating, packaging and segregating up to two metres (about 6 × 109 base pairs) of DNA when each cell divides. This task is carried out up to a trillion times during the development of a human from a single fertilized cell. The strategy by which DNA is replicated is now well understood. But when it comes to packaging and segregating a genome, the mechanisms are only beginning to be understood and are often as variable as the organisms in which they are studied. PMID:20110988

  8. Multivariate entropy distance method for prokaryotic gene identification.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Wang, Jin; She, Zhen-Su

    2004-06-01

    A new simple method is found for efficient and accurate identification of coding sequences in prokaryotic genome. The method employs a Shannon description of artificial language for DNA sequences. It consists in translating a DNA sequence into a pseudo-amino acid sequence with 20 fundamental words according to the universal genetic code. With an entropy-density profile (EDP), the method maps a sequence of finite length to a vector and then analyzes its position in the 20-dimensional phase space depending on its nature. It is found that the ratio of the relative distance to an averaged coding and non-coding EDP over a small number (up to one) of open reading frames (ORFs) can serve as a good coding potential. An iterative algorithm is designed for finding a set of "root" sequences using this coding potential. A multivariate entropy distance (MED) algorithm is then proposed for the identification of prokaryotic genes; it has a feature to combine the use of a coding potential and an EDP-based sequence similarity analysis. The current version of MED is unsupervised, parameter-free and simple to implement. It is demonstrated to be able to detect 95-99% genes with 10-30% of additional genes when tested against the RefSeq database of NCBI and to detect 97.5-99.8% of confirmed genes with known functions. It is also shown to be able to find a set of (functionally known) genes that are missed by other well-known gene finding algorithms. All measurements show that the MED algorithm reaches a similar performance level as the algorithms like GeneMark and Glimmer for prokaryotic gene prediction. PMID:15297987

  9. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular chronomics

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Faraone, P.; Poeggeler, B.; Hardeland, R.; Katinas, G.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Otsuka, K.; Bakken, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    An impeccable time series, published in 1930, consisting of hourly observations on colony advance in a fluid culture of E. coli, was analyzed by a periodogram and power spectrum in 1961. While the original senior author had emphasized specifically periodicity with no estimate of period length, he welcomed further analyses. After consulting his technician, he knew of no environmental periodicity related to human schedules other than an hourly photography. A periodogram analysis in 1961 showed a 20.75-h period. It was emphasized that “… the circadian period disclosed is not of exactly 24-h length.” Confirmations notwithstanding, a committee ruled out microbial circadian rhythms based on grounds that could have led to a different conclusion, namely first, the inability of some committee members to see (presumably by eyeballing) the rhythms in their own data, and second, what hardly follows, that there were “too many analyses” in the published papers. Our point in dealing with microbes and humans is that analyses are indispensable for quantification and for discovering a biologically novel spectrum of cyclicities, matching physical ones. The scope of circadian organization estimated in 1961 has become broader, including about 7-day, about half-yearly, about-yearly and ex-yearly and decadal periodisms, among others. Microbial circadians have become a field of their own with eyeballing, yet time-microscopy can quantify characteristics with their uncertainties and can assess broad chronomes (time structures) with features beyond circadians. As yet only suggestive differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes further broaden the perspective and may lead to life’s sites of origin and to new temporal aspects of life’ s development as a chronomic tree by eventual rhythm dating in ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:16275493

  10. Genomics of Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses: Dynamics within the Prokaryotic Virosphere

    PubMed Central

    Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David; Hendrix, Roger W.; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Prokaryotes, bacteria and archaea, are the most abundant cellular organisms among those sharing the planet Earth with human beings (among others). However, numerous ecological studies have revealed that it is actually prokaryotic viruses that predominate on our planet and outnumber their hosts by at least an order of magnitude. An understanding of how this viral domain is organized and what are the mechanisms governing its evolution is therefore of great interest and importance. The vast majority of characterized prokaryotic viruses belong to the order Caudovirales, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages with tails. Consequently, these viruses have been studied (and reviewed) extensively from both genomic and functional perspectives. However, albeit numerous, tailed phages represent only a minor fraction of the prokaryotic virus diversity. Therefore, the knowledge which has been generated for this viral system does not offer a comprehensive view of the prokaryotic virosphere. In this review, we discuss all families of bacterial and archaeal viruses that contain more than one characterized member and for which evolutionary conclusions can be attempted by use of comparative genomic analysis. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of their genome evolution as well as on the relationships between different viral groups and plasmids. It becomes clear that evolutionary mechanisms shaping the genomes of prokaryotic viruses vary between different families and depend on the type of the nucleic acid, characteristics of the virion structure, as well as the mode of the life cycle. We also point out that horizontal gene transfer is not equally prevalent in different virus families and is not uniformly unrestricted for diverse viral functions. PMID:22126996

  11. Evolutionary assembly patterns of prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Press, Maximilian O; Queitsch, Christine; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary innovation must occur in the context of some genomic background, which limits available evolutionary paths. For example, protein evolution by sequence substitution is constrained by epistasis between residues. In prokaryotes, evolutionary innovation frequently happens by macrogenomic events such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Previous work has suggested that HGT can be influenced by ancestral genomic content, yet the extent of such gene-level constraints has not yet been systematically characterized. Here, we evaluated the evolutionary impact of such constraints in prokaryotes, using probabilistic ancestral reconstructions from 634 extant prokaryotic genomes and a novel framework for detecting evolutionary constraints on HGT events. We identified 8228 directional dependencies between genes and demonstrated that many such dependencies reflect known functional relationships, including for example, evolutionary dependencies of the photosynthetic enzyme RuBisCO. Modeling all dependencies as a network, we adapted an approach from graph theory to establish chronological precedence in the acquisition of different genomic functions. Specifically, we demonstrated that specific functions tend to be gained sequentially, suggesting that evolution in prokaryotes is governed by functional assembly patterns. Finally, we showed that these dependencies are universal rather than clade-specific and are often sufficient for predicting whether or not a given ancestral genome will acquire specific genes. Combined, our results indicate that evolutionary innovation via HGT is profoundly constrained by epistasis and historical contingency, similar to the evolution of proteins and phenotypic characters, and suggest that the emergence of specific metabolic and pathological phenotypes in prokaryotes can be predictable from current genomes. PMID:27197212

  12. Development of a Prokaryotic Universal Primer for Simultaneous Analysis of Bacteria and Archaea Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shunsuke; Tomita, Junko; Nishioka, Kaori; Hisada, Takayoshi; Nishijima, Miyuki

    2014-01-01

    For the analysis of microbial community structure based on 16S rDNA sequence diversity, sensitive and robust PCR amplification of 16S rDNA is a critical step. To obtain accurate microbial composition data, PCR amplification must be free of bias; however, amplifying all 16S rDNA species with equal efficiency from a sample containing a large variety of microorganisms remains challenging. Here, we designed a universal primer based on the V3-V4 hypervariable region of prokaryotic 16S rDNA for the simultaneous detection of Bacteria and Archaea in fecal samples from crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large white×Duroc) using an Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencer. In-silico analysis showed that the newly designed universal prokaryotic primers matched approximately 98.0% of Bacteria and 94.6% of Archaea rRNA gene sequences in the Ribosomal Database Project database. For each sequencing reaction performed with the prokaryotic universal primer, an average of 69,330 (±20,482) reads were obtained, of which archaeal rRNA genes comprised approximately 1.2% to 3.2% of all prokaryotic reads. In addition, the detection frequency of Bacteria belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia, including members of the classes Verrucomicrobiae and Opitutae, was higher in the NGS analysis using the prokaryotic universal primer than that performed with the bacterial universal primer. Importantly, this new prokaryotic universal primer set had markedly lower bias than that of most previously designed universal primers. Our findings demonstrate that the prokaryotic universal primer set designed in the present study will permit the simultaneous detection of Bacteria and Archaea, and will therefore allow for a more comprehensive understanding of microbial community structures in environmental samples. PMID:25144201

  13. Segregation and School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentler, Robert A.

    Segregation has been part of the cultural design of American society from the pre-industrial rural period to the present, post-industrial urban period. This paper, however, is concerned with learning within contemporary school settings. Ethnic segregation is one major type of group separation within American schools and within the society.…

  14. Segregation and Civic Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Michael Merry defends the following prima facie argument: that civic virtue is not dependent on integration and in fact may be best fostered under conditions of segregation. He demonstrates that civic virtue can and does take place under conditions of involuntary segregation, but that voluntary separation--as a response to…

  15. Neighborhood Schools and Racial Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Daniel T.

    1975-01-01

    Neighborhood school concept and racially segregated residential patterns account for most of the segregation in American public schools today. The focus of this article will be to explain the reasons for residential segregation. (Author/RK)

  16. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-07-11

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded cytogel extends the vectorial character of the plasma membrane deeper into the cytoplasm by about 20-70 nm. We discuss useful physiological insights that this model gives into the functioning of a prokaryotic cell on the micrometer scale. PMID:23735698

  17. SSR DNA markers linked with Broad-Spectrum rust resistance in common bean discovered by bulk segregant analysis using a large set of SNP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers are invaluable plant breeding tools that can be used in the development of new crop cultivars with disease resistance. We wanted to develop the capacity for marker-assisted selection using the broad-spectrum rust resistance trait present in Mesoamerican common bean PI 310762. This commo...

  18. Bacterial partition complexes segregate within the volume of the nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Antoine; Cattoni, Diego I.; Guilhas, Baptiste; Mathieu-Demazière, Céline; Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Rech, Jérôme; Abrahamsson, Sara; Murray, Heath; Bouet, Jean-Yves; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Precise and rapid DNA segregation is required for proper inheritance of genetic material. In most bacteria and archaea, this process is assured by a broadly conserved mitotic-like apparatus in which a NTPase (ParA) displaces the partition complex. Competing observations and models imply starkly different 3D localization patterns of the components of the partition machinery during segregation. Here we use super-resolution microscopies to localize in 3D each component of the segregation apparatus with respect to the bacterial chromosome. We show that Par proteins locate within the nucleoid volume and reveal that proper volumetric localization and segregation of partition complexes requires ATPase and DNA-binding activities of ParA. Finally, we find that the localization patterns of the different components of the partition system highly correlate with dense chromosomal regions. We propose a new mechanism in which the nucleoid provides a scaffold to guide the proper segregation of partition complexes. PMID:27377966

  19. Bacterial partition complexes segregate within the volume of the nucleoid.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Antoine; Cattoni, Diego I; Guilhas, Baptiste; Mathieu-Demazière, Céline; Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Rech, Jérôme; Abrahamsson, Sara; Murray, Heath; Bouet, Jean-Yves; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Precise and rapid DNA segregation is required for proper inheritance of genetic material. In most bacteria and archaea, this process is assured by a broadly conserved mitotic-like apparatus in which a NTPase (ParA) displaces the partition complex. Competing observations and models imply starkly different 3D localization patterns of the components of the partition machinery during segregation. Here we use super-resolution microscopies to localize in 3D each component of the segregation apparatus with respect to the bacterial chromosome. We show that Par proteins locate within the nucleoid volume and reveal that proper volumetric localization and segregation of partition complexes requires ATPase and DNA-binding activities of ParA. Finally, we find that the localization patterns of the different components of the partition system highly correlate with dense chromosomal regions. We propose a new mechanism in which the nucleoid provides a scaffold to guide the proper segregation of partition complexes. PMID:27377966

  20. Transcriptome dynamics-based operon prediction in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inferring operon maps is crucial to understanding the regulatory networks of prokaryotic genomes. Recently, RNA-seq based transcriptome studies revealed that in many bacterial species the operon structure vary with the change of environmental conditions. Therefore, new computational solutions that use both static and dynamic data are necessary to create condition specific operon predictions. Results In this work, we propose a novel classification method that integrates RNA-seq based transcriptome profiles with genomic sequence features to accurately identify the operons that are expressed under a measured condition. The classifiers are trained on a small set of confirmed operons and then used to classify the remaining gene pairs of the organism studied. Finally, by linking consecutive gene pairs classified as operons, our computational approach produces condition-dependent operon maps. We evaluated our approach on various RNA-seq expression profiles of the bacteria Haemophilus somni, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Our results demonstrate that, using features depending on both transcriptome dynamics and genome sequence characteristics, we can identify operon pairs with high accuracy. Moreover, the combination of DNA sequence and expression data results in more accurate predictions than each one alone. Conclusion We present a computational strategy for the comprehensive analysis of condition-dependent operon maps in prokaryotes. Our method can be used to generate condition specific operon maps of many bacterial organisms for which high-resolution transcriptome data is available. PMID:24884724

  1. Probabilistic methods of identifying genes in prokaryotic genomes: connections to the HMM theory.

    PubMed

    Azad, Rajeev K; Borodovsky, Mark

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we review developments in probabilistic methods of gene recognition in prokaryotic genomes with the emphasis on connections to the general theory of hidden Markov models (HMM). We show that the Bayesian method implemented in GeneMark, a frequently used gene-finding tool, can be augmented and reintroduced as a rigorous forward-backward (FB) algorithm for local posterior decoding described in the HMM theory. Another earlier developed method, prokaryotic GeneMark.hmm, uses a modification of the Viterbi algorithm for HMM with duration to identify the most likely global path through hidden functional states given the DNA sequence. GeneMark and GeneMark.hmm programs are worth using in concert for analysing prokaryotic DNA sequences that arguably do not follow any exact mathematical model. The new extension of GeneMark using the FB algorithm was implemented in the software program GeneMark.fba. Given the DNA sequence, this program determines an a posteriori probability for each nucleotide to belong to coding or non-coding region. Also, for any open reading frame (ORF), it assigns a score defined as a probabilistic measure of all paths through hidden states that traverse the ORF as a coding region. The prediction accuracy of GeneMark.fba determined in our tests was compared favourably to the accuracy of the initial (standard) GeneMark program. Comparison to the prokaryotic GeneMark.hmm has also demonstrated a certain, yet species-specific, degree of improvement in raw gene detection, ie detection of correct reading frame (and stop codon). The accuracy of exact gene prediction, which is concerned about precise prediction of gene start (which in a prokaryotic genome unambiguously defines the reading frame and stop codon, thus, the whole protein product), still remains more accurate in GeneMarkS, which uses more elaborate HMM to specifically address this task. PMID:15260893

  2. Characterization of a prokaryotic topoisomerase I activity in chloroplast extracts from spinach.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, J; Zimmermann, W; Weissbach, A

    1983-03-11

    A topoisomerase I activity has been partially purified from crude extracts of spinach chloroplasts. This activity relaxes the supercoiled covalently closed circular DNA of pBR322. The enzyme requires Mg++, but not ATP, and has an apparent molecular weight of about 115,000. It catalyzes a unit change in the linkage number of supercoiled DNA but cannot relax positive supercoiled DNA. These characteristics of the topoisomerase suggest it is of the prokaryotic type and would tend to support the endosymbiotic theory of plastid origin and evolution. PMID:6298746

  3. Commentary: Genger Segregation in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the preceding articles in this journal issue. Considers the timing of gender segregation, compatibility between play styles and gender segregation, possible physiological processes underlying gender segregation in play, children's cognitive knowledge about gender, and the consequences of gender segregation. (BAC)

  4. Digital Quantification of DNA Replication and Chromosome Segregation Enables Determination of Antimicrobial Susceptibility after only 15 Minutes of Antibiotic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Schoepp, Nathan G; Khorosheva, Eugenia M; Schlappi, Travis S; Curtis, Matthew S; Humphries, Romney M; Hindler, Janet A; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-08-01

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) would decrease misuse and overuse of antibiotics. The "holy grail" of AST is a phenotype-based test that can be performed within a doctor visit. Such a test requires the ability to determine a pathogen's susceptibility after only a short antibiotic exposure. Herein, digital PCR (dPCR) was employed to test whether measuring DNA replication of the target pathogen through digital single-molecule counting would shorten the required time of antibiotic exposure. Partitioning bacterial chromosomal DNA into many small volumes during dPCR enabled AST results after short exposure times by 1) precise quantification and 2) a measurement of how antibiotics affect the states of macromolecular assembly of bacterial chromosomes. This digital AST (dAST) determined susceptibility of clinical isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) after 15 min of exposure for all four antibiotic classes relevant to UTIs. This work lays the foundation to develop a rapid, point-of-care AST and strengthen global antibiotic stewardship. PMID:27357747

  5. Gene identification in prokaryotic genomes, phages, metagenomes, and EST sequences with GeneMarkS suite.

    PubMed

    Borodovsky, Mark; Lomsadze, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use several gene-finding programs from the GeneMark line developed for finding protein-coding ORFs in genomic DNA of prokaryotic species, in genomic DNA of eukaryotic species with intronless genes, in genomes of viruses and phages, and in prokaryotic metagenomic sequences, as well as in EST sequences with spliced-out introns. These bioinformatics tools were demonstrated to have state-of-the-art accuracy, and have been frequently used for gene annotation in novel nucleotide sequences. An additional advantage of these sequence-analysis tools is that the problem of algorithm parameterization is solved automatically, with parameters estimated by iterative self-training (unsupervised training). PMID:24510847

  6. Gene identification in prokaryotic genomes, phages, metagenomes, and EST sequences with GeneMarkS suite.

    PubMed

    Borodovsky, Mark; Lomsadze, Alex

    2011-09-01

    This unit describes how to use several gene-finding programs from the GeneMark line developed for finding protein-coding ORFs in genomic DNA of prokaryotic species, in genomic DNA of eukaryotic species with intronless genes, in genomes of viruses and phages, and in prokaryotic metagenomic sequences, as well as in EST sequences with spliced-out introns. These bioinformatics tools were demonstrated to have state-of-the-art accuracy and have been frequently used for gene annotation in novel nucleotide sequences. An additional advantage of these sequence-analysis tools is that the problem of algorithm parameterization is solved automatically, with parameters estimated by iterative self-training (unsupervised training). PMID:21901741

  7. Translesion Synthesis Past the C8- and N2-Deoxyguanosine Adducts of the Dietary Mutagen 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in the NarI Recognition Sequence by Prokaryotic DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Stover, James S.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Zang, Hong; Guengerich, F. Peter; Rizzo, Carmelo J.

    2011-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is found in cooked meats and forms DNA adducts at the C8- and N2-positions of dGuo after appropriate activation. IQ is a potent inducer of frameshift mutations in bacteria and is carcinogenic in laboratory animals. We have incorporated both IQ-adducts into the G1-and G3-positions of the NarI recognition sequence (5′-G1G2CG3CC-3′), which is a hotspot for arylamine modification. The in vitro replication of the oligonucleotides was examined with Escherichia coli pol I Klenow fragment exo−, E. coli pol II exo−, and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), and the extension products were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. Replication of the C8-adduct at the G3-position resulted in two-base deletions with all three polymerases, whereas error-free bypass and extension was observed at the G1-position. The N2-adduct was bypassed and extended by all three polymerases when positioned at the G1-position, and the error-free product was observed. The N2-adduct at the G3-position was more blocking and was bypassed and extended only by Dpo4 to produce an error-free product. These results indicate that the replication of the IQ-adducts of dGuo is strongly influenced by the local sequence and the regioisomer of the adduct. These results also suggest a possible role for pol II and IV in the error-prone bypass of the C8-IQ-adduct leading to frameshift mutations in reiterated sequences, whereas noniterated sequences result in error-free bypass. PMID:17112239

  8. Temporal and depth-related differences in prokaryotic communities in abyssal sediments associated with particulate organic carbon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeseneder, M. M.; Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Jones, D. O. B.; Witte, U.; Prosser, J. I.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux is hypothesized to be the most important parameter influencing activity and biomass of prokaryotic and faunal communities in the abyssal seafloor, but there is little evidence of POC-related changes in community composition of prokaryotes. This hypothesis was tested by 16S rRNA-gene-based analysis of prokaryotic DNA and RNA extracted from abyssal seafloor sediments during periods of low and high POC flux. Fingerprint analysis of prokaryotic communities indicated that approximately 50% of the phylotypes were identical at each sediment horizon, regardless of the temporal variations in POC flux. However, phylotypes were also detected that represented a relatively dynamic component of these communities and were probably strongly influenced by the prevalent POC flux regime. These patterns were also detected in deeper sediment horizons. DNA- and RNA-based community profiles differed, although both approaches had similar community dynamics. Crenarchaeota showed the strongest shift in community composition in response to availability of labile POC, indicating that POC flux may have a more pronounced impact on crenarchaeal communities than on bacterial communities. The high number of phylotypes common to each sample time suggests that both standing stock and active prokaryotic communities are stable.

  9. Understanding Segregation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Elizabeth

    There is growing consensus that living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty increases the likelihood of social problems such as teenage parenthood, drug and alcohol use, crime victimization, and chronic unemployment. Neighborhood inequality is also implicated in studies of enduring race/ethnic health disparities, and there are recent moves to broaden the definition of health care policy to policies targeting social inequality (Mechanic 2007). Residential segregation affects health outcomes in several different ways. First, income, education, and occupation are all strongly related to health (Adler and Newman 2002). Segregation is a key mechanism through which socioeconomic inequality is perpetuated and reinforced, as it hinders the upward mobility of disadvantaged groups by limiting their educational and employment opportunities. Second, segregation increases minority exposure to unhealthy neighborhood environments. Residential segregation creates areas with concentrated poverty and unemployment, both of which are key factors that predict violence and create racial differences in homicide (Samson and Wilson 1995). Neighborhood characteristics, such as exposure to environmental hazards, fear of violence, and access to grocery stores, affect health risks and health behaviors (Cheadle et al. 1991). Tobacco and alcohol industries also advertise their products disproportionately in poor, minority areas (Moore, Williams, and Qualls 1996). Finally, residential segregation leads to inequalitie in health care resources, which contributes to disparities in quality of treatment (Smedley, Stith, and Nelson 2002).

  10. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins—including water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  11. Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes: Who is Hosting Whom?

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals' actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a "forgotten organ," functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short-chain fatty acids), a process, which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host's biology remain almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which encourage us to postulate: who is hosting whom? PMID:26664911

  12. Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes: Who is Hosting Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals’ actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a “forgotten organ,” functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short-chain fatty acids), a process, which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host’s biology remain almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which encourage us to postulate: who is hosting whom? PMID

  13. Metabolic Adaptation and Protein Complexes in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Beate; Liang, Chunguang; Prell, Florian; Fieselmann, Astrid; Moya, Andres; Schuster, Stefan; Völker, Uwe; Dandekar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Protein complexes are classified and have been charted in several large-scale screening studies in prokaryotes. These complexes are organized in a factory-like fashion to optimize protein production and metabolism. Central components are conserved between different prokaryotes; major complexes involve carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid and nucleotide metabolism. Metabolic adaptation changes protein complexes according to environmental conditions. Protein modification depends on specific modifying enzymes. Proteins such as trigger enzymes display condition-dependent adaptation to different functions by participating in several complexes. Several bacterial pathogens adapt rapidly to intracellular survival with concomitant changes in protein complexes in central metabolism and optimize utilization of their favorite available nutrient source. Regulation optimizes protein costs. Master regulators lead to up- and downregulation in specific subnetworks and all involved complexes. Long protein half-life and low level expression detaches protein levels from gene expression levels. However, under optimal growth conditions, metabolite fluxes through central carbohydrate pathways correlate well with gene expression. In a system-wide view, major metabolic changes lead to rapid adaptation of complexes and feedback or feedforward regulation. Finally, prokaryotic enzyme complexes are involved in crowding and substrate channeling. This depends on detailed structural interactions and is verified for specific effects by experiments and simulations. PMID:24957769

  14. A quest for indigenous truffle helper prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gryndler, Milan; Soukupová, Lucie; Hršelová, Hana; Gryndlerová, Hana; Borovička, Jan; Streiblová, Eva; Jansa, Jan

    2013-06-01

    Tuber aestivum is the most common European truffle with significant commercial exploitation. Its production originates from natural habitats and from artificially inoculated host tree plantations. Formation of Tuber ectomycorrhizae in host seedling roots is often inefficient. One possible reason is the lack of indigenous associative microbes. Here we aimed at metagenetic characterization and cultivation of indigenous prokaryotes associated with T. aestivum in a field transect cutting through the fungus colony margin. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed close association with the T. aestivum in the ectomycorrhizae and in the soil, but there was no overlap between the associative prokaryotes in the two different habitats. Among those positively associated with the ectomycorrhizae, we identified several bacterial genera belonging to Pseudonocardineae. Extensive isolation efforts yielded many cultures of ectomycorrhizae-associative bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales and Streptomycineae, but none belonging to the Pseudonocardineae. The specific unculturable Tuber-associated prokaryotes are likely to play important roles in the biology of these ectomycorrhizal fungi, including modulation of competition with other symbiotic and saprotrophic microbes, facilitation of root penetration and/or accessing mineral nutrients in the soil. However, the ultimate proof of this hypothesis will require isolation of the microbes for metabolic studies, using novel cultivation approaches. PMID:23754715

  15. Dissecting the Molecular Properties of Prokaryotic Flotillins

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Juri Niño; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Flotillins are universally conserved proteins that are present in all kingdoms of life. Recently it was demonstrated that the B. subtilis flotillin YuaG (FloT) has a direct influence on membrane domain formation by orchestrating lipid domains. Thereby it allocates a proper environment for diverse cellular machineries. YuaG creates platforms for signal transduction, processes crucial for biofilm formation, sporulation, competence, secretion, and others. Even though, flotillins are an emerging topic of research in the field of microbiology little is known about the molecular architecture of prokaryotic flotillins. All flotillins share common structural elements and are tethered to the membrane N’- terminally, followed by a so called PHB domain and a flotillin domain. We show here that prokaryotic flotillins are, similarly to eukaryotic flotillins, tethered to the membrane via a hairpin loop. Further it is demonstrated by sedimentation assays that B. subtilis flotillins do not bind to the membrane via their PHB domain contrary to eukaryotic flotillins. Size exclusion chromatography experiments, blue native PAGE and cross linking experiments revealed that B. subtilis YuaG can oligomerize into large clusters via the PHB domain. This illustrates an important difference in the setup of prokaryotic flotillins compared to the organization of eukaryotic flotillins. PMID:25635948

  16. The Role of Residential Segregation in Contemporary School Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Inaction to address housing segregation in metropolitan areas has resulted in persistently high levels of residential segregation. As the Supreme Court has recently limited school districts' voluntary integration efforts, this article considers the role of residential segregation in maintaining racially isolated schools, namely what is known…

  17. TACOMA FACES SCHOOL SEGREGATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HALEY, FRED T.

    THE CHAIRMAN OF THE TACOMA, WASHINGTON, BOARD OF EDUCATION PRESENTS HIS VIEWS ON THE PROBLEMS TO BE FACED BY THE CITY OF TACOMA IN THE AREA OF DE FACTO SEGREGATION. TACOMA'S POPULATION FROM 1950 TO 1960 INCREASED 3 PERCENT. VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE INCREASE WAS NONWHITE. IT IS HELD THAT THE MAGNITUDE OF THE EXPLOSIVE GROWTH OF THE NEGRO POPULATION IS…

  18. Prokaryotic diversity in a Tunisian hypersaline lake, Chott El Jerid.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Manel Ben; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Mei, Nan; Quéméneur, Marianne; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Erauso, Gaël; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Alazard, Didier; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-03-01

    Prokaryotic diversity was investigated in a Tunisian salt lake, Chott El Jerid, by quantitative real-time PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting methods targeting the 16S rRNA gene and culture-dependent methods. Two different samples S1-10 and S2-10 were taken from under the salt crust of Chott El Jerid in the dry season. DGGE analysis revealed that bacterial sequences were related to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, unclassified bacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus phyla. Anaerobic fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria were also detected in this ecosystem. Within the domain archaea, all sequences were affiliated to Euryarchaeota phylum. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of bacteria was 5 × 10(6) DNA copies g(-1) whereas archaea varied between 5 × 10(5) and 10(6) DNA copies g(-1) in these samples. Eight anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacterial strains were isolated and affiliated with the species Halanaerobium alcaliphilum, Halanaerobium saccharolyticum, and Sporohalobacter salinus. These data showed an abundant and diverse microbial community detected in the hypersaline thalassohaline environment of Chott El Jerid. PMID:26724953

  19. Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Michael; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) has been used for nearly 50 years as the gold standard for prokaryotic species circumscriptions at the genomic level. It has been the only taxonomic method that offered a numerical and relatively stable species boundary, and its use has had a paramount influence on how the current classification has been constructed. However, now, in the era of genomics, DDH appears to be an outdated method for classification that needs to be substituted. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between two genomes seems the most promising method since it mirrors DDH closely. Here we examine the work package JSpecies as a user-friendly, biologist-oriented interface to calculate ANI and the correlation of the tetranucleotide signatures between pairwise genomic comparisons. The results agreed with the use of ANI to substitute DDH, with a narrowed boundary that could be set at ≈95–96%. In addition, the JSpecies package implemented the tetranucleotide signature correlation index, an alignment-free parameter that generally correlates with ANI and that can be of help in deciding when a given pair of organisms should be classified in the same species. Moreover, for taxonomic purposes, the analyses can be produced by simply randomly sequencing at least 20% of the genome of the query strains rather than obtaining their full sequence. PMID:19855009

  20. Occupational Segregation: Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millsap, Mary Ann

    This paper presents an overview of occupational segregation, which keeps women in lower-paying job categories, especially as this segregation pertains to federal job programs. The first two sections of the paper survey occupational segregation in general, examining the statistics which show that women are heavily concentrated into a very limited…

  1. Residential Segregation and School Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Steven G.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that school districts' efforts to integrate schools have failed to ameliorate the racial isolation of black students. Finds that schools remain segregated primarily because of continued residential segregation and that school integration efforts have had little long-term effect on residential segregation. (CFR)

  2. Evolution of gene order conservation in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Tamames, Javier

    2001-01-01

    Background As more complete genomes are sequenced, conservation of gene order between different organisms is emerging as an informative property of the genomes. Conservation of gene order has been used for predicting function and functional interactions of proteins, as well as for studying the evolutionary relationships between genomes. The reasons for the maintenance of gene order are still not well understood, as the organization of the prokaryote genome into operons and lateral gene transfer cannot possibly account for all the instances of conservation found. Comprehensive studies of gene order are one way of elucidating the nature of these maintaining forces. Results Gene order is extensively conserved between closely related species, but rapidly becomes less conserved among more distantly related organisms, probably in a cooperative fashion. This trend could be universal in prokaryotic genomes, as archaeal genomes are likely to behave similarly to bacterial genomes. Gene order conservation could therefore be used as a valid phylogenetic measure to study relationships between species. Even between very distant species, remnants of gene order conservation exist in the form of highly conserved clusters of genes. This suggests the existence of selective processes that maintain the organization of these regions. Because the clusters often span more than one operon, common regulation probably cannot be invoked as the cause of the maintenance of gene order. Conclusions Gene order conservation is a genomic measure that can be useful for studying relationships between prokaryotes and the evolutionary forces shaping their genomes. Gene organization is extensively conserved in some genomic regions, and further studies are needed to elucidate the reason for this conservation. PMID:11423009

  3. The prokaryotic zinc-finger: structure, function and comparison with the eukaryotic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Palmieri, Maddalena; Russo, Luigi; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V; Isernia, Carla

    2015-12-01

    Classical zinc finger (ZF) domains were thought to be confined to the eukaryotic kingdom until the transcriptional regulator Ros protein was identified in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Ros Cys2 His2 ZF binds DNA in a peculiar mode and folds in a domain significantly larger than its eukaryotic counterpart consisting of 58 amino acids (the 9-66 region) arranged in a βββαα topology, and stabilized by a conserved, extensive, 15-residue hydrophobic core. The prokaryotic ZF domain, then, shows some intriguing new features that make it interestingly different from its eukaryotic counterpart. This review will focus on the prokaryotic ZFs, summarizing and discussing differences and analogies with the eukaryotic domains and providing important insights into their structure/function relationships. PMID:26365095

  4. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun-Wie; Pearce, David A.; Convey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge of patterns of biogeography in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms have led to a fundamental paradigm shift in understanding of the controls and history of life on land in Antarctica, and its interactions over the long term with the glaciological and geological processes that have shaped the continent. However, while it has long been recognized that the terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica are dominated by microbes and their processes, knowledge of microbial diversity and distributions has lagged far behind that of the macroscopic eukaryote organisms. Increasing human contact with and activity in the continent is leading to risks of biological contamination and change in a region whose isolation has protected it for millions of years at least; these risks may be particularly acute for microbial communities which have, as yet, received scant recognition and attention. Even a matter apparently as straightforward as Protected Area designation in Antarctica requires robust biodiversity data which, in most parts of the continent, remain almost completely unavailable. A range of important contributing factors mean that it is now timely to reconsider the state of knowledge of Antarctic terrestrial prokaryotes. Rapid advances in molecular biological approaches are increasingly demonstrating that bacterial diversity in Antarctica may be far greater than previously thought, and that there is overlap in the environmental controls affecting both Antarctic prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe. In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote groups where appropriate

  5. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chun-Wie; Pearce, David A; Convey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge of patterns of biogeography in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms have led to a fundamental paradigm shift in understanding of the controls and history of life on land in Antarctica, and its interactions over the long term with the glaciological and geological processes that have shaped the continent. However, while it has long been recognized that the terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica are dominated by microbes and their processes, knowledge of microbial diversity and distributions has lagged far behind that of the macroscopic eukaryote organisms. Increasing human contact with and activity in the continent is leading to risks of biological contamination and change in a region whose isolation has protected it for millions of years at least; these risks may be particularly acute for microbial communities which have, as yet, received scant recognition and attention. Even a matter apparently as straightforward as Protected Area designation in Antarctica requires robust biodiversity data which, in most parts of the continent, remain almost completely unavailable. A range of important contributing factors mean that it is now timely to reconsider the state of knowledge of Antarctic terrestrial prokaryotes. Rapid advances in molecular biological approaches are increasingly demonstrating that bacterial diversity in Antarctica may be far greater than previously thought, and that there is overlap in the environmental controls affecting both Antarctic prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Bacterial dispersal mechanisms and colonization patterns remain largely unaddressed, although evidence for regional evolutionary differentiation is rapidly accruing and, with this, there is increasing appreciation of patterns in regional bacterial biogeography in this large part of the globe. In this review, we set out to describe the state of knowledge of Antarctic prokaryote diversity patterns, drawing analogy with those of eukaryote groups where appropriate

  6. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  7. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Zhou, H; Pan, Y-B; Chen, C Y; Zhu, J R; Chen, P H; Li, Y-R; Cai, Q; Chen, R K

    2015-01-01

    No information is available on segregation analysis of DNA markers involving both pollen and self-progeny. Therefore, we used capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-based DNA fingerprinting together with single pollen collection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker segregation among 964 single pollens and 288 self-progenies (S1) of sugarcane cultivar LCP 85-384. Twenty SSR DNA fragments (alleles) were amplified by five polymorphic SSR markers. Only one non-parental SSR allele was observed in 2392 PCRs. SSR allele inheritance was in accordance with Mendelian laws of segregation and independent assortment. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found between frequencies of observed and expected genotypes in pollen and S1 populations. Within the S1 population, the most frequent genotype of each SSR marker was the parental genotype of the same marker. The number of genotypes was higher in pollen than S1 population. PIC values of the five SSR markers were greater in pollen than S1 populations. Eleven of 20 SSR alleles (55%) were segregated in accordance with Mendelian segregation ratios expected from pollen and S1 populations of a 2n = 10x polyploid. Six of 20 SSR alleles were segregated in a 3:1 (presence:absence) ratio and were simplex markers. Four and one alleles were segregated in 77:4 and 143:1 ratios and considered duplex and triplex markers, respectively. Segregation ratios of remaining alleles were unexplainable. The results provide information about selection of crossing parents, estimation of seedling population optimal size, and promotion of efficient selection, which may be valuable for sugarcane breeders. PMID:26782486

  8. Mechanisms of specific and nonspecific binding of architectural proteins in prokaryotic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Benevides, James M; Danahy, Jessica; Kawakami, Jessica; Thomas, George J

    2008-03-25

    IHF and HU are small basic proteins of eubacteria that bind as homodimers to double-stranded DNA and bend the duplex to promote architectures required for gene regulation. These architectural proteins share a common alpha/beta fold but exhibit different nucleic acid binding surfaces and distinct functional roles. With respect to DNA-binding specificity, for example, IHF is sequence specific, while HU is not. We have employed Raman difference spectroscopy and gel mobility assays to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying such differences in DNA recognition. Parallel studies of solution complexes of IHF and HU with the same DNA nonadecamer (5' --> 3' sequence: TC TAAGTAGTTGATTCATA, where the phage lambda H1 consensus sequence of IHF is underlined) show the following. (i) The structure of the targeted DNA site is altered much more dramatically by IHF than by HU binding. (ii) In the IHF complex, the structural perturbations encompass both the sugar-phosphate backbone and the bases of the consensus sequence, whereas only the DNA backbone is altered by HU binding. (iii) In the presence of excess protein, complexes of order higher than 1 dimer per duplex are detected for HU:DNA, though not for IHF:DNA. The results differentiate structural motifs of IHF:DNA and HU:DNA solution complexes, provide Raman signatures of prokaryotic sequence-specific and nonspecific recognition, and suggest that the architectural role of HU may involve the capability to recruit additional binding partners to even relatively short DNA sequences. PMID:18302340

  9. Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification

    PubMed Central

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes form ubiquitin (Ub)-like isopeptide bonds on the lysine residues of proteins by at least two distinct pathways that are reversible and regulated. In mycobacteria, the C-terminal Gln of Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) is deamidated and isopeptide linked to proteins by a mechanism distinct from ubiquitylation in enzymology yet analogous to ubiquitylation in targeting proteins for destruction by proteasomes. Ub-fold proteins of archaea (SAMPs, small archaeal modifier proteins) and Thermus (TtuB, tRNA-two-thiouridine B) that differ from Ub in amino acid sequence, yet share a common β-grasp fold, also form isopeptide bonds by a mechanism that appears streamlined compared with ubiquitylation. SAMPs and TtuB are found to be members of a small group of Ub-fold proteins that function not only in protein modification but also in sulfur-transfer pathways associated with tRNA thiolation and molybdopterin biosynthesis. These multifunctional Ub-fold proteins are thought to be some of the most ancient of Ub-like protein modifiers. PMID:24995873

  10. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  11. Polymer segregation under confinement: Influences of macromolecular crowding and the interaction between the polymer and crowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yu, Wancheng; Wang, Jiajun; Luo, Kaifu

    2015-10-01

    Entropy driven polymer segregation in confinements as a model for chromosome separation in bacteria has attracted wide attention; however, the effects of macromolecular crowding and the interaction between the binding protein and the newly replicated DNA on the segregation dynamics are not clear. Using Langevin dynamics simulations, we investigate the influences of crowders and the attractive interaction between the polymer and a small number of crowders on segregation of two overlapping polymers under a cylindrical confinement. We find that the segregation time increases with increasing the volume fraction of crowders due to the slower chain diffusion in crowded environments. For a fixed volume fraction of crowders, the segregation time decreases with increasing the size of crowders. Moreover, the attractive interaction between the polymer and a small number of crowders can significantly facilitate the chain segregation. These results are important for understanding the chromosome segregation in living cells.

  12. Biophysical Adaptations of Prokaryotic Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    PubMed

    Vien, T N; DeCaen, P G

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptive features found in voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These two families are distinct, having diverged early in evolutionary history but maintain a surprising degree of convergence in function. While prokaryotic NaVs are required for growth and motility, eukaryotic NaVs selectively conduct fast electrical currents for short- and long-range signaling across cell membranes in mammalian organs. Current interest in prokaryotic NaVs is stoked by their resolved high-resolution structures and functional features which are reminiscent of eukaryotic NaVs. In this chapter, comparisons between eukaryotic and prokaryotic NaVs are made to highlight the shared and unique aspects of ion selectivity, voltage sensitivity, and pharmacology. Examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic NaV convergent evolution will be discussed within the context of their structural features. PMID:27586280

  13. Nanoscale Spatial Organization of Prokaryotic Cells Studied by Super-Resolution Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Andrea Lynn

    All cells spatially organize their interiors, and this arrangement is necessary for cell viability. Until recently, it was believed that only eukaryotic cells spatially segregate their components. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that bacteria also assemble their proteins into complex patterns. In eukaryotic cells, spatial organization arises from membrane bound organelles as well as motor transport proteins which can move cargos within the cell. To date, there are no known motor transport proteins in bacteria and most microbes lack membrane bound organelles, so it remains a mystery how bacterial spatial organization emerges. In hind-sight it is not surprising that bacteria also exhibit complex spatial organization considering much of what we have learned about the basic processes that take place in all cells, such as transcription and translation was first discovered in prokaryotic cells. Perhaps the fundamental principles that govern spatial organization in prokaryotic cells may be applicable in eukaryotic cells as well. In addition, bacteria are attractive model organism for spatial organization studies because they are genetically tractable, grow quickly and much biochemical and structural data is known about them. A powerful tool for observing spatial organization in cells is the fluorescence microscope. By specifically tagging a protein of interest with a fluorescent probe, it is possible to examine how proteins organize and dynamically assemble inside cells. A significant disadvantage of this technology is its spatial resolution (approximately 250 nm laterally and 500 nm axially). This limitation on resolution causes closely spaced proteins to look blurred making it difficult to observe the fine structure within the complexes. This resolution limit is especially problematic within small cells such as bacteria. With the recent invention of new optical microscopies, we now can surpass the existing limits of fluorescence imaging. In some cases, we can

  14. Metabolic Design and Control for Production in Prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Keasling, J.D.

    2010-11-10

    Prokaryotic life on earth is manifested by its diversity and omnipresence. These microbes serve as natural sources of a large variety of compounds with the potential to serve the ever growing, medicinal, chemical and transportation needs of the human population. However, commercially viable production of these compounds can be realized only through significant improvement of the native production capacity of natural isolates. The most favorable way to achieve this goal is through the genetic manipulation of metabolic pathways that direct the production of these molecules. While random mutagenesis and screening have dominated the industrial production of such compounds in the past our increased understanding of microbial physiology over the last five decades has shifted this trend towards rational approaches for metabolic design. Major drivers of this trend include recombinant DNA technology, high throughput characterization of macromolecular cellular components, quantitative modeling for metabolic engine ring, targeted combinatorial engineering and synthetic biology. In this chapter we track the evolution of microbial engineering technologies from the black box era of random mutagenesis to the science and engineering-driven era of metabolic design.

  15. Current Developments in Prokaryotic Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Goudeau, Danielle; Nath, Nandita; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Malmstrom, Rex

    2014-03-14

    Our approach to prokaryotic single-cell Whole Genome Amplification at the JGI continues to evolve. To increase both the quality and number of single-cell genomes produced, we explore all aspects of the process from cell sorting to sequencing. For example, we now utilize specialized reagents, acoustic liquid handling, and reduced reaction volumes eliminate non-target DNA contamination in WGA reactions. More specifically, we use a cleaner commercial WGA kit from Qiagen that employs a UV decontamination procedure initially developed at the JGI, and we use the Labcyte Echo for tip-less liquid transfer to set up 2uL reactions. Acoustic liquid handling also dramatically reduces reagent costs. In addition, we are exploring new cell lysis methods including treatment with Proteinase K, lysozyme, and other detergents, in order to complement standard alkaline lysis and allow for more efficient disruption of a wider range of cells. Incomplete lysis represents a major hurdle for WGA on some environmental samples, especially rhizosphere, peatland, and other soils. Finding effective lysis strategies that are also compatible with WGA is challenging, and we are currently assessing the impact of various strategies on genome recovery.

  16. Diversity of prokaryotic community at a shallow marine hydrothermal site elucidated by Illumina sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Valeria; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Bunk, Boyke; Overmann, Jörg; Maugeri, Teresa L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the prokaryotic community structure and composition in an active hydrothermal site, named Black Point, off Panarea Island (Eolian Islands, Italy), we examined sediment and fluid samples, differing in temperature, by a massive parallel sequencing (Illumina) technique targeting the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The used technique enabled us to detect a greater prokaryotic diversity than that until now observed and to reveal also microorganisms occurring at very low abundance (≤0.01 %). Most of sequences were assigned to Bacteria while Archaea were a minor component of the microbial community in both low- and high-temperature samples. Proteobacteria (mainly consisting of Alpha-, Gamma-, and Epsilonproteobacteria) dominated among all samples followed by Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Analyzed DNA obtained from samples taken at different temperatures indicated the presence of members of different dominant genera. The main differences were observed between sediment samples where Rhodovulum and Thiohalospira prevailed at high temperature, while Thalassomonas and Sulfurimonas at low temperature. Chlorobium, Acinetobacter, Sulfurimonas, and Brevundimonas were abundant in both low- and high-temperature fluid samples. Euryarchaeota dominated the archaeal community in all samples. Classes of Euryarchaeota embracing hyperthermophilic members (Thermococci and Thermoplasmata) and of Crenarchaeota (Thermoprotei) were more abundant in high-temperature samples. A great number of sequences referred to Bacteria and Archaea still remained unaffiliated, indicating that Black Point site represents a rich source of so-far uncharted prokaryotic diversity. PMID:24849732

  17. International code of nomenclature of prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, George M.; Parker, Charles T.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2015-11-20

    Here, this volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate application of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses.

  18. International code of nomenclature of prokaryotes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garrity, George M.; Parker, Charles T.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2015-11-20

    Here, this volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate applicationmore » of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses.« less

  19. Evolution of thiol protective systems in prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, R. C.; Newton, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Biological thiols are essential elements in most aspects of cell function but undergo rapid oxidation to disulfides in the presence of oxygen. The evolution of systems to protect against such oxygen toxicity was essential to the emergence of aerobic life. The protection system used by eukaryotes is based upon glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzymes but many bacteria lack GSH and apparently use other mechanisms. The objective of this research is to elaborate the thiol protective mechanisms employed by prokaryotes of widely divergent evolutionary origin and to understand why GSH became the central thiol employed in essentially all higher organisms. Thiol-selective fluorescent labeling and HPLC analysis has been used to determine key monothiol components.

  20. Patterns of Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes—low, middle and higher income—out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density—and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities—we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities. PMID:27315283

  1. Patterns of Residential Segregation.

    PubMed

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities. PMID:27315283

  2. Segregation properties of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, B.X.; Da Costa, L.N. )

    1990-10-01

    Using the recently completed Southern Sky Redshift Survey, in conjunction with measurements of the central surface brightness, the existence of segregation in the way galaxies of different morphology and surface brightness are distributed in space is investigated. Results indicate that there is some evidence that low surface brightness galaxies are more randomly distributed than brighter ones and that this effect is independent of the well-known tendency of early-type galaxies to cluster more strongly than spirals. Presuming that the observed clustering was established at the epoch of galaxy formation, it may provide circumstantial evidence for biased galaxy formation. 24 refs.

  3. Magnetite as a prokaryotic biomarker: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Romanek, Christopher S.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

    2010-06-01

    Over the years, nanometer-sized magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals have been recovered from many modern and ancient environments including sediments and soils and even meteorites. In some cases these crystals have been used as "magnetofossils" for evidence of the past presence of specific microbes. Magnetite nanocrystals can be formed by a number of different biological and inorganic mechanisms resulting in crystals with different physical and magnetic characteristics. Prokaryotes (bacteria) biomineralize magnetite through two methods that differ mechanistically, including: biologically induced mineralization (BIM) and biologically controlled mineralization (BCM). Magnetite nanocrystals produced by BIM are known to be synthesized by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, are deposited external to the cell, and generally are physically indistinguishable from magnetite particles formed inorganically. BCM magnetites, in contrast, are synthesized by the magnetotactic bacteria and some higher organisms and are precipitated intracellularly as membrane-bounded structures called magnetosomes. These magnetites appear to have unique crystal morphologies and a narrow size range leading to their original use as magnetofossils. Because of the discovery of nanometer-sized crystals of magnetite in the Martian meteorite ALH84001, the use of these criteria for the determination of whether magnetite crystals could constitute a prokaryotic biomarker was questioned. Thus, there is currently great debate over what criteria to use in the determination of whether specific magnetite crystals are biogenic or not. In the last decade, additional criteria have been established (e.g., the Magnetite Assay for Biogenicity), and new tools and technologies have been developed to determine the origin of specific types of magnetite crystals.

  4. Detecting uber-operons in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Che, Dongsheng; Li, Guojun; Mao, Fenglou; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on computational identification of uber-operons in a prokaryotic genome, each of which represents a group of operons that are evolutionarily or functionally associated through operons in other (reference) genomes. Uber-operons represent a rich set of footprints of operon evolution, whose full utilization could lead to new and more powerful tools for elucidation of biological pathways and networks than what operons have provided, and a better understanding of prokaryotic genome structures and evolution. Our prediction algorithm predicts uber-operons through identifying groups of functionally or transcriptionally related operons, whose gene sets are conserved across the target and multiple reference genomes. Using this algorithm, we have predicted uber-operons for each of a group of 91 genomes, using the other 90 genomes as references. In particular, we predicted 158 uber-operons in Escherichia coli K12 covering 1830 genes, and found that many of the uber-operons correspond to parts of known regulons or biological pathways or are involved in highly related biological processes based on their Gene Ontology (GO) assignments. For some of the predicted uber-operons that are not parts of known regulons or pathways, our analyses indicate that their genes are highly likely to work together in the same biological processes, suggesting the possibility of new regulons and pathways. We believe that our uber-operon prediction provides a highly useful capability and a rich information source for elucidation of complex biological processes, such as pathways in microbes. All the prediction results are available at our Uber-Operon Database: , the first of its kind. PMID:16682449

  5. Death by Segregation: Does the Dimension of Racial Segregation Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The county-level geographic mortality differentials have persisted in the past four decades in the United States (US). Though several socioeconomic factors (e.g., inequality) partially explain this phenomenon, the role of race/ethnic segregation, in general, and the different dimensions of segregation, more specifically, has been underexplored. Focusing on all-cause age-sex standardized US county-level mortality (2004–2008), this study has two substantive goals: (1) to understand whether segregation is a determinant of mortality and if yes, how the relationship between segregation and mortality varies by racial/ethnic dyads (e.g., white/black), and (2) to explore whether different dimensions of segregation (i.e., evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering) are associated with mortality. A third goal is methodological: to assess whether spatial autocorrelation influences our understanding of the associations between the dimensions of segregation and mortality. Race/ethnic segregation was found to contribute to the geographic mortality disparities. Moreover, the relationship with mortality differed by both race/ethnic group and the dimension of segregation. Specifically, white/black segregation is positively related to mortality, whereas the segregation between whites and non-black minorities is negatively associated with mortality. Among the five dimensions of segregation, evenness and exposure are more strongly related to mortality than other dimensions. Spatial filtering approaches also identified six unique spatial patterns that significantly affect the spatial distribution of mortality. These patterns offer possible insights that help identify omitted variables related to the persistent patterning of mortality in the US. PMID:26398346

  6. Death by Segregation: Does the Dimension of Racial Segregation Matter?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The county-level geographic mortality differentials have persisted in the past four decades in the United States (US). Though several socioeconomic factors (e.g., inequality) partially explain this phenomenon, the role of race/ethnic segregation, in general, and the different dimensions of segregation, more specifically, has been underexplored. Focusing on all-cause age-sex standardized US county-level mortality (2004-2008), this study has two substantive goals: (1) to understand whether segregation is a determinant of mortality and if yes, how the relationship between segregation and mortality varies by racial/ethnic dyads (e.g., white/black), and (2) to explore whether different dimensions of segregation (i.e., evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering) are associated with mortality. A third goal is methodological: to assess whether spatial autocorrelation influences our understanding of the associations between the dimensions of segregation and mortality. Race/ethnic segregation was found to contribute to the geographic mortality disparities. Moreover, the relationship with mortality differed by both race/ethnic group and the dimension of segregation. Specifically, white/black segregation is positively related to mortality, whereas the segregation between whites and non-black minorities is negatively associated with mortality. Among the five dimensions of segregation, evenness and exposure are more strongly related to mortality than other dimensions. Spatial filtering approaches also identified six unique spatial patterns that significantly affect the spatial distribution of mortality. These patterns offer possible insights that help identify omitted variables related to the persistent patterning of mortality in the US. PMID:26398346

  7. Biodiversity of Prokaryotic Communities Associated with the Ectoderm of Ectopleura crocea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Luna, Gian Marco; Bo, Marzia; Giordano, Giuseppe; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The surface of many marine organisms is colonized by complex communities of microbes, yet our understanding of the diversity and role of host-associated microbes is still limited. We investigated the association between Ectopleura crocea (a colonial hydroid distributed worldwide in temperate waters) and prokaryotic assemblages colonizing the hydranth surface. We used, for the first time on a marine hydroid, a combination of electron and epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to investigate the associated prokaryotic diversity. Dense assemblages of prokaryotes were associated with the hydrant surface. Two microbial morphotypes were observed: one horseshoe-shaped and one fusiform, worm-like. These prokaryotes were observed on the hydrozoan epidermis, but not in the portions covered by the perisarcal exoskeleton, and their abundance was higher in March while decreased in late spring. Molecular analyses showed that assemblages were dominated by Bacteria rather than Archaea. Bacterial assemblages were highly diversified, with up to 113 genera and 570 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), many of which were rare and contributed to <0.4%. The two most abundant OTUs, likely corresponding to the two morphotypes present on the epidermis, were distantly related to Comamonadaceae (genus Delftia) and to Flavobacteriaceae (genus Polaribacter). Epibiontic bacteria were found on E. crocea from different geographic areas but not in other hydroid species in the same areas, suggesting that the host-microbe association is species-specific. This is the first detailed report of bacteria living on the hydrozoan epidermis, and indeed the first study reporting bacteria associated with the epithelium of E. crocea. Our results provide a starting point for future studies aiming at clarifying the role of this peculiar hydrozoan-bacterial association. PMID:22768172

  8. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  9. Systematic Transfer of Prokaryotic Sensors and Circuits to Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic regulatory proteins respond to diverse signals and represent a rich resource for building synthetic sensors and circuits. The TetR family contains >105 members that use a simple mechanism to respond to stimuli and bind distinct DNA operators. We present a platform that enables the transfer of these regulators to mammalian cells, which is demonstrated using human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The repressors are modified to include nuclear localization signals (NLS) and responsive promoters are built by incorporating multiple operators. Activators are also constructed by modifying the protein to include a VP16 domain. Together, this approach yields 15 new regulators that demonstrate 19- to 551-fold induction and retain both the low levels of crosstalk in DNA binding specificity observed between the parent regulators in Escherichia coli, as well as their dynamic range of activity. By taking advantage of the DAPG small molecule sensing mediated by the PhlF repressor, we introduce a new inducible system with 50-fold induction and a threshold of 0.9 μM DAPG, which is comparable to the classic Dox-induced TetR system. A set of NOT gates is constructed from the new repressors and their response function quantified. Finally, the Dox- and DAPG- inducible systems and two new activators are used to build a synthetic enhancer (fuzzy AND gate), requiring the coordination of 5 transcription factors organized into two layers. This work introduces a generic approach for the development of mammalian genetic sensors and circuits to populate a toolbox that can be applied to diverse applications from biomanufacturing to living therapeutics. PMID:25360681

  10. Bacterial actin: architecture of the ParMRC plasmid DNA partitioning complex.

    PubMed

    Salje, Jeanne; Löwe, Jan

    2008-08-20

    The R1 plasmid employs ATP-driven polymerisation of the actin-like protein ParM to move newly replicated DNA to opposite poles of a bacterial cell. This process is essential for ensuring accurate segregation of the low-copy number plasmid and is the best characterised example of DNA partitioning in prokaryotes. In vivo, ParM only forms long filaments when capped at both ends by attachment to a centromere-like region parC, through a small DNA-binding protein ParR. Here, we present biochemical and electron microscopy data leading to a model for the mechanism by which ParR-parC complexes bind and stabilise elongating ParM filaments. We propose that the open ring formed by oligomeric ParR dimers with parC DNA wrapped around acts as a rigid clamp, which holds the end of elongating ParM filaments while allowing entry of new ATP-bound monomers. We propose a processive mechanism by which cycles of ATP hydrolysis in polymerising ParM drives movement of ParR-bound parC DNA. Importantly, our model predicts that each pair of plasmids will be driven apart in the cell by just a single double helical ParM filament. PMID:18650930

  11. Multilevel Modeling of Social Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckie, George; Pillinger, Rebecca; Jones, Kelvyn; Goldstein, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    The traditional approach to measuring segregation is based upon descriptive, non-model-based indices. A recently proposed alternative is multilevel modeling. The authors further develop the argument for a multilevel modeling approach by first describing and expanding upon its notable advantages, which include an ability to model segregation at a…

  12. A Demonstration of Sample Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Mark D.; Brumbach, Stephen B.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of sample segregation, which is simple, and visually compelling illustrates the importance of sample handling for students studying analytical chemistry and environmental chemistry. The mixture used in this demonstration has two components, which have big particle size, and different colors, which makes the segregation graphic.

  13. The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates 20 potential indicators of residential segregation using census data on Hispanics, Blacks, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites in 60 U.S. metropolitan areas. Factor-analyzes the results to select a single best indicator for each of five dimensions of residential segregation. Contains 69 references and 22 statistical formulas. (SV)

  14. Regelation and ice segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Macroscopic processes can have an important effect on the state of regolith water. The two primary mechanisms responsible for the formation of segregated ice on Earth, thermally induced regelation and hydraulic fracturing, are reviewed while their potential importance on Mars is examined. While regelation is the dominant terrestrial process, it requires a warmer and wetter environment than currently exists on Mars. In this respect, the conditions required for hydraulic fracturing are less demanding. In assessing its potential importance on Mars, it is noted that hydraulic fracturing can produce a localized zone of high pressure water that could readily disrupt an overburden of frozen ground. Such a process, it is concluded, may have triggered the release of groundwater that led to the formation of the major outflow channels.

  15. Evolution of prokaryote and eukaryote lines inferred from sequence evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. T.; George, D. G.; Yeh, L.-S.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of prokaryotes and early eukaryotes, including their symbiotic relationships, as inferred from phylogenetic trees of bacterial ferredoxin, 5S ribosomal RNA, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase large chain, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase polypeptide II.

  16. Horizontal Transfer and Evolution of Prokaryote Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clément; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryotic evolution, and mounting evidence suggests that it has also had an important impact on eukaryotic evolution. Although many prokaryote-to-prokaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of TEs have been characterized, only few cases have been reported between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we carried out a comprehensive search for all major groups of prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs) in 430 eukaryote genomes. We uncovered a total of 80 sequences, all deriving from the IS607 family, integrated in the genomes of 14 eukaryote species belonging to four distinct phyla (Amoebozoa, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Stramenopiles). Given that eukaryote IS607-like sequences are most closely related to cyanobacterial IS607 and that their phylogeny is incongruent with that of their hosts, we conclude that the presence of IS607-like sequences in eukaryotic genomes is the result of several HT events. Selection analyses further suggest that our ability to detect these prokaryote TEs today in eukaryotes is because HT of these sequences occurred recently and/or some IS607 elements were domesticated after HT, giving rise to new eukaryote genes. Supporting the recent age of some of these HTs, we uncovered intact full-length, potentially active IS607 copies in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani. Overall, our study shows that prokaryote-to-eukaryote HT of TEs occurred at relatively low frequency during recent eukaryote evolution and it sets IS607 as the most widespread TE (being present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses). PMID:23563966

  17. How prokaryotes deal with arsenic(†).

    PubMed

    Slyemi, Djamila; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2012-12-01

    Arsenic is a notorious poison classified as a carcinogen, a teratogen and a clastogen that ranks number one on the Environmental Protection Agency's priority list of drinking water contaminants. It is ubiquitous and relatively abundant in the Earth's crust. Its mobilization in waters by weathering, volcanic, anthropogenic or biological activities represents a major hazard to public health, exemplified in India and Bangladesh where 50 million people are acutely at risk. Since basically the origin of life, microorganisms have been exposed to this toxic compound and have evolved a variety of resistance mechanisms, such as extracellular precipitation, chelation, intracellular sequestration, active extrusion from the cell or biochemical transformation (redox or methylation). Arsenic efflux systems are widespread and are found in nearly all organisms. Some microorganisms are also able to utilize this metalloid as a metabolic energy source through either arsenite oxidation or arsenate reduction. The energy metabolism involving redox reactions of arsenic has been suggested to have evolved during early life on Earth. This review highlights the different systems evolved by prokaryotes to cope with arsenic and how they participate in its biogeochemical cycle. PMID:23760928

  18. Centromeric Heterochromatin: The Primordial Segregation Machine

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Kerry S.

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres are specialized domains of heterochromatin that provide the foundation for the kinetochore. Centromeric heterochromatin is characterized by specific histone modifications, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CENP-A), and the enrichment of cohesin, condensin, and topo-isomerase II. Centromere DNA varies orders of magnitude in size from 125 bp (budding yeast) to several megabases (human). In metaphase, sister kinetochores on the surface of replicated chromosomes face away from each other, where they establish microtubule attachment and bi-orientation. Despite the disparity in centromere size, the distance between separated sister kinetochores is remarkably conserved (approximately 1 μm) throughout phylogeny. The centromere functions as a molecular spring that resists microtubule-based extensional forces in mitosis. This review explores the physical properties of DNA in order to understand how the molecular spring is built and how it contributes to the fidelity of chromosome segregation. PMID:25251850

  19. Are topoisomerases required for mammalian chromosome segregation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, A.T.; Perry, P.E.; Slavotinek, A.

    1993-12-31

    Theoretical considerations indicate that topoisomerase II should be involved in chromosome segregation, since newly replicated daughter DNA molecules must be interwined, and an enzyme such as topoisomerase II is needed to disentangle them. It has been shown, using scanning electron microscopy, that regions of centromeric heterochromatin are the last parts of the chromosomes to separate at anaphase. Such regions generally contain highly repetitive, satellite DNAs, whose function is obscure, since they vary extensively, and apparently randomly, in their sequence and average base composition. However, in spite of this compositional variation, it appears that many satellite DNAs show characteristic curvature, which may, rather than a specific nucleotide sequence, be a recognition site for topoisomerase II. Satellite DNA in centromeric heterochromatin might then, regardless of sequence, provide a specific substrate on which topoisomerase II could act in a concerted fashion at the beginning of anaphase to ensure orderly separation of the daughter chromosomes.

  20. Molecular fossils of prokaryotes in ancient authigenic minerals: archives of microbial activity in reefs and mounds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindel, Katrin; Birgel, Daniel; Richoz, Sylvain; Westphal, Hildegard; Peckmann, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    Molecular fossils (lipid biomarkers) are commonly used as proxies in organic-rich sediments of various sources, including eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Usually, molecular fossils of organisms transferred from the water column to the sediment are studied to monitor environmental changes (e.g., temperature, pH). Apart from these 'allochthonous' molecular fossils, prokaryotes are active in sediments and mats on the seafloor and leave behind 'autochthonous' molecular fossils in situ. In contrast to many phototrophic organisms, most benthic sedimentary prokaryotes are obtaining their energy from oxidation or reduction of organic or inorganic substrates. A peculiarity of some of the sediment-thriving prokaryotes is their ability to trigger in situ mineral precipitation, often but not only due to metabolic activity, resulting in authigenic rocks (microbialites). During that process, prokaryotes are rapidly entombed in the mineral matrix, where the molecular fossils are protected from early (bio)degradation. In contrast to other organic compounds (DNA, proteins etc.), molecular fossils can be preserved over very long time periods (millions of years). Thus, molecular fossils in authigenic mineral phases are perfectly suitable to trace microbial activity back in time. Among the best examples of molecular fossils, which are preserved in authigenic rocks are various microbialites, forming e.g. in phototrophic microbial mats and at cold seeps. Microbialite formation is reported throughout earth history. We here will focus on reefal microbialites form the Early Triassic and the Holocene. After the End-Permian mass extinction, microbialites covered wide areas on the ocean margins. In microbialites from the Griesbachian in Iran and Turkey (both Neotethys), molecular fossils of cyanobacteria, archaea, anoxygenic phototrophs, and sulphate-reducing bacteria indicate the presence of layered microbial mats on the seafloor, in which carbonate precipitation was induced. In association with

  1. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zamariola, Linda; Tiang, Choon Lin; De Storme, Nico; Pawlowski, Wojtek; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved. PMID:24987397

  2. Restriction-Modification systems interplay causes avoidance of GATC site in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Anna; Rusinov, Ivan; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Spirin, Sergey; Karyagina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Palindromes are frequently underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes. Palindromic 5[Formula: see text]-GATC-3[Formula: see text] site is a recognition site of different Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems, as well as solitary methyltransferase Dam. Classical GATC-specific R-M systems methylate GATC and cleave unmethylated GATC. On the contrary, methyl-directed Type II restriction endonucleases cleave methylated GATC. Methylation of GATC by Dam methyltransferase is involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. The diversity of functions of GATC-recognizing proteins makes GATC sequence a good model for studying the reasons of palindrome avoidance in prokaryotic genomes. In this work, the influence of R-M systems and solitary proteins on the GATC site avoidance is described by a mathematical model. GATC avoidance is strongly associated with the presence of alternate (methyl-directed or classical Type II R-M system) genes in different strains of the same species, as we have shown for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Eubacterium rectale, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We hypothesize that GATC avoidance can result from a DNA exchange between strains with different methylation status of GATC site within the process of natural transformation. If this hypothesis is correct, the GATC avoidance is a sign of a DNA exchange between bacteria with different methylation status in a mixed population. PMID:26972562

  3. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    PubMed

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  4. Connected gene neighborhoods in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.; Makarova, Kira S.; Murvai, Janos; Czabarka, Eva; Wolf, Yuri I.; Tatusov, Roman L.; Szekely, Laszlo A.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2002-01-01

    A computational method was developed for delineating connected gene neighborhoods in bacterial and archaeal genomes. These gene neighborhoods are not typically present, in their entirety, in any single genome, but are held together by overlapping, partially conserved gene arrays. The procedure was applied to comparing the orders of orthologous genes, which were extracted from the database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), in 31 prokaryotic genomes and resulted in the identification of 188 clusters of gene arrays, which included 1001 of 2890 COGs. These clusters were projected onto actual genomes to produce extended neighborhoods including additional genes, which are adjacent to the genes from the clusters and are transcribed in the same direction, which resulted in a total of 2387 COGs being included in the neighborhoods. Most of the neighborhoods consist predominantly of genes united by a coherent functional theme, but also include a minority of genes without an obvious functional connection to the main theme. We hypothesize that although some of the latter genes might have unsuspected roles, others are maintained within gene arrays because of the advantage of expression at a level that is typical of the given neighborhood. We designate this phenomenon ‘genomic hitchhiking’. The largest neighborhood includes 79 genes (COGs) and consists of overlapping, rearranged ribosomal protein superoperons; apparent genome hitchhiking is particularly typical of this neighborhood and other neighborhoods that consist of genes coding for translation machinery components. Several neighborhoods involve previously undetected connections between genes, allowing new functional predictions. Gene neighborhoods appear to evolve via complex rearrangement, with different combinations of genes from a neighborhood fixed in different lineages. PMID:12000841

  5. Enzymatic Characterization of a Prokaryotic Urea Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Takeshi; Kanou, Norihisa; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2004-01-01

    We identified the first prokaryotic urea carboxylase (UCA) from a member of the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria, Oleomonas sagaranensis. This enzyme (O. sagaranensis Uca) was composed of 1,171 amino acids, and its N-terminal region resembled the biotin carboxylase domains of various biotin-dependent carboxylases. The C-terminal region of the enzyme harbored the Met-Lys-Met motif found in biotin carboxyl carrier proteins. The primary structure of the enzyme was 45% identical to that of the urea carboxylase domain of urea amidolyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O. sagaranensis Uca did not harbor the allophanate hydrolase domain found in the yeast enzyme, but a separate gene with structural similarity was found to be adjacent to the uca gene. Purified recombinant O. sagaranensis Uca displayed ATP-dependent carboxylase activity towards urea (Vmax = 21.2 μmol mg−1 min−1) but not towards acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and propionyl-CoA, indicating that the gene encoded a bona fide UCA and not an acetyl-CoA or propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The enzyme also exhibited high levels of activity towards acetamide and formamide. Kinetic parameters of the enzyme reaction were determined with ATP, urea, acetamide, and formamide. O. sagaranensis could grow on urea, acetamide, and formamide as sole nitrogen sources; moreover, ATP-dependent urea-degrading activity was found in cells grown with urea but not in cells grown with ammonia. The results suggest that the UCA of this organism may be involved in the assimilation of these compounds as nitrogen sources. Furthermore, orthologues of the O. sagaranensis uca gene were found to be widely distributed among Bacteria. This implies that there are two systems of urea degradation in Bacteria, a pathway catalyzed by the previously described ureases and the UCA-allophanate hydrolase pathway identified in this study. PMID:15090492

  6. Evolutionary constraints of phosphorylation in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gnad, Florian; Forner, Francesca; Zielinska, Dorota F; Birney, Ewan; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Mann, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    High accuracy mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful technology for the large scale identification of serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation in the living cell. However, despite many described phosphoproteomes, there has been no comparative study of the extent of phosphorylation and its evolutionary conservation in all domains of life. Here we analyze the results of phosphoproteomics studies performed with the same technology in a diverse set of organisms. For the most ancient organisms, the prokaryotes, only a few hundred proteins have been found to be phosphorylated. Applying the same technology to eukaryotic species resulted in the detection of thousands of phosphorylation events. Evolutionary analysis shows that prokaryotic phosphoproteins are preferentially conserved in all living organisms, whereas-site specific phosphorylation is not. Eukaryotic phosphosites are generally more conserved than their non-phosphorylated counterparts (with similar structural constraints) throughout the eukaryotic domain. Yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans are two exceptions, indicating that the majority of phosphorylation events evolved after the divergence of higher eukaryotes from yeast and reflecting the unusually large number of nematode-specific kinases. Mitochondria present an interesting intermediate link between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains. Applying the same technology to this organelle yielded 174 phosphorylation sites mapped to 74 proteins. Thus, the mitochondrial phosphoproteome is similarly sparse as the prokaryotic phosphoproteomes. As expected from the endosymbiotic theory, phosphorylated as well as non-phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins are significantly conserved in prokaryotes. However, mitochondrial phosphorylation sites are not conserved throughout prokaryotes, consistent with the notion that serine/threonine phosphorylation in prokaryotes occurred relatively recently in evolution. Thus, the phosphoproteome reflects major events in the

  7. Identification of SmtB/ArsR cis elements and proteins in archaea using the Prokaryotic InterGenic Exploration Database (PIGED).

    PubMed

    Bose, Michael; Slick, David; Sarto, Mickey J; Murphy, Patrick; Roberts, David; Roberts, Jacqueline; Barber, Robert D

    2006-08-01

    Microbial genome sequencing projects have revealed an apparently wide distribution of SmtB/ArsR metal-responsive transcriptional regulators among prokaryotes. Using a position-dependent weight matrix approach, prokaryotic genome sequences were screened for SmtB/ArsR DNA binding sites using data derived from intergenic sequences upstream of orthologous genes encoding these regulators. Sixty SmtB/ArsR operators linked to metal detoxification genes, including nine among various archaeal species, are predicted among 230 annotated and draft prokaryotic genome sequences. Independent multiple sequence alignments of putative operator sites and corresponding winged helix-turn-helix motifs define sequence signatures for the DNA binding activity of this SmtB/ArsR subfamily. Prediction of an archaeal SmtB/ArsR based upon these signature sequences is confirmed using purified Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A protein and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Tools used in this study have been incorporated into a web application, the Prokaryotic InterGenic Exploration Database (PIGED; http://bioinformatics.uwp.edu/~PIGED/home.htm), facilitating comparable studies. Use of this tool and establishment of orthology based on DNA binding signatures holds promise for deciphering potential cellular roles of various archaeal winged helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators. PMID:16877320

  8. Crystal structure of a prokaryotic (6-4) photolyase with an Fe-S cluster and a 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine antenna chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Scheerer, Patrick; Oberpichler, Inga; Lamparter, Tilman; Krauß, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The (6-4) photolyases use blue light to reverse UV-induced (6-4) photoproducts in DNA. This (6-4) photorepair was thought to be restricted to eukaryotes. Here we report a prokaryotic (6-4) photolyase, PhrB from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and propose that (6-4) photolyases are broadly distributed in prokaryotes. The crystal structure of photolyase related protein B (PhrB) at 1.45 Å resolution suggests a DNA binding mode different from that of the eukaryotic counterparts. A His-His-X-X-Arg motif is located within the proposed DNA lesion contact site of PhrB. This motif is structurally conserved in eukaryotic (6-4) photolyases for which the second His is essential for the (6-4) photolyase function. The PhrB structure contains 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine as an antenna chromophore and a [4Fe-4S] cluster bound to the catalytic domain. A significant part of the Fe-S fold strikingly resembles that of the large subunit of eukaryotic and archaeal primases, suggesting that the PhrB-like photolyases branched at the base of the evolution of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. Our study presents a unique prokaryotic (6-4) photolyase and proposes that the prokaryotic (6-4) photolyases are the ancestors of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. PMID:23589886

  9. School Desegregation and Residential Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Andrew; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This statement on school and residential segregation, signed by 38 educators and social scientists, was prepared for attorneys connected with litigation concerning the Dayton and Columbus school systems. (RLV)

  10. Surface Segregation in Ternary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    Surface segregation profiles of binary (Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Cu-Au) and ternary (Cu-Au-Ni) alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations using the BFS method for alloys for the calculation of the energetics. The behavior of Cu or Au in Ni is contrasted with their behavior when both are present. The interaction between Cu and Au and its effect on the segregation profiles for Cu-Au-Ni alloys is discussed.

  11. 43 CFR 2461.5 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2461.5 Section 2461.5...-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.5 Segregative effect. Segregative effect of classifications and... land to the extent indicated in the notice. (b) The segregative effect of a proposed...

  12. 43 CFR 2461.5 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2461.5 Section 2461.5...-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.5 Segregative effect. Segregative effect of classifications and... land to the extent indicated in the notice. (b) The segregative effect of a proposed...

  13. 43 CFR 2461.5 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2461.5 Section 2461.5...-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.5 Segregative effect. Segregative effect of classifications and... land to the extent indicated in the notice. (b) The segregative effect of a proposed...

  14. 43 CFR 2461.5 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2461.5 Section 2461.5...-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.5 Segregative effect. Segregative effect of classifications and... land to the extent indicated in the notice. (b) The segregative effect of a proposed...

  15. School Segregation: The Case of Amsterdam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Deals with facets of school segregation in Amsterdam, a city in which two-thirds of youth have a non-native background. The role of residential segregation in the segregation of elementary schools and the importance of educational background in the segregation of secondary schools are discussed. There are implications for schooling in the United…

  16. A Revaluation of Indexes of Residential Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winship, Christopher

    1977-01-01

    Shows that there are at least two different perspectives from which residential segregation can be examined. Segregation can be measured as it deviates from a situation of complete desegregation or in terms of a situation in which there is random segregation in the city. New criteria for indexes of residential segregation are developed. (Author/JM)

  17. Bacterial scaffold directs pole-specific centromere segregation

    PubMed Central

    Ptacin, Jerod L.; Gahlmann, Andreas; Bowman, Grant R.; Perez, Adam M.; von Diezmann, Alexander R. S.; Eckart, Michael R.; Moerner, W. E.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria use partitioning systems based on the ParA ATPase to actively mobilize and spatially organize molecular cargoes throughout the cytoplasm. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses a ParA-based partitioning system to segregate newly replicated chromosomal centromeres to opposite cell poles. Here we demonstrate that the Caulobacter PopZ scaffold creates an organizing center at the cell pole that actively regulates polar centromere transport by the ParA partition system. As segregation proceeds, the ParB-bound centromere complex is moved by progressively disassembling ParA from a nucleoid-bound structure. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that released ParA is recruited directly to binding sites within a 3D ultrastructure composed of PopZ at the cell pole, whereas the ParB-centromere complex remains at the periphery of the PopZ structure. PopZ recruitment of ParA stimulates ParA to assemble on the nucleoid near the PopZ-proximal cell pole. We identify mutations in PopZ that allow scaffold assembly but specifically abrogate interactions with ParA and demonstrate that PopZ/ParA interactions are required for proper chromosome segregation in vivo. We propose that during segregation PopZ sequesters free ParA and induces target-proximal regeneration of ParA DNA binding activity to enforce processive and pole-directed centromere segregation, preventing segregation reversals. PopZ therefore functions as a polar hub complex at the cell pole to directly regulate the directionality and destination of transfer of the mitotic segregation machine. PMID:24778223

  18. Why keep the pressure to estimate prokaryotic activities? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent discoveries challenge the paradigm that cycling of organic matter is slow in the deep sea and mediated by microbial food webs of static structure and function. Data showing spatial variation in prokaryotic abundance and activity support the hypothesis that deep-sea microorganisms respond dynamically to variations in organic matter input to the bathypelagic realm. Moreover, almost half of the total water column heterotrophic prokaryotic production takes place below the epipelagic layer. Compiled global budgets suggest that the estimate of metabolic activity in the dark pelagic ocean exceeds the input of organic carbon. However, these conclusions are based mainly on measurements done at atmospheric pressure without taking into account pressure effects on natural prokaryotic assemblages. In this presentation, I will clarify the effect of hydrostatic pressure on prokaryotes living in the dark ocean and inform experimental design and the achievement of more accurate estimates of microbial activity in the deep ocean. Finally, their potential capabilities to degrade complex compounds as well as the chemolithoautrophy in the deep ocean represent examples of ways to explore deeper the role of deep-sea prokaryotes in the global cycles.

  19. Segregation dynamics in debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Fei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Debris flows are massive flows consisting of mixtures of particles of different sizes and interstitial fluids such as water and mud. In sheared mixtures of different-sized (same density) particles, it is well known that larger particles tend to go up (toward the free surface), and the smaller particles, down, commonly referred to as the "Brazil-nut problem" or "kinetic sieving". When kinetic sieving fluxes are combined with advection in flows, they can give rise to a spectacular range of segregation patterns. These segregation / advection dynamics are recognized as playing a role in the coarsening of a debris flow front (its "snout") and the coarsening of the self-formed channel sides or levees. Since particle size distribution influences the flow dynamics including entrainment of bed materials, modeling segregation dynamics in debris flows is important for modeling the debris flows themselves. In sparser systems, the Brazil-nut segregation is well-modeled using kinetic theory applied to dissipative systems, where an underlying assumption involves random, uncorrelated collisions. In denser systems, where kinetic theory breaks down we have recently developed a new mixture model that demonstrates the segregation fluxes are driven by two effects associated with the kinetic stress or granular temperature (the kinetic energy associated with velocity fluctuations): (1) the difference between the partitioning of kinetic and contact stresses among the species in the mixture and (2) a kinetic stress gradient. Both model frameworks involve the temperature gradient as a driving force for segregation, but kinetic theory sends larger particles toward lower temperatures, and our mixture model sends larger particles away from lower temperatures. Which framework works under what conditions appears to depend on correlations in the flow such as those manifested in clusters and force chains. We discuss the application of each theoretical framework to representing segregation dynamics

  20. Roary: rapid large-scale prokaryote pan genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrew J.; Cummins, Carla A.; Hunt, Martin; Wong, Vanessa K.; Reuter, Sandra; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Fookes, Maria; Falush, Daniel; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Parkhill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A typical prokaryote population sequencing study can now consist of hundreds or thousands of isolates. Interrogating these datasets can provide detailed insights into the genetic structure of prokaryotic genomes. We introduce Roary, a tool that rapidly builds large-scale pan genomes, identifying the core and accessory genes. Roary makes construction of the pan genome of thousands of prokaryote samples possible on a standard desktop without compromising on the accuracy of results. Using a single CPU Roary can produce a pan genome consisting of 1000 isolates in 4.5 hours using 13 GB of RAM, with further speedups possible using multiple processors. Availability and implementation: Roary is implemented in Perl and is freely available under an open source GPLv3 license from http://sanger-pathogens.github.io/Roary Contact: roary@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26198102

  1. Coevolution of the Organization and Structure of Prokaryotic Genomes.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasm of prokaryotes contains many molecular machines interacting directly with the chromosome. These vital interactions depend on the chromosome structure, as a molecule, and on the genome organization, as a unit of genetic information. Strong selection for the organization of the genetic elements implicated in these interactions drives replicon ploidy, gene distribution, operon conservation, and the formation of replication-associated traits. The genomes of prokaryotes are also very plastic with high rates of horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. The evolutionary conflicts between plasticity and organization lead to the formation of regions with high genetic diversity whose impact on chromosome structure is poorly understood. Prokaryotic genomes are remarkable documents of natural history because they carry the imprint of all of these selective and mutational forces. Their study allows a better understanding of molecular mechanisms, their impact on microbial evolution, and how they can be tinkered in synthetic biology. PMID:26729648

  2. Energetics and genetics across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background All complex life on Earth is eukaryotic. All eukaryotic cells share a common ancestor that arose just once in four billion years of evolution. Prokaryotes show no tendency to evolve greater morphological complexity, despite their metabolic virtuosity. Here I argue that the eukaryotic cell originated in a unique prokaryotic endosymbiosis, a singular event that transformed the selection pressures acting on both host and endosymbiont. Results The reductive evolution and specialisation of endosymbionts to mitochondria resulted in an extreme genomic asymmetry, in which the residual mitochondrial genomes enabled the expansion of bioenergetic membranes over several orders of magnitude, overcoming the energetic constraints on prokaryotic genome size, and permitting the host cell genome to expand (in principle) over 200,000-fold. This energetic transformation was permissive, not prescriptive; I suggest that the actual increase in early eukaryotic genome size was driven by a heavy early bombardment of genes and introns from the endosymbiont to the host cell, producing a high mutation rate. Unlike prokaryotes, with lower mutation rates and heavy selection pressure to lose genes, early eukaryotes without genome-size limitations could mask mutations by cell fusion and genome duplication, as in allopolyploidy, giving rise to a proto-sexual cell cycle. The side effect was that a large number of shared eukaryotic basal traits accumulated in the same population, a sexual eukaryotic common ancestor, radically different to any known prokaryote. Conclusions The combination of massive bioenergetic expansion, release from genome-size constraints, and high mutation rate favoured a protosexual cell cycle and the accumulation of eukaryotic traits. These factors explain the unique origin of eukaryotes, the absence of true evolutionary intermediates, and the evolution of sex in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Eugene Koonin, William Martin

  3. Genome Networks Root the Tree of Life between Prokaryotic Domains

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Tal; Roettger, Mayo; Bryant, David; Martin, William

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes arose from prokaryotes, hence the root in the tree of life resides among the prokaryotic domains. The position of the root is still debated, although pinpointing it would aid our understanding of the early evolution of life. Because prokaryote evolution was long viewed as a tree-like process of lineage bifurcations, efforts to identify the most ancient microbial lineage split have traditionally focused on positioning a root on a phylogenetic tree constructed from one or several genes. Such studies have delivered widely conflicting results on the position of the root, this being mainly due to methodological problems inherent to deep gene phylogeny and the workings of lateral gene transfer among prokaryotes over evolutionary time. Here, we report the position of the root determined with whole genome data using network-based procedures that take into account both gene presence or absence and the level of sequence similarity among all individual gene families that are shared across genomes. On the basis of 562,321 protein-coding gene families distributed across 191 genomes, we find that the deepest divide in the prokaryotic world is interdomain, that is, separating the archaebacteria from the eubacteria. This result resonates with some older views but conflicts with the results of most studies over the last decade that have addressed the issue. In particular, several studies have suggested that the molecular distinctness of archaebacteria is not evidence for their antiquity relative to eubacteria but instead stems from some kind of inherently elevated rate of archaebacterial sequence change. Here, we specifically test for such a rate elevation across all prokaryotic lineages through the analysis of all possible quartets among eight genes duplicated in all prokaryotes, hence the last common ancestor thereof. The results show that neither the archaebacteria as a group nor the eubacteria as a group harbor evidence for elevated evolutionary rates in the sampled

  4. Heats of Segregation and Segregation Profiles of BCC Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    The composition of metal alloy surfaces is often different from that of the bulk. Some alloys exhibit surface segregation, where one or more species reside preferentially at or near the surface. A detailed understanding of this behavior is necessary to correctly model such phenomena as adhesion or catalysis. Several phenomenological approaches to the problem have been put forward, falling into two broad categories: Thermodynamic approaches, where the equilibrium distribution of chemical species is computed. Atomistic approaches, where the tendency of a species to segregate is determined by computation of the energies of single atoms of that species in bulk and surface environments.

  5. Biodiversity, Community Structural Shifts, and Biogeography of Prokaryotes within Antarctic Continental Shelf Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, John P.; McCuaig, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library analysis was conducted to assess prokaryotic diversity and community structural changes within a surficial sediment core obtained from an Antarctic continental shelf area (depth, 761 m) within the Mertz Glacier Polynya (MGP) region. Libraries were created from three separate horizons of the core (0- to 0.4-cm, 1.5- to 2.5-cm, and 20- to 21-cm depth positions). The results indicated that at the oxic sediment surface (depth, 0 to 0.4 cm) the microbial community appeared to be dominated by a small subset of potentially r-strategist (fast-growing, opportunistic) species, resulting in a lower-than-expected species richness of 442 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). At a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 cm, the species richness (1,128 OTUs) was much higher, with the community dominated by numerous gamma and delta proteobacterial phylotypes. At a depth of 20 to 21 cm, a clear decline in species richness (541 OTUs) occurred, accompanied by a larger number of more phylogenetically divergent phylotypes and a decline in the predominance of Proteobacteria. Based on rRNA and clonal abundance as well as sequence comparisons, syntrophic cycling of oxidized and reduced sulfur compounds appeared to be the dominant process in surficial MGP sediment, as phylotype groups putatively linked to these processes made up a large proportion of clones throughout the core. Between 18 and 65% of 16S rDNA phylotypes detected in a wide range of coastal and open ocean sediments possessed high levels of sequence similarity (>95%) with the MGP sediment phylotypes, indicating that many sediment prokaryote phylotype groups defined in this study are ubiquitous in marine sediment. PMID:12732511

  6. Transplantation of prokaryotic two-component signaling pathways into mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jonathan; Mailand, Erik; Swaminathan, Krishna Kumar; Schreiber, Joerg; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathway engineering is a promising route toward synthetic biological circuits. Histidine–aspartate phosphorelays are thought to have evolved in prokaryotes where they form the basis for two-component signaling. Tyrosine-serine–threonine phosphorelays, exemplified by MAP kinase cascades, are predominant in eukaryotes. Recently, a prokaryotic two-component pathway was implemented in a plant species to sense environmental trinitrotoluene. We reasoned that “transplantation” of two-component pathways into mammalian host could provide an orthogonal and diverse toolkit for a variety of signal processing tasks. Here we report that two-component pathways could be partially reconstituted in mammalian cell culture and used for programmable control of gene expression. To enable this reconstitution, coding sequences of histidine kinase (HK) and response regulator (RR) components were codon-optimized for human cells, whereas the RRs were fused with a transactivation domain. Responsive promoters were furnished by fusing DNA binding sites in front of a minimal promoter. We found that coexpression of HKs and their cognate RRs in cultured mammalian cells is necessary and sufficient to strongly induce gene expression even in the absence of pathways’ chemical triggers in the medium. Both loss-of-function and constitutive mutants behaved as expected. We further used the two-component signaling pathways to implement two-input logical AND, NOR, and OR gene regulation. Thus, two-component systems can be applied in different capacities in mammalian cells and their components can be used for large-scale synthetic gene circuits. PMID:25331891

  7. MapRepeat: an approach for effective assembly of repetitive regions in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Diego CB; Pereira, Felipe L; Ghosh, Preetam; Barh, Debmalya; Figueiredo, Henrique CP; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel TJ; Azevedo, Vasco AC

    2015-01-01

    The newest technologies for DNA sequencing have led to the determination of the primary structure of the genomes of organisms, mainly prokaryotes, with high efficiency and at lower costs. However, the presence of regions with repetitive sequences, in addition to the short reads produced by the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms, created a lot of difficulty in reconstructing the original genome in silico. Thus, even today, genome assembly continues to be one of the major challenges in bioinformatics specifically when repetitive sequences are considered. In this paper, we present an approach to assemble repetitive regions in prokaryotic genomes. Our methodology enables (i) the identification of these regions through visual tools, (ii) the characterization of sequences on the extremities of gaps and (iii) the extraction of consensus sequences based on mapping of raw data to a reference genome. We also present a case study on the assembly of regions that encode ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) in the genome of Corynebacterium ulcerans FRC11, in order to show the efficiency of the strategies presented here. The proposed methods and tools will help in finishing genome assemblies, besides reducing the running time and associated costs. Availability All scripts are available at http://github.com/dcbmariano/maprepeat PMID:26229287

  8. Pyrosequencing assessment of prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity in biofilm communities from a French river

    PubMed Central

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Morin, Loïc; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Coffe, Gérard; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Bohatier, Jacques; Forestier, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent and significant increase in the study of aquatic microbial communities, little is known about the microbial diversity of complex ecosystems such as running waters. This study investigated the biodiversity of biofilm communities formed in a river with 454 Sequencing™. This river has the particularity of integrating both organic and microbiological pollution, as receiver of agricultural pollution in its upstream catchment area and urban pollution through discharges of the wastewater treatment plant of the town of Billom. Different regions of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene were targeted using nine pairs of primers, either universal or specific for bacteria, eukarya, or archaea. Our aim was to characterize the widest range of rDNA sequences using different sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. A first look at reads abundance revealed that a large majority (47–48%) were rare sequences (<5 copies). Prokaryotic phyla represented the species richness, and eukaryotic phyla accounted for a small part. Among the prokaryotic phyla, Proteobacteria (beta and alpha) predominated, followed by Bacteroidetes together with a large number of nonaffiliated bacterial sequences. Bacillariophyta plastids were abundant. The remaining bacterial phyla, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria, made up the rest of the bulk biodiversity. The most abundant eukaryotic phyla were annelid worms, followed by Diatoms, and Chlorophytes. These latter phyla attest to the abundance of plastids and the importance of photosynthetic activity for the biofilm. These findings highlight the existence and plasticity of multiple trophic levels within these complex biological systems. PMID:23520129

  9. Pyrosequencing assessment of prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity in biofilm communities from a French river.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Morin, Loïc; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Coffe, Gérard; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Bohatier, Jacques; Forestier, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent and significant increase in the study of aquatic microbial communities, little is known about the microbial diversity of complex ecosystems such as running waters. This study investigated the biodiversity of biofilm communities formed in a river with 454 Sequencing™. This river has the particularity of integrating both organic and microbiological pollution, as receiver of agricultural pollution in its upstream catchment area and urban pollution through discharges of the wastewater treatment plant of the town of Billom. Different regions of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene were targeted using nine pairs of primers, either universal or specific for bacteria, eukarya, or archaea. Our aim was to characterize the widest range of rDNA sequences using different sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. A first look at reads abundance revealed that a large majority (47-48%) were rare sequences (<5 copies). Prokaryotic phyla represented the species richness, and eukaryotic phyla accounted for a small part. Among the prokaryotic phyla, Proteobacteria (beta and alpha) predominated, followed by Bacteroidetes together with a large number of nonaffiliated bacterial sequences. Bacillariophyta plastids were abundant. The remaining bacterial phyla, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria, made up the rest of the bulk biodiversity. The most abundant eukaryotic phyla were annelid worms, followed by Diatoms, and Chlorophytes. These latter phyla attest to the abundance of plastids and the importance of photosynthetic activity for the biofilm. These findings highlight the existence and plasticity of multiple trophic levels within these complex biological systems. PMID:23520129

  10. One-step cloning and chromosomal integration of DNA.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, François; Cui, Lun; Priest, David G; Endy, Drew; Dodd, Ian B; Shearwin, Keith E

    2013-09-20

    We describe "clonetegration", a method for integrating DNA into prokaryotic chromosomes that approaches the simplicity of cloning DNA within extrachromosomal vectors. Compared to existing techniques, clonetegration drastically decreases the time and effort needed for integration of single or multiple DNA fragments. Additionally, clonetegration facilitates cloning and expression of genetic elements that are impossible to propagate within typical multicopy plasmids. PMID:24050148

  11. Granular Segregation with Anisotropic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Tim

    2005-11-01

    The results from experimental investigations of horizontally vibrated mixtures of anisotropic poppy seeds and long chains of linked spheres will be presented. A critical packing fraction was observed to be required to initiate a transition to segregation. The average size of the resulting patterns was measured and the concentration ratio of the mixtures was varied by changing the number of chains present in the mixtures. A change in the order of the transition, from second to first order with associated hysteresis, was observed as the chain number was reduced. This gave rise to three distinct regions of behaviour: segregated, mixed and a bi-stable state.

  12. Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Tomas G; Lenarcic, Rok; Willis, Clare R; Roberts, David M; Hamoen, Leendert W; Errington, Jeff; Wu, Ling J

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome segregation is an essential process of cell multiplication. In prokaryotes, segregation starts with the newly replicated sister origins of replication, oriCs, which move apart to defined positions in the cell. We have developed a genetic screen to identify mutants defective in placement of oriC during spore development in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the previously identified proteins Soj and DivIVA, our screen identified several new factors involved in polar recruitment of oriC: a reported regulator of competence ComN, and the regulators of division site selection MinD and MinJ. Previous work implicated Soj as an important regulator of oriC positioning in the cell. Our results suggest a model in which the DivIVA-interacting proteins ComN and MinJ recruit MinD to the cell pole, and that these proteins work upstream of Soj to enable oriC placement. We show that these proteins form a polar complex, which acts in parallel with but distinct from the sporulation-specific RacA pathway of oriC placement, and also functions during vegetative growth. Our study further shows that MinD has two distinct cell cycle roles, in cell division and chromosome segregation, and highlights that cell probably use multiple parallel mechanisms to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:27059541

  13. Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Lenarcic, Rok; Willis, Clare R.; Roberts, David M.; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Errington, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chromosome segregation is an essential process of cell multiplication. In prokaryotes, segregation starts with the newly replicated sister origins of replication, oriCs, which move apart to defined positions in the cell. We have developed a genetic screen to identify mutants defective in placement of oriC during spore development in the Gram‐positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the previously identified proteins Soj and DivIVA, our screen identified several new factors involved in polar recruitment of oriC: a reported regulator of competence ComN, and the regulators of division site selection MinD and MinJ. Previous work implicated Soj as an important regulator of oriC positioning in the cell. Our results suggest a model in which the DivIVA‐interacting proteins ComN and MinJ recruit MinD to the cell pole, and that these proteins work upstream of Soj to enable oriC placement. We show that these proteins form a polar complex, which acts in parallel with but distinct from the sporulation‐specific RacA pathway of oriC placement, and also functions during vegetative growth. Our study further shows that MinD has two distinct cell cycle roles, in cell division and chromosome segregation, and highlights that cell probably use multiple parallel mechanisms to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:27059541

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: Comparison of random and immortal-strand segregation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Sherley, James L.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2005-04-01

    This paper develops a point-mutation model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a population of adult stem cells. Such a model may prove useful for quantitative studies of tissue aging and the emergence of cancer. We consider two modes of chromosome segregation: (1) random segregation, where the daughter chromosomes of a given parent chromosome segregate randomly into the stem cell and its differentiating sister cell and (2) “immortal DNA strand” co-segregation, for which the stem cell retains the daughter chromosomes with the oldest parent strands. Immortal strand co-segregation is a mechanism, originally proposed by [Cairns Nature (London) 255, 197 (1975)], by which stem cells preserve the integrity of their genomes. For random segregation, we develop an ordered strand pair formulation of the dynamics, analogous to the ordered strand pair formalism developed for quasispecies dynamics involving semiconservative replication with imperfect lesion repair (in this context, lesion repair is taken to mean repair of postreplication base-pair mismatches). Interestingly, a similar formulation is possible with immortal strand co-segregation, despite the fact that this segregation mechanism is age dependent. From our model we are able to mathematically show that, when lesion repair is imperfect, then immortal strand co-segregation leads to better preservation of the stem cell lineage than random chromosome segregation. Furthermore, our model allows us to estimate the optimal lesion repair efficiency for preserving an adult stem cell population for a given period of time. For human stem cells, we obtain that mispaired bases still present after replication and cell division should be left untouched, to avoid potentially fixing a mutation in both DNA strands.

  15. Segregated Schools in Segregated Societies: Issues of Safety and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    In segregated societies such as Northern Ireland, schools may become sites of risk rather than sites of learning. This is particularly likely to be the case in interface areas, which are demarcated by peace-lines and other symbolic boundaries. Drawing on maps and focus group discussions with teenagers from interface areas in North Belfast, the…

  16. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners—the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)—and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic—and plant and algal—lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller’s ratchet—the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex—might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation. PMID:25733873

  17. Gene duplications in prokaryotes can be associated with environmental adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is a normal evolutionary process. If there is no selective advantage in keeping the duplicated gene, it is usually reduced to a pseudogene and disappears from the genome. However, some paralogs are retained. These gene products are likely to be beneficial to the organism, e.g. in adaptation to new environmental conditions. The aim of our analysis is to investigate the properties of paralog-forming genes in prokaryotes, and to analyse the role of these retained paralogs by relating gene properties to life style of the corresponding prokaryotes. Results Paralogs were identified in a number of prokaryotes, and these paralogs were compared to singletons of persistent orthologs based on functional classification. This showed that the paralogs were associated with for example energy production, cell motility, ion transport, and defence mechanisms. A statistical overrepresentation analysis of gene and protein annotations was based on paralogs of the 200 prokaryotes with the highest fraction of paralog-forming genes. Biclustering of overrepresented gene ontology terms versus species was used to identify clusters of properties associated with clusters of species. The clusters were classified using similarity scores on properties and species to identify interesting clusters, and a subset of clusters were analysed by comparison to literature data. This analysis showed that paralogs often are associated with properties that are important for survival and proliferation of the specific organisms. This includes processes like ion transport, locomotion, chemotaxis and photosynthesis. However, the analysis also showed that the gene ontology terms sometimes were too general, imprecise or even misleading for automatic analysis. Conclusions Properties described by gene ontology terms identified in the overrepresentation analysis are often consistent with individual prokaryote lifestyles and are likely to give a competitive advantage to the organism

  18. Top-Down Control of Diesel-Degrading Prokaryotic Communities.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Caroline; Böttjer, Daniela; Talarmin, Agathe; Guigue, Catherine; Conan, Pascal; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Biostimulation through the addition of inorganic nutrients has been the most widely practiced bioremediation strategy in oil-polluted marine waters. However, little attention has so far been paid to the microbial food web and the impact of top-down control that directly or indirectly influences the success of the bioremediation. We designed a mesocosm experiment using pre-filtered (<50 μm) surface seawater from the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) and examined the top-down effect exerted by heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and virus-like particles (VLP) on prokaryotic abundance, activity and diversity in the presence or absence of diesel fuel. Prokaryotes, HNF and VLP abundances showed a predator-prey succession, with a co-development of HNF and VLP. In the polluted system, we observed a stronger impact of viral lysis on prokaryotic abundances than in the control. Analysis of the diversity revealed that a bloom of Vibrio sp. occurred in the polluted mesocosm. That bloom was rapidly followed by a less abundant and more even community of predation-resistant bacteria, including known hydrocarbon degraders such as Oleispira spp. and Methylophaga spp. and opportunistic bacteria such as Percisivirga spp., Roseobacter spp. and Phaeobacter spp. The shift in prokaryotic dominance in response to viral lysis provided clear evidence of the 'killing the winner' model. Nevertheless, despite clear effects on prokaryotic abundance, activity and diversity, the diesel degradation was not impacted by top-down control. The present study investigates for the first time the functioning of a complex microbial network (including VLP) using a nutrient-based biostimulation strategy and highlights some key processes useful for tailoring bioremediation. PMID:25805213

  19. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Garg, Sriram; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F

    2015-08-18

    Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners--the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)--and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle genomes were relinquished to the chromosomes of the host (endosymbiotic gene transfer). However, notwithstanding eukaryote-specific gene inventions, single-gene phylogenies have never traced eukaryotic genes to three single prokaryotic sources, an issue that hinges crucially upon factors influencing phylogenetic inference. In the age of genomes, single-gene trees, once used to test the predictions of endosymbiotic theory, now spawn new theories that stand to eventually replace endosymbiotic theory with descriptive, gene tree-based variants featuring supernumerary symbionts: prokaryotic partners distinct from the cornerstone trio and whose existence is inferred solely from single-gene trees. We reason that the endosymbiotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts brought into the eukaryotic--and plant and algal--lineage a genome-sized sample of genes from the proteobacterial and cyanobacterial pangenomes of their respective day and that, even if molecular phylogeny were artifact-free, sampling prokaryotic pangenomes through endosymbiotic gene transfer would lead to inherited chimerism. Recombination in prokaryotes (transduction, conjugation, transformation) differs from recombination in eukaryotes (sex). Prokaryotic recombination leads to pangenomes, and eukaryotic recombination leads to vertical inheritance. Viewed from the perspective of endosymbiotic theory, the critical transition at the eukaryote origin that allowed escape from Muller's ratchet--the origin of eukaryotic recombination, or sex--might have required surprisingly little evolutionary innovation. PMID:25733873

  20. Gender Segregation: Separate but Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthouse, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, only 11 public schools in the United States had gender-segregated classrooms. As of December 2009, there were more than 550. The movement is based on the hypothesis that hard-wired differences in the ways that male and female brains develop and function in childhood through adolescence require classrooms in which boys and girls are not…

  1. Why Our Schools Are Segregated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2013-01-01

    "Residential segregation's causes are both knowable and known," writes Richard Rothstein. According to Rothstein, those causes are "20th century federal, state, and local policies explicitly designed to separate the races." Even seasoned policymakers are convinced that the residential isolation of low-income black children…

  2. Integration in a Segregated Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Stanley William

    1979-01-01

    At the end of two decades of integration efforts, America's urban schools have been completely re-segregated by White flight to the suburbs, and our nation is still blighted by a deep-seated segregationist mentality among Whites who continue to dread contact with the Black and the poor. (Author/SJL)

  3. Segregation effects during solidification in weightless melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of melt segregation effects were studied: (1) evaporative segregation, or segregation due to surface evaporation; and (2) freezing segregation, or segregation due to liquid-solid phase transformation. These segregation effects are closely related. In fact, evaporative segregation always precedes freezing segregation to some degree and must often be studied prior to performing meaningful solidification experiments. This is particularly true since evaporation may cause the melt composition, at least at the critical surface regions or layers to be affected manyfold within seconds so that the surface region or layer melting point and other thermophysical properties, nucleation characteristics, base for undercooling, and critical velocity to avoid constitutional supercooling, may be completely unexpected. An important objective was, therefore, to develop the necessary normal evaporation equations for predicting the compositional changes within specified times at temperature and to correlate these equations with actual experimental data collected from the literature.

  4. The Segregation Academy and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Anthony M.

    1973-01-01

    A case study of one private school which functions as a segregation academy'' was done in order to learn more about what segregation academies are, how they operate, and how they relate to the community. (Author/JM)

  5. The diversity-generating benefits of a prokaryotic adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    van Houte, Stineke; Ekroth, Alice K E; Broniewski, Jenny M; Chabas, Hélène; Ashby, Ben; Bondy-Denomy, Joseph; Gandon, Sylvain; Boots, Mike; Paterson, Steve; Buckling, Angus; Westra, Edze R

    2016-04-21

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems insert spacers derived from viruses and other parasitic DNA elements into CRISPR loci to provide sequence-specific immunity. This frequently results in high within-population spacer diversity, but it is unclear if and why this is important. Here we show that, as a result of this spacer diversity, viruses can no longer evolve to overcome CRISPR-Cas by point mutation, which results in rapid virus extinction. This effect arises from synergy between spacer diversity and the high specificity of infection, which greatly increases overall population resistance. We propose that the resulting short-lived nature of CRISPR-dependent bacteria-virus coevolution has provided strong selection for the evolution of sophisticated virus-encoded anti-CRISPR mechanisms. PMID:27074511

  6. Regulatory Interactions in ProKaryotes from RegTransBase

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail

    RegTransBase, a manually curated database of regulatory interactions in prokaryotes, captures the knowledge in published scientific literature using a controlled vocabulary. RegTransBase describes a large number of regulatory interactions reported in many organisms and contains various types of experimental data, in particular: the activation or repression of transcription by an identified direct regulator determining the transcriptional regulatory function of a protein (or RNA) directly binding to DNA or RNA mapping or prediction of binding sites for a regulatory protein characterization of regulatory mutations. RegTransBase also contains manually created position weight matrices (PWM) that can be used to identify candidate regulatory sites in over 60 species. (Specialized Interface)

  7. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    PubMed

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  8. PePPER: a webserver for prediction of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate prediction of DNA motifs that are targets of RNA polymerases, sigma factors and transcription factors (TFs) in prokaryotes is a difficult mission mainly due to as yet undiscovered features in DNA sequences or structures in promoter regions. Improved prediction and comparison algorithms are currently available for identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and their accompanying TFs and regulon members. Results We here extend the current databases of TFs, TFBSs and regulons with our knowledge on Lactococcus lactis and developed a webserver for prediction, mining and visualization of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons via a novel concept. This new approach includes an all-in-one method of data mining for TFs, TFBSs, promoters, and regulons for any bacterial genome via a user-friendly webserver. We demonstrate the power of this method by mining WalRK regulons in Lactococci and Streptococci and, vice versa, use L. lactis regulon data (CodY) to mine closely related species. Conclusions The PePPER webserver offers, besides the all-in-one analysis method, a toolbox for mining for regulons, promoters and TFBSs and accommodates a new L. lactis regulon database in addition to already existing regulon data. Identification of putative regulons and full annotation of intergenic regions in any bacterial genome on the basis of existing knowledge on a related organism can now be performed by biologists and it can be done for a wide range of regulons. On the basis of the PePPER output, biologist can design experiments to further verify the existence and extent of the proposed regulons. The PePPER webserver is freely accessible at http://pepper.molgenrug.nl. PMID:22747501

  9. 18 CFR 401.113 - Segregable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Segregable materials. 401.113 Section 401.113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... Segregable materials. Any reasonably segregable portion of a record shall be provided to any...

  10. 36 CFR 254.6 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregative effect. 254.6... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.6 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal lands... segregative effect terminates as follows: (1) Automatically, upon issuance of a patent or other document...