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1

PROLAPSO DO RETO ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E CIRÚRGICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O prolapso retal é um transtorno da estática do reto e se manifesta pela invaginaçăo oculta ou visível, quando há saída de segmento variável do reto pelo ânus. Trata-se de uma anomalia relativamente incomum, incapacitante e de etiologia pouco conhecida, para que concorre uma multiplicidade de fatores de diferentes patogenias. É mais freqüente na mulher idosa, com pico acima

2

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; #12;2 - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais

3

Rectal Hyposensitivity  

PubMed Central

Impaired or blunted rectal sensation, termed rectal hyposensitivity (RH), which is defined clinically as elevated sensory thresholds to rectal balloon distension, is associated with disorders of hindgut function, characterised primarily by symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence. However, its role in symptom generation and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the sensory dysfunction remain incompletely understood, although there is evidence that RH may be due to 'primary' disruption of the afferent pathway, 'secondary' to abnormal rectal biomechanics, or to both. Nevertheless, correction of RH by various interventions (behavioural, neuromodulation, surgical) is associated with, and may be responsible for, symptomatic improvement. This review provides a contemporary overview of RH, focusing on diagnosis, clinical associations, pathophysiology, and treatment paradigms. PMID:23105997

Burgell, Rebecca E

2012-01-01

4

Rectal Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... as hemorrhoids, fissures, fistula, or abscess What is levator syndrome? The levator syndrome presents with an aching rectal pain related to ... an infectious problem such as Herpes virus. The levator syndrome is more commonly seen in women. The tenderness ...

5

Low rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil) on the treatment of potentially resectable low rectal cancer using the following end points: 1) toxicity of this combined modality regimen; 2) clinical and pathologic response rate and local control; 3) downstaging of the tumor and its influence on the number

Angelita Habr-Gama; Pedro M. Santinho B. Souza; Ulysses Ribeiro; Wladimir Nadalin; René Gansl; Afonso H. S. Sousa; Fábio Guilherme Campos; Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues

1998-01-01

6

Presentations of Localized Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Rectal Cancer: Advanced Technologies Chris Willett, M.D. Department of Radiation Oncology Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC Gastric Intergroup 0116: RT Considerations 35% of initially submitted RT plans: Major deviations (2/3 undertreatment) 2

7

Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental. PMID:23584263

Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

2013-02-01

8

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening may interfere with its function or the passage of an examining instrument. (b)...

2010-04-01

9

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening may interfere with its function or the passage of an examining instrument. (b)...

2012-04-01

10

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening may interfere with its function or the passage of an examining instrument. (b)...

2011-04-01

11

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

... Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening may interfere with its function or the passage of an examining instrument. (b)...

2014-04-01

12

ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

Suh, W. Warren [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: wsuh@lroc.harvard.edu; Blackstock, A. William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Herman, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mohiuddin, Mohammed [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Poggi, Matthew M. [Inova Alexandria Cancer Center, Alexandria, VA (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cosman, Bard C. [VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Saltz, Leonard [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Johnstone, Peter A.S. [Radiation Oncology Department, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2008-04-01

13

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening may interfere with its function or the passage of an examining instrument. (b)...

2013-04-01

14

Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2013-01-09

15

Rectal prolapse associated with bulimia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Rectal prolapse is a condition in which, when complete, the full thickness of the rectal wall protrudes through the anus. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by periodic food binges, which are followed by purging. Purging usually takes the form of self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, and\\/or diuretic abuse. We report seven cases of rectal prolapse associated with bulimia

Michael Malik; James Stratton; W. Brian Sweeney

1997-01-01

16

Intermittent rectal motor activity: a rectal motor complex?  

PubMed Central

Prolonged nocturnal recordings from multiple sites in the anorectum and duodenum were performed in 12 healthy volunteers to investigate the presence and determine the characteristics of nocturnal rectal motor activity and assess any synchronicity with phase III of the small intestinal migrating motor complex. Runs of phasic contractions of two contractile frequencies (3 or 6/minute), sustained for more than three minutes, and preceded and followed by motor quiescence were observed in 10 of the 12 subjects. This phenomenon is similar to that described by other investigators and termed the 'rectal motor complex'. The runs of contractions showed considerable inter- and intrasubject variation, with a duration of 3-30 minutes (median 9.0), amplitude of 10-55 mm Hg (median 20.0), and periods of 10-420 minutes (median 55.5) between contractile activity. There was no propagation through the rectum, the phasic motor activity rarely occurred simultaneously at more than one rectal recording site. No consistent relation with phase III of the small intestinal migrating motor complex was observed in any subject. In view of these findings, we question whether this intermittent motor activity merits the term 'rectal motor complex'. PMID:1752469

Prior, A; Fearn, U J; Read, N W

1991-01-01

17

Manometric studies in rectal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manometric studies of internal sphincter responses were carried out on 15 patients?14 with rectal prolapse and one with mucosal\\u000a prolapse with proctitis cystica profunda. In all 12 patients studied preoperatively, the internal sphincter reflexes (inhibitory\\u000a reflex) were absent or markedly obtunded. Anterior resection was performed on three of the patients in whom preoperative and\\u000a postoperative manometric studies could be carried

Robert J. Spencer

1984-01-01

18

Total rectal resection and colo-anal anastomosis with colonic reservoir for low rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

From March 1990 to December 1992, 47 patients with primary or recurrent low rectal cancer under-went total rectal resection and a coloendoanal anastomosis. Rectal resection was extended downward to the ano-rectal junction. The restorative technique included a colo-endoanal anastomosis between the dentate line and a J-shaped colic reservoir. All lesions were located within 7 cm of the anal verge (within

E. Leo; F. Belli; M. T. Baldini; M. Vitellaro; L. Mascheroni; S. Andreola; M. Bellomi; G. Rebuffoni; F. Lombardi; R. Audisio; A. Filiberti

1994-01-01

19

Chemoradiotherapy response in recurrent rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in recurrent versus primary rectal cancer has not been investigated. We compared radiological downsizing between primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT and determined the optimal size reduction threshold for response validated by survival outcomes. The proportional change in tumor length for primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT was compared using the independent sample t-test. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier product limit method and differences between survival for tumor size reduction thresholds of 30% (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors [RECIST]), 40%, and 50% after CRT in primary and recurrent rectal cancer groups. A total of 385 patients undergoing CRT were analyzed, 99 with recurrent rectal cancer and 286 with primary rectal cancer. The mean proportional reduction in maximum craniocaudal length was significantly higher for primary rectal tumors (33%) compared with recurrent rectal cancer (11%) (P?rectal cancer when ?30% or ?40% definitions were used. However, for both primary and recurrent tumors, significant differences in median 3-year OS were observed when a RECIST cut-off of 50% was used. OS was 99% versus 77% in primary and 100% versus 42% in recurrent rectal cancer (P?=?0.002 and P?=?0.03, respectively). Only patients that demonstrated >50% size reduction showed a survival benefit. Recurrent rectal cancer appears radioresistant compared with primary tumors for tumor size after CRT. Further investigation into improving/intensifying chemotherapy and radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer is justified. PMID:24403010

Yu, Stanley K T; Bhangu, Aneel; Tait, Diana M; Tekkis, Paris; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Brown, Gina

2014-01-01

20

Magnamosis: a novel technique for the management of rectal atresia.  

PubMed

We report a case of rectal atresia treated using magnets to create a rectal anastomosis. This minimally invasive technique is straightforward and effective for the treatment of rectal atresia in children. PMID:25096648

Russell, Katie W; Rollins, Michael D; Feola, G Peter; Scaife, Eric R

2014-01-01

21

Laparoscopic rectal resection versus open rectal resection with minilaparotomy for invasive rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The minilaparotomy approach is technically feasible for the resection of rectal cancer in selected patients with rapid postoperative recovery and small incision. The study aimed to compare the clinical and oncological outcomes of minilaparotomy and laparoscopic approaches in patients with rectal cancer. Methods The 122 included patients with rectal cancer were assigned to either minilaparotomy group (n=65) or laparoscopic group (n=57) which ran from January 2005 to January 2008. Clinical characteristics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative and long-term complications, pathological results and survival rates were compared between the groups. Results The demographic data of the two groups were similar. The time to normal diet (P=0.024) and the hospital stay (P=0.043) were less in the laparoscopic group than that in the minilaparotomy group. Compared with the minilaparotomy group, the mean operation time was significantly longer [low anterior resection (LAR), P=0.030; abdominoperineal resection (APR), P=0.048] and the direct costs higher for laparoscopic group (P<0.001). The morbidity and mortality were comparable between the two groups. Local recurrence was similar (5.3% laparoscopic, 1.5% minilaparotomy, P=0.520). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were also similar (overall survival is 87.1% in laparoscopic group, and 82.5%in minilaparotomy group, P=0.425; disease-free survival is 74.2% in the laparoscopic group, and 71.4% in mini- laparotomy group, P=0.633). Conclusions The minilaparotomy approach was similarly safe and oncologically equivalent to laparoscopic approach for patients with rectal cancer. At the expense of a longer operative time and higher cost, laparoscopic surgery was associated with faster postoperative recovery. PMID:24490041

Zhou, Tong; Tian, Hongpeng; Liu, Zuoliang; Xia, Shusen

2014-01-01

22

Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2014-11-20

23

Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is much more challenging than that for colon cancer because of the confined space within the pelvis. Further, because of the tumor's location in the pelvis, maintenance of resection margins is of greater concern. Nonrandomized studies by groups experienced in laparoscopic surgery have shown both that it produces short-term outcomes equivalent to those for open surgery and that it can be performed safely from an oncologic perspective. Nonsurgical complications appear to be fewer, but conversion to open surgery may become a real issue. This review summarizes these findings by addressing technical considerations, early outcomes, late outcomes, costs, and complications. PMID:21373245

Indar, Adrian; Efron, Jonathan

2009-01-01

24

Pathology Case Study: Rectal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical microbiology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 78-year-old man has rectal adenocarcinoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Horn, Kevin D.; Pasculle, A. W.; Rao, Uma N.

2008-11-26

25

Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present. PMID:25206260

Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

2014-01-01

26

PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-11-06

27

Total rectal resection and colo-anal anastomosis with colonic reservoir for low rectal cancer.  

PubMed

From March 1990 to December 1992, 47 patients with primary or recurrent low rectal cancer underwent total rectal resection and a coloendoanal anastomosis. Rectal resection was extended downward to the ano-rectal junction. The restorative technique included a colo-endoanal anastomosis between the dentate line and a J-shaped colic reservoir. All lesions were located within 7 cm of the anal verge (within 6 cm in 33 primary cases). Macroscopic and histological radicality was documented in all cases. Pelvic recurrence occurred in six patients and was para-anastomotic in one case. Post-operative morbidity was low. Perfect continence was documented in 36 patients and 72 of the cases had one or two bowel movements a day. All but four patients are alive at a follow-up ranging from 6 to 40 months (median 20 months). This approach is a safe option to conventional total rectal excision with permanent colostomy for lower third rectal carcinoma. PMID:8064195

Leo, E; Belli, F; Baldini, M T; Vitellaro, M; Mascheroni, L; Andreola, S; Bellomi, M; Rebuffoni, G; Lombardi, F; Audisio, R

1994-05-01

28

MRI staging of low rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Low rectal tumours, especially those treated by abdominoperineal excision (APE), have a high rate of margin involvement when compared with tumours elsewhere in the rectum. Correct surgical management to minimise this rate of margin involvement is reliant on highly accurate imaging, which can be used to plan the planes of excision. In this article we describe the techniques for accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment and a novel staging system for low rectal tumours. Using this staging system it is possible for the radiologist to demonstrate accurately tumour-free planes for surgical excision of low rectal tumours. PMID:18810451

Shihab, Oliver C; Moran, Brendan J; Heald, Richard J; Quirke, Philip; Brown, Gina

2009-03-01

29

Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

2013-12-04

30

New perspective in the treatment of low rectal cancer: Total rectal resection and coloendoanal anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Presently abdominoperineal resection still remains the most diffuse modality of treatment of low rectal cancer. However, a new surgical approach is now available to avoid such a demolitive surgery and a definitive colostomy. METHODS: From March 1990 to March 1993, 58 total rectal resections were performed in 55 patients affected with primary or recurring cancers of the low rectum.

Ermanno Leo; Filiberto Belli; Maria Teresa Baldini; Marco Vitellaro; Luigi Mascheroni; Salvatore Andreola; Massimo Bellomi; Roberto Zucali

1994-01-01

31

[Laparoscopic colo-rectal surgery].  

PubMed

Laparoscopic colorectal surgery was less invasive for patients although it was difficult to perform complete resection of colon combined with regional lymph node. The skillful manner of the laparoscopic surgery was required for the surgical team. The laparoscopic equipments, in order to perform curative dissection of mesenterium and intermediate lymph node, such as Ultrasonic-aspiration surgical unit (USU) or Harmonic scalpel laparoscopic coagulation shears (LCS), were useful for safer dissection of D2 regional lymph node. Meticulous manner of grasping forceps and special dissectors was made sufficient lymph node dissection. The reconstruction of extracorporeal anastomotic technique by hand or valtrac (biofragmentable anastomosis ring) were safer manner for anastomosis after resection of the right side colon. Reconstruction by double stapling technique of linear stapler and circular stapler was admired for anastomosis for left side colonic and rectal surgery. We had safely performed locar resection in 3, partial resection with Do dissection in 2, with D1 dissection in 14, with D2 dissection in 21 and right and left hemicolectomy in 1 each. PMID:8965357

Hayashi, K; Munakata, Y

1996-05-01

32

Regorafenib in Reducing Recurrence in Patients With Non-metastatic Rectal Cancer Who Have Completed Curative-Intent Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer

2015-02-05

33

Regorafenib in Reducing Recurrence in Patients With Non-metastatic Rectal Cancer Who Have Completed Curative-Intent Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer

2015-01-08

34

Management of rectal foreign bodies  

PubMed Central

Background Entrapped anorectal foreign bodies are being encountered more frequently in clinical practice. Although entrapped foreign bodies are most often related to sexual behavior, they can also result from ingestion or sexual assault. Methods Between 1999 and 2009, 15 patients with foreign bodies in the rectum were diagnosed and treated, at Izmir Training and Research Hospital, in Izmir. Information regarding the foreign body, clinical presentation, treatment strategies, and outcomes were documented. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these unusual patients. Results All patients were males, and their mean age was 48 years (range, 33–68 years). The objects in the rectum of these 15 patients were an impulse body spray can (4 patients), a bottle (4 patients), a dildo (2 patient), an eggplant (1 patient), a brush (1 patient), a tea glass (1 patient), a ball point pen (1 patient) and a wishbone (1 patient, after oral ingestion). Twelve objects were removed transanally by anal dilatation under general anesthesia. Three patients required laparotomy. Routine rectosigmoidoscopic examination was performed after removal. One patient had perforation of the rectosigmoid and 4 had lacerations of the mucosa. None of the patients died. Conclusions Foreign bodies in the rectum should be managed in a well-organized manner. The diagnosis is confirmed by plain abdominal radiographs and rectal examination. Manual extraction without anaesthesia is only possible for very low-lying objects. Patients with high- lying foreign bodies generally require general anaesthesia to achieve complete relaxation of the anal sphincters to facilitate extraction. Open surgery should be reserved only for patients with perforation, peritonitis, or impaction of the foreign body. PMID:23497492

2013-01-01

35

Laparoscopic intracorporeal distal rectal transection with the CONTOUR(®) device.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic rectal resection is considered technically more demanding than laparoscopic colectomy. Rectal transection is a challenging part of laparoscopic low anterior rectal resection and restorative proctocolectomy. We describe our technique for laparoscopic rectal transection with a curved cutter, a device initially designed for open surgery, combined with the use of a ring-mounted sterile drape that allows maintenance of sufficient intra-abdominal gas pressure in a series of 34 patients. PMID:22426929

Alevizos, L; Lirici, M M

2012-10-01

36

Management and imaging of low rectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Large variations in recurrence rates have been reported with the best results following total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery for low and middle rectal cancers. However, the low rectal cancers still have higher rates of local recurrence (up to 30%) whether operated by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal excision (APE) due to high rates of circumferential margin involvement. The treatment of choice for low rectal cancers that encroach upon the potential circumferential resection margin is surgery combined with preoperative neoadjuvant treatment. Preoperative chemotherapy combined with long-term radiotherapy reduces recurrence rates and preoperative loco-regional staging can help to select the patients more likely to benefit from neo-adjuvant therapy. Surface coil MRI is the most promising modality for patient selection, which can provide good views of the circumferential resection margin especially the presence or absence of tumour encroaching the intersphincteric plane. PMID:15572087

Salerno, Gisella; Daniels, Ian; Heald, R J; Brown, Gina; Moran, B J

2004-01-01

37

Novel radiation techniques for rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The concepts for management of rectal cancer have changed drastically over the past few years. Through national bowel cancer screening programmes in the Western countries and the increasing use of endoscopic procedures as diagnostic tool, there is increase in detection of rectal cancer in early stages. There is increase in ageing population worldwide but more so in Western countries. In addition, there is realisation of harm from extirpative surgical procedures which are directed towards managing advanced rectal cancer in the past. Increase in cost of health care burden has also led the investigators to seek alternative treatment options which are effective, safe and cost effective. There are several modern radiation techniques which fits this bill and we need to be aware of newer novel radiation techniques to fulfil this gap. PMID:24982769

Myint, Arthur Sun

2014-06-01

38

Chronic rectal bleeding in Proteus syndrome.  

PubMed

Proteus Syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous disorder that typically manifests itself in overgrowth, vascular malformation and disregulation of fatty tissue. The tissues affected are commonly the limbs but can be of any tissue. Vascular anomalies are common and appear at random sites on the body. Diagnosis is often difficult leading to wrong treatment. We describe a case of a 17-year-old girl with Proteus syndrome presented with symptomatic anaemia secondary to chronic rectal bleeding. Computed Tomography Angiogram of Abdomen and Pelvis confirmed the presence of rectal vascular malformations. PMID:21901955

Siow, S L; Sim, N K

2010-12-01

39

Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2013-02-26

40

Rectal diversion without colostomy in Fournier's gangrene.  

PubMed

Fournier's gangrene is a potentially fatal necrotizing fasciitis affecting the perineum and genital area. The usual treatment includes prompt surgical debridement and, in many cases, a diverting colostomy. We present two cases of Fournier's gangrene that were treated with extensive local debridement and rectal diversion with a new device for faecal matter management, avoiding the need for a colostomy. PMID:19484342

Estrada, O; Martinez, I; Del Bas, M; Salvans, S; Hidalgo, L A

2009-06-01

41

Giant rectal villous adenoma: Surgical approach with rectal eversion and perianal coloanal anastomosis?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Colorectal cancer is an important cause of death. Most cases of colon and rectal cancer arise from a preexisting adenomatous polyp. However, if colorectal polyps are very large or not accessible for endoscopic ablation, or if they cannot be removed without an increased risk of perforation, surgical procedures are required. PRESENTATION OF CASE The case of a patient with a giant villous adenoma of the rectum is described. The patient had diarrhea for 2 years associated with asthenia. Colonoscopy revealed a sessile lesion in the rectum measuring 14 cm in the largest diameter. Rectal eversion technique was used, resecting the lesion under direct visibility and an external coloanal anastomosis was performed. Surgery was satisfactory and the resection margins were free. DISCUSSION Removal of these polyps should be performed aiming to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, as well as to control local and systemic symptoms, such as diarrhea and fluid and electrolyte disorders, mainly in villous adenomas. Various surgical techniques are proposed, but in extensive circumferential lesions of the rectum they are difficult to apply. The rectal stump eversion technique was described by Maunsell (1892), for rectal cancer. CONCLUSION Eversion of the rectal stump and external coloanal anastomosis may be a good surgical alternative for resecting giant rectal adenomas. PMID:24441716

Roriz-Silva, Renato; Andrade, Alexei Almeida; Ivankovics, Ivan Gregório

2013-01-01

42

[Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?].  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma of the rectum represents about a third of cases of colorectal cancer, with an annual incidence of 12,000 cases in France. On the contrary of colon cancer, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer has not been definitively proved, more because this question was assessed in few recent studies than because negative results. Preoperative radiochemotherapy is now the reference treatment for mid and lower rectal cancers, and allow to increase the local control without improvement of progression free survival and overall survival. The data of the "historical studies" of adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer published before 1990, of the meta-analysis of adjuvant trials in rectal cancer and of the QUASAR study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines (intravenous or oral), in absence of pre-operative treatment, decrease the risk of metastatic relapse after curative surgery for a rectal cancer of stage II or III. This benefice seems similar to the one observed in colon cancer. In the EORTC radiotherapy group trial 22921, an adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low dose of leucovorin was not associated with a significantly improvement of overall survival but, despite the fact that only 42.9% of patients received all planed cycles, the progression free survival was increased (not significantly) in groups receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The French recommendations are to discuss the indication of adjuvant chemotherapy by fluoropyrimidines in cases of stage III rectal cancer on histopathologic reports and no chemotherapy in case of stade II. Despite the fact that none study have assessed a combination of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin in adjuvant setting in rectal cancer, like in colon cancer, the Folfox4, modified Folfox6 or Xelox regimens are valid options in stage III (experts opinion). In cases of pathologic complete remission or in absence of involved nodes, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy is not assessed. In all cases, the decision of adjuvant chemotherapy has to be taken during a multidisciplinary meeting. The interest of a combination of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin is assessed in currently adjuvant trials (PETTAC-6 and CAO/ARO/AIO-04), and future trials will assess the interest of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19965305

Bachet, J-B; Rougier, P; de Gramont, A; André, T

2010-01-01

43

Rectal histology in acute bacillary dysentery.  

PubMed

A recent epidemic of acute Shigella dysentery in West Bengal (India) provided us with an opportunity to examine the rectal mucosal abnormalities seen in this condition. One hundred two patients were investigated using sigmoidoscopy, rectal biopsy, and rectal swab for culture. Pure culture of Shigella was obtained in 37 cases, and the rectal biopsy specimens from these patients were assessed in detail. The mean (+/- SD) duration of illness was 47.8 +/- 27.4 h (range 8-120 h), and most patients (31 of 37, 84%) had diarrhea with blood and mucus in the stools. Significant findings at histology were as follows. (a) Cellular infiltrate was predominantly round cell or mixed round cell and neutrophilic in the majority of patients (27, 73%). (b) Disorganization of crypts was seen in as many as 31 patients (84%); in most subjects the distorted architecture was mild, but in a few the defect was severe with crypt branching and dilatation. (c) In the majority of patients the inflammatory process extended to the muscularis mucosae and submucosa; edema with or without increased cellular infiltrate was seen in the muscularis mucosae in 92% and in the submucosa in 80%. (d) There was no difference in the rectal histology of patients with a short history of disease (less than 48 h) compared with those with a longer history, except for goblet cell depletion which was more in those with diarrhea for more than 48 h. (e) The mucosal abnormalities in patients with watery diarrhea were, in general, milder than in those with dysentery, although the difference was statistically not significant; 2 of 6 patients with watery diarrhea had severe colitis. (f) The mucosal abnormalities were more severe in patients with Shigella dysenteriae infection compared with Shigella flexneri. PMID:3510937

Anand, B S; Malhotra, V; Bhattacharya, S K; Datta, P; Datta, D; Sen, D; Bhattacharya, M K; Mukherjee, P P; Pal, S C

1986-03-01

44

Rectal-specific microbicide applicator: evaluation and comparison with a vaginal applicator used rectally.  

PubMed

An applicator designed for rectal delivery of microbicides was tested for acceptability by 95 young men who have sex with men, who self-administered 4 mL of placebo gel prior to receptive anal intercourse over 90 days. Subsequently, 24 of the participants self-administered rectally 4 mL of tenofovir or placebo gel over 7 days using a vaginal applicator, and compared both applicators on a Likert scale of 1-10, with 10 the highest rating. Participants reported high likelihood to use either applicator in the future (mean scores 9.3 and 8.8 respectively, p = ns). Those who tested both liked the vaginal applicator significantly more than the rectal applicator (7.8 vs. 5.2, p = 0.003). Improvements in portability, conspicuousness, aesthetics, tip comfort, product assembly and packaging were suggested for both. This rectal-specific applicator was not superior to a vaginal applicator. While likelihood of future use is reportedly high, factors that decrease acceptability may erode product use over time in clinical trials. Further attention is needed to develop user-friendly, quick-acting rectal microbicide delivery systems. PMID:24858481

Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Giguere, Rebecca; Dolezal, Curtis; Bauermeister, José; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Valladares, Juan; Rohan, Lisa C; Anton, Peter A; Cranston, Ross D; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth; McGowan, Ian

2014-09-01

45

Failed stapled rectal resection in a constipated patient with rectal aganglionosis  

PubMed Central

A rare case of a severely constipated patient with rectal aganglionosis is herein reported. The patient, who had no megacolon/megarectum, underwent a STARR, i.e., stapled transanal rectal resection, for obstructed defecation, but her symptoms were not relieved. She started suffering from severe chronic proctalgia possibly due to peri-retained staples fibrosis. Intestinal transit times were normal and no megarectum/megacolon was found at barium enema. A diverting sigmoidostomy was then carried out, which was complicated by an early parastomal hernia, which affected stoma emptying. She also had a severe diverting proctitis, causing rectal bleeding, and still complained of both proctalgia and tenesmus. A deep rectal biopsy under anesthesia showed no ganglia in the rectum, whereas ganglia were present and normal in the sigmoid at the stoma site. As she refused a Duhamel procedure, an intersphincteric rectal resection and a refashioning of the stoma was scheduled. This case report shows that a complete assessment of the potential causes of constipation should be carried out prior to any surgical procedure. PMID:24764689

Pescatori, Lorenzo C; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Pescatori, Mario

2014-01-01

46

How useful is rectal endosonography in the staging of rectal cancer?  

PubMed

It is essential in treating rectal cancer to have adequate preoperative imaging, as accurate staging can influence the management strategy, type of resection, and candidacy for neoadjuvant therapy. In the last twenty years, endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) has become the primary method for locoregional staging of rectal cancer. ERUS is the most accurate modality for assessing local depth of invasion of rectal carcinoma into the rectal wall layers (T stage). Lower accuracy for T2 tumors is commonly reported, which could lead to sonographic overstaging of T3 tumors following preoperative therapy. Unfortunately, ERUS is not as good for predicting nodal metastases as it is for tumor depth, which could be related to the unclear definition of nodal metastases. The use of multiple criteria might improve accuracy. Failure to evaluate nodal status could lead to inadequate surgical resection. ERUS can accurately distinguish early cancers from advanced ones, with a high detection rate of residual carcinoma in the rectal wall. ERUS is also useful for detection of local recurrence at the anastomosis site, which might require fine-needle aspiration of the tissue. Overstaging is more frequent than understaging, mostly due to inflammatory changes. Limitations of ERUS are operator and experience dependency, limited tolerance of patients, and limited range of depth of the transducer. The ERUS technique requires a learning curve for orientation and identification of images and planes. With sufficient time and effort, quality and accuracy of the ERUS procedure could be improved. PMID:20135716

Kav, Taylan; Bayraktar, Yusuf

2010-02-14

47

Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis From Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

Yang, Kyung Ho; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

2014-01-01

48

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

Yang, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hye Ran; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

2014-10-01

49

Surgical Management of Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Developments in chemotherapeutic strategies and surgical technique have led to improved loco regional control of rectal cancer and a decrease in recurrence rates over time. However, locally recurrent rectal cancer continues to present considerable technical challenges and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the only therapy with curative potential. Despite a hostile intra-operative environment, with meticulous pre-operative planning and judicious patient selection, safe surgery is feasible. The potential benefit of new techniques such as intra-operative radiotherapy and high intensity focussed ultrasonography has yet to be thoroughly investigated. The future lies in identification of predictors of recurrence, development of schematic clinical algorithms to allow standardised surgical technique and further research into genotyping platforms to allow individualisation of therapy. This review highlights important aspects of pre-operative planning, intra-operative tips and future strategies, focussing on a multimodal multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22701789

Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.

2012-01-01

50

Colostomy in radiation-induced rectal stricture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The subject of rectal stricture due to radiation therapy is reviewed and a case reported. Although the incidence of this condition\\u000a is low, it can occur in as many as 57 per cent of cases treated by radiation for carcinoma of the cervix. Pathology, symptoms\\u000a and treatment are discussed, and an illustrative case report is presented to show

Horace Chaitin

1971-01-01

51

Spiral rectal valves: Anatomy, eponyms, and clinical significance.  

PubMed

Rectal wall valves are obscure anatomic parts that rarely are considered in current medical practice. Yet from the seminal analysis of them in the early nineteenth century by the Irish anatomist and surgeon, John Houston, their structure, purpose, and clinical significance were topics of surprising disagreement. Were they true structures? What function might they have? Did disease originate in rectal valves? Were special operations required for any such diseases? Because Houston's anatomic analyses of rectal valves were substantiated, they came to be known in the English literature as the Spiral Rectal Valves of Houston. In the mid-nineteenth century, a single mid-rectal valve was described by the Hanoverian, Otto Kohlrausch., creating confusion with the established eponym "Houston's Valves." Many hypotheses about rectal valves have been discredited; and their physiologic functions are still unknown. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25220837

Ikard, Robert W

2014-09-15

52

Current status of laparoscopy for the treatment of rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery for rectal cancer in complex and entails many challenges. While the laparoscopic approach in general and specific to colon cancer has been long proven to have short term benefits and to be oncologically safe, it is still a debatable topic for rectal cancer. The attempt to benefit rectal cancer patients with the known advantages of the laparoscopic approach while not compromising their oncologic outcome has led to the conduction of many studies during the past decade. Herein we describe our technique for laparoscopic proctectomy and assess the current literature dealing with short term outcomes, immediate oncologic measures (such as lymph node yield and specimen quality) and long term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We also briefly evaluate the evolving issues of robotic assisted rectal cancer surgery and the current innovations and trends in the minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25386061

Shussman, Noam; Wexner, Steven D

2014-01-01

53

Preoperative infusional chemoradiation therapy for Stage T3 rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate preoperative infusional chemoradiation for patients with operable rectal cancer. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy using infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (300 mg\\/m²\\/day) together with daily irradiation (45 Gy\\/25 fractions\\/5 weeks) was administered to 77 patients with clinically Stage T3 rectal cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound confirmed the digital rectal exam in 63 patients. Surgery was performed approximately 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation

Tyvin A. Rich; John M. Skibber; Jaffer A. Ajani; Daniel J. Buchholz; Karen R. Cleary; Ronelle A. Dubrow; Bernard Levin; Patrick M. Lynch; Sarkis H. Meterissian; Leor D. Roubein; David M. Ota

1995-01-01

54

Rectal absorption of metronidazole from polyethylene glycol suppositories.  

PubMed

The rectal absorption of metronidazole from an aqueous suspension, a fatty suppository and three different polyethylene glycol suppositories was studied in healthy volunteers and compared with absorption from an oral solution. Rectal absorption was found to be rather slow for all suppositories. Of all rectal dosage forms, the polyethylene glycol suppositories gave the highest peak plasma levels and the highest relative bioavailability. Compared with oral administration, a relative bioavailability of 80% could be obtained. PMID:6709483

Vromans, H; Moolenaar, F; Visser, J; Meijer, D K

1984-02-24

55

Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital examination and computed tomography are the current modalities employed to assess the depth of invasion of rectal\\u000a cancer. Each technique has limitations in that high rectal tumors cannot be examined digitally and CT is unable to detect\\u000a small tumors. However, preoperative diagnostic capability can be improved with the use of intrarectal ultrasound. We have\\u000a examined 25 patients with rectal

U. Hildebrandt; G. Feifel

1985-01-01

56

Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2015-01-13

57

Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2015-01-30

58

An evaluation of the role of rectal endosonography in rectal cancer.  

PubMed Central

The applications of rectal endosonography (ES) in the preoperative staging and follow-up of patients with rectal cancer have been investigated. Endosonography is an accurate method of staging local invasion (93%) preoperatively and is superior to digital examination (58%) and computed tomography (CT) (74%). In addition, ES can predict mesorectal lymph node involvement with an accuracy of 83% which compares favourably with CT (57%). Extrarectal, locally recurrent cancer can be detected using ES and established recurrence assessed more objectively. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 PMID:2650604

Beynon, J.

1989-01-01

59

Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg?1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg?1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL?1 and 235.7 ng·mL?1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t˝= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL?1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; ?uczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; G?ówka, Franciszek

2014-01-01

60

Total rectal resection, mesorectum excision, and coloendoanal anastomosis: A therapeutic option for the treatment of low rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is recent and sporadic evidence indicating that patients with very low rectal cancer may be treated via a sphincter-saving procedure, obviating the need for abdominoperineal resection and definitive colostomy. This study confirms these findings.\\u000aMethods: From March 1990 to October 1994, 79 patients affected with primary low rectal cancers were submitted for total rectal resection, mesorectum excision, and

Ermanno Leo; Filiberto Belli; Salvatore Andreola; Maria Teresa Baldini; Gian Francesco Gallino; Riccardo Giovanazzi; Luigi Mascheroni; Roberto Patuzzo; Marco Vitellaro; Cinzia Lavarino; Rosaria Bufalino

1996-01-01

61

Rectal impaction with epoxy resin: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe a unique case of a patient presenting with rectal impaction following self-administration of a liquid used as masonry adhesive for anal sexual gratification. The solidified matter required laparotomy for its removal. Strategies for removing rectal foreign bodies are discussed as well as other consequences of inserting foreign material per rectum. PMID:15862274

Hemandas, Anil K; Muller, Guy W; Ahmed, Ibrahim

2005-01-01

62

Pelvic bioelectrical impedance measurements to detect rectal filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectal sensory deficits are an important cause of defecatory disorders and are also a reason for evacuatory difficulties in patients undergoing total anorectal reconstruction. A method to detect rectal filling would be beneficial in such patients. We have investigated the feasibility of detecting rectal filling in vitro and in vivo by measuring changes in pelvic impedance. In vitro, a model

R S Ratani; E Yazaki; A Maw; M A Pilot; J Rogers; N S Williams

1998-01-01

63

Anorectal avulsion: an exceptional rectal trauma.  

PubMed

Anorectal avulsion is an exceptional rectal trauma in which the anus and sphincter no longer join the perineum and are pulled upward. As a result, they ventrally follow levator ani muscles. We present a rare case of a 29-years old patient who was admitted in a pelvic trauma context; presenting a complete complex anorectal avulsion. The treatment included a primary repair of the rectum and a diverting colostomy so as to prevent sepsis. Closure of the protective sigmoidostomy was performed seven months after the accident and the evolution was marked by an anal stenosis requiring iterative dilatations. PMID:24094142

Ibn Majdoub Hassani, Karim; Ait Laalim, Said; Benjelloun, El Bachir; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

2013-01-01

64

Anorectal avulsion: an exceptional rectal trauma  

PubMed Central

Anorectal avulsion is an exceptional rectal trauma in which the anus and sphincter no longer join the perineum and are pulled upward. As a result, they ventrally follow levator ani muscles. We present a rare case of a 29-years old patient who was admitted in a pelvic trauma context; presenting a complete complex anorectal avulsion. The treatment included a primary repair of the rectum and a diverting colostomy so as to prevent sepsis. Closure of the protective sigmoidostomy was performed seven months after the accident and the evolution was marked by an anal stenosis requiring iterative dilatations. PMID:24094142

2013-01-01

65

Rectal and appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are neoplasms characterized by spindle cell proliferation and a fiboinflammatory vascular stroma. Herein, we presented the successful treatment of a rectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an 11-year-old boy who presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain of 1(1/2) months duration and an appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 29-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain of two months duration with associated tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Histologically, our cases had inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors very similar to that of other sites; the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and muscle-specific actin. PMID:16859068

Khoddami, Maliheh; Sanae, Shahram; Nikkhoo, Bahram

2006-07-01

66

Outcomes of rectal cancer with liver oligometastases  

PubMed Central

Purpose In patients with oligometastatic colorectal cancer to the liver, long term survival is possible and a multi-modality treatment approach may be considered. This is a report of a single institution experience of oligometastatic rectal cancer patients after treatment of the primary tumor and pelvic lymph nodes with extended course chemoradiation therapy. Methods Between 2004 and 2013, 26 oligometastatic rectal cancer patients with liver metastases were treated with extended course chemoradiation at our institution followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Amongst these there were 17 men and 9 women. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 59.8 years, with a range from 36 to 87 years of age. Eleven patients had metastases in other sites in addition to liver, and one patient in our cohort had lung metastasis with no liver metastasis. Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), distant metastases (DM) and local control (LC). Results OS rates were 95%, and 70% at 12 and 24 months respectively, with a mean survival time of 40.5 months. PFS rates were 91% and 36% at 12 and 24 months respectively, with a mean PFS time of 23.1 months. LC rates were 91% and 66% at 12 and 24 months respectively. DM rates were 0% and 61% at 12 and 24 months respectively. Finally, when censoring deaths, progression of liver metastases and distant progression, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated five events of local failure. Conclusions This series demonstrated an OS of 70% at 24 months, with a mean survival of 40.5 months. Significantly, LC was only 66% despite the use of extended course chemoradiation and TME. This data suggests that many patients with oligometastatic rectal cancer will survive past 2 years, and that a substantial number will fail locally as well as distantly. Therefore, a multimodality approach is reasonable. Recent data suggests that a hypofractionated radiation regiment of 25 Gy in 5 Gy fractions allows an equivalent LC compared to extended course chemoradiation with 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions. A short course of radiation may be more consistent with the goals of care of the oligometastatic rectal cancer patient who is at high risk of recurrence. PMID:25436119

Hsu, Howard; Du, Kevin

2014-01-01

67

MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update.  

PubMed

Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

Tapan, Umit; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Tatl?, Servet

2014-01-01

68

HIV, rectal chlamydia and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men attending an STD clinic in a midwestern US city  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) who report receptive anal intercourse (RAI) are currently recommended to undergo annual screening for rectal C. trachomatis (CT) and N. gonorrhoeae (GC) infection. Methods Using standard culture methods, we assessed prevalence of rectal GC/CT among MSM who reported RAI in the last year (n=326) at an urban STD clinic in a midwestern US city. A subset (n=125) also underwent rectal GC/CT screening via nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). We examined associations between HIV status and prevalence of rectal GC and rectal CT using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Results Prevalence of rectal GC, rectal CT and either rectal infection was 9%, 9% and 15% by culture and 24%, 23% and 38% by NAAT, respectively. HIV was not associated with rectal GC prevalence in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with increased rectal CT prevalence in unadjusted models (odds ratio (OR): 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.60); this association increased after multivariable adjustment (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.37, 7.19). Conclusions MSM reporting RAI had high prevalence of rectal GC and rectal CT. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with prevalent rectal CT, but not with prevalent rectal GC. PMID:23677015

Turner, Abigail Norris; Reese, Patricia Carr; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen S.; Bazan, Jose A.

2013-01-01

69

Clinicopathologic and Prognostic Significance of MMP-7 (Matrilysin) Expression in Human Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is increasing evidence to indicate that MMP-7 plays a more important role in tumor progression than other MMPs. The aim of this study was to detect MMP-7 expression in human rectal cancer and normal rectal tissue and to determine whether it is correlated with invasion and metastasis of human rectal cancer. Methods: Eighty-six paired samples of rectal cancer

Hong-zhi Luo; Zong-guang Zhou; Lie Yang; Yong-yang Yu; Cao Tian; Bing Zhou; Xue-Lian Zheng; Qing-jie Xia; Yuan Li; Rong Wang

2005-01-01

70

How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

2013-11-01

71

An unusual case of mesalazine intoxication: oral and rectal overloading of the rectal suppository form.  

PubMed

Drugs containing 5-acetylsalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been commonly used for inflammatory bowel diseases for more than half a century, but no case about overdose of suppository form of mesalazine which was taken both orally and rectally has been reported in the related literature up to now. In the present case, a 20-year-old male patient who took 14.5 g of mesalazine rectally and orally for suicide purpose is discussed. He was an ulcerative colitis patient and depressed about his illness and routine life traffic. Although it was hard for him to take the suppository form orally because of its bad taste and structure, he took it with the help of water. In the patient's colonoscopy, diffuse hyperemia and edema extending from the anal channel to the proximal rectal mucosa and a 1.5 cm diameter ulcer expanding from anal channel through the rectum were identified. No pathology was found in the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Routine laboratory examination was performed and no abnormality was identified in the patient's total blood account, biochemical parameters and full-urine examination. In the control rectoscopy applied to the patient 15 days later, recovery of the ulcer was observed and he was discharged to be followed in the psychiatry clinic. PMID:20670990

Koseoglu, Zikret; Satar, Salim; Kara, Banu; Sebe, Ahmet; Kosenli, Ozgun

2011-07-01

72

Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureńa, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

2014-01-01

73

USC researchers link genetic marker to rectal cancer treatment:  

Cancer.gov

A team of University of Southern California researchers has identified a genetic marker that may predict which patients with rectal cancer can be cured by certain chemotherapies when combined with surgery.

74

Role of laparoscopy in rectal cancer: A review  

PubMed Central

Despite established evidence on the advantages of laparoscopy in colon cancer resection, the use of laparoscopy for rectal cancer resection is still controversial. The initial concern was mainly regarding the feasibility of laparoscopy to achieve an adequate total mesorectal excision specimen. These concerns have been raised following early studies demonstrating higher rates of circumferential margins positivity following laparoscopic resection, as compared to open surgery. Similar to colon resection, patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer resection are expected to benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay, less analgesic requirements, and a faster recovery of bowel function. In the past decade there have been an increasing number of large scale clinical trials investigating the oncological and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection. In this review we summarize the current literature available on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:24803801

Mizrahi, Ido; Mazeh, Haggi

2014-01-01

75

Rectal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)  

PubMed Central

Rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will be a critical component of HIV prevention products due to the prevalence of unprotected receptive anal intercourse among men who have sex with men and heterosexual couples. Given the biological considerations of this compartment and the complexity of HIV infection, design of a successful rectal microbicide product faces a number of challenges. Important information is being compiled to begin to address deficits in knowledge toward design of rectal PrEP products for men and women. Aspects of formulation development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of rectal products studied to date are summarized in this review. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies," held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21–22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188705

Yang, Haitao; Wang, Lin

2014-01-01

76

Rectal diverticulum in a terrier dog: A case report.  

PubMed

Rectal diverticulum is a rare condition in dogs characterized by formation of a pouch or sac due to hernial protrusion of the mucous membranes through a defect in the muscular coat of the rectum. A 12-year-old male terrier dog was admitted with a history of a left perineal swelling, dyschezia and tenesmus during the last five months. Digital rectal examination identified a weakness in the left pelvic diaphragm and feces-filled sac within the lateral wall of the rectum. Positive contrast radiography showed a marked solitary diverticulum (3.5 × 4 × 4.5 cm) with wide-orifice neck arising from the left rectal wall. Using a lateral approach, a large rectal diverticulum was found and diverticulectomy following standard herniorrhaphy was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully with no signs of dyschezia during the next three years. Diverticulectomy by lateral approach and perineal herniorrhaphy produced excellent results. PMID:25593689

Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Mirshahi, Ali; Afkhami, Amir

2013-01-01

77

Rectal diverticulum in a terrier dog: A case report  

PubMed Central

Rectal diverticulum is a rare condition in dogs characterized by formation of a pouch or sac due to hernial protrusion of the mucous membranes through a defect in the muscular coat of the rectum. A 12-year-old male terrier dog was admitted with a history of a left perineal swelling, dyschezia and tenesmus during the last five months. Digital rectal examination identified a weakness in the left pelvic diaphragm and feces-filled sac within the lateral wall of the rectum. Positive contrast radiography showed a marked solitary diverticulum (3.5 × 4 × 4.5 cm) with wide-orifice neck arising from the left rectal wall. Using a lateral approach, a large rectal diverticulum was found and diverticulectomy following standard herniorrhaphy was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully with no signs of dyschezia during the next three years. Diverticulectomy by lateral approach and perineal herniorrhaphy produced excellent results.

Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Mirshahi, Ali; Afkhami, Amir

2013-01-01

78

Late small bowel toxicity after adjuvant treatment for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  For locally advanced rectal cancer surgery as sole treatment results in poor local control and survival. After adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer, small bowel toxicity has been the most frequent and serious side effect. The gain in survival and local control was accompanied by severe late chronic toxicity reducing the benefit of adjuvant treatment.Review  Clinical factors, pathology and treatment

Matthias Guckenberger; Michael Flentje

2006-01-01

79

ION ACTIVITIES AND ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENTS IN THE MEALWORM RECTAL COMPLEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Ion activities and potential differences in cellular and extracellular compart- ments of the rectal complex of Tenebrio molitor L. larvae have been recorded simultaneously using double-barrelled ion-sensitive microelectrodes. 2. On average, the tubule lumen (TL) was 44mV positive to the haemolymph. Values of aK in the posterior rectal complex exceeding 2700mmoll~ 1 were measured, sufficient to account for

M. J. O'DONNELL; J. MACHIN

80

High Rate of Sexual Dysfunction Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although rectal cancer is a very common malignancy and has an improved cure rate in response to oncological treatment, research on rectal-cancer survivors' sexual function remains limited. Sexual dysfunction (SD) after rectal cancer treatment was measured, and possible predisposing factors that may have an impact on the development of this disorder were identified. Methods Patients undergoing curative rectal cancer surgery from January 2012 to September 2013 were surveyed using questionnaires. The female sexual function index or the International Index of Erectile Function was recorded. A multiple logistic regression was used to test associations of clinical factors with outcomes. Results Fifty-six men (56%) and 28 women (44%) who completed the questionnaire were included in the study. A total of 76 patients of the 86 patients (90.5%) with the diagnosis of rectal cancer who were included in this study reported different levels of SD after radical surgery. A total of 64 patients (76%) from the whole cohort reported moderate to severe SD after treatment of rectal cancer. Gender (P = 0.011) was independently associated with SD. Female patients reported significantly higher rates of moderate to severe SD than male patients. Patients were rarely treated for dysfunction. Conclusion Sexual problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, but patients are rarely treated for SD. Female patients reported higher rates of SD than males. These results point out the importance of sexual (dys)function in survivors of rectal cancer. More attention should be drawn to this topic for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25360427

Ertekin, Caglar; Tinay, Ilker; Yegen, Cumhur

2014-01-01

81

Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid) and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic). Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products. PMID:21385339

2011-01-01

82

Surgical strategy for low rectal cancers.  

PubMed

The two goals of surgery for lower rectal cancer surgery are to obtain clear "curative" margins and to limit post-surgical functional disorders. The question of whether or not to preserve the anal sphincter lies at the center of the therapeutic choice. Histologically, tumor-free distal and circumferential margins of>1mm allow a favorable oncologic outcome. Whether such margins can be obtained depends of TNM staging, tumor location, response to chemoradiotherapy and type of surgical procedure. The technique of intersphincteric resection relies on these narrow margins to spare the sphincter. This procedure provides satisfactory oncologic outcome with a rate of circumferential margin involvement ranging from 5% to 11%, while good continence is maintained in half of the patients. The extralevator abdominoperineal resection provides good oncologic results, however this procedure requires a permanent colostomy. A permanent colostomy alters several domains of quality of life when located at the classical abdominal site but not when brought out at the perineal site as a perineal colostomy. PMID:25455959

Dumont, F; Mariani, A; Elias, D; Goéré, D

2014-11-20

83

Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.  

PubMed

Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

1991-09-28

84

Reverse-Hybrid Robotic Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The robotic system offers potential technical advantages over laparoscopy for total mesorectal excision with radical lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer. However, the requirement for fixed docking limits its utility when the working volume is large or patient repositioning is required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term outcomes associated with a novel setup to perform total mesorectal excision and radical lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer by the use of a “reverse” hybrid robotic-laparoscopic approach. Methods This is a prospective consecutive cohort observational study of patients who underwent robotic rectal cancer resection from January 2009 to March 2011. During the study period a technique of reverse-hybrid robotic-laparoscopic rectal resection with radical lymphadenectomy was developed. This technique involves reversal of the operative sequence with lymphovascular and rectal dissection to precede proximal colonic mobilization. This technique evolved from a conventional hybrid resection with laparoscopic vascular control, colonic mobilization, and robotic pelvic dissection. Perioperative, and short-term oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Results Thirty patients underwent reverse-hybrid resection. Median tumor location was 5 cm (interquartile range 3-9) from the anal verge. Median BMI was 27.6 (interquartile range 25.0-32.1 kg/m2). Twenty (66.7%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There were no conversions. Median blood loss was 100 mL (interquartile range 75-200). Total operation time was a median 369 (interquartile range 306-410) minutes. Median docking time was 6 (interquartile range 5-8) minutes and console time was 98 (interquartile range 88-140) minutes. Resection was R0 in all patients with no patients had an incomplete mesorectal resection. Six patients (20%) underwent extended lymph node dissection or en bloc resection. Conclusions Reverse-hybrid robotic surgery for rectal cancer maximizes the therapeutic applicability of the robotic and conventional laparoscopic techniques for optimized application in minimally invasive rectal surgery. PMID:22228169

Park, Ja; You, Y. Nancy; Schlette, Erika; Nguyen, Sa; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Chang, George J.

2012-01-01

85

Lateral lymph node dissection for lower rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The mainstay of surgical therapy for rectal cancer is colectomy (including lesions) with lymph node dissection. The lymphatic spread of rectal cancer can proceed in two directions: medially toward the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery or laterally toward the pelvis aslong the internal iliac artery. To prevent postoperative recurrence, lymph nodes situated along these two axes should be adequately dissected, leaving no residual cancer cells. In Japan, the standard procedure for advanced lower rectal cancer is mesorectal excision and lateral lymph node dissection with autonomic nerve preservation. In Europe and North America, lateral lymph node dissection used to be performed, but it led to increased blood loss, complications, and dysfunction, with no improvement in survival. Lateral lymph node dissection is thus no longer performed. Instead, multidisciplinary therapy combining mesorectal excision with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for advanced rectal cancer. Although lateral lymph node dissection decreases the rate of local recurrence similar to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, whether it contributes to improved survival remains unclear. In addition, it is unlikely that prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection is required in all patients with rectal cancer. Definition of the indications for lateral lymph node dissection is thus an important concern. PMID:23703637

Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

2013-08-01

86

Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

Bruheim, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.bruheim@medisin.uio.n [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Guren, Marianne G. [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Alv A. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Balteskard, Lise [University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Fossa, Sophie D. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2010-03-15

87

Magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer: a surgeon's perspective.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rectal cancer was first investigated in 1999 and has become almost mandatory in planning rectal cancer treatment. MRI has a high accuracy in predicting circumferential resection margin involvement and is used to plan neoadjuvant therapy. The accuracy of MRI in assessing mesorectal lymph nodes remains moderate, as there are no reliable criteria to assess nodal involvement. MRI seems to be good in assessing peritoneal involvement in upper rectal cancer; this however has been assessed in only a few studies and needs further research. For low rectal cancers, mesorectum is thin at the level of levator ani especially in relation to prostate; so predicting circumferential resection margin involvement is not easy. However high spatial resolution coronal imaging shows levator muscles, sphincter complex and intersphincteric plane accurately. This is used to stage low rectal tumors and plan plane of surgery (standard surgery, intersphincteric resection, Extralevator abdominoperineal resection). While most centres perform MRI post chemoradiotherapy, its role in accurate staging post neoadjuvant therapy remains debatable. THe role of Diffusion weighted MRI post neoadjuvant therapy is being evaluated in research settings. PMID:24616572

Saklani, Avanish P; Bae, Sung Uk; Clayton, Amy; Kim, Nam Kyu

2014-02-28

88

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: The debate continues  

PubMed Central

Rectal carcinoma represents the 30% of all colorectal cancers, with about 40000 new cases/years. In the past two decades, the management of rectal cancer has made important progress, highlighting the main role of a multimodality strategy approach, combining surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Nowadays, surgery remains the primary treatment and neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, based on fluoropyrimidine (5-FU) continuous infusion, is considered the standard in locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The aim is to reduce the incidence of local recurrence and to perform a conservative surgery. To improve these purposes different drugs combination have been tested in the neo-adjuvant setting. At American Society of Clinical Oncology 2014 an important abstract was presented focusing on the role of adding oxaliplatin to concomitant treatment, in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Rodel et al reported on the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomized phase III trial that compared standard treatment with 5-FU and radiation therapy, to oxaliplatin plus 5-FU in association with radiation therapy. The addition of oxaliplatin to the neo-adjuvant treatment has been shown to improve disease-free survival from 71.2% to 75.9% (P = 0.03). This editorial was planned to clarify the optimal treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, considering the results from CAO/ARO/AIO-04 study. PMID:25516776

De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Izzo, Luciano; Tombolini, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

89

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: The debate continues.  

PubMed

Rectal carcinoma represents the 30% of all colorectal cancers, with about 40000 new cases/years. In the past two decades, the management of rectal cancer has made important progress, highlighting the main role of a multimodality strategy approach, combining surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Nowadays, surgery remains the primary treatment and neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, based on fluoropyrimidine (5-FU) continuous infusion, is considered the standard in locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The aim is to reduce the incidence of local recurrence and to perform a conservative surgery. To improve these purposes different drugs combination have been tested in the neo-adjuvant setting. At American Society of Clinical Oncology 2014 an important abstract was presented focusing on the role of adding oxaliplatin to concomitant treatment, in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Rodel et al reported on the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomized phase III trial that compared standard treatment with 5-FU and radiation therapy, to oxaliplatin plus 5-FU in association with radiation therapy. The addition of oxaliplatin to the neo-adjuvant treatment has been shown to improve disease-free survival from 71.2% to 75.9% (P = 0.03). This editorial was planned to clarify the optimal treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, considering the results from CAO/ARO/AIO-04 study. PMID:25516776

De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Izzo, Luciano; Tombolini, Vincenzo

2014-12-15

90

Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

2014-05-13

91

[Current MRI staging of rectal cancer].  

PubMed

Colorectal carcinoma is the second most prevalent cause for cancer, and has very variable outcomes. Advancements in surgery, the change from adjuvant to neo-adjuvant radio-chemo-therapies as well as in clinical diagnostics have improved the prognosis for patients in a multi-modal therapy concept. An accurate primary staging including a reliable prediction of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has established MR Imaging (MRI) beside intraluminal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). MRI facilitates the selection of patients likely to benefit from a preoperative therapy, especially in cases of unfavorable factors. Currently the relationship of the tumor to the mesorectal fascia has become a more important prognostic factor than the T-staging, particularly for surgical therapy. In addition further prognostic factors like the depth of infiltration into the perirectal fat and the extramural venous infiltration (EMVI) have important impact on therapy and prognosis. High resolution MRI has proved useful in clarifying the relationship between the tumor and the mesorectal fascia, which represents the CRM at the total mesorectal excision (TME) especially in the upper and middle third. Preoperative evaluation of the other prognostic factors as well as the nodal status is still difficult. It is used increasingly not only for primary staging but also progressively for the monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy. The addition of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is an interesting option for the improvement of response evaluation. The following overview provides an introduction of MRI diagnosis as well as its importance for the evaluation of the clinically relevant prognostic factors leading to an improvement of therapy and prognosis of patients with rectal carcinoma. PMID:22893486

Wietek, B M; Kratt, T

2012-11-01

92

Neo-adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

In rectal cancer treatment, attention has focused on the local primary tumour and the regional tumour cell deposits to diminish the risk of a loco-regional recurrence. Several large randomized trials have also shown that combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have markedly reduced the risk of a loco-regional recurrence, but this has not yet had any major influence on overall survival. The best results have been achieved when the radiotherapy has been given preoperatively. Preoperative radiotherapy improves loco-regional control even when surgery has been optimized to improve lateral clearance, i.e., when a total mesorectal excision has been performed. The relative reduction is then 50%-70%. The value of radiotherapy has not been tested in combination with more extensive surgery including lateral lymph node clearance, as practised in some Asian countries. Many details about how the radiotherapy is performed are still open for discussion, and practice varies between countries. A highly fractionated radiation schedule (5 Gy × 5), proven efficacious in many trials, has gained much popularity in some countries, whereas a conventionally fractionated regimen (1.8-2.0 Gy × 25-28), often combined with chemotherapy, is used in other countries. The additional therapy adds morbidity to the morbidity that surgery causes, and should therefore be administered only when the risk of loco-regional recurrence is sufficiently high. The best integration of the weakest modality, to date the drugs (conventional cytotoxics and biologicals) is not known. A new generation of trials exploring the best sequence of treatments is required. Furthermore, there is a great need to develop predictors of response, so that treatment can be further individualized and not solely based upon clinical factors and anatomic imaging. PMID:24379566

Glimelius, Bengt

2013-01-01

93

ACR Appropriateness Criteria®—Recurrent Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions. These Criteria are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The development and review of these guidelines includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Local recurrence of rectal cancer can result in devastating symptoms for patients, including intractable pain and discharge. Prior treatment can limit subsequent treatment options. Preoperative 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with a local recurrence who did not receive adjuvant therapy after initial resection or who might have received chemotherapy alone. Chemoradiotherapy followed by evaluation for surgery is the preferred treatment for patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy after surgery. The inclusion of surgery has resulted in the best outcomes in a majority of studies. Palliative chemoradiotherapy is appropriate for patients who have received previous radiotherapy whose recurrent disease is considered inoperable. Radiotherapy can be delivered on a standard or hyperfractionated treatment schedule. Newer systemic treatments have improved response rates and given physicians more options for treating patients in this difficult situation. The use of induction chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy is an evolving treatment option. Specialized treatment modalities should be used at institutions with experience in these techniques and preferably in patients enrolled in clinical trials. PMID:22574231

Suh, W. Warren; Herman, Joseph M.; Blackstock, A. William; Hong, Theodore S.; Poggi, Matthew M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Small, William; Thomas, Charles R.; Zook, Jennifer

2012-01-01

94

Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Staging of rectal cancer is essential to help guide clinicians to decide upon the correct type of surgery and determine whether or not neoadjuvant therapy is indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most accurate modalities on which to base treatment decisions for patients with rectal cancer. MRI can accurately detect the mesorectal fascia, assess the invasion of the mesorectum or surrounding organs and predict the circumferential resection margin. Although nodal disease remains a difficult radiological diagnosis, new lymphographic agents and diffusion weighted imaging may allow identification of metastatic nodes by criteria other then size. In light of this, we have reviewed the literature on the accuracy of specific MRI findings for staging the local extent of primary rectal cancer. The aim of this review is to establish a correlation between MRI findings, prognosis, and available treatment options. PMID:21532870

Bellows, Charles F; Jaffe, Bernard; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Gagliardi, Guiseppe

2011-01-01

95

Approach to concomitant rectal and uterine prolapse: case report  

PubMed Central

The classic description of rectal prolapse is a protrusion of the rectum beyond the anus. Peaks of occurrences are noted in the fourth and seventh decades of life, and most patients (80–90%) are women. The condition is often concurrent with pelvic floor descent and prolapse of other pelvic floor organs, such as the uterus or the bladder. In this study, two cases having contraindication to general anesthesia with rectal and uterine prolapse are presented. These cases were operated on under local anesthesia with support of sedation by Leforte and Delorme’s operation at the same time. In conclusion; pelvic floor disorders should be considered as a whole, and surgical correction of rectal prolapse and uterine prolapse may be done at the same time under local anesthesia with the support of sedation. Performance of these operations by experienced and trained pelvic reconstructive surgeons may be advocated. PMID:24627680

Karateke, Ate?; Batu, P?nar; Aso?lu, Mehmet Re?it; Selçuk, Selçuk; Çam, Çetin

2012-01-01

96

Local surgical treatment with curative intent in rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of rectal cancer includes radical resection techniques and local excision procedures. Radical resection techniques are still the golden standard in the management of rectal cancer, but the increased postoperative morbidity and mortality led to the idea that less traumatizing procedures of local excision may have the same oncologic results, in selected cases. Yet, the significantly higher local recurrence rate after local excision in comparison to radical resection has been certified by most studies; that points out the need of clearly defined guidelines for local excision. In the present review the following aspects were taken into consideration, when considering local surgical excision as a radical procedure for rectal cancer: the clinico-pathological features of the tumours, the various types of surgical techniques used in local excision, the need for an adjuvant or neoadjuvant oncological treatment, the variety of results obtained in a large number of studies, making this particular issue a topic that is currently subject to debate. PMID:23464763

Mirea, C S; Vilcea, I D; Vasile, I; Mita, A

2013-01-01

97

STUDY OF TRANS-RECTAL NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY CONCURRENT  

E-print Network

STUDY OF TRANS-RECTAL NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY CONCURRENT WITH TRANS of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May, 2010 #12;ii STUDY OF TRANS-RECTAL NEAR-INFRARED supported by the project Trans-rectal Near-Infrared Optical Tomography for Prostate Imaging from DOD

Piao, Daqing

98

Impact of Increased Body Mass Index on Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopy was initially considered to be a risky procedure for rectal cancer patients, especially patients with an increased body weight. The literature is scarce regarding the effects of obesity on laparoscopic rectal surgery. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effect of an increased body mass index (BMI) on outcome of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer.

Tayfun Karahasanoglu; Ismail Hamzaoglu; Bilgi Baca; Erman Aytac; Ebru Kirbiyik

2011-01-01

99

Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate  

E-print Network

Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate Part II demonstrate trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR of a healthy canine prostate in situ is reported. ©2008 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (170

Piao, Daqing

100

Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate  

E-print Network

Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulation of trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator reconstruction. The prostate NIR image reconstruction is challenging even with the use of spatial prior owing

Piao, Daqing

101

Variability of Marker-Based Rectal Dose Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.

Wang Zhou, E-mail: Zhou.Wang@RoswellPark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

2010-01-01

102

A novel classification method for prediction of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy  

E-print Network

1 A novel classification method for prediction of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy to identify patients at risk of presenting rectal bleeding from a population treated for prostate cancer subspaces, which characterize patients with and without rectal bleeding, respectively. The classification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

Noyes, William R., E-mail: noyes@cancercenternd.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hosford, Charles C. [Department of Medical Statistics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Schultz, Steven E. [Department of Urology, RiverView Health, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

2012-04-01

104

Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and the differential diagnosis of rectal NENs from other subepithelial lesions (SELs). METHODS: The study group consisted of 36 consecutive patients with rectal NENs histopathologically diagnosed using biopsy and/or resected specimens. The control group consisted of 31 patients with homochronous rectal non-NEN SELs confirmed by pathology. Epithelial lesions such as cancer and adenoma were excluded from this study. One EUS expert blinded to the histological results reviewed the ultrasonic images. The size, original layer, echoic intensity and homogeneity of the lesions and the perifocal structures were investigated. The single EUS diagnosis recorded by the EUS expert was compared with the histological results. RESULTS: All NENs were located at the rectum 2-10 cm from the anus and appeared as nodular (n = 12), round (n = 19) or egg-shaped (n = 5) lesions with a hypoechoic (n = 7) or intermediate (n = 29) echo pattern and a distinct border. Tumors ranged in size from 2.3 to 13.7 mm, with an average size of 6.8 mm. Homogeneous echogenicity was seen in all tumors except three. Apart from three patients (stage T2 in two and stage T3 in one), the tumors were located in the second and/or third wall layer without involvement of the fourth and fifth layers. In the patients with stage T1 disease, the tumors were located in the second wall layer only in seven cases, the third wall layer only in two cases, and both the second and third wall layers in 27 cases. Approximately 94.4% (34/36) of rectal NENs were diagnosed correctly by EUS, and 74.2% (23/31) of other rectal SELs were classified correctly as non-NENs. Eight cases of other SELs were misdiagnosed as NENs, including two cases of inflammatory lesions and one case each of gastrointestinal tumor, endometriosis, metastatic tumor, lymphoma, neurilemmoma, and hemangioma. The positive predictive value of EUS for rectal NENs was 80.9% (34/42), the negative predictive value was 92.0% (23/25), and the diagnostic accuracy was 85.1%. CONCLUSION: EUS has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for rectal NENs with good sensitivity, but unfavorable specificity, making the differential diagnosis of NENs from other SELs challenging. PMID:25132764

Chen, Hong-Tan; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yi-Peng; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, You-Ming

2014-01-01

105

Rectal irrigation for patients with functional bowel disorders.  

PubMed

Functional bowel disorders encompass a number of symptoms including abdominal, pelvic and/or anal pain, bloating, nausea, disturbed bowel function, faecal urgency or incontinence, straining to evacuate bowels, incomplete emptying and constipation. This article examines the causes and effects of functional bowel problems on patients' quality of life. It provides an overview of the treatment options and clinical management of these conditions, focusing on biofeedback and rectal irrigation. The author reports results from a small scale audit at her hospital and concludes that rectal irrigation is a valuable treatment option for patients with functional bowel disorders. PMID:20373612

McWilliams, Dawn

106

Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

2011-01-01

107

Higher rectal temperatures in co-sleeping infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on deep body temperature of infants co-sleeping (with either or both parents) is investigated in this case control study. Overnight continuous recordings of rectal temperature were made from 34 babies co-sleeping with one or both parents throughout the night and 34 infants matched for age, feeding regimen, parental smoking, thermal environment, sleeping position, and sex who slept alone.

C S Tuffnell; S A Petersen; M P Wailoo

1996-01-01

108

Rectal Sensitivity in Diabetes Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis  

PubMed Central

In a clinical setting, diabetic autonomic complications (cardiac, gastrointestinal, urogenital, etc.) are often handled as separate entities. We investigated rectal sensitivity to heat, mechanical distension, and electrical stimulations in 20 patients with diabetes and symptoms of gastroparesis, to evaluate the extent of visceral neuronal damage. Furthermore, to evaluate the relation between the nervous structures we examined gastric emptying and cardiac autonomic function with the hypothesis being an association between these. We found that 60% of patients had delayed gastric empting. Rectal hyposensitivity was a general finding as they tolerated 67% higher thermal, 42% more mechanical, and 33% higher electrical current intensity compared to healthy controls. In patients, most heart rate variability parameters were reduced; they reported significantly more gastrointestinal symptoms and a reduced quality of life in all SF-36 domains. Shortened RR interval correlated with reduced rectal temperature sensitivity, and gastric retention rate was negatively associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. To conclude, in these patients with signs and symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis, rectal sensitivity was reduced, and heart rate variability was impaired. Thus, we suggest regarding diabetic autonomic neuropathy as a diffuse disorder. Symptoms of widespread autonomic dysfunction and sensory disorders should be expected and treated in these patients. PMID:25136644

Frřkjćr, Jens B.; Simrén, Magnus; Dimcevski, Georg

2014-01-01

109

Histochemical studies on rectal mucosa in active intestinal schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Thirty patients suffering from active intestinal S. mansoni infection, were classified into 3 groups. The first group: 13 cases with early active intestinal schistosomiasis without hepatosplenomegaly. The second group: 11 cases with hepatosplenomegaly and the third group: 6 cases with splenomegaly and ascites. Also 10 normal individuals were included as a normal control group. Histopathological examination of rectal mucosa showed hyperaemia with extravasation of blood in early cases and granulomatous lesions in the second group with hepatosplenomegaly. The structural changes were severe in the late ascitic group. In this group the rectal mucosal glands showed distorted irregular tubular branching in addition to the granulomatous and the fibrous reactions. Histochemical studies including periodic acid schiff, alkaline phosphatase and acetyl cholinestrase reactions were done. Using the periodic acid shiff stain, the goblet cells showed strong reaction for neutral mucin in cases of group I (early cases) and group II (late hepatosplenomegalic cases). In group III (late ascitic cases) the goblet cells were faintly stained. A notable difference was observed between the lightly and heavily infected patients of this group. No alkaline phosphatase reactivity could be identified in rectal crypts of patients and controls. Alkaline phosphatase reactivity was sharply localised in S. mansoni egg shell. There was obvious decrease in the acetyl cholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the rectal mucosa of all studied patients. The decrease was more in chronic and heavily infected cases rather than in the acute and lightly infected ones. PMID:1908499

el-Din, S S; Massoud, M M; Hossny, S; el-Gindy, I M; Arafa, M A; Labib, H

1991-08-01

110

Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

111

[Fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Clinico-functional assessment].  

PubMed

Rectal Prolapse is a rare and distressing condition, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Often, this pathology is associated with fecal incontinence. The recommended approach to the patient with rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence is to repair the prolapse first, then deal particularly with fecal incontinence at a second operation. A retrospective, clinical and manometric study has varying degrees of fecal incontinence. Clinically five of their operation, and a further three patients improved, in two patients the degree of fecal incontinence remained invariable. One patient was worsened after surgery. Manometrically resting and pressure (RAP) was significantly higher in continent patients than in voluntary contraction pressure (MVCP) (p < 0.05) in preoperative testing. Postoperatively, there was a significant increase in the resting anal pressure as well as in maximum voluntary contraction pressure. Patients who remained incontinent had a significantly lower RAP and MVCP than patients who improved our regained continence. In conclusion this study shows an alteration of internal and external sphincteric function in patients with rectal prolapse. The surgical treatment of this disease improves sphincteric function. Incontinent patients with RAP < 10 mmHg and MCVP < 20 mmHg, probably they would be better treated simultaneously either for rectal prolapsus and incontinence. In this kind of patients the perianal proctectomy with total sphincteroplasty could be the elective treatment. PMID:8587707

Santini, L; Pezzullo, L; Caracň, C; Candela, G; Esposito, B

1995-09-01

112

Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

2015-01-01

113

Anatomy of the presacral venous plexus: implications for rectal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presacral venous plexus results from anastomoses between the lateral and median sacral veins, and courses into the pelvic fascia covering the anterior aspect of the body of the sacrum. The presacral venous plexus is not directly visible during rectal surgery, and injuries to this plexus may be life-threatening. Dissection of the retrorectal plane or anchoring of the rectum to

P. Baqué; B. Karimdjee; A. Iannelli; E. Benizri; A. Rahili; D. Benchimol; J.-L. Bernard; E. Sejor; S. Bailleux; F. de Peretti; A. Bourgeon

2004-01-01

114

Rectal angiolipoma: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Angiolipoma is a rare vascular variant of the benign lipomatous tumors and is generally seen in subcutaneous tissues. We report a 70-year-old female with abdominal distension not related to rectal small polypoid mass with peduncule described as angiolipoma by histologically, and review the literature. PMID:17457984

Kacar, Sabite; Kuran, Sedef; Temucin, Tulay; Odemis, Bulent; Karadeniz, Nilufer; Sasmaz, Nurgul

2007-01-01

115

[Severe allergic reaction due to a rectal enema].  

PubMed

Allergic drug reactions must always be considered when prescribing treatment, even in frequent pediatric problems such as acute abdominal pain due to constipation. We describe an original case of anaphylactic shock due to the administration of hypertonic rectal enema in a child. A 9-year-old child admitted to the emergency department for an acute complaint of abdominal pain related to constipation received an administration of a hypertonic rectal enema to allow the passage of stools. Afterwards, the child presented a life-threatening episode, requiring emergency treatment with transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, suggesting an anaphylactic shock. The absence of any other drug or food intake, the chronology of events, and favorable outcome after treatment led to the diagnosis of a probable allergy to methylparaben, sodium parahydroxybenzoate, present as the excipient in the rectal enema. Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction, setting in rapidly, which may lead to fatal outcome. Most reactions to parabens reported concern, almost exclusively, the cutaneous application of paraben-containing topical preparations. The present observation underscores the original and undescribed risk of an allergic general reaction following the rectal administration of parabens. The indications of any prescription must be carefully observed and potential drug contraindications, considering the patient's history of allergy, should be sought. PMID:24183833

Raulin-Gaignard, H; Berlengi, N; Gatin, A; Loeb, O; Borsa-Dorion, A; Monin, P

2013-12-01

116

Rectal Foreign Bodies: What Is the Current Standard?  

PubMed Central

Rectal foreign bodies represent a challenging and unique field of colorectal trauma. The approach includes a careful history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion for any evidence of perforation, a creative approach to nonoperative removal, and appropriate short-term follow-up to detect any delayed perforation. PMID:24294123

Cologne, Kyle G.; Ault, Glenn T.

2012-01-01

117

Reassessment of rectal approach to neuropathology in childhood  

PubMed Central

A series of 93 rectal biopsies performed for diagnosis of suspected progressive neurometabolic disease between 1967 and 1973 is reviewed, and the results of this and of two previously published series totalling 307 biopsies are analysed. In GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis, Batten's disease, and certain other neuronal storage diseases rectal biopsy is a reliable diagnostic alternative to brain biopsy. However, the need for biopsy has diminished with improvement in other diagnostic methods, particularly enzyme assay, the availability of which should determine the extent to which biopsy is used. It is suggested that rectal biopsy is necessary in the various forms of Batten's disease and in the neurovisceral storage disease with supranuclear ophthalmoplegia described by Neville et al. (1973). In certain diseases its use is unjustified, either because the result would be negative or because other less traumatic, reliable investigations are available. On rare occasions it is justifiable to use rectal biopsy either as an `excluding investigation' to exclude Batten's disease for certain in a healthy sib of a known case with this disorder or to detect the disease before onset of clinical symptoms. The need for a full thickness biopsy and for a full range of staining methods is emphasized. Without these the investigation cannot be expected to give diagnostic information and may be misleading, giving `false negative' results. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:829767

Brett, E. M.; Lake, B. D.

1975-01-01

118

Tumeur stromale rectale: ŕ propos d'une observation  

PubMed Central

Les tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales sont des tumeurs mésenchymateuses peu fréquentes. Elles sont localisées préférentiellement eu niveau de l'estomac. La localisation rectale reste rare. A un nouveau cas de tumeur stromale du rectum ainsi qu'une bref revue de la littérature, on se propose d’étudier les particularités cliniques, radiologiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare. PMID:25120863

Rejab, Haitham; Kridis, Wala Ben; Ben Ameur, Hazem; Feki, Jihene; Frikha, Mounir; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

2014-01-01

119

Overview of Radiation Therapy for Treating Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

A major outcome of importance for rectal cancer is local control. Parallel to improvements in surgical technique, adjuvant therapy regimens have been tested in clinical trials in an effort to reduce the local recurrence rate. Nowadays, the local recurrence rate has been reduced because of both good surgical techniques and the addition of radiotherapy. Based on recent reports in the literature, preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now considered the standard of care for patients with stages II and III rectal cancer. Also, short-course radiotherapy appears to provide effective local control and the same overall survival as more long-course chemoradiotherapy schedules and, therefore, may be an appropriate choice in some situations. Capecitabine is an acceptable alternative to infusion fluorouracil in those patients who are able to manage the responsibilities inherent in self-administered, oral chemotherapy. However, concurrent administration of oxaliplatin and radiotherapy is not recommended at this time. Radiation therapy has long been considered an important adjunct in the treatment of rectal cancer. Although no prospective data exist for several issues, we hope that in the near future, patients with rectal cancer can be treated by using the best combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in near future. PMID:25210685

Kye, Bong-Hyeon

2014-01-01

120

Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Colon and Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Screening methods to find colon or rectal changes that may lead to cancer include laboratory tests such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), and imaging tests such as sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Screening by the latter two tests can find precancerous polyps which can be removed during the test and may find cancer early when it is most treatable.

121

Treatment of rectal chlamydia infection may be more complicated than we originally thought.  

PubMed

Rectal chlamydia diagnoses have been increasing among MSM and may also rise among women as anal sex rates increase among heterosexuals. However, there is growing concern about treatment for rectal chlamydia with treatment failures of up to 22% being reported. This article addresses factors that may be contributing to treatment failure for rectal chlamydia, including the pharmacokinetic properties of azithromycin and doxycycline in rectal tissue, the ability of chlamydia to transform into a persistent state that is less responsive to antimicrobial therapy, the impact of the rectal microbiome on chlamydia, heterotypic resistance, failure to detect cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and the performance of screening tests. If we are to reduce the burden of genital chlamydia, treatment for rectal chlamydia must be efficacious. This highlights the need for randomized controlled trial evidence comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia. PMID:25480490

Hocking, Jane S; Kong, Fabian Y S; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

2014-12-01

122

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for early rectal cancer: single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is increasing due to the ability to perform minimally invasive local treatment with large full-thickness local excision under improved vision. Aim To evaluate the initial experience with TEM for early rectal cancer in a single center. Material and methods From February 2010 to November 2013 a total of 20 patients underwent TEM for early rectal cancer. Nine were women and 11 men, age range 39 to 88 years (median: 71 years). The postoperative surveillance protocol, which includes rigid proctoscopy, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and endorectal ultrasound every 3 months during the first 2 years, was applied to all patients after TEM. Results Final histology revealed 14 (70%) lesions to be T1 and 6 (30%) T2 cancers. There were no postoperative complications. All 6 patients in the pT2 group and those in the pT1 group with unfavorable histology were offered adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or immediate radical surgery. Patients were followed up from 2 to 35 months (median: 21 months). There was one local recurrence (5%) in a patient who refused to undergo abdominoperineal excision for T1 low rectal cancer, had unfavorable histology after TEM, and for which reason underwent postoperative chemoradiation. The patient had abdominoperineal resection 7 months after TEM (rpT2N0M0). One patient was lost to follow-up. The rest of the patients are alive and disease-free. Conclusions In our hands, TEM was an alternative to total mesorectal excision in patients with low-risk early rectal cancer. Further follow-up is necessary to evaluate recurrence and survival rates after TEM for patients with invasive rectal cancer.

Samalavicius, Narimantas; Kilius, Alfredas; Petrulis, Kestutis

2014-01-01

123

Multimodal imaging evaluation in staging of rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer is a common cancer and a major cause of mortality in Western countries. Accurate staging is essential for determining the optimal treatment strategies and planning appropriate surgical procedures to control rectal cancer. Endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) is suitable for assessing the extent of tumor invasion, particularly in early-stage or superficial rectal cancer cases. In advanced cases with distant metastases, computed tomography (CT) is the primary approach used to evaluate the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess preoperative staging and the circumferential resection margin involvement, which assists in evaluating a patient’s risk of recurrence and their optimal therapeutic strategy. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT may be useful in detecting occult synchronous tumors or metastases at the time of initial presentation. Restaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains a challenge with all modalities because it is difficult to reliably differentiate between the tumor mass and other radiation-induced changes in the images. EUS does not appear to have a useful role in post-therapeutic response assessments. Although CT is most commonly used to evaluate treatment responses, its utility for identifying and following-up metastatic lesions is limited. Preoperative high-resolution MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging, and/or PET-CT could provide valuable prognostic information for rectal cancer patients with locally advanced disease receiving preoperative CRT. Based on these results, we conclude that a combination of multimodal imaging methods should be used to precisely assess the restaging of rectal cancer following CRT. PMID:24764662

Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung-Keun

2014-01-01

124

Rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Impact of rectal dose in high-dose-rate brachytherapy on occurrence of grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with special emphasis on the relationship between the incidence of rectal bleeding and the rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT for {>=}12 months were analyzed. The fractionation schema for HDR brachytherapy was prospectively changed, and the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The distribution of the fractionation schema used in the patients was as follows: 5 Gy x 5 in 13 patients; 7 Gy x 3 in 19 patients; and 9 Gy x 2 in 68 patients. Results: Ten patients (10%) developed Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. Regarding the correlation with dosimetric factors, no significant differences were found in the average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from EBRT between those with bleeding and those without. The average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from HDR brachytherapy in those who developed rectal bleeding was 77.9%, 28.6%, 9.0%, 1.5%, and 0.3%, respectively, and was 69.2%, 22.2%, 6.6%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively, in those without bleeding. The differences in the percentages of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, and 50% between those with and without bleeding were statistically significant. Conclusions: The rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer may have a significant impact on the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshizumi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tamaki, Tomoaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Harada, Kosaku [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shirai, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2006-06-01

125

Dose Constraint for Minimizing Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding Following Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Rectal Dose-Volume Histogram Analysis of 457 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the rectal tolerance to Grade 2 rectal bleeding after I-125 seed brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), based on the rectal dose-volume histogram. Methods and Materials: A total of 458 consecutive patients with stages T1 to T3 prostate cancer received combined modality treatment consisting of I-125 seed implantation followed by EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prescribed doses of brachytherapy and EBRT were 100 Gy and 45 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively. The rectal dosimetric factors were analyzed for rectal volumes receiving >100 Gy and >150 Gy (R100 and R150) during brachytherapy and for rectal volumes receiving >30 Gy to 40 Gy (V30-V40) during EBRT therapy in 373 patients for whom datasets were available. The patients were followed from 21 to 72 months (median, 45 months) after the I-125 seed implantation. Results: Forty-four patients (9.7%) developed Grade 2 rectal bleeding. On multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), R100 (p = 0.002), and V30 (p = 0.001) were identified as risk factors for Grade 2 rectal bleeding. The rectal bleeding rate increased as the R100 increased: 5.0% (2/40 patients) for 0 ml; 7.5% (20/267 patients) for >0 to 0.5 ml; 11.0% (11/100 patients) for >0.5 to 1 ml; 17.9% (5/28 patients) for >1 to 1.5 ml; and 27.3% (6/22 patients) for >1.5 ml (p = 0.014). Grade 2 rectal bleeding developed in 6.4% (12/188) of patients with a V30 {<=}35% and in 14.1% (26/185) of patients with a V30 >35% (p = 0.02). When these dose-volume parameters were considered in combination, the Grade 2 rectal bleeding rate was 4.2% (5/120 patients) for a R100 {<=}0.5 ml and a V30 {<=}35%, whereas it was 22.4% (13/58 patients) for R100 of >0.5 ml and V30 of >35%. Conclusion: The risk of rectal bleeding was found to be significantly volume-dependent in patients with prostate cancer who received combined modality treatment. Rectal dose-volume analysis is a practical method for predicting the risk of development of Grade 2 rectal bleeding.

Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yorozu, Atsunori [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, Toshio, E-mail: ohashi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Kayo; Kaneda, Tomoya [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro; Nishiyama, Toru [Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-01

126

Adjuvant versus Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The standard treatment for patients with clinically resectable rectal cancer is surgery. Postoperative radiochemotherapy is recommended for patients with advanced disease (pT3\\/4 or pN+). In recent years, encouraging results of preoperative radiotherapy have been reported. This prospective randomized phase-III trial (CAO\\/ARO\\/AIO-94) compares the efficacy of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to standard postoperative radiochemotherapy. We report on the design of the study

Rolf Sauer; Rainer Fietkau; Christian Wittekind; Peter Martus; Claus Rödel; Werner Hohenberger; Gerhard Jatzko; Hubert Sabitzer; Johann-Hinrich Karstens; Heinz Becker; Clemens Hess; Rudolf Raab

2001-01-01

127

Efficacy of Rectal Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 ?g rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

2013-01-01

128

Clinical application of multimodality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning for rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of rectal cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are mainstay techniques of radiotherapy for rectal cancer. However, the success of these techniques is heavily reliant on accurate target delineation and treatment planning. Computed tomography simulation is a cornerstone of rectal cancer radiotherapy, but there are limitations, such as poor soft-tissue contrast between pelvic structures and partial volume effects. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) can overcome these limitations and provide additional information for rectal cancer treatment planning. PET can also reduce the interobserver variation in the definition of rectal tumor volume. However, there is a long way to go before these image modalities are routinely used in the clinical setting. This review summarizes the most promising studies on clinical applications of multimodality imaging in target delineation and treatment planning for rectal cancer radiotherapy. PMID:24334539

Zhe, Hong

2013-01-01

129

Rectal Swabs for Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies. PMID:25020051

Budding, Andries E.; Grasman, Matthijs E.; Eck, Anat; Bogaards, Johannes A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

2014-01-01

130

Laparoscopic Resection for Rectal Cancer: What Is the Evidence?  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer is a well-established procedure supported by several well-conducted large-scale randomised controlled trials. Patients could now be conferred the benefits of the minimally invasive approach while retaining comparable oncologic outcomes to the open approach. However, the benefits of laparoscopic proctectomy for rectal cancer remained controversial. While the laparoscopic approach is more technically demanding, results from randomised controlled trials regarding long term oncologic outcomes are only beginning to be reported. The impacts of bladder and sexual functions following proctectomy are considerable and are important contributing factors to the patients' quality of life in the long-term. These issues present a delicate dilemma to the surgeon in his choice of operative approach in tackling rectal cancer. This is compounded further by the rapid proliferation of various laparoscopic techniques including the hand assisted, robotic assisted, and single port laparoscopy. This review article aims to draw on the significant studies which have been conducted to highlight the short- and long-term outcomes and evidence for laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. PMID:24822196

Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Chong, Choon-Seng; Lieske, Bettina; Tan, Ker-Kan

2014-01-01

131

Rectal Prolapse: Review According to the Personal Experience  

PubMed Central

The aim of treatment of rectal prolapse is to control the prolapse, restore continence, and prevent constipation or impaired evacuation. Faced with a multitude of options, the choice of an optimal treatment is difficult. It is best tailored to patient and surgeon. Numerous procedures have been described and are generally categorized into perineal or abdominal approaches. In general, an abdominal procedure has associated with lower recurrence and better functional outcome than perineal procedures. The widespread success of laparoscopic surgery has led to the development of laparoscopic procedures in the treatment of complete rectal prolapse. In Korea, there has been a trend toward offering perineal procedures because of the high incidence of rectal prolapse in young males and its being a lesser procedure. Delorme-Thiersch procedure has appeal as a lesser procedure for patients of any age or risk category, especially for elderly low-risk patients, patients with constipation or evacuation difficulties, young males, and patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids or mucosal prolapse. Laparoscopic suture rectopexy is recommended for either low-risk female patients or patients who are concerned with postoperative aggravation of their incontinence. PMID:21829764

2011-01-01

132

Fatal Clostridium sordellii ischio-rectal abscess with septicaemia complicating ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium sordellii is a Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobic bacillus rarely encountered in human infection. A case of C. sordellii ischio-rectal abscess with rapidly fatal septicaemia is described which complicated ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsy of the prostate, despite ciprofloxacin prophylaxis. Neither C. sordellii ischio-rectal abscess nor ischio-rectal abscess complicating transrectal biopsy have been reported previously. Judging from our experience and the reviewed literature,

A. Borer; J. Gilad; E. Sikuler; K. Riesenberg; F. Schlaeffer; D. Buskila

1999-01-01

133

Embolization of Rectal Arteries: An Alternative Treatment for Hemorrhagic Shock Induced by Traumatic Intrarectal Hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

Rectal injuries caused by foreign bodies or iatrogenic insertions may lead to severe complications whose therapeutic management remains controversial. At times, both the rapid identification and treatment of subsequent active rectal bleeding may be challenging, especially when endoscopy fails to locate and control the arterial hemorrhage. We present the first two successful cases of middle rectal artery embolization in patients presenting with sustained bleeding and hemorrhagic shock.

Pichon, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.pichon@unilim.fr, E-mail: nicolas.pichon@chu-limoges.fr; Francois, Bruno [Dupuytren University Hospital, Intensive Care Unit (France); Pichon-Lefievre, Florence [Dupuytren University Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Mathonnet, Murielle [Dupuytren University Hospital, Department of Surgery (France); Maubon, Antoine [Dupuytren University Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Vignon, Philippe [Dupuytren University Hospital, Intensive Care Unit (France)

2005-05-15

134

Surgical management of a retro-rectal cystic hamartoma (tailgut cyst) using a trans-rectal approach: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Retro-rectal cystic hamartoma (tailgut cyst) is a rare congenital developmental lesion arising from post-natal primitive gut remnants in the retro-rectal space. The rarity of the lesion and its anatomical position usually leads to difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Complete surgical resection remains the cornerstone of treatment. A dozen or so surgical approaches have been described in the literature to date to make the operation as simple as possible, but the trans-rectal access route is extremely rarely reported and not well described. Here, we present a case that demonstrates the trans-rectal approach to a retro-rectal tumor is a feasible option in terms of surgical radicality, minimal invasiveness and safety for carefully selected patients with this rare type of retro-rectal cystic lesion. Case presentation A 29-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our institution due to perineal pain extending to the right inguinal region. Her symptoms had been present for the last two months. She was first examined at her regional hospital for a suspected ruptured ovarian cyst; however, after consultation with a gynecologist and a computed tomography scan of her pelvis, a tumor in the retro-rectal space was discovered. Our patient was admitted to our hospital and when a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging study confirmed the diagnosis of the retro-rectal cystic formation, a complete extirpation of retro-rectal tumor fixed to the coccyx using trans-rectal approach was performed. The final pathological diagnosis was retro-rectal cystic hamartoma (tailgut cyst) with no evidence of malignancy. Her post-operative course was uneventful, and at four months after surgery our patient is symptom free with no evidence of recurrent or residual disease. Conclusions Trans-rectal excision is feasible in terms of surgical radicality and is a simple to perform, minimally invasive and safe option, providing complete recovery for carefully selected patients with retro-rectal cystic hamartoma treated operatively. PMID:24393234

2014-01-01

135

Rectal corticosteroids versus alternative treatments in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Clear strategies to optimise the use of corticosteroids in ulcerative colitis are lacking. AIM: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine critically the role of rectal corticosteroids in the management of active distal ulcerative colitis. METHODS: All reported randomised controlled trials were retrieved by searching the Medline and EMBASE databases and the bibliographies of relevant studies. Trials which met inclusion criteria were assessed for scientific rigour. Data were extracted by two independent observers according to predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Of 83 trials retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. Pooled odds ratios (POR) showed conventional rectal corticosteroids and rectal budesonide to be clearly superior to placebo. In seven trials, rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was significantly better than conventional rectal corticosteroids for inducing remission of symptoms, endoscopy, and histology with POR of 2.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.41), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.28-3.20), respectively. Rectal budesonide was of comparable efficacy to conventional corticosteroids but produced less endogenous cortisol suppression. Side effects, although inconsistently reported, were generally minor. A cost comparison of rectal preparations showed 5-ASA to be less expensive than corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal 5-ASA is superior to rectal corticosteroids in the management of distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:9245932

Marshall, J K; Irvine, E J

1997-01-01

136

Correlation of Chromosomal Instability, Telomere Length and Telomere Maintenance in Microsatellite Stable Rectal Cancer: A Molecular Subclass of Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. Experimental Design MSS rectal cancers from patients ?50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Results Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes) than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13) which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066) and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004). Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040); and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949). Conclusions MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase. PMID:24278232

Boardman, Lisa A.; Johnson, Ruth A.; Viker, Kimberly B.; Hafner, Kari A.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Rider, David N.; Vanderboom, Russell J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Skinner, Halcyon G.

2013-01-01

137

Limited segmental rectal resection in the treatment of deeply infiltrating rectal endometriosis: 10 years’ experience from a tertiary referral unit  

PubMed Central

Background. The management of symptomatic rectal endometriosis is a challenging condition that may necessitate limited stripping or limited segmental anterior rectal resection (LSARR) depending upon the extent and severity of the disease. Objective. To report the efficacy of LSARR in terms of pain, quality of life and short- and long-term complications—in particular, those pertaining to bowel function. Methods. The case notes of all patients undergoing LSARR were reviewed. The analysed variables included surgical complications, overall symptomatic improvement rate, dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, and dyschezia. Chronic pain was measured using a visual analogue scale. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Bowel symptoms were assessed using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) questionnaire. Results. Seventy-four women who underwent LSARR by both open and laparoscopic approaches were included in this study. Sixty-nine (93.2%) women reported improvement in pain and the same percentage would recommend the similar procedure to a friend with the same problem. Approximately 42% of women who wished to conceive had at least one baby. The higher frequency of defecation was a problem in the early post-operative period but this settled in later stages without influencing the quality of life score. Post-operative complications were recorded in 14.9% of cases. Conclusions. LSARR for rectal endometriosis is associated with a high degree of symptomatic relief. Pain relief achieved following LSARR does not appear to degrade with time. As anticipated, some rectal symptoms persist in few patients after long-term follow-up but LSARR is nonetheless still associated with a very high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:25146341

English, James; Sajid, Muhammad S.; Lo, Jenney; Hudelist, Guy; Baig, Mirza K.; Miles, William A.

2014-01-01

138

Comparision between transrectal ultrasonography and computed tomography with rectal inflation of gas in preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Computed tomography with rectal air insufflation was compared with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in 63 patients. The\\u000a CT protocol involved pre- and postcontrast scans with 5 mm slice thickness following air insufflation in IV antiperistaltic\\u000a agent. Of the patients, 79 % were scanned in the prone position. Results of the preoperative examinations were compared with\\u000a the histological findings. The CT

M. F. Osti; F. Scattoni Padovan; C. Pirolli; S. Sbarbati; V. Tombolini; C. Meli; R. Maurizi Enrici

1997-01-01

139

In vivo real-time rectal wall dosimetry for prostate radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Rectal balloons are used in external beam prostate radiotherapy to provide reproducible anatomy and rectal dose reductions. This is an investigation into the combination of a MOSFET radiation detector with a rectal balloon for real time in vivo rectal wall dosimetry. The MOSFET used in the study is a radiation detector that provides a water equivalent depth of measurement of 70?m. Two MOSFETs were combined in a face-to-face orientation. The reproducibility, sensitivity and angular dependence were measured for the dual MOSFET in a 6MV photon beam. The dual MOSFET was combined with a rectal balloon and irradiated with hypothetical prostate treatments in a phantom. The anterior rectal wall dose was measured in real time and compared with the planning system calculated dose. The dual MOSFET showed angular dependence within ± 2.5% in the azimuth and +2.5%/-4% in the polar axes. When compared with an ion chamber measurement in a phantom, the dual MOSFET agreed within 2.5% for a range of radiation path lengths and incident angles. The dual MOSFET had reproducible sensitivity for fraction sizes of 2-10Gy. For the hypothetical prostate treatments the measured anterior rectal wall dose was 2.6% and 3.2% lower than the calculated dose for 3DCRT and IMRT plans. This was expected due to limitations of the dose calculation method used at the balloon cavity interface. A dual MOSFET combined with a commercial rectal balloon was shown to provide reproducible measurements of the anterior rectal wall dose in real time. The measured anterior rectal wall dose agreed with the expected dose from the treatment plan for 3DCRT and IMRT plans. The dual MOSFET could be read out in real time during the irradiation, providing capability for real time dose monitoring of the rectal wall dose during treatment. PMID:20571209

Hardcastle, Nicholas; Cutajar, Dean L.; Metcalfe, Peter E.; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Perevertaylo, Vladimir L.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

2010-01-01

140

Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

Robertson, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: jrobertson@beaumont.edu; Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2009-08-01

141

Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

Mylona, Sophia, E-mail: mylonasophia@yahoo.com; Karagiannis, Georgios, E-mail: gekaragiannis@yahoo.gr; Patsoura, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.patsoura@yahoo.gr [Hellenic Red Cross Hospital 'Korgialenio-Benakio' (Greece); Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: gioulagalani@yahoo.com [Amalia Fleming Hospital (Greece); Pomoni, Maria, E-mail: marypomoni@gmail.com [Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Thanos, Loukas, E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com [Sotiria Hospital (Greece)

2012-08-15

142

Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma: Which are strong prognostic factors?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This retrospective 12-year study evaluated the prognostic value of initial and postoperative staging of rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 297 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (39 Gy in 13 fractions) and surgery for Stage T2-T4N0-N1M0 rectal adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment staging included a clinical examination and endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) since 1988. Clinical staging was performed by digital rectal examination and rigid proctoscopy. EUS was performed in 236 patients. Postoperative staging was performed by examination of the pathologic specimen. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 67%, with a local failure rate of 9%. The rate of sphincter preservation was 65%. The clinical examination findings were strong prognostic factor for both cT stage (p < 0.001) and cN stage (p < 0.006) but had poor specificity for cN stage (only 25 lymph nodes detected). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, EUS had a statistically significant prognostic value for uT (p < 0.014) but not for uN (p < 0.47) stage. In contrast, pT and pN stages were strong prognostic factors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment staging, including clinical examination and EUS, seemed accurate enough to present a high prognostic value for the T stage. EUS was insufficient to stage lymph node involvement. Owing to its lack of specificity, uN stage was not a reliable prognostic factor. An improvement in N staging is necessary and essential. Despite downstaging, postoperative staging remained a very strong prognostic factor for both T and N stages.

Chapet, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)]. E-mail: ochapet@med.umich.edu; Romestaing, Pascale [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Mornex, Francoise [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Souquet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Gastroenterology, Croix Rousse Hospital, Lyon (France); Favrel, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ardiet, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)

2005-04-01

143

Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery.

Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

144

Altered rectal perception is a biological marker of patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Lowered visceral perception thresholds have been suggested as a biological marker of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The current study sought to determine the prevalence of altered rectal visceral perception in patients with IBS and the correlation of altered perception thresholds with subjective symptoms. Methods: Anorectal manometry and rectal perception thresholds to balloon distention were determined in 100

Howard Mertz; Bruce Naliboff; Julie Munakata; Negar Niazi; Emeran A. Mayer

1995-01-01

145

Endoscopic and imaging appearance after injection of an ano-rectal bulking agent.  

PubMed

The use of hyaluronic acid and dextranomer (Solesta, Salix) injection in the anal canal is an emerging modality in the treatment of fecal incontinence. However, little is known regarding the endoscopic and radiological appearance following injection of this ano-rectal bulking agent. We report computed tomography and endoscopic findings after hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection in the ano-rectal area. PMID:25031792

Papafragkakis, Haris; Changela, Kinesh; Bhatia, Taruna; Ona, Mel A; Malieckal, Anju; Paleti, Vani; Fuksbrumer, Moshe S; Anand, Sury

2014-07-16

146

doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.04.014 FRACTIONATION AND LATE RECTAL TOXICITY  

E-print Network

in 3 Gy fractions, using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) without rectal blocking or explicit dose­volume histogram (DVH) based criteria. Akimoto et al. (22) report a late Radiation Therapy technique to that of Akimoto et al. (22) (i.e., 3D-CRT without rectal blocking or use of explicit DVH

Brenner, David Jonathan

147

Successful treatment of rectal cancer with perineal invasion: Three case reports  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer occasionally invades adjacent organs. However, rectal cancer with perineal invasion is uncommon and difficult to treat. Locally advanced colorectal cancer may be clinically treated with neoadjuvant therapy, followed by en bloc resection. Skin invasion may lead to tumor dissemination via cutaneous blood flow and lymphatic routes. There is currently no firm evidence regarding the treatment of these significantly advanced rectal cancers. In this study, we report 3 cases of rectal cancer with perineal invasion, successfully managed by multimodality treatment. Case 1 is a 52-year-old man with rectal cancer that had invaded the perineum; case 2 is a 38-year-old man with rectal cancer infiltrating the perineal skin and liver metastasis; and case 3 is a 50-year-old woman with rectal cancer and perineal invasion. All the cases were treated with radical excision. No severe complications were observed in the perioperative period. Case 2, in particular, was confirmed to remain alive 5 years after the surgery. Our experience suggests that multimodality treatment, including extended radical surgery, may be a feasible approach to the treatment of rectal cancer with perineal skin invasion. PMID:24940483

KITAHARA, TOMOHIRO; UEMURA, MAMORU; HARAGUCHI, NAOTSUGU; NISHIMURA, JUNICHI; SHINGAI, TATSUSHI; HATA, TAISHI; TAKEMASA, ICHIRO; MIZUSHIMA, TSUNEKAZU; DOKI, YUICHIRO; MORI, MASAKI; YAMAMOTO, HIROFUMI

2014-01-01

148

Effect of some amino acids on the rectal irritation caused by sodium caprate in conscious rats.  

PubMed

The effects of some amino acids such as L-glutamine (Gln), L-arginine (Arg) and L-methionine (Met) on rectal irritation caused by sodium caprate were studied in rats. Rectal irritation was assessed by the balloon method in fasting conscious rats. This method is based on measuring rectal contractions due to possible irritation caused by the presence of drugs and/or adjuvants in the rectum. Strong contractions were observed after rectal administration of an aqueous solution of 100 mM sodium caprate. However, the presence of Gln, Arg or Met (100 mM) in sodium caprate (100 mM) solution resulted in a significant decrease in the intensity of the rectal contraction caused by sodium caprate. The rectal absorption-promoting effect of sodium caprate on 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) was examined following administration with amino acids in rats. The absorption of 6-CF was not influenced by the concurrent administration of amino acids. In addition, the rectal tissue interaction of sodium caprate, with or without Gln, was examined. The concentration of sodium caprate in rectal tissue was reduced by the presence of Gln. PMID:8924904

Kinouchi, Y; Yata, N

1996-03-01

149

Incidentally found rectal duplication during surgery for rectovestibular fistula and its management  

PubMed Central

Association of rectal duplication with rectovestibular fistula is rare. A 3-month-old patient underwent primary posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for rectovestibular fistula. During surgery the patient was found to have a rectal duplication (RD). We managed the case by excising the common wall and fenestrating the two lumens together and completed the PSARP. PMID:25552834

Balaji, Dhiraj K.; Basavaraju, Mamatha

2015-01-01

150

Preservation of urine voiding and sexual function after rectal cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to decrease the urinary and sexual morbidity which follows radical pelvic lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer, we began selective preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerves. Between 1985 and 1987, 134 patients with rectal cancer underwent a curative resection (52 abdominoperineal resections, 82 sphincter-saving resections) with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy and selective pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP). PANP was classified into

Keiichi Hojo; Anthony M. Vernava III; Kenichi Sugihara; Kenichi Katumata

1991-01-01

151

p53 gene mutations in rectal cancer associated with schistosomiasis japonica in Chinese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in p53 tumor suppressor gene were examined in 44 Chinese patients with rectal cancer, including 22 cases with advanced schistosomiasis japonica and 22 cases without schistosomiasis. In schistosomal rectal cancer (SRC), 13 mutations were found in 10 cases, which included 11 base-pair substitutions and two deletions. Of 11 base substitutions, nine were transitions and two were transversions and seven

Renli Zhang; Satoru Takahashi; Shin-ichiro Orita; Ayako Yoshida; Haruhiko Maruyama; Tomoyuki Shirai; Nobuo Ohta

1998-01-01

152

Incidentally found rectal duplication during surgery for rectovestibular fistula and its management.  

PubMed

Association of rectal duplication with rectovestibular fistula is rare. A 3-month-old patient underwent primary posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for rectovestibular fistula. During surgery the patient was found to have a rectal duplication (RD). We managed the case by excising the common wall and fenestrating the two lumens together and completed the PSARP. PMID:25552834

Balaji, Dhiraj K; Basavaraju, Mamatha

2015-01-01

153

Clarifying margins in the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer: the MERCURY experience.  

PubMed

The Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence Study (MERCURY) was an observational prospective study involving 11 European centres, to evaluate equivalence between magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in measuring depth of tumour invasion beyond the bowel and involvement of the circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer specimens. PMID:17018303

Salerno, G; Daniels, I R; Moran, B J; Wotherspoon, A; Brown, G

2006-11-01

154

Artemisinin kinetics and dynamics during oral and rectal treatment of uncomplicated malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare parasite clearance times after oral and rectal administration of artemisinin in adults with uncomplicated malaria and to relate pharmacodynamics with artemisinin kinetics and to disclose any pharmacokinetic changes during treatment.Methods: Thirty male Vietnamese patients with falciparum malaria were randomized to treatment with 500 mg artemisinin daily by either the oral or rectal route of administration. Parasite densities

Michael Ashton; Nguyen Duy Sy; Nguyen Van Huong; Toufigh Gordi; Trinh Ngoc Hai; Dinh Xuan Huong; Nguyen Thi Nięu; Le Dinh Công

1998-01-01

155

PHASE I-II TRIAL OF CETUXIMAB, CAPECITABINE, OXALIPLATIN, AND RADIOTHERAPYAS PREOPERATIVE TREATMENT IN RECTAL CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and activity of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent cetuximab, cape- citabine, and oxaliplatin in rectal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 patients with rectal cancer (T3-T4 or N+, M1 allowed) entered the trial at five investigator sites; the data from 58 patients were assessable. Cetuximab was given as an initial dose of

CLAUS RODEL; DIRK ARNOLD; MATTHIAS HIPP; TORSTEN LIERSCH; KATHRIN DELLAS; IGORS IESALNIEKS; ROBERT MICHAEL HERMANN; FLORIAN LORDICK; AXEL HINKE; ROLF SAUER

156

Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background:\\u000a   EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in\\u000a metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is\\u000a to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods:\\u000a   Cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I–II studies

Friederike Marquardt; Franz Rödel; Gianni Capalbo; Christian Weiss; Claus Rödel

2009-01-01

157

Ano-Rectal Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease  

PubMed Central

Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807

Warren, Ralph E.

1987-01-01

158

Fitting late rectal bleeding data using different NTCP models: results from an Italian multi-centric study (AIROPROS0101)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeRecent investigations demonstrated a significant correlation between rectal dose-volume patterns and late rectal toxicity. The reduction of the DVH to a value expressing the probability of complication would be suitable. To fit different normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to clinical outcome on late rectal bleeding after external beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer.

T. Rancati; C. Fiorino; G. Gagliardi; G. M. Cattaneo; G. Sanguineti; V. Casanova Borca; C. Cozzarini; G. Fellin; F. Foppiano; G. Girelli; L. Menegotti; A. Piazzolla; V. Vavassori; R. Valdagni

2004-01-01

159

Association of rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with radiation and hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Although hyperthermia has been used for more than two decades in the treatment of pelvic tumors, little is known about the potential impact of heat on rectal toxicity when combined with other treatment modalities. Because rectal toxicity is a concern with radiation and may be exacerbated by hyperthermia, definition of the association of thermal dose parameters with rectal toxicity

Mark D Hurwitz; Irving D Kaplan; Jorgen L Hansen; Savina Prokopios-Davos; George P Topulos; Kenneth Wishnow; Judith Manola; Bruce A Bornstein; Kullervo Hynynen

2002-01-01

160

Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-04-09

161

Rectal arteriovenous fistula resected laparoscopically after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of rectal arteriovenous fistula following sigmoidectomy and discuss this case in the context of the existing literature. In April 2011, the patient, a man in his 60s, underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with lymph node dissection for sigmoid colon cancer. Beginning in February 2012, he experienced frequent diarrhea. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT revealed local thickening of the rectal wall and rectal arteriovenous fistula near the anastomosis site. Rectitis from the rectal arteriovenous fistula was diagnosed. No improvement was seen with conservative treatment. Therefore, surgical resection was performed laparoscopically and the site of the lesion was confirmed by intraoperative angiography. The arteriovenous fistula was identified and resected. Postoperatively, diarrhea symptoms resolved, and improvement in rectal wall thickening was seen on abdominal CT. No recurrence has been seen as of 1 year postoperatively. PMID:24450345

Ushigome, Hajime; Hayakawa, Tetsushi; Morimoto, Mamoru; Kitagami, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Moritsugu

2014-01-01

162

Rectal absorption and mucosal irritation of rectal gels containing buprenorphine hydrochloride prepared with water-soluble dietary fibers, xanthan gum and locust bean gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal gels prepared with water-soluble dietary fibers, xanthan gum and locust bean gum, were evaluated as a vehicle for the rectal administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride (BN-HCI) in rabbits. The maximum plasma concentration of buprenorphine (BN) gradually decreased with increase in the gum concentration. The values of the mean residence time (MRT0–2) increased in proportion to increasing gum concentration. The absorption

Kazunori Watanabe; Shigeru Yakou; Kozo Takayama; Koichi Isowa; Tsuneji Nagai

1996-01-01

163

A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n?=?10) and rectal lavage fluid (n?=?10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense against HIV. PMID:24978053

Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

2014-01-01

164

[Pelvic exenteration in advanced and or recurrent rectal cancer].  

PubMed

Operative procedures of pelvic exenteration which were performed on a 54 yrs male patient with irradiated rectal cancer involving the prostatic gland, perineal skin and gluteal muscles were demonstrated by cinema. Perianal fistula formation and hard fibrotic adhesion between the distal rectum and the sacrum were also seen. As a result, combined resection of the perianal skin, gluteal muscles and distal sacral bone (fourth and fifth sacral and coccygeal vertebrae) was carried out. Fifty four total pelvic exenteration were performed at National Cancer Center Hospital from 1962 to 1985. The procedures were performed as a definitive treatment for the primary tumors in 35 cases (31 males and 4 females) which corresponds to 2.7% of operated primary rectal cancer at the same period and for the locally recurrent cancer in 19 cases (13 males and 6 females). By post operative histopathological examination 35 operations, 28 of 35 primary and 7 of 19 recurrent cases, were assessed as potentially curative. Hospital death rate was 13%; i.e. 7 cases (1 of 35 primary and 6 of 19 recurrent cases). Postoperative survival rates of the 54 patients were calculated by Kaplan-Meier's method. There were 17 survivors among 35 curatively operated patients and 5 yr survival rate was 34%. On the other hand, though 6 patients are surviving, there is no long term survivor (more than 35 months) among 21 patients who were treated by palliative resection. PMID:2434830

Koyama, Y; Moriya, Y; Hojo, K

1987-01-01

165

Management of stage II/III rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Pelvic and distant recurrences in rectal cancer can be associated with substantial morbidity, and patients with stage II and III disease are at increased risk for both local and distant failure when compared to patients with earlier stage disease. Refinement of surgical techniques have helped to reduce the risk of recurrence, and adjuvant therapies such as radiation to the tumor and regional lymph nodes and 5-fluorouracil-based systemic therapies have helped to further provide local control and may have an impact on overall survival. Numerous studies have been completed internationally in an effort to determine the optimal treatment regimen for this patient population. The importance of pre-therapy staging is of key importance as sequencing of therapy appears to significantly impact outcome. In the United States, patients with stage II/III rectal cancer are recommended to undergo preoperative concurrent pelvic radiation and chemotherapy followed by surgery several weeks later in order to maximize treatment response, which is then followed by approximately 4 months of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based systemic therapy. In Europe, there is substantial evidence supporting the use of neoadjuvant radiation therapy, however the role of concurrent chemotherapy remains a question of debate. Regardless of definitive management strategy, close follow-up in the post-treatment setting is important for early tumor detection and for managing treatment-related side-effects. PMID:22811815

Fakih, Marwan G; Yang, Gary Y

2010-01-01

166

Current treatment of rectal cancer adapted to the individual patient  

PubMed Central

Preoperative radiochemotherapy and total mesorectal excision surgery is a recommended standard therapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, some subgroups of patients benefit more than others from this approach. In order to avoid long-term complications of radiation and chemotherapy, efforts are being made to subdivide T3N0 stage using advanced imaging techniques, and to analyze prognostic factors that help to define subgroup risk patients. Long-course radiochemotherapy has the potential of downsizing the tumor before surgery and may increase the chance of sphincter preservation in some patients. Short-course radiotherapy (SCRT), on the other hand, is a practical schedule that better suits patients with intermediated risk tumors, located far from the anal margin. SCRT is also increasingly being used among patients with disseminated disease, before resection of the rectal tumor. Improvements in radiation technique, such as keeping the irradiation target below S2/S3 junction, and the use of IMRT, can reduce the toxicity associated with radiation, specially long-term small bowel toxicity. PMID:24416579

Cerezo, Laura; Ciria, Juan Pablo; Arbea, Leire; Lińán, Olga; Cafiero, Sergio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Francesco

2013-01-01

167

Effect of ulcerative colitis and smoking on rectal blood flow.  

PubMed Central

Rectal blood flow was measured by laser doppler flowmetry over 60 minutes in eight patients with colitis in remission and eight healthy male non-smokers. Ten smokers were also examined on two occasions, one of which included smoking a cigarette. Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in smokers. All subjects showed a pronounced fall in rectal blood flow in the first 30 minutes and patients with colitis had significantly higher values compared with smokers (p less than 0.002; p less than 0.04) and non-smokers (p less than 0.007; p less than 0.002) during the first and second 30 minutes respectively. Values in smokers and non-smokers were similar, but smoking a cigarette was associated with a significant fall in blood flow (p less than 0.04) and this change was inversely related to the rise in plasma nicotine concentration (r = -0.63; p less than 0.05). The findings may be relevant to the association between colitis and the smoking history. PMID:2210447

Srivastava, E D; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Rhodes, J

1990-01-01

168

Effect of nicotine on rectal mucus and mucosal eicosanoids.  

PubMed Central

Because ulcerative colitis is largely a disease of non-smokers and nicotine may have a beneficial effect on the disease, the effect of nicotine on rectal mucosa in rabbits was examined. Nicotine was given subcutaneously by an Alzet mini-pump in doses of 0.5, 1.25, and 2 mg/kg/day for 14 days to three groups of eight animals and compared with eight controls. Mean (SD) serum nicotine concentrations (ng/ml) were 3.5 (1.1), 8.8 (2.3), and 16.2 (5.2) respectively in the treated groups. The thickness of adherent mucus on rectal mucosa in controls (median 36 microns) was significantly reduced by low dose (22 microns, p = 0.0011), and increased by high dose nicotine (48 microns, p = 0.035). Incorporation of radioactive glucosamine into papain resistant glycoconjugates was unchanged, indicating that mucin synthesis was unaltered. Prostaglandins (PG) were reduced, in some cases significantly (6-keto PGF1 alpha, PGF2 alpha, and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid), by nicotine, which showed an inverse dose dependence--with greatest inhibition in relation to the lowest dose. Nicotine, and possibly smoking, may affect colitis by an action on mucosal eicosanoids and on adherent surface mucus secretion in the rectum and large bowel. PMID:8307477

Zijlstra, F J; Srivastava, E D; Rhodes, M; van Dijk, A P; Fogg, F; Samson, H J; Copeman, M; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Williams, G T

1994-01-01

169

Longitudinal plication - a surgical strategy for complete rectal prolapse management  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal prolapse is a known problem since antiquity and the cause is not fully understood. Despite the presence of more than 100 lines of treatment, none of them is ideal. Methods Between the years of (2005–2011), thirty patients with full-thickness rectal prolapse were operated upon. Age ranged between (2–65 years) with a mean of 21.5 year. Male to female ratio was (2:1). Each prolapsed rectum was repaired with longitudinal plication (LP) at two or three points accordingly using braded polyglycolic acid – absorbable 1.0 suture material. Plications started by inserting a stitch at the most proximal part of the prolapse, followed by successive similar transverse stiches continuing in a spiral fashion till the mucocutaneous junction. We used three LP in adults and two in children. All of the patients where operated upon as a day-case procedure and discharged 6 hours after the operation. Results In this series of patients, twenty-nine of them had complete recovery from the prolapse. Only one patient had recurrence 2 years after the operation, and the same procedure was applied successfully with uneventful post-operative period. Although twenty-three patients had fecal Incontinence, twenty-one of them regained continence after operation. Conclusions This method is an easy perineal procedure, with fewer complications. It can be performed for all age groups, in an ordinary surgical unit, by an expert anorectal surgeon. We found that our procedure is simple, safe and less invasive. PMID:24655367

2014-01-01

170

Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80 Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ?2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ?2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45 cm{sup 3} of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5 Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ? 0.041) and of grade ? 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications.

Peterson, Jennifer L., E-mail: peterson.jennifer2@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Buskirk, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Bernard, Johnny R. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern Ohio Medical Center, Portsmouth, OH (United States); Tzou, Katherine S.; Casale, Henry E.; Bellefontaine, Louis P.; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A.; Daugherty, Larry C.; Ko, Stephen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2014-04-01

171

Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate  

SciTech Connect

In a prospective study, 37 consecutive patients with radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis were randomized to receive a four-week course of either 3.0 g oral sulfasalazine plus 20 mg twice daily rectal prednisolone enemas (group I, N = 18) or 2.0 g twice daily rectal sucralfate enemas plus oral placebo (group II, N = 19). The two groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, duration of symptoms, and clinical and endoscopic staging of the disease. Fifteen patients in group I and 17 in group II completed the trial. At four weeks, both groups showed significant clinical improvement (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II). When the two groups were compared, sucralfate enemas showed a significantly better response as assessed clinically (P less than 0.05), although endoscopically the response was not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). We conclude that both treatment regimens are effective in the management of radiation proctitis. Sucralfate enemas give a better clinical response, are tolerated better, and because of the lower cost should be the preferred mode of short-term treatment.

Kochhar, R.; Patel, F.; Dhar, A.; Sharma, S.C.; Ayyagari, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Goenka, M.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Mehta, S.K. (Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

1991-01-01

172

Penetrating Bladder Trauma: A High Risk Factor for Associated Rectal Injury  

PubMed Central

Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 1990–2012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5?mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity). PMID:24527030

Pereira, B. M.; Reis, L. O.; Calderan, T. R.; de Campos, C. C.; Fraga, G. P.

2014-01-01

173

PrPCWD in rectal lymphoid tissue of deer (Odocoileus spp.).  

PubMed

The utility of rectal lymphoid tissue sampling for the diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) infections in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was evaluated. CWD-associated prion protein (PrP(CWD)) deposits were observed in the rectal mucosa from 19 orally inoculated mule deer by 381 days post-inoculation (p.i.); similarly, 45 out of 50 naturally infected mule deer had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa. In orally inoculated white-tailed deer, the presence of glycine (G) or serine (S) at codon 96 of the native PrP (denoted 96GG, 96GS or 96SS) appeared to influence the temporal patterns of PrP(CWD) deposition: nine out of 11 infected 96GG individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 342 days p.i., whereas only three out of seven infected 96GS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 381 days p.i. and none of three 96SS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 751 days p.i. These findings support further evaluation of rectal mucosa sampling in CWD surveillance. PMID:17554043

Wolfe, Lisa L; Spraker, Terry R; González, Lorenzo; Dagleish, Mark P; Sirochman, Tracey M; Brown, Jeremy C; Jeffrey, Martin; Miller, Michael W

2007-07-01

174

Self-reported practice patterns and knowledge of rectal cancer care among Canadian general surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to examine the knowledge and treatment decision practice patterns of Canadian surgeons who treat patients with rectal cancer. Methods A mail survey with 6 questions on staging investigations, management of low rectal cancer, lymph node harvest, surgical margins and use of adjuvant therapies was sent to all general surgeons in Canada. Appropriate responses to survey questions were defined a priori. We compared survey responses according to surgeon training (colorectal/surgical oncology v. others) and geographic region (Atlantic, Central, West). Results The survey was sent to 2143 general surgeons; of the 1312 respondents, 703 treat patients with rectal cancer. Most surgeons responded appropriately to the questions regarding staging investigations (88%) and management of low rectal cancer (88%). Only 55% of surgeons correctly identified the recommended lymph node harvest as 12 or more nodes, 45% identified 5 cm as the recommended distal margin for upper rectal cancer, and 70% appropriately identified which patients should be referred for adjuvant therapy. Surgeons with subspecialty training were significantly more likely to provide correct responses to all of the survey questions than other surgeons. There was limited variation in responses according to geographic region. Subspecialty-trained surgeons and recent graduates were more likely to answer all of the survey questions correctly than other surgeons. Conclusion Initiatives are needed to ensure that all surgeons who treat patients with rectal cancer, regardless of training, maintain a thorough and accurate knowledge of rectal cancer treatment issues. PMID:25421080

Richardson, Devon P.; Porter, Geoff A.; Johnson, Paul M.

2014-01-01

175

A Simple and Safe Procedure to Repair Rectal Prolapse Perineally Using Stapling Devices  

PubMed Central

Rectal prolapses are not life-threatening, however the bleeding and fecal incontinence associated with them significantly erode quality of life and can cause concern among patients’ caregivers in nursing homes. Many procedures have been reported that repair rectal prolapses, and the procedure used depends on the severity of the prolapse; however, the treatments are yet to be established. Here we report a simple and safe procedure to repair rectal prolapse perineally using stapling devices. We performed this procedure on 5 patients within a short time. All patients were followed up for over 24 months and none had any recurrences of their rectal prolapses. No complications occurred during the operations and postoperative periods. Most patients who have prolapses are elderly and fragile, so the treatment must be easy, safe, and rapid. While rectal prolapse is not life-threatening, the goal of treatment is to alleviate its symptoms. The procedure we describe is consistent with this concept. We suggest that this procedure, which uses surgical stapling devices, might be a better option for the treatment of complete rectal prolapse. We will continue to surgically correct complete rectal prolapses and investigate the long-term outcomes of the procedure. PMID:24574948

Hata, Fumitake; Nishimori, Hidefumi; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Yajima, Tomomi; Nishio, Akihiko; Ishiyama, Yuji

2014-01-01

176

Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ?grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ?grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following BT.

Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

2013-08-01

177

Preoperative staging of local invasion in rectal cancer using endoluminal ultrasound.  

PubMed Central

Digital examination is the most commonly used method of assessing local invasion in rectal cancer, but it is highly subjective and accuracy is related to surgical experience. The use of transrectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer has been assessed in 51 patients with histologically proven rectal cancers. Results showed a high degree of correlation when compared with postoperative histopathology (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001). Invasion beyond the muscularis propria was predicted with a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 92% and predictive value of 97%. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:3550076

Beynon, J; Roe, A M; Foy, D M; Channer, J L; Virjee, J; Mortensen, N J

1987-01-01

178

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: The first attempt in treatment of rectal amyloidoma.  

PubMed

Localized amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid protein deposition restricted to one organ or tissue without systemic involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations of localized amyloidoma are unusual, which makes amyloidoma restricted to the rectum a very rare diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. We present a rare account for rectal amyloidoma with an unusual presentation of obstructive symptoms and its treatment using a sophisticated surgical modality, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), which resulted in complete excision of the lesion without hospitalization and complications. The successful treatment for this rectal amyloidoma using TEM emphasizes the need to broaden its application in the treatment of various rectal lesions while preserving organ function and decreasing recurrence. PMID:25632208

Sharma, Richa; George, Virgilio V

2015-01-28

179

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: The first attempt in treatment of rectal amyloidoma  

PubMed Central

Localized amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid protein deposition restricted to one organ or tissue without systemic involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations of localized amyloidoma are unusual, which makes amyloidoma restricted to the rectum a very rare diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. We present a rare account for rectal amyloidoma with an unusual presentation of obstructive symptoms and its treatment using a sophisticated surgical modality, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), which resulted in complete excision of the lesion without hospitalization and complications. The successful treatment for this rectal amyloidoma using TEM emphasizes the need to broaden its application in the treatment of various rectal lesions while preserving organ function and decreasing recurrence.

Sharma, Richa; George, Virgilio V

2015-01-01

180

Rectal ulcer in a patient with VZV sacral meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome).  

PubMed

This report describes the case of a 55-year-old woman with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) sacral meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome) who presented with herpes zoster in the left S2 dermatome area, urinary retention, and constipation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the left sacral nerve root swelling with enhancement. Thereafter, she suddenly showed massive hematochezia and hemorrhagic shock because of a rectal ulcer. To elucidate the relation between Elsberg syndrome and rectal ulcer, accumulation of similar cases is necessary. To avoid severe complications, attention must be devoted to the possibility of rectal bleeding in the early stage of Elsberg syndrome. PMID:22449678

Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Tokushige, Shin-ichi; Mizuno, Hideo; Igeta, Yukifusa; Hashida, Hideji

2012-01-01

181

Prevalence and types of rectal douches used for anal intercourse: results from an international survey  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal products used with anal intercourse (AI) may facilitate transmission of STIs/HIV. However, there is limited data on rectal douching behavior in populations practicing AI. We examined the content, types of products, rectal douching practices and risk behaviors among those reporting AI. Methods From August 2011 to May 2012, 1,725 women and men reporting receptive AI in the past 3 months completed an internet-based survey on rectal douching practices. The survey was available in English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Thai and included questions on sexual behaviors associated with AI including rectal douching. Differences by rectal douching practices were evaluated using chi-square methods and associations between reported douching practices and other factors including age and reported STI history were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results Respondents represented 112 countries, were mostly male (88%), and from North America (55%) or Europe (22%). Among the 1,339 respondents (66%) who reported rectal douching, most (83%) reported always/almost always douching before receptive AI. The majority of rectal douchers reported using non-commercial/homemade products (93%), with water being the most commonly used product (82%). Commercial products were used by 31%, with the most common product being saline-based (56%). Rectal douching varied by demographic and risk behaviors. The prevalence of rectal douching was higher among men (70% vs. 32%; p-value?rectal douching before receptive AI is common and because rectal douching was associated with other sexual risk behaviors the contribution of this practice to the transmission and acquisition of STIs including HIV may be important. PMID:24555695

2014-01-01

182

Reduction of a large incarcerated rectal prolapse by use of an elastic compression wrap.  

PubMed

Reduction of a large rectal prolapse may be difficult because of significant edema that collects in the rectal tissues. If reduction is unsuccessful, an emergent laparotomy and internal reduction is required. A wide elastic wrap applied around the prolapsed rectum provides progressive compression, which reduces the amount of edema, allowing subsequent manual reduction. This novel technique is simple, safe, inexpensive, and can easily be performed in the emergency department setting. Manual reduction, by this or other described methods, should be attempted before emergent laparotomy for incarcerated rectal prolapse is performed. PMID:15789124

Sarpel, Umut; Jacob, Brian P; Steinhagen, Randolph M

2005-06-01

183

Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy  

SciTech Connect

A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.

Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.; Goodwin, C.D.

1986-10-24

184

Use of Robotics in Colon and Rectal Surgery  

PubMed Central

The pace of innovation in the field of surgery continues to accelerate. As new technologies are developed in combination with industry and clinicians, specialized patient care improves. In the field of colon and rectal surgery, robotic systems offer clinicians many alternative ways to care for patients. From having the ability to round remotely to improved visualization and dissection in the operating room, robotic assistance can greatly benefit clinical outcomes. Although the field of robotics in surgery is still in its infancy, many groups are actively investigating technologies that will assist clinicians in caring for their patients. As these technologies evolve, surgeons will continue to find new and innovative ways to utilize the systems for improved patient care and comfort. PMID:24436647

Pucci, Michael J.; Beekley, Alec C.

2013-01-01

185

Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

2014-09-18

186

Sex differences in responding to rectal cancer symptoms  

PubMed Central

Many people who develop cancer symptoms wait inordinate amounts of time before seeking medical attention. Studies have found that symptom appraisal time - the time that passes before the individual concludes that their symptoms could be serious - accounts for most of the total delay time across subjects. It is thus important to understand the individual characteristics associated with slow recognition of dangerous symptoms. In this study, 62 patients (38 males) recently diagnosed with rectal cancer answered questions regarding the development of symptoms as well as their decisions and behaviors prior to seeking help. One subgroup of patients - males with the lowest scores on a measure of trait anxiety - took significantly longer to recognize the seriousness of their symptoms as compared to all other patients. This finding is discussed in the context of recent studies where the interaction of sex and negative affect is related to symptom reporting and other health-related behaviors. PMID:19759846

RISTVEDT, STEPHEN L.; TRINKAUS, KATHRYN M.

2009-01-01

187

Rectal dose–volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo investigate the relationship between rectal bleeding and dosimetric-clinical parameters in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer.

Claudio Fiorino; Giuseppe Sanguineti; Cesare Cozzarini; Gianni Fellin; Franca Foppiano; Loris Menegotti; Anna Piazzolla; Vittorio Vavassori; Riccardo Valdagni

2003-01-01

188

Intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma in a young adult: A case report  

PubMed Central

An intussusception due to colonic adenocarcinoma has sometimes been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, reports of intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. In this report, the case of a young man with rectal adenocarcinoma causing intussusception is described. A 24-year-old man visited a hospital complaining of abdominal pain, and an upper rectal cancer was diagnosed by colonoscopy. Computed tomography showed intussusception caused by a large tumor in the pelvis and absence of distant metastases. Locally advanced rectal cancer causing intussusception was diagnosed, and a low anterior resection was performed. Intraoperatively, repair of the invagination could not be accomplished easily; therefore, the repair was abandoned. Instead, the tumor was removed en bloc to avoid dissemination of the cancer. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pStage IIA. The patient has no evidence of recurrence at 10 mo after the operation. PMID:25253975

Inada, Ryo; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Toshima, Toshiaki; Mori, Yoshiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

2014-01-01

189

Atypical Presentation of Skull Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma as an Initial Symptom of Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Most malignant rectal tumors are histopathologically characterized as adenocarcinoma and generally metastasize to distant organs such as the lungs or the liver. Metastasis of rectal carcinomas to the skull is extremely rare. This study reports the initial diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma recurrence in a 65-year-old female with scalp metastasis. The patient's history indicated a colorectal adenocarcinoma that was resected five years earlier. A skull metastasis from a rectal adenocarcinoma has not yet been reported in the literature as an initial symptom for recurrence. This paper suggests that skull metastasis from any part of the body must be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors in the skull even in the absence of intestinal symptoms. PMID:22811727

F?rat, Cemal; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi; Erbatur, Serkan; Ayd?n, Nasuhi Engin; Selcuk, Engin Burak

2012-01-01

190

Endoscopic Management of Rectal Dieulafoy's Lesion: A Case Series and Optimal Treatment  

PubMed Central

Rectal Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) is rare cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Because of its rarity, there is no consensus on the optimal endoscopic hemostasis technique for rectal DL. We analyzed six patients who underwent endoscopic management for rectal DL after presenting with hematochezia at a single institute over 10 years. Of the six patients, three underwent endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and three underwent endoscopic hemoclip placement (EHP). Only one patient was treated with thermocoagulation. There were no immediate complications in any of the patients. None of the patients required a procedure or surgery for the treatment of rebleeding. Mean procedure times of EBL and EHP were 5.25 minutes and 7 minutes, respectively. Both EHP and EBL are shown to be effective in the treatment of bleeding rectal DL. We suggest that EBL may have potential as the preferred therapy owing to its superiority in technical and economic aspects, especially in elderly and high-risk patients. PMID:25133127

Park, Jung Gil; Park, Jung Chul; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Ahn, Sun Young

2014-01-01

191

MR imaging for rectal cancer: the role in staging the primary and response to neoadjuvant therapy.  

PubMed

Pre-operative staging is an essential aspect of modern rectal cancer management and radiological assessment is central to this process. An ideal radiological assessment should provide sufficient information to reliably guide pre-operative decision-making. Technical advances allow high-resolution imaging to not only provide prognostic information but to define the anatomy, helping the surgeon to anticipate potential pitfalls during the operation. The main imaging modality for local staging of rectal cancer is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), as it defines the tumour and relevant anatomy providing the most detail on the important prognostic factors that influence treatment choice. In addition, there is an emerging role for MRI in the assessment of the response to neoadjuvant therapy. This article is an evidence-based review of rectal cancer staging focusing on post-treatment assessment of response using MRI. The discussion extends into the implications for reliably assessing response and how this may influence future rectal cancer management. PMID:24954622

Battersby, Nick J; Moran, Brendan; Yu, Stanley; Tekkis, Paris; Brown, Gina

2014-08-01

192

Molecular Response to Cetuximab and Efficacy of Preoperative Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer  

E-print Network

cancer and to identify molecular profiles and biomarkers that might improve patient selectionMolecular Response to Cetuximab and Efficacy of Preoperative Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer Annelies Debucquoy, Karin Haustermans, Anneleen Daemen, Selda Aydin, Louis Libbrecht

193

A New Laparoscopic Surgical Procedure to Achieve Sufficient Mesorectal Excision in Upper Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective. Mesorectal excision corresponding to the location of a tumor, termed tumor-specific mesorectal excision (TSME), is commonly performed for resection of upper rectal cancer. We devised a new laparoscopic procedure for sufficient TSME with rectal transection followed by mesorectal excision. Operative Technique. After mobilization of the sigmoid colon and ligation of inferior mesenteric vessels, we dissected the mesorectum along the layer of the planned total mesorectal excision. The rectal wall was carefully separated from the mesorectum at the appropriate anal side from the tumor. After the rectum was isolated and transected using an endoscopic linear stapler, the rectal stump drew immediately toward the anal side, enabling the mesorectum to be identified clearly. In this way, sufficient TSME can be performed easily and accurately. This technique has been successfully conducted on 19 patients. Conclusion. This laparoscopic technique is a feasible and reliable procedure for achieving sufficient TSME. PMID:22312519

Ohigashi, Seiji; Taketa, Takashi; Sudo, Kazuki; Shiozaki, Hironori; Onodera, Hisashi

2011-01-01

194

The role of the robotic technique in minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic rectal surgery is feasible, oncologically safe, and offers better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, and time until return to working activity. Nevertheless, laparoscopic techniques are not widely used in rectal surgery, mainly because they require a prolonged and demanding learning curve that is available only in high-volume and rectal cancer surgery centres experienced in minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is a new technology that enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on robotic surgery, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:24101946

Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Luca, Fabrizio; Petz, Wanda; Valvo, Manuela; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Biffi, Roberto

2013-01-01

195

Total rectal resection and colo-anal anastomosis for low rectal tumours: comparative results in a group of young and old patients.  

PubMed

Rectal cancer incidence is increasing among the elderly who are more often considered for palliation rather than for surgical cure. Moreover, sphincter-sparing surgery is often avoided when treating the elderly. We report our experience on a consecutive series of 38 subjects, suffering from a lower third rectal tumour with a median distance of 5.6 cm from the anal verge (7 Dukes' A, 6 Dukes' B, 17 Dukes' C, 3 Dukes' D, 3 anastomotic recurrences and 2 large villous adenomas). All subjects were prospectively collected in a 2-year period and treated with total resection and colo-anal hand-sewn anastomosis on a J colic reservoir. 20 patients younger than 65 years and 18 over 65 years were matched for surgical complications, late morbidity, oncological and functional results but no statistical difference was found. Our hope is that a conservative approach in treating the low rectal tumours will progressively be accepted for elderly patients. PMID:7654436

Leo, E; Audisio, R A; Belli, F; Vitellaro, M; Baldini, M T; Mascheroni, L; Patuzzo, R; Rigillo, G; Rebuffoni, G; Filiberti, A

1994-01-01

196

Lack of prophylactic efficacy of oral maraviroc in macaques despite high drug concentrations in rectal tissues.  

PubMed

Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1?-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation. PMID:23740994

Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

2013-08-01

197

Loop Ileostomy versus Loop Colostomy for Defunctioning Low Anastomoses during Rectal Cancer Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Several studies have compared loop ileostomy with loop colostomy to defunction colorectal anastomoses. The discordant results\\u000a may be due to the heterogeneity of the indications. We therefore performed a retrospective study to compare the two procedures\\u000a in a homogeneous group of patients operated on electively for rectal cancer. Among 462 consecutive patients undergoing rectal\\u000a resection for cancer during 1986–1998,

Eric Rullier; Nathalie Le Toux; Christophe Laurent; Jean-Luc Garrelon; Michel Parneix; Jean Saric

2001-01-01

198

Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to investigate whether the loop diuretic sensitive, sodium-chloride cotransport system described previously in shark rectal gland is in fact a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system, plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rectal glands ofSqualus acanthias and sodium and rubidium uptake were measured by a rapid filtration technique. In addition, the binding of N-methylfurosemide to the membranes was investigated.

J. Hannafin; E. Kinne-Saffran; D. Friedman; R. Kinne

1983-01-01

199

Distorted rectal tissue on prostate needle biopsy: a mimicker of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Rectal tissue is often seen in needle biopsies of the prostate gland. On rare occasion distorted rectal glands can mimic prostatic adenocarcinoma, an issue not previously addressed in the peer-reviewed literature. We evaluated 16 prostate needle biopsies received in consultation where the submitting pathologist questioned whether a focus of rectal tissue was prostate cancer. In addition to the distorted architecture, features mimicking prostate cancer included: (1) blue-tinged intraluminal mucinous secretions in 10 cases (63%), (2) prominent nucleoli in 6 cases (37%), (3) mitotic activity in 6 cases (37%), (4) extracellular mucin in 5 cases (31%), and (5) adenomatous changes of the rectal tissue in 1 case (6%). Immunohistochemical results further mimicked prostate cancer with negative stains for the basal cell markers high-molecular weight cytokeratin (n=6) and p63 (n=4), and positive stains for racemase in 4 of 5 biopsies. Diagnostic clues to recognizing that these foci were distorted rectal fragments were the presence of (1) lamina propria in 12 cases (75%), (2) rectal tissue located on a detached fragment of tissue in 10 biopsies (63%), (3) associated inflammation in 10 cases (63%), (4) goblet cells in 7 cases (44%), and (5) muscularis propria in 6 cases (37%). In 2 cases, there was negative staining for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and in 1 case negative staining for cytokeratin 7 and positivity for cytokeratin 20. Rectal glands are associated with many of the classical features of prostate cancer, and immunohistochemistry may be misleading. Recognition of these features mimicking prostate cancer and awareness of other findings that are diagnostic of rectal tissue on biopsy can prevent a misdiagnosis of atypical prostate glands or prostate cancer. PMID:16819329

Schowinsky, Jeffrey T; Epstein, Jonathan I

2006-07-01

200

Local Excision after Radio(chemo)therapy for Rectal Cancer: is it Safe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to current opinion, local excision in rectal cancer should be limited to selected T1N0 tumours. Preoperative radio(chemo)therapy provides an opportunity for expanding the use of local excision for more advanced tumours. The key rationale of this approach is the correlation between the radiosensitivity and inherited low aggressiveness of rectal cancer and the correlation between the radiosensitivity of the primary

K. Bujko; R. Sopylo; L. Kepka

2007-01-01

201

Laparoscopic ventral recto(colpo)pexy for rectal prolapse: surgical technique and outcome for 109 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new laparoscopic technique for correction of rectal prolapse. The unique feature of this technique is\\u000a that it avoids any posterolateral dissection of the rectum. The mesh is sutured to the anterior aspect of the rectum to inhibit\\u000a intussusception. The technique was applied in 109 consecutive patients to correct total rectal prolapse. Conversion was needed\\u000a for four

A. D’Hoore; F. Penninckx

2006-01-01

202

Rectal tone in response to bisacodyl in women with obstructed defecation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the tonic response of the rectum to topical application of bisacodyl in women with obstructed defecation. Forty-five women with obstructed defecation, and 15 female controls were studied. Total colonic transit time was normal in 35 patients, and prolonged in 10. For the purpose of this study an "infinitely compliant" polyethylene bag was inserted into the rectum. Rectal tone was assessed by measuring variations in bag volume with a computerized electromechanical "barostat" system. After an adaptation period of 30 min, a suppository containing 10 mg bisacodyl was inserted into the rectum. Recording was continued for 90 min. In a second recording session rectal tone in response to an evoked urge to defecate was assessed. In a third session we investigated rectal sensory perception. After a mean time interval of 30 +/- 15 min following intrarectal application of bisacodyl, all controls showed a significant increase in rectal tone (mean value: 68.2 +/- 12%). In patients with a normal transit time, a similar increase was observed. In patients with prolonged transit time, the tonic response of the rectum to bisacodyl was significantly lower (mean 21.1 +/- 11%; P < 0.001). Five of these patients showed no response at all. In the second recording session, all controls showed an increase in rectal tone during an evoked urge to defecate (mean 36.3 +/- 7%). In both patient groups this tonic response was absent or significantly blunted (mean 19.2 +/- 6%) (P < 0.001). In both patient groups rectal sensory perception was impaired significantly. In conclusion, rectal tone increases significantly after topical application of bisacodyl in controls as well as in patients with obstructed defecation in whom transit time is normal. This tonic response is absent or significantly blunted in patients with a prolonged transit time. Both the tonic response of the rectum to an evoked urge to defecate and rectal sensory perception are significantly impaired in patients with a normal and those with a prolonged transit time. PMID:11151433

Gosselink, M J; Hop, W C; Schouten, W R

2000-11-01

203

Management of late complications of Teflon ® sling repair for rectal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Recurrent rectal prolapse or postoperative rectal stricture occurred in four of 88 patients (4.5 per cent) who underwent Teflon\\u000a sling repair at the Lahey Clinic during the past 15 years. Management of these and six other similar patients referred for\\u000a treatment suggests that young men appear to be at a higher risk for recurrence. Strictures may be more likely to

Thomas J. Lescher; Marvin L. Corman; John A. Coller; Malcolm C. Veidenheimer

1979-01-01

204

A modified thiersch operation for complete rectal prolapse using a teflon prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Insertion of a crimped Teflon arterial graft around the rectal outlet is described as a modified Thiersch operation for relief\\u000a of complete rectal prolapse. The procedure is not formidable and is of particular value in elderly poor-risk patients or in\\u000a certain patients with a badly damaged and totally incompetent anal sphincter. The advantages of the Teflon tube are discussed.

Benjamin Haskell; Harold Rovner

1963-01-01

205

Metachronous Bilateral Isolated Adrenal Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer. PMID:24860684

Jabir, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Moukhlissi, M.; Akssim, M.; Guensi, A.; Kadiri, B.; Bouchbika, Z.; Taleb, A.; Benchekroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Sahraoui, S.; Zamiati, S.; Benider, A.

2014-01-01

206

Metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer. PMID:24860684

Jabir, H; Tawfiq, N; Moukhlissi, M; Akssim, M; Guensi, A; Kadiri, B; Bouchbika, Z; Taleb, A; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Zamiati, S; Benider, A

2014-01-01

207

Complexities of abdominoperineal surgery: synchronous resection of an ano-rectal adenocarcinoma and pelvic schwannoma.  

PubMed

Abdominoperineal resection (APR) is indicated for low rectal/ano-rectal cancers. It necessitates fastidious pelvic dissection posing certain operative difficulties. We present the surgical challenges in a unique case of a patient presenting with a low rectal adenocarcinoma and a synchronous pelvic schwannomas, both requiring resection. A 71-year-old gentleman presented for surveillance colonoscopy following previous excision of colonic polyps. This investigation revealed a polypoid mass at the ano-rectal junction which was histologically proven as an adenocarcinoma with high-grade dysplasia. A staging computed tomography scan revealed an incidental 10 × 15 cm homogeneous, pre-sacral mass. After meticulous operative planning, the patient underwent successful open resection of this mass and concurrent APR for his low rectal lesion. This case demonstrates a rare presentation of a low rectal adenocarcinoma and concurrent pelvic schwannoma. We discuss the technical difficulties encountered in the management of such complex pelvic tumours and highlight the successful outcomes of the synchronous resection. PMID:24876323

Higgin, Ryan P C; Glaysher, Michael A; Zeidan, Bashir A; Miles, Andrew J G

2014-01-01

208

Complexities of abdominoperineal surgery: synchronous resection of an ano-rectal adenocarcinoma and pelvic schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abdominoperineal resection (APR) is indicated for low rectal/ano-rectal cancers. It necessitates fastidious pelvic dissection posing certain operative difficulties. We present the surgical challenges in a unique case of a patient presenting with a low rectal adenocarcinoma and a synchronous pelvic schwannomas, both requiring resection. A 71-year-old gentleman presented for surveillance colonoscopy following previous excision of colonic polyps. This investigation revealed a polypoid mass at the ano-rectal junction which was histologically proven as an adenocarcinoma with high-grade dysplasia. A staging computed tomography scan revealed an incidental 10 × 15 cm homogeneous, pre-sacral mass. After meticulous operative planning, the patient underwent successful open resection of this mass and concurrent APR for his low rectal lesion. This case demonstrates a rare presentation of a low rectal adenocarcinoma and concurrent pelvic schwannoma. We discuss the technical difficulties encountered in the management of such complex pelvic tumours and highlight the successful outcomes of the synchronous resection. PMID:24876323

Higgin, Ryan P.C.; Glaysher, Michael A.; Zeidan, Bashir A.; Miles, Andrew J.G.

2014-01-01

209

Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To predict the grade and incidence of late clinical rectal toxicity through short-term (1 year) mucosal alterations. Methods and Materials: Patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with curative or adjuvant radiotherapy underwent proctoscopy a year after the course of radiotherapy. Mucosal changes were classified by the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). Late toxicity data were analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed by log-rank analysis. Results: After a median follow-up time of 45 months (range, 18-99), the 3-year incidence of grade {>=}2 rectal late toxicity according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was 24%, with all patients (24/24; 100%) experiencing rectal bleeding. The occurrence of grade {>=}2 clinical rectal late toxicity was higher in patients with grade {>=}2 (32% vs. 15 %, p = 0.02) or grade {>=}3 VRS telangiectasia (47% vs. 17%, p {<=} 0.01) and an overall VRS score of {>=}2 (31% vs. 16 %, p = 0.04) or {>=}3 (48% vs. 17%, p = 0.01) at the 1-year proctoscopy. Conclusions: Early proctoscopy (1 year) predicts late rectal bleeding and therefore can be used as a surrogate endpoint for late rectal toxicity in studies aimed at reducing this frequent complication.

Ippolito, Edy; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Pirozzi, Giuseppe Antonio [Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cuscuna, Daniele; Di Lallo, Alessandra [Urology Unit, General Hospital A. Cardarelli, Campobasso (Italy); Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Pacelli, Fabio [Surgery Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Ingrosso, Marcello [Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

2012-06-01

210

Rectal endoscopy findings following stereotactic body radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Treating prostate cancer with SBRT could potentially minimize radiation proctitis by reducing high-dose rectal irradiation. In addition, it offers the potential radiobiologic benefits of hypofractionation. This study reports the endoscopic changes and the associated clinical rectal toxicity in these patients. Methods We reviewed the records of patients treated from 2008–2011 for localized prostate cancer who had rectal endoscopy following SBRT. SBRT was delivered either as primary treatment in 5 fractions of 7–7.25 Gy, or as an initial boost in 3 fractions of 6.5 Gy followed by conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to 45–50.4 Gy. Endoscopic changes were graded using the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). Rectal toxicity was graded via CTCAEv.4. Rectal quality of life (QOL) was assessed via the bowel domain of the EPIC-26 questionnaire. Results Fifty-one patients with a median 23 months follow-up were analyzed. Thirty-five patients completed SBRT monotherapy and 16 patients received SBRT as a boost to conventionally fractionated IMRT. The median interval from SBRT to rectal endoscopy was 13 months. Endoscopy revealed VRS Grade 1–2 telangiectasias for 10 patients and VRS Grade 1–2 mucosal edema for 12 patients. No rectal ulcerations, strictures or necrosis were observed. Grade 1–2 late rectal bleeding occurred in 10 patients. There were no CTCAEv.4 Grade ?3 toxicities. Mean EPIC bowel scores decreased from a baseline value of 96.9 to 82.3 at 1-month, but subsequently increased to 91.0 at 24 months. Conclusions In this cohort that is skewed towards patients with rectal complaints, the rate and severity of endoscopic changes following SBRT is low. Rectal toxicity and QOL were comparable to patients treated with other radiation modalities. Prospective trials examining the endoscopic outcomes following SBRT for prostate cancer are needed for confirmation of the findings of this study. Trial registration The Georgetown Institutional Review Board has approved this retrospective study (IRB 2009–510). PMID:23937800

2013-01-01

211

[Application and evaluation of pouch configuration in rectal surgery].  

PubMed

Colonic pouch can improve fecal continence after low anterior resection in the short-term, but its superiority would disappear in the long-term(2 years after surgery), since fecal continence improves gradually with time in the non-pouch group. Furthermore, the incidence of incomplete defecation increases gradually with time, and a lot of patients would have difficulty in defecation and require long-term use of suppositories and enemas. Pouch enforcement will result in prolonged operation time and increased treatment cost. Therefore, the value of colonic pouch in low rectal anastomosis is being questioned, and its application diminishes gradually. For patients with ulcerative colitis(UC) or familial adenomatous polyposis(FAP) after total colectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis(IPAA) can reduce fecal frequency and improve patients' quality of life in both short-term and long-term, by increasing the volume of the neo-rectum and altering intestinal motility. For these reasons, IPAA is the first surgical choice for UC and FAP. PMID:24859948

Fu, Chuangang; Gao, Xianhua

2014-05-01

212

Pelvic MRI for guiding treatment decisions in rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiation (CRT) is used routinely for locally advanced rectal cancer to shrink the tumor preoperatively, improve lateral surgical clearance at total mesorectal excision, prevent local recurrence, and preserve organ function. In Northern Europe, short-course preoperative radiotherapy (SCPRT) is preferred to achieve locoregional control. However, with recent improvements in the quality of surgery, in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in pathologic reporting, we question whether "routine" CRT or SCPRT should be offered indiscriminately for all patients.MRI is considered the optimal modality for locoregional staging and evaluation of the potential for an involved circumferential resection margin. MRI also provides detailed anatomic information for surgical planning, and may identify poor prognostic features, which influence the way in which the pathologist processes specimens. MRI can predict the likelihood of good/poor tumor response to neoadjuvant CRT and can categorize responders/nonresponders following treatment.Using MRI to define the risk of both local recurrence and metastatic spread allows clinicians to determine which patients might benefit from or safely avoid neoadjuvant treatment. We have arrived at these views after comparing data from published observational studies, results from randomized trials, and outcome analyses of the Norwegian National Cancer Registry. PMID:25140623

Glynne-Jones, Robert; Tan, David; Goh, Vicky

2014-08-01

213

KRAS testing on colo-rectal carcinoma cytological imprints.  

PubMed

Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab, and panitumumab, are administrated under the condition that advanced colo-rectal cancer (CRC) carries a wild-type KRAS gene. Thus, clinicians request pathologists to genotype KRAS before treatment. In the near future routine mutation testing at the same time of the surgery may be implemented. The reliability of a rapid KRAS testing on ex vivo cytological samples obtained by direct scraping of the colon tumour tissue is here evaluated. A consecutive series of 20 surgically resected, primary CRC specimens was analysed. Fresh tissue from CRC was scraped with a scalpel blade, smeared on uncoated glass slides, air-dried and Diff-Quik stained to ensure malignant cell presence. The same tissue area was also histologically processed. Exon 2 KRAS gene mutations were evaluated on both cytological and histological specimens by dideoxy sequencing and by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit (DxS, Manchester, England). Data obtained on on imprint cytology and matched histological samples showed full concordance; however, the mutation frequency was slightly higher (35%) by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit than by the dideoxy sequencing (30%). Thus, colon cancer imprint cytology sample is a reliable biospecimen for both dideoxy-sequencing and DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit analysis and it may be useful to abbreviate the KRAS assay turnaround time. PMID:20607679

Malapelle, Umberto; Bellevicine, Claudio; Russo, Anna; Salatiello, Maria; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

2011-04-01

214

Endoscopic findings of rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: correlation of rectal mucosal damage with radiation dose and clinical symptoms  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe chronic rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer and correlate these findings with clinical symptoms and radiation dose. Materials and Methods Thirty-two patients who underwent pelvic RT were diagnosed with radiation-induced proctitis based on endoscopy findings. The median follow-up period was 35 months after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR). The Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was used to describe the endoscopic findings and compared to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) morbidity score and the dosimetric parameters of RT (the ratio of rectal dose calculated at the rectal point [RP] to the prescribed dose, biologically effective dose [BED] at the RP in the ICR and EBRT plans, ?/? = 3). Results Rectal symptoms were noted in 28 patients (rectal bleeding in 21 patients, bowel habit changes in 6, mucosal stools in 1), and 4 patients had no symptoms. Endoscopic findings included telangiectasia in 18 patients, congested mucosa in 20, ulceration in 5, and stricture in 1. The RP ratio, BEDICR, BEDICR+EBRT was significantly associated with the VRS (RP ratio, median 76.5%; BEDICR, median 37.1 Gy3; BEDICR+EBRT, median 102.5 Gy3; p < 0.001). The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score (p = 0.038). Conclusion The most prevalent endoscopic findings of RT-induced proctitis were telangiectasia and congested mucosa. The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score and RP radiation dose. PMID:23865004

Kim, Tae Gyu; Park, Won

2013-01-01

215

Rectal cancer: future directions and priorities for treatment, research and policy in New Zealand.  

PubMed

New Zealand has one of the highest incidences of rectal cancer in the world, and its optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A National Rectal Cancer Summit was convened in August 2013 to discuss management of rectal cancer in the New Zealand context, to highlight controversies and discuss domestic priorities for the future. This paper summarises the priorities for treatment, research and policy for rectal cancer services in New Zealand identified as part of the Summit in August. The following priorities were identified: - Access to high-quality information for service planning, review of outcomes, identification of inequities and gaps in provision, and quality improvement; - Engagement with the entire sector, including private providers; - Focus on equity; - Emerging technologies; - Harmonisation of best practice; - Importance of multidisciplinary team meetings. In conclusion, improvements in outcomes for patients with rectal cancer in New Zealand will require significant engagement between policy makers, providers, researchers, and patients in order to ensure equitable access to high quality treatment, and strategic incorporation of emerging technologies into clinical practice. A robust clinical information framework is required in order to facilitate monitoring of quality improvements and to ensure that equitable care is delivered. PMID:24929694

Jackson, Christopher; Ehrenberg, Nieves; Frizelle, Frank; Sarfati, Diana; Balasingam, Adrian; Pearse, Maria; Parry, Susan; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

2014-06-01

216

Fournier gangrene presenting in a patient with undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fournier gangrene is a rare necrotising fascitis of the perineum and genitals caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The first case was described by Baurienne in 1764 but the condition was named by Fournier in 1883 who reported the cases of five men with the condition with no apparent etiology. Infection most commonly arises from the skin, urethra, or rectal regions. Despite appropriate therapy, mortality in this disease is still high. We report a case of a low rectal malignancy presenting as Fournier gangrene. This case report serves to highlight an extremely unusual presentation of rectal cancer, a common surgical pathology. Case presentation The patient is a 48 years old Afghanian male that admitted with Fournier gangrene. In the course of medical and surgical treatment the presence of extensive rectal adenocarcinoma was discovered. After partial recovery, standard loop colostomy was inserted. Skin grafting of necrotic areas was performed and systemic rectal cancer chemotherapy initiated after full stabilization. Conclusion Fournier gangrene is an uncommon but life threatening condition with high associated mortality and morbidity. Usually there is an underlying cause for the development of Fournier gangrene, that if addressed correctly, can lead to a good outcome. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the morbidity and mortality of this life threatening condition. Good management is based on aggressive debridement, broad spectrum antibiotics and intensive supportive care. PMID:20062653

2009-01-01

217

Anterior-only Partial Sacrectomy for en bloc Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?The usual procedure for partial sacrectomies in locally advanced rectal cancer combines a transabdominal and a posterior sacral route. The posterior approach is flawed with a high rate of complications, especially infections and wound-healing problems. Anterior-only approaches have indirectly been mentioned within long series of rectal cancer surgery. We describe a case of partial sacrectomy for en bloc resection of a locally advanced rectal cancer with invasion of the low sacrum through a combined transabdominal and perineal approach without any posterior incision. Methods?Through a midline laparotomy, the tumor was dissected and the sacral osteotomy was performed. Once the sacrum was mobile, the muscular attachments to its posterior wall were cut through the perineal approach. This latter route was also used to remove the whole specimen. Results?The postoperative period was uneventful in terms of infection and wound healing, but the patient developed right foot dorsiflexion paresis that completely disappeared in 1 month. Resection margins were negative. After a follow-up of 18 months, the patient has no local recurrence but presented lung and liver metastases. Conclusion?In cases of rectal cancer involving the low sacrum, the combination of a transabdominal and a perineal route to carry out the partial sacrectomy is a feasible approach that avoids changes of surgical positioning and the morbidity related to posterior incisions. This strategy should be considered when deciding on undertaking partial sacrectomy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25396109

Roldan, Hector; Perez-Orribo, Luis F; Plata-Bello, Julio M; Martin-Malagon, Antonio I; Garcia-Marin, Victor M

2014-12-01

218

Novel association of rectal evacuation disorder and rumination syndrome: Diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with disorders of gastrointestinal function may undergo unnecessary treatment if misdiagnosed as motility disorders. Objective To report on clinical features, medical, surgical, and psychiatric comorbidities, and prior treatments of a patient cohort diagnosed concurrently with nonpsychogenic rumination syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction (also termed rectal evacuation disorder). Methods From a consecutive series (1994–2013) of 438 outpatients with rectal evacuation disorders in the practice of a single gastroenterologist at a tertiary care centre, 57 adolescents or adults were diagnosed with concomitant rumination syndrome. All underwent formal psychological assessment or completed validated questionnaires. Results All 57 patients (95% female) fulfilled Rome III criteria for rumination syndrome; rectal evacuation disorder was confirmed by testing of anal sphincter pressures and rectal balloon evacuation. Prior to diagnosis, most patients underwent multiple medical and surgical treatments (gastrostomy, gastric fundoplication, other gastric surgery, ileostomy, colectomy) for their symptoms. Psychological comorbidity was identified in 93% of patients. Patients were managed predominantly with psychological and behavioural approaches: diaphragmatic breathing for rumination and biofeedback retraining for pelvic floor dysfunction. Conclusions Awareness of concomitant rectal evacuation disorder and rumination syndrome and prompt identification of psychological comorbidity are keys to instituting behavioural and psychological methods to avoid unnecessary treatment. PMID:24724013

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Iturrino, Johanna; Shin, Andrea; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Katzka, David A; Snuggerud, Jill R; Seime, Richard J

2014-01-01

219

Magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer: A surgeon’s perspective  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rectal cancer was first investigated in 1999 and has become almost mandatory in planning rectal cancer treatment. MRI has a high accuracy in predicting circumferential resection margin involvement and is used to plan neoadjuvant therapy. The accuracy of MRI in assessing mesorectal lymph nodes remains moderate, as there are no reliable criteria to assess nodal involvement. MRI seems to be good in assessing peritoneal involvement in upper rectal cancer; this however has been assessed in only a few studies and needs further research. For low rectal cancers, mesorectum is thin at the level of levator ani especially in relation to prostate; so predicting circumferential resection margin involvement is not easy. However high spatial resolution coronal imaging shows levator muscles, sphincter complex and intersphincteric plane accurately. This is used to stage low rectal tumors and plan plane of surgery (standard surgery, intersphincteric resection, Extralevator abdominoperineal resection). While most centres perform MRI post chemoradiotherapy, its role in accurate staging post neoadjuvant therapy remains debatable. THe role of Diffusion weighted MRI post neoadjuvant therapy is being evaluated in research settings. PMID:24616572

Saklani, Avanish P; Bae, Sung Uk; Clayton, Amy; Kim, Nam Kyu

2014-01-01

220

The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Materials and Methods Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Results Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale ? grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). Conclusion The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with ? grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale. PMID:25061573

Meungwong, Pooriwat; Chitapanarux, Taned; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Traisathit, Patrinee; Galalae, Razvan; Chitapanarux, Imjai

2014-01-01

221

Cap polyposis: A rare cause of rectal bleeding in children  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of cap polyposis in the pediatric population. METHODS: All pediatric patients with histologically proven diagnosis of cap polyposis were identified from our endoscopy and histology database over a 12 year period from 2000-2012 at our tertiary pediatric center, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital in Singapore. The case records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The demographics, clinical course, laboratory results, endoscopic and histopathological features, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. The study protocol was approved by the hospital institutional review board. The histological slides were reviewed by a pediatric histopathologist to confirm the diagnosis of cap polyposis. RESULTS: Eleven patients were diagnosed with cap polyposis. The median patient age was 13 years (range 5-17 years); the sample included 7 males and 4 females. All of the patients presented with bloody stools. Seven patients (63%) had constipation, while 4 patients (36%) had diarrhea. All of the patients underwent colonoscopy and polypectomies (excluding 1 patient who refused polypectomy). The macroscopic findings were of polypoid lesions covered by fibrinopurulent exudates with normal intervening mucosa. The rectum was the most common involvement site (n = 9, 82%), followed by the rectosigmoid colon (n = 3, 18%). Five (45%) patients had fewer than 5 polyps, and 6 patients (65%) had multiple polyps. Histological examination of these polyps showed surface ulcerations with a cap of fibrin inflammatory exudate. Four (80%) patients with fewer than 5 polyps had complete resolution of symptoms following the polypectomy. One patient who did not consent to the polypectomy had resolution of symptoms after being treated with sulphasalazine. All 6 patients with multiple polyps experienced recurrence of bloody stools on follow-up (mean = 28 mo). CONCLUSION: Cap polyposis is a rare and under-recognised cause of rectal bleeding in children. Our study has characterized the disease phenotype and treatment outcomes in a pediatric cohort. PMID:23864782

Li, Jia Hui; Leong, May Ying; Phua, Kong Boo; Low, Yee; Kader, Ajmal; Logarajah, Veena; Ong, Lin Yin; Chua, Joyce HY; Ong, Christina

2013-01-01

222

Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Radiation for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Conclusions: Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections.

Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Safran, Howard, E-mail: hsafran@lifespan.org [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States)

2012-01-01

223

Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

2010-02-01

224

DuraSeal® as a spacer to reduce rectal doses in low-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of off-label use of DuraSeal® polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel in low-dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy seed implantation to reduce rectal doses. Diluted DuraSeal® was easy to use and, in spite of a clearance effect, useful in decreasing D2cc rectal doses. PMID:25201125

Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Kärnä, Aarno; Vaarala, Markku H

2014-08-01

225

Rectal Transmission of Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Is Efficiently Prevented by Topical 1% Tenofovir in BLT Humanized Mice  

PubMed Central

Rectal microbicides are being developed to prevent new HIV infections in both men and women. We focused our in vivo preclinical efficacy study on rectally-applied tenofovir. BLT humanized mice (n?=?43) were rectally inoculated with either the primary isolate HIV-1JRCSF or the MSM-derived transmitted/founder (T/F) virus HIV-1THRO within 30 minutes following treatment with topical 1% tenofovir or vehicle. Under our experimental conditions, in the absence of drug treatment we observed 50% and 60% rectal transmission by HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1THRO, respectively. Topical tenofovir reduced rectal transmission to 8% (1/12; log rank p?=?0.03) for HIV-1JRCSF and 0% (0/6; log rank p?=?0.02) for HIV-1THRO. This is the first demonstration that any human T/F HIV-1 rectally infects humanized mice and that transmission of the T/F virus can be efficiently blocked by rectally applied 1% tenofovir. These results obtained in BLT mice, along with recent ex vivo, Phase 1 trial and non-human primate reports, provide a critically important step forward in the development of tenofovir-based rectal microbicides. PMID:23527295

Chateau, Morgan L.; Denton, Paul W.; Swanson, Michael D.; McGowan, Ian; Garcia, J. Victor

2013-01-01

226

Phase I-II Trial of Cetuximab, Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Radiotherapy as Preoperative Treatment in Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and activity of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent cetuximab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin in rectal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 patients with rectal cancer (T3-T4 or N+, M1 allowed) entered the trial at five investigator sites; the data from 58 patients were assessable. Cetuximab was given as an initial dose of 400

Claus Roedel; Dirk Arnold; Matthias Hipp; Torsten Liersch; Kathrin Dellas; Igors Iesalnieks; Robert Michael Hermann; Florian Lordick; Axel Hinke; Werner Hohenberger; Rolf Sauer

2008-01-01

227

Comparative trial of rectal indomethacin and cryoanalgesia for control of early postthoracotomy pain.  

PubMed Central

A randomised double blind trial was carried out over the first two days after thoracotomy to compare the analgesic effects of rectal indomethacin 100 mg administered eight hourly, cryoanalgesia, and a combination of both of these with the effects of conventional intramuscular opiate analgesia. Pain scores were significantly reduced with both rectal indomethacin alone and cryoanalgesia alone; these treatments had an additive effect when used in combination. Pain on movement was significantly increased, and indomethacin was more effective in reducing this than cryoanalgesia. Groups receiving either indomethacin alone or the combination treatment required significantly less opiate on the first day and exhibited improved peak flow values over the first two days. It is concluded that rectal indomethacin, in this dosage, can provide good, safe analgesia after thoracotomy with minimum administrative difficulty. When used as an adjunct to cryoanalgesia it has an additive effect. There are many potential uses for this drug in other branches of surgery. PMID:6416399

Keenan, D J; Cave, K; Langdon, L; Lea, R E

1983-01-01

228

Screening paediatric rectal forms of azithromycin as an alternative to oral or injectable treatment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify a candidate formulation for further development of a home or near-home administrable paediatric rectal form of a broad-spectrum antibiotic – specially intended for (emergency) use in tropical rural settings, in particular for children who cannot take medications orally and far from health facilities where injectable treatments can be given. Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide used orally or intravenously for the treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, was selected because of its pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Azithromycin in vitro solubility and stability in physiologically relevant conditions were studied. Various pharmaceutical forms, i.e. rectal suspension, two different rectal gels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppository and hard gelatin capsule (HGC) were assessed for in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability in the rabbit. Azithromycin PEG suppository appears to be a promising candidate. PMID:22868232

Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Gaubert, Alexandra; Ba, Boubakar; Tagliaferri, Serena; Fawaz, Fawaz; Fabre, Jean-Louis; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; White, Nicholas J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Millet, Pascal

2012-01-01

229

Update on Transanal NOTES for Rectal Cancer: Transitioning to Human Trials  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) resection for rectal cancer has been demonstrated in both survival swine and fresh human cadaveric models. In preparation for transitioning to human application, our group has performed transanal NOTES rectal resection in a large series of human cadavers. This experience both solidified the feasibility of resection and allowed optimization of technique prior to clinical application. Improvement in specimen length and operative time was demonstrated with increased experience and newer platforms. This extensive laboratory experience has paved the way for successful clinical translation resulting in an ongoing clinical trial. To date, based on published reports, 4 human subjects have undergone successful hybrid transanal NOTES resection of rectal cancer. While promising, instrument limitations continue to hinder a pure transanal approach. Careful patient selection and continued development of new endoscopic and flexible-tip instruments are imperative prior to pure NOTES clinical application. PMID:22685646

Telem, Dana A.; Berger, David L.; Bordeianou, Liliana G.; Rattner, David W.; Sylla, Patricia

2012-01-01

230

Abnormal rectal cell proliferation and p52/p35 protein expression in patients with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the presence of cell proliferation and antigenic abnormalities in rectal biopsies from 37 patients affected by ulcerative colitis and 15 controls. The study was carried out by thymidine labeling and immunochemistry, using antibodies against specific cytoskeletal-associated proteins (p52, p35, alpha-actinin). Among ulcerative colitis patients, 24 had an immunofluorescence pattern similar to that of controls, while 13 showed an abnormal distribution of one or more proteins (p52 alone or p52 and either p35 or alpha-actinin) within the rectal crypts. Patients showed a shift of the proliferative compartment towards the top of the rectal crypts compared with controls. This finding was more evident in patients with p52 or p35 abnormalities. Proliferative and antigenic defects were not related either to age or the duration of colitis. These phenotypic changes might be a biomarker of increased risk of colon cancer in ulcerative colitis. PMID:8402594

Paganelli, G M; Higgins, P J; Biasco, G; Lipkin, M; Brandi, G; Santucci, R; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L

1993-09-15

231

Rectal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow: report of a case.  

PubMed

Abstract We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi

2014-01-01

232

A comparison of rectal palpation and ultrasonography for the evaluation of superovulatory response in beef heifers.  

PubMed

The superovulatory response was followed up in 14 beef heifers by rectal palpation and by ultrasonographic examinations of the 28 ovaries, on day 7 after superovulation induced with PMSG (ovulation = day 0). Using a B-mode ultrasound instrument (Aloka Echo Camera SSD-210-DX II) equipped with a 5 MHz linear transrectal transducer, ultrasonography was found to be more reliable than rectal palpation. A significantly higher number of follicles (P < or = 0.049) was identified by ultrasound scanning than by rectal palpation of the ovaries: follicles were more easily differentiated from cysts using ultrasonography, since each fluid-filled vesicle was accurately measured on the screen and presented on the echogram. PMID:9141283

Makek, Z; Herak, M; Cergolj, M; Barac-Getz, I; Rudan, D

1996-01-01

233

ESTIMATION OF ?/? FOR LATE RECTAL TOXICITY BASED ON RTOG 94-06  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate ?/?, the parameter ratio from the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, for grade ?2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06, and to determine whether correcting the rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) for differences in dose per fraction, based on the LQ model, significantly improves the fit to these data of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods and Materials The generalized LKB model was fitted to the grade ?2 late rectal toxicity data in two ways: 1) using DVHs representing physical dose to rectum, and 2) using a modified approach in which dose bins in the rectal DVH were corrected for differences in dose per fraction using the LQ model, with ?/? estimated as an additional unknown parameter. The analysis included only patients treated with the same treatment plan throughout radiotherapy, so that the dose per fraction to each voxel of rectum could be determined from the DVH. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess whether the fit of the LQ-corrected model was significantly better than the fit of the LKB model based on physical doses to rectum. Results The analysis included 509 of the 1084 patients enrolled on RTOG 94-06. The estimate of ?/? from the LQ-corrected LKB model was 4.8 Gy, with 68% confidence interval 0.6 Gy to 46 Gy. The fit was not significantly different from the fit of the LKB model based on physical dose to rectum (P = 0.236). Conclusions The estimated fractionation sensitivity for grade ?2 late rectal toxicity is consistent with values of ?/? for rectum found previously in humans and rodents. However, the confidence interval is large, and there is no evidence that LQ-correction of the rectal DVH significantly changes the fit or predictions of the LKB model for this endpoint. PMID:21377288

Tucker, Susan L.; Thames, Howard D.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Mohan, Radhe; Winter, Kathryn; Cox, James D.; Purdy, James A.; Dong, Lei

2011-01-01

234

Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5{Sigma}+ 0.7{sigma} to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left-right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States)

2012-10-15

235

Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.co [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

2010-07-01

236

Completeness of colon and rectal cancer staging in the Danish Cancer Registry, 2004–2009  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the completeness of tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging for colon and rectal cancer in the Danish Cancer Registry. Material and methods From the Danish Cancer Registry, we retrieved data on TNM stage, year of diagnosis, sex, and age for 15,976 and 8292 patients, respectively, with first diagnoses of colon or rectal cancer during the 2004–2009 period. From the Danish National Patient Register, we retrieved data on comorbidity (computed as Charlson Comorbidity Index scores). We calculated the completeness of TNM staging overall, by each stage component, and according to a stage algorithm allowing some missing stage components. Analyses were stratified by sex, age, year of diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Results For colon and rectal cancer, overall TNM completeness was 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.0%–68.5%) and 68.1% (95% CI: 67.0%–69.1%), respectively. For both cancers, completeness decreased with increasing age and level of comorbidity, whereas differences between the sexes were minor. Over the study period, TNM completeness for colon cancer decreased from 71.3% (95% CI: 69.5%–73.0%) to 64.8% (95% CI: 63.0%–66.6%), whereas the completeness for rectal cancer remained stable over time. When using the stage algorithm, the completeness rose markedly, to 81.1% for colon cancer and 79.0% for rectal cancer. Conclusion One-third of colon and rectal cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry had missing TNM stage information, which varied with age and level of comorbidity. Cancer cases with unknown staging warrant serious consideration of the methodological implications in future epidemiological studies monitoring cancer incidence and outcomes. PMID:23115791

Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Frřslev, Trine; Friis, Sřren; Gandrup, Per; Madsen, Mogens Rřrbćk; Sřgaard, Mette

2012-01-01

237

Rectal forceps biopsy procedure in cystic fibrosis: technical aspects and patients perspective for clinical trials feasibility  

PubMed Central

Background Measurements of CFTR function in rectal biopsies ex vivo have been used for diagnosis and prognosis of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) disease. Here, we aimed to evaluate this procedure regarding: i) viability of the rectal specimens obtained by biopsy forceps for ex vivo bioelectrical and biochemical laboratory analyses; and ii) overall assessment (comfort, invasiveness, pain, sedation requirement, etc.) of the rectal forceps biopsy procedure from the patients perspective to assess its feasibility as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Methods We compared three bowel preparation solutions (NaCl 0.9%, glycerol 12%, mannitol), and two biopsy forceps (standard and jumbo) in 580 rectal specimens from 132 individuals (CF and non-CF). Assessment of the overall rectal biopsy procedure (obtained by biopsy forceps) by patients was carried out by telephone surveys to 75 individuals who underwent the sigmoidoscopy procedure. Results Integrity and friability of the tissue specimens correlate with their transepithelial resistance (r?=??0.438 and ?0.305, respectively) and are influenced by the bowel preparation solution and biopsy forceps used, being NaCl and jumbo forceps the most compatible methods with the electrophysiological analysis. The great majority of the individuals (76%) did not report major discomfort due to the short procedure time (max 15 min) and considered it relatively painless (79%). Importantly, most (88%) accept repeating it at least for one more time and 53% for more than 4 times. Conclusions Obtaining rectal biopsies with a flexible endoscope and jumbo forceps after bowel preparation with NaCl solution is a safe procedure that can be adopted for both adults and children of any age, yielding viable specimens for CFTR bioelectrical/biochemical analyses. The procedure is well tolerated by patients, demonstrating its feasibility as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:23688510

2013-01-01

238

Challenge or opportunity: outcomes of laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer in patients with high operative risk.  

PubMed

Abstract This study investigated the impact of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection for patients with high operative risk, which was defined as American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) grades III and IV. This study was conducted at a single center on patients undergoing rectal resection from 2006 to 2010. After screening by ASA grade III or IV, 248 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified, involving 104 open and 144 laparoscopic rectal resections. The distribution of the Charlson Comorbidity Index was similar between the two groups. Compared with open rectal resection, laparoscopic resection had a significantly lower total complication rate (P<.0001), lower pain rate (P=.0002), and lower blood loss (P<.0001). It is notable that the two groups of patients had no significant difference in cardiac and pulmonary complication rates. Thus, these data showed that the laparoscopic group for rectal cancer could provide short-term outcomes similar to those of their open resection counterparts with high operative risk. The 5-year actuarial survival rates were 0.8361 and 0.8119 in the laparoscopic and open groups for stage I/II (difference not significant), as was the 5-year overall survival rate in stage III/IV (P=.0548). In patients with preoperative cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, the 5-year survival curves were significantly different (P=.0165 and P=.0210), respectively. The cost per patient did not differ between the two procedures. The results of this analysis demonstrate the potential advantages of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection for high-risk patients, although a randomized controlled trial should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:25376002

Lu, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Xue-Wei; Mao, Zhi-Hai; Han, Ding-Pei; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Wang, Puxiongzhi; Zhang, Zhuo; Zong, Ya-Ping; Thasler, Wolfgang; Feng, Hao

2014-11-01

239

Comparison between Preoperative Rectal Diclofenac Plus Paracetamol and Diclofenac Alone for PostoperativePain of Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To detect whether the preoperative combined administration of rectal diclofenac and paracetamol is superior to placebo or rectal diclofenac alone for pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and methods: Ninety female patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II), scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were recruited to this double blind trial and were randomized to receive one of three modalities before surgery: rectal combination of diclofenac and paracetamol, rectal diclofenac alone or rectal placebo alone which were given as a suppository one hour prior to surgery. The primary outcomes were visual analogue pain scores measured at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after surgery and the time of first administration and also total amount of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery. A 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS ) was used to assess pain intensity at rest. Results: In patients receiving the combination of diclofenac and paracetamol total dose of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery was significantly lower (13.9 ± 2.7 mg) compared to diclofenac group (16.8± 2.8 mg) and placebo group (20.1 ± 3.6 mg) (p<0.05). VAS pain score was significantly lower in combination group compared to other groups all time during first 24 hours (p<0.05). There had been a significant difference between combination group and the two other groups in terms of the first request of morphine (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to our study Patients who receive the rectal diclofenac-paracetamol combination experience significantly a lower pain scale in the first 24 hour after surgery compared with patients receiving diclofenac or placebo alone. Their need to supplementary analgesic is significantly later and lower compared to placebo and diclofenac alone.

Samimi Sede, Saghar; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Valadan, Mehrnaz; Modaressi, Zeinab

2014-01-01

240

Ghost ileostomy after anterior resection for rectal cancer: a preliminary experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the feasibility and the eventual advantages of ghost ileostomy (GI) versus\\u000a covering stoma (CS) in terms of complications, hospital stay and quality of life of patients and their caregivers after anterior\\u000a resection for rectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this prospective study, we included patients who had rectal cancer treated with laparotomic anterior

Nino Gullŕ; Stefano Trastulli; Carlo Boselli; Roberto Cirocchi; Davide Cavaliere; Giorgio Maria Verdecchia; Umberto Morelli; Daniele Gentile; Emilio Eugeni; Daniela Caracappa; Chiara Listorti; Francesco Sciannameo; Giuseppe Noya

241

Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

2014-01-01

242

[Scintigraphy with 111In-bleomycin in the diagnosis of recurrences of rectal cancer].  

PubMed

Altogether 76 patients were examined using scintigraphy with 111In-bleomycin. Clinicoroentgenological diagnosis of recurring rectal cancer was confirmed in 62 of them. Fourteen patients were without signs of recurrence. A focus of RP hyperfixation in the small pelvis was revealed on scintigrams in 52 (84%) of 62 patients. In 4 cases the results of examination were considered doubtful, and in 6 cases the results were false positive. Of 14 recurrence-free patients 4 had recurring tumors at early stages prior to clinical manifestations. The authors pointed to the prospects of the employment of 111In-bleomycin for diagnosis of rectal cancer recurrences. PMID:2415800

Lenskaia, O P; Ozhiganov, E L; Bogdasarov, Iu B

1985-11-01

243

Prospective evaluation of sexual function after open and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sexual function may be harmed after treatment for rectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate prospectively the incidence\\u000a of sexual dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment and to compare the effects of laparoscopic and traditional open approaches\\u000a in terms of postoperative sexual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-month assessments of sexual dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)

Paraskevas Stamopoulos; George E. Theodoropoulos; Joanna Papailiou; Dimitris Savidis; Christina Golemati; Konstantinos Bramis; Sotirios-George Panoussopoulos; Emmanouil Leandros

2009-01-01

244

Relation of Hospital Volume to Colostomy Rates and Survival for Patients With Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postoperative mortality after some types of cancer surgery is inversely related to the number of opera- tions performed at a hospital (i.e., hospital volume). This study assessed the association of hospital volume with colos- tomy rates and survival for patients with rectal cancer in a large representative cohort identified from the California Cancer Registry. Methods: We identified 7257 patients

David C. Hodgson; Wei Zhang; Alan M. Zaslavsky; Charles S. Fuchs; William E. Wright; John Z. Ayanian

2003-01-01

245

Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip  

PubMed Central

Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

246

Preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer: regional radiofrequency hyperthermia correlates with clinical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) is a widely used means of treatment for patients suffering from primary, locally advanced, or recurrent rectal cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment due to additional application of regional hyperthermia (HRCT) to this conventional therapy regime in a Phase II study, employing the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (SIGMA-60 applicator). The clinical results of the trial

B Rau; P Wust; W Tilly; J Gellermann; C Harder; H Riess; V Budach; R Felix; P. M Schlag

2000-01-01

247

Local excision of rectal schwannoma using transanal endoscopic microsurgery: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Schwannoma is a neoplasm originating from the neural crest cells (schwann cells) that form nerve sheaths. These tumors are thought to be benign with little risk of malignant transformation. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract, and primary rectal involvement is extremely rare. Until 2013, only 11 cases of anorectal schwannoma have been reported. Optimal surgical treatment of rectal schwannoma has not been established. PRESENTATION OF CASE We herein describe a 70-year-old woman with a submucosal tumor arising from the posterior wall of the rectum with features mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. After discussing the operative procedures and obtaining written informed consent, we attempted local excision of the tumor using a transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). The tumor was proved to be S-100 positive schwannoma on immuhistochemical studies. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and there is no evidence of tumor recurrence as of 6 months after surgical excision. DISCUSSION An extremely rare rectal schwannoma was successfully treated using a TEM without compromising anorectal function. CONCLUSION TEM is a feasible approach for local excision of rectal tumors with low risk of malignancy. PMID:25437674

Suzuki, Toshiaki; Suwa, Katsuhito; Hada, Takenori; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Fujita, Tetsuji; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

248

Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A systematic review of current practice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: “robotic surgery”, “surgical robotics”, “laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery”, “colectomy” and “rectal resection”. RESULTS: After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m2 were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmann’s operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery. CONCLUSION: Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost. PMID:24936229

Mak, Tony Wing Chung; Lee, Janet Fung Yee; Futaba, Kaori; Hon, Sophie Sok Fei; Ngo, Dennis Kwok Yu; Ng, Simon Siu Man

2014-01-01

249

[A case of advanced rectal carcinoma, preoperative chemo-radiation therapy leading to histological complete response].  

PubMed

A 49-year-old male was admitted to Sendai Saiseikai Hospital with a complaint of upper abdominal pain. Perforative rectal cancer was diagnosed, and an emergency laparotomy was done. Transient colostomy and drainage for peritonitis were performed. Preoperatively rectal cancer was assessed to invade the sacral bone and prostate. A total of 50 Gy radiation therapy with low dose CDDP+5-FU chemotherapy was conducted for five weeks. Remarkable shrinkage of the tumor was found, and elective surgery for curative intent was done on April 2000. The tumor seemed to invade the adjacent tissues such as prostate and urine bladder, so extensive resection of the urine bladder and sacral bone was done in addition to abdominal perineal resection. Pathological exploration showed complete regression of the tumor and no tumor invasion to the prostate and sacral bone. He is well without tumor relapse. Once complete regression of the rectal cancer by chemo-radiation therapy has been achieved, relapse of the tumor was reported to be rare. Preoperative chemo-radiation therapy is an effective tool to control the advanced rectal cancer. PMID:16969039

Ishigami, Sumiya; Kato, Kenji; Baba, Kenji; Onohara, Shinichi; Hatanaka, Shingo; Aridome, Kuniaki; Okumura, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Masataka; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aikou, Takashi

2006-09-01

250

Validation of a Bovine Rectal Palpation Simulator for Training Veterinary Students  

E-print Network

;Figure 1: Simulator training. The teacher provides instruction while the student palpates virtual modelsValidation of a Bovine Rectal Palpation Simulator for Training Veterinary Students Sarah BAILLIE 1 issues currently restrict the amount of training available to students in this procedure. Here we present

Williamson, John

251

Establishment and Characterization of Two New Rectal Neuroendocrine Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human colorectal neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (NEC) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. The biological behavior of NEC remains poorly understood. Materials and Methods: We established two new NEC cell lines from a patient with rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma, NECS-P and NECS-L from the primary tumor and a liver metastasis, respectively. We investigated the biological differences between the two

Yoshiyuki Takahashi; Masahiko Onda; Noritake Tanaka; Tomoko Seya

2000-01-01

252

Alternative diagnoses of acute appendicitis on helical CT with intravenous and rectal contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

At our institution, helical CT of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous and rectal contrast (CTRC) has become the modality of choice for investigation of patients with right lower quadrant pain and clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis. CTRC has proven useful for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) and at the same time identifies alternative diagnoses mimicking AA. This pictorial

A. R. Karam; G. A. Birjawi; C. A. Sidani; Maurice C. Haddad

2007-01-01

253

Associations between BMI, energy intake, energy expenditure, VDR genotype and colon and rectal cancers (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components of energy balance are important elements associated with colorectal cancer risk. In this study we examine the association between VDR genotypes, BMI, physical activity, and energy intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Data from a population-based case–control study of colon (1174 cases and 1174 controls) and rectal (785 cases and 1000 controls) cancer was used to evaluate the associations.

Martha L. Slattery; Maureen Murtaugh; Bette Caan; Khe Ni Ma; Roger Wolff; Wade Samowitz

2004-01-01

254

Surgical treatment for rectal cancer: An international perspective on what the medical gastroenterologist needs to know  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer accounts for one third of all colorectal cancers. The age adjusted death rates from colorectal cancer have declined over recent decades due to a combination of colorectal cancer screening, improved diagnostic tests, improved standardized surgical technique, improved medical support, neoadjuvant chemotherapies and radiation treatment or combinations of these. Because of complex treatment algorithms, use of multidisciplinary teams in the management of rectal cancer patients has also been popularized. Medical gastroenterologists performing colonoscopies are frequently the first health care provider to raise the suspicion of a rectal cancer. Although the diagnosis depends on histological confirmation, the endoscopic presentation is almost diagnostic in many cases. In order to meet the patient’s immediate needs for information, it is important that the endoscopist has knowledge about the investigations and treatment options that will be required for their patient. The aim of this paper is to describe the modern preoperative investigations and operative procedures commonly offered to rectal cancer patients taking into account perspectives of three colorectal surgeons, practicing in the USA, Europe and Asia. PMID:18528924

Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Joh, Yong-Geul; Delaney, Conor P

2008-01-01

255

Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. PMID:22612974

Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

2012-06-01

256

Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.  

PubMed

This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

2014-11-23

257

Rectal carcinoma: Preoperative staging and detection of postoperative local recurrence with transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) was performed preoperatively in 35 patients with rectal carcinoma and the results were compared to histologic findings. In the same group, postoperative studies were performed in 22 patients; in women, transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) was added to the transrectal study. According to Duke's classification modified by Astler-Coller, in relation to the T parameter, TRUS correctly staged 33 of

Michele Scialpi; Rosanna Andreatta; Silvio Agugiaro; Franco Zottele; Mauro Niccolini; Francesco Dalla Palma

1993-01-01

258

Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer with mesorectal excision: incidence, risk factors, and management.  

PubMed

We investigated risk factors and prognostic implications of symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer, and the influence of a diverting stoma. Our retrospective review of prospective collected data analyzed 475 patients who underwent anterior resection for rectal cancer. Uni- and multivariate analysis was made between anastomotic leakage and patient, tumor, and treatment variables, either for the overall group (n = 475) and in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup (n = 291). Overall rate of symptomatic leakage was 9 per cent (43 of 475) with no related postoperative mortality. At univariate analysis, significant factors for leak were a tumor less than 6 cm from the anal verge (13.7 vs 6.6%; P = 0.011) and intraoperative transfusions (16.9 vs 4.3%; P = 0.001). Similar results were observed in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup. At multivariate analysis, no parameter resulted in being an independent prognostic factor for risk of leakage. In patients with a leakage, a temporary enterostomy considerably reduced the need for reoperation (12.5 vs 77.8%; P < 0.0001) and the risk of a permanent stoma (18.7 vs 28.5%; P = 0.49). The incidence of anastomotic failure increases for lower tumors, whereas it is not influenced by radiotherapy. Defunctioning enterostomy does not influence the leak rate, but it mitigates clinical consequences. PMID:25569064

Tortorelli, Antonio Pio; Alfieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Rosa, Fausto; Papa, Valerio; Di Miceli, Dario; Bellantone, Chiara; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista

2015-01-01

259

PELVIC FLOOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR RECTAL PROLPASE  

PubMed Central

Objective Characterize pelvic floor symptom distress and impact, sexual function and quality of life in women who underwent rectal prolapse surgery. Methods Subjects undergoing rectal prolapse surgery from 2004–2009 completed questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Baseline demographic, medical, and surgical characteristics were extracted by chart review. Demographic and clinic outcomes of women undergoing transperineal and abdominal approaches were compared. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical measures. Results 45 were identified; two deceased at follow-up. 28/43 subjects (65.1%) responded to the questionnaires. Mean time from original procedure was 3.9 ± 3.1 years. No differences in median total Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and subscale scores, and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores in women undergoing open rectopexy versus transperineal proctectomy were seen (all p>0.05). 26 (60%) participants answered the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, nine reported sexual activity within the last month. All underwent abdominal procedures. Conclusion There are few colorectal or other pelvic floor symptoms after rectal prolapse repair. Robust prospective studies are needed to more fully characterize and understand issues associated with rectal prolapse surgery in women. PMID:25379122

ELLINGTON, DR; MANN, M; BOWLING, CB; DRELICHMAN, ER; GREER, WJ; SZYCHOWSKI, JM; RICHTER, HE

2014-01-01

260

Fox Chase study finds age tied to spread of rectal cancer to lymph nodes  

Cancer.gov

Rectal cancer is more likely to spread to the lymph nodes in younger patients, according to new findings that Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers presented on October 29 at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 54th Annual Meeting. The results—which are the first of their kind—suggest that doctors should search for spreading more aggressively in these patients.

261

Identification of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with Low Risk of Local Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Background The routine application of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for T3N0 rectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to use clinical, Magnetic resonance imaging, and pathological parameters to identify a subgroup of patients with low risk of local recurrence who might be precluded from neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent curative resection. 166 pathologic confirmed T3N0 rectal cancer patients with tumor located 5–12cm above the anal verge and preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm were included in analysis. The primary outcomes measured were3- and 5-year local recurrence rates. Results Local recurrence was demonstrated during follow-up in 5 patients; the actuarial overall 3- and 5-year local recurrence rates were 2.5% and 3.4%, respectively. Inadequate sampling of lymph nodes (?12) was associated with higher local recurrence (P = 0.03) in this group of patients. Conclusion For upper and middle T3N0 rectal cancer with preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm, local recurrence rate after total mesorectal excision is low and surgery alone may be enough for this group of patients. PMID:25629521

Wang, Qiao-Xuan; Li, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Lan; Cai, Pei-Qiang; An, Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

2015-01-01

262

The value of adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotherapy has been used extensively as an adjuvant treatment with surgery for patients with rectal cancer. Present knowledge indicates that preoperative radiotherapy is more dose-efficient than postoperative radiotherapy in reducing local recurrence rate. Provided the dose is sufficiently high, the reduction exceeds 50% in all Dukes' stages and after both abdominal perineal excision and anterior resection. The effect on survival

L Pĺhlman; B Glimelius

1995-01-01

263

Biopsym: a Learning Environment for Trans-Rectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate  

E-print Network

Biopsym: a Learning Environment for Trans-Rectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsies Thomas environment for image-guided prostate biopsies in cancer diagnosis; it is based on an ultrasound probe of the prostate needed for practicing biopsy sequences. The simulator uses a haptic feedback to compute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Dosimetric uncertainties related to the elasticity of bladder and rectal walls: adenocarcinoma of the prostate  

E-print Network

of the prostate Titre court: Dosimetric uncertainties and the adenocarcinoma of the prostate Incertitudes dosimétriques relatives à lélasticité de la paroi rectale et vésicale : Adenocarcinome de la prostate Cyril:0495293666 and fax:0495293797) #12;2 Abstract. Background Radiotherapy is an important treatment of prostate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1995-01-01

266

Subtotal colectomy by rectal pull-through for treatment of idiopathic megacolon in 2 cats  

PubMed Central

Surgical management of idiopathic megacolon is described in 2 cats by a rectal pull-through with subtotal colectomy performed outside of the abdomen. This newly described technique facilitates access to the rectum for suturing an anastamosis without the need for pubic osteotomy and with minimal risk of abdominal contamination. PMID:23277646

Barnes, Darren C.

2012-01-01

267

Altered rectal sensory response induced by balloon distention in patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed

Tsukasa Nozu; Miwako Kudaira

2009-01-01

268

A comparison of transanal excision and endoscopic resection for early rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the outcomes of endoscopic resection with transanal excision in patients with early rectal cancer. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with early rectal cancer were treated by transanal excision or endoscopic resection between May 1999 and December 2007. The patients were regularly re-examined by means of colonoscopy and abdominal computed tomography after resection of the early rectal cancer. Complications, length of hospital-stay, disease recurrence and follow up outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated by endoscopic resection and 16 patients were treated by transanal excision. No significant differences were present in the baseline characteristics. The rate of complete resection in the endoscopic resection group was 93.8%, compared to 87.5% in the transanal excision group (P = 0.544). The mean length of hospital-stay in the endoscopic resection group was 2.7 ± 1.1 d, compared to 8.9 ± 2.7 d in the transanal excision group (P = 0.001). The median follow up was 15.0 mo (range 6-99). During the follow up period, there was no case of recurrent disease in either group. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic resection was a safe and effective method for the treatment of early rectal cancers and its outcomes were comparable to those of transanal excision procedures. PMID:21160652

Lee, Soon Hak; Jeon, Seong Woo; Jung, Min Kyu; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Gyu Seog

2009-01-01

269

Oral calcium suppresses increased rectal epithelial proliferation of persons at risk of colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary calcium may inhibit colonic carcinogenesis promoted by high fat, phosphate, and low fibre diets. In persons at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplements significantly suppress increased rectal epithelial proliferation. This was studied in a cohort of 35 volunteers: 26 first degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients and nine who had had colonic adenomas (mean age 51.6 years, 17

P Rozen; Z Fireman; N Fine; Y Wax; E Ron

1989-01-01

270

Rectal colonization with vancomycin- resistant enterococci among high-risk patients in an Israeli hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of rectal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enteroccoci (VRE) in two high-risk populations –61 patients admitted to ICU and 92 patients on renal dialysis – was studied longitudinally over a period of six months in a 650-bed general hospital. ICU patients were swabbed weekly and dialysis patients monthly. Enterococcal isolates were fully identified using the ATB identification system, and MICs

M. Dan; F. Poch; L. Leibson; S. Smetana; I. Priel

1999-01-01

271

Changes in rectal sensitivity after hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients with the irritable bowel syndrome were studied to assess the effect of hypnotherapy on anorectal physiology. In comparison with a control group of 15 patients who received no hypnotherapy significant changes in rectal sensitivity were found in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome both after a course of hypnotherapy and during a session of hypnosis (p less than

A Prior; S M Colgan; P J Whorwell

1990-01-01

272

[Midazolam for premedication of infants. A comparison of the effect between oral and rectal administration].  

PubMed

Midazolam (M) has been successfully used in oral and rectal premedication of children of one to six years of age. The following study was designed to investigate the efficacy of both methods when used as premedication "on demand". 60 children (1-6 years) were randomly assigned to 0.3 mg/kg bw M orally and 0.5 mg/kg bw M rectally. Psychological, behavioural and physiological parameters were measured at special time intervals and special stressful events (separation from the mother or father, induction of anaesthesia). Rectally premedicated children were found to be better prepared concerning psychological and behavioural parameters. This can be due to the dosage as well as the faster absorption of M. In the postoperative period orally premedicated children experienced significantly more nausea and vomiting. This might be due to the preparation with saccharin, peppermint oil and ethanol. - In "premedication on demand" rectal Midazolam must be preferred to orally administered Midazolam in the preparation mentioned above. PMID:2694857

Tolksdorf, W; Bremerich, D; Nordmeyer, U

1989-12-01

273

The transsphincteric and transsacral approaches for the surgical excision of rectal and presacral lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the decade from 1981 to 1990, 30 patients underwent a posterior transsacral approach at the Aichi Medical University Hospital for their benign or malignant rectal lesions. The operation was classified into two procedures, consisting of the transsphincteric approach and transsacral approach, in order to cope with the condition of the anal sphincter muscles; whether they were divided or not.

Taiseki Kanemitsu; Takashi Kojima; Sadahiro Yamamoto; Akihiko Koike; Kotohito Takeshige; Takayoshi Naruse

1993-01-01

274

A complete response to mFOLFOX6 and panitumumab chemotherapy in advanced stage rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological complete remission of advanced stage rectal adenocarcinoma by chemotherapy alone is rare. A case of advanced stage, low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma in which a complete response to treatment was obtained with mFOLFOX6 and panitumumab (Pmab) is reported. Case presentation A 53-year-old man was referred to Shiga University of Medical Science hospital Shiga, Japan, complaining of bloody stool. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed, and advanced stage rectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Computed tomography (CT) revealed regional lymph node metastases in the mesorectum. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with mFOLFOX6 and Pmab was planned. Endoscopy following four courses of chemotherapy revealed that the rectal cancer had been markedly reduced, and the results of biopsies of the rectal tumor were negative for cancer. On CT, the mesorectal lymph node metastases had disappeared. Total intersphincteric resection (ISR) with a handsewn coloanal anastomosis was performed. Histological examination showed a complete response to mFOLFOX6 and Pmab in advanced stage rectal cancer. Conclusion The result seen in this case suggests that short-term NAC with mFOLFOX6 and Pmab was effective for low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24666666

2014-01-01

275

Vagal dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome assessed by rectal distension and baroreceptor sensitivity.  

PubMed

Autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study characterized the autonomic response to rectal distension in IBS using baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), a measure of autonomic function. Rectal bag pressure, discomfort, pain, ECG, blood pressure and BRS were continuously measured before, during and after rectal distension in 98 healthy volunteers (34 +/- 12 years old, 52 females) and 39 IBS patients (39 +/- 11 years old, 35 females). In comparison with the healthy volunteers, IBS patients experienced significantly more discomfort (69 +/- 2.2% vs 56 +/- 3.6%; P < 0.05), but not pain (9 +/- 1.4% vs 6 +/- 2.4%; ns) with rectal distension despite similar distension pressures (51 +/- 1.4 vs 54 +/- 2.4 mmHg; ns) and volumes (394 +/- 10.9 vs 398 +/- 21.5 mL; ns). With rectal distension, heart rate increased in both healthy volunteers (66 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 1 bpm; P < 0.05) and IBS patients (66 +/- 2 to 74 +/- 3 bpm; P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure also increased in both healthy volunteers (121 +/- 2 to 143 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05) and patients (126 +/- 3 to 153 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) as did diastolic blood pressure, 66 +/- 2 to 80 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.05), compared with 68 +/- 3 to 84 +/- 3 mmHg (P < 0.05) in IBS patients. The systolic blood pressure increase observed in IBS patients was greater than that seen in healthy volunteers and remained elevated in the post distension period (139 +/- 3 mmHg vs 129 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). IBS patients had lower BRS (7.85 +/- 0.4 ms mmHg(-1)) compared with healthy volunteers (9.4 +/- 0.3; P < 0.05) at rest and throughout rectal distension. Greater systolic blood pressure response to rectal distension and associated diminished BRS suggests a compromise of the autonomic nervous system in IBS patients. PMID:18179607

Spaziani, R; Bayati, A; Redmond, K; Bajaj, H; Mazzadi, S; Bienenstock, J; Collins, S M; Kamath, M V

2008-04-01

276

Magnetic resonance imaging based rectal cancer classification: landmarks and technical standardization.  

PubMed

Rectal cancer classification is important to determine the preoperative chemoradiation therapy and to select appropriate surgical technique. We reviewed the Western and Japanese rectal cancer classification and we propose our new classification based of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determine the relation of the tumor to fixed parameters in MRI, which are peritoneal reflection and levator ani muscle. Then, we classify the rectal cancer into four levels based on tumor distal margin and invasion to MRI parameters. We applied all three classifications to 60 retrospectively collected patients of different rectal cancer distance and we compared our classifications to the others. Based on each level we standardize our surgical approach. For stages?I-III, We found that level?I?where tumor distal margin is located above the peritoneal reflection and all of them were received low anterior resection (LAR) without chemoradiation. Level II where tumor distal margin is located from the peritoneal reflection and above the levator ani insertion on the rectum. 90% of them were received LAR ± chemoradiation. Level III where tumor distal margin is located at the level of levator ani insertion or invading any part of the levator ani. 60% of them had ULAR + coloanal anastomosis ± chemoradiation. Level IV where the tumor distal margin is located below the levator ani insertion; 77% were received APR ± chemoradiation. The overall kappa for all levels between surgeons and radiologist was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.87-0.99), which is indicating almost perfect agreement. We concluded that the management of rectal tumors differed among each tumor level and our new MRI based classification might facilitate the prediction of surgical and chemoradiation management with better communication among a multidisciplinary team comparing to other classifications. PMID:25593457

Alasari, Sami; Lim, Daero; Kim, Nam Kyu

2015-01-14

277

Circulating APRIL levels are correlated with advanced disease and prognosis in rectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the tumor necrosis factor family member a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) enhances intestinal tumor growth in various preclinical tumor models. Here, we have investigated whether APRIL serum levels at time of surgery predict survival in a large cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We measured circulating APRIL levels in a cohort of CRC patients (n=432) using a novel validated monoclonal APRIL antibody (hAPRIL.133) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) setup. APRIL levels were correlated with clinicopathological features and outcome. Overall survival was examined with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated. We observed that circulating APRIL levels were normally distributed among CRC patients. High APRIL expression correlated significantly with poor outcome measures, such as higher stage at presentation and development of lymphatic and distant metastases. Within the group of rectal cancer patients, higher circulating APRIL levels at time of surgery were correlated with poor survival (log-rank analysis P-value 0.008). Univariate Cox regression analysis for overall survival in rectal cancer patients showed that patients with elevated circulating APRIL levels had an increased risk of poor outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-2.76; P-value 0.009). Multivariate analysis in rectal cancer patients showed that APRIL as a prognostic factor was dependent on stage of disease (HR 1.25; 95% CI 0.79-1.99; P-value 0.340), which was related to the fact that stage IV rectal cancer patients had significantly higher levels of APRIL. Our results revealed that APRIL serum levels at time of surgery were associated with features of advanced disease and prognosis in rectal cancer patients, which strengthens the previously reported preclinical observation of increased APRIL levels correlating with disease progression. PMID:25622308

Lascano, V; Hahne, M; Papon, L; Cameron, K; Röeder, C; Schafmayer, C; Driessen, L; van Eenennaam, H; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P

2015-01-01

278

Role of Peroxiredoxin I in Rectal Cancer and Related to p53 Status  

SciTech Connect

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely accepted for the treatment of localized rectal cancer. Although peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) and p53 have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer treatment, the role of PrxI and its interaction with p53 in the prognosis and treatment response of rectal cancer remain relatively unstudied. Methods and Materials: In the present study, we examined the levels of PrxI and p53 in rectal cancer patients using membrane arrays and compared them with normal population samples. To demonstrate the biologic changes after manipulation of PrxI expression, we established stable transfectants of HCT-116 (wild-type p53) and HT-29 (mutant p53) cells with a PrxI silencing vector. The predictive capacities of PrxI and p53 were also assessed by relating the immunohistochemical staining of a retrospective series of rectal cancer cases to the clinical outcome. Results: The membrane array and immunochemical staining data showed that PrxI, but not p53, was significantly associated with the tumor burden. Our immunochemistry findings further indicated that PrxI positivity was linked to a poor response to neoadjuvant therapy and worse survival. In cellular and animal experiments, the inhibition of PrxI significantly decreased tumor growth and sensitized the tumor to irradiation, as indicated by a lower capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species and more extensive DNA damage. The p53 status might have contributed to the difference between HCT-116 and HT-29 after knockdown of PrxI. Conclusion: According to our data, the level of PrxI combined with the p53 status is relevant to the prognosis and the treatment response. We suggested that PrxI might be a new biomarker for rectal cancer.

Chen, Miao-Fen [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuan-Der [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chung-Hung [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huang, Wen-Shih; Chin, Chih-Chien [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, Paul- Yang [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jeng-Yi, E-mail: wangcgmh@gmail.co [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-01

279

Oncologic impact of pathologic response on clinical outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Downstaging after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer usually occurs. The present study aimed to evaluate pathologic y-stage (yp-stage) and its influence on local recurrence and systemic recurrence in rectal cancer patients treated with CRT followed by surgical resection. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 261 patients underwent preoperative CRT and radical resection for rectal cancer between August 2004 and December 2010. Patients received preoperative CRT consisting of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin delivered with concurrent pelvic radiation of 45.0-50.4 Gy, followed by radical surgery at 6-8 weeks after CRT. Results Of the 261 patients, 24 (9.2%) had yp-stage 0, 83 (31.8%) had yp-stage I, 86 (32.9%) had yp-stage II, and 68 (26.1%) had yp-stage III. Patients with yp-stage III had a greater prevalence of preoperative CEA, poorly differentiated tumor, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion (PNI) than patients with lower yp-stages. We found that yp-stage, preoperative CEA, LVI, PNI and tumor regression grade were significant prognostic factors for both local and systemic recurrence. In multivariate analysis, yp-stage, LVI and PNI were significant factors for local and systemic recurrence. During the median follow-up of 37.5 months, the five-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 100.0%, 95.0%, 89.3%, and 80.6% of yp-stage 0-III, respectively. The five-year systemic recurrence-free survival was 95.8%, 75.3%, 71.4%, and 48.8% of yp-stages 0-III, respectively. Conclusion The yp-stage after preoperative CRT for rectal cancer is closely correlated with local and systemic recurrence-free survival. Therefore, yp-stage should be considered as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients having a course of preoperative CRT. PMID:25553320

Yoon, Wook Hyeon; Kim, Hun Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Joo, Jae Kyoon; Kim, Young Jin

2015-01-01

280

Risk Factors of Synchronous Inguinal Lymph Nodes Metastasis for Lower Rectal Cancer Involving the Anal Canal  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors of synchronous ILN metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal. Methods Patients with lower rectal cancer who underwent radical resection at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed. The synchronous ILN metastasis was defined as the metastasis occurring within 6 months after the diagnosis of rectal cancer. Patients’ gender, age, tumor diameter, dentate line invasion, differentiation level, histological type, depth of invasion, perirectal LN metastasis, lymphovascular invasion or perineural invasion were analyzed in the study. The correlation between synchronous ILN involvement and clinicopathological features were analyzed with Chi-square test/fisher’s exact test. Variables with p<0.05 in univariate analysis were then analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Odds ratio (OR) along with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results A total of 325 patients (182 men and 143 women) with lower rectal cancer met the criteria and were enrolled in the study. Among them, 20 patients (6.2%) had synchronous ILN metastasis. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed the invasion of the dentate line had a strong correlation with synchronous ILN metastasis with the odds ratio (OR) of 23.558 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.380–86.982] (p<0.001). The presence of lymphovascular invasion also showed a significant correlation synchronous ILN metastasis with odds ratio (OR) of 5.260 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.818–15.212] (p?=?0.002). Conclusions The invasion of dentate line and lymphovascular invasion are two independent risk factors of inguinal lymph node metastasis for lower rectal cancer involving the anal canal. PMID:25409168

Shi, Debing; Zheng, Hongtu; Huang, Liyong; Gu, Weilie; Xu, Ye; Cai, Sanjun; Cai, Guoxiang

2014-01-01

281

Men's experience with sexual dysfunction post-rectal cancer treatment: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

In an effort to address reports from men that their sex life is worse after treatment for rectal cancer, this qualitative study was designed to better understand their experience with sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer treatment, thus providing information on the adaptation of a psycho-educational sexual health intervention for male rectal cancer survivors and simultaneously investigating barriers and promoters that would influence their participation in a psycho-educational sexual health intervention. Thirteen male rectal cancer survivors who were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for rectal cancer participated (median time post-treatment was 6.4 years). Six survivors participated in individual semi-structured phone interviews, and seven others took part in focus groups. We performed standard procedures of qualitative thematic text analysis, which involved independent review of interview and focus group transcripts by several analysts followed by consensus meetings to identify key themes. Participants reported bowel dysfunction (N = 13, or 100%) and erectile dysfunction (N = 12, or 92%) as chief complaints. The participants thought a psychoeducational sexual health intervention post-surgery would be helpful because it would provide educational information regarding the etiology of their problems and treatments to improve their sexual health (N = 8, or 62%). Most participants' primary concern immediately after treatment was surviving their disease; improving sexual functioning seemed to become more important over time. Barriers to potentially participating in a psycho-educational sexual health intervention included geographical distance from MSKCC (N = 3, or 3/13) and the risk of embarrassment when discussing sexual issues (N = 5, or 5/13). Men reported that a psycho-educational sexual health intervention would be helpful to improve their sexual functioning post-treatment. Discussion of bowel issues and logistical concerns gave information on the psycho-educational sexual health intervention. PMID:23821133

Ball, Melinda; Nelson, Christian J; Shuk, Elyse; Starr, Tatiana D; Temple, Larissa; Jandorf, Lina; Schover, Leslie; Mulhall, John P; Woo, Heidi; Jennings, Sabrina; DuHamel, Katherine

2013-09-01

282

Overexpression of CPS1 is an independent negative prognosticator in rectal cancers receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.  

PubMed

Locally advanced rectal cancers are currently treated with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery, but stratification of risk and final outcomes remain suboptimal. In view of the fact that glutamine metabolism is usually altered in cancer, we profiled and validated the significance of genes involved in this pathway in rectal cancers treated with CCRT. From a published transcriptome of rectal cancers (GSE35452), we focused on glutamine metabolic process-related genes (GO:0006541) and found upregulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) gene most significantly predicted poor response to CCRT. We evaluated the expression levels of CPS1 using immunohistochemistry to analyze tumor specimens obtained during colonoscopy from 172 rectal cancer patients. Expression levels of CPS1 were further correlated with major clinicopathological features and survivals in this validation cohort. To further confirm CPS1 expression levels, Western blotting was performed for human colon epithelial primary cell (HCoEpiC) and four human colon cancer cells, including HT29, SW480, LoVo, and SW620. CPS1 overexpression was significantly related to advanced posttreatment tumor (T3, T4; P?=?0.006) and nodal status (N1, N2; P?rectal cancer patients receiving CCRT, justifying the potential theranostic value of CPS1 for such patients. PMID:25099619

Lee, Yi-Ying; Li, Chien-Feng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Lee, Sung-Wei; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Wu, Ting-Feng; Hsing, Chung-Hsi

2014-11-01

283

Magnetic resonance imaging based rectal cancer classification: Landmarks and technical standardization  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer classification is important to determine the preoperative chemoradiation therapy and to select appropriate surgical technique. We reviewed the Western and Japanese rectal cancer classification and we propose our new classification based of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determine the relation of the tumor to fixed parameters in MRI, which are peritoneal reflection and levator ani muscle. Then, we classify the rectal cancer into four levels based on tumor distal margin and invasion to MRI parameters. We applied all three classifications to 60 retrospectively collected patients of different rectal cancer distance and we compared our classifications to the others. Based on each level we standardize our surgical approach. For stages?I-III, We found that level?I?where tumor distal margin is located above the peritoneal reflection and all of them were received low anterior resection (LAR) without chemoradiation. Level II where tumor distal margin is located from the peritoneal reflection and above the levator ani insertion on the rectum. 90% of them were received LAR ± chemoradiation. Level III where tumor distal margin is located at the level of levator ani insertion or invading any part of the levator ani. 60% of them had ULAR + coloanal anastomosis ± chemoradiation. Level IV where the tumor distal margin is located below the levator ani insertion; 77% were received APR ± chemoradiation. The overall kappa for all levels between surgeons and radiologist was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.87-0.99), which is indicating almost perfect agreement. We concluded that the management of rectal tumors differed among each tumor level and our new MRI based classification might facilitate the prediction of surgical and chemoradiation management with better communication among a multidisciplinary team comparing to other classifications. PMID:25593457

Alasari, Sami; Lim, Daero; Kim, Nam Kyu

2015-01-01

284

Multidisciplinary approach to rectal cancer: are we ready for selective treatment strategies?  

PubMed

With optimized local treatment, achieved in the last years by TME surgery and the shift from a postoperative to a preoperative treatment approach, distant metastases have become the predominant mode of failure in rectal cancer. Therefore, the intensification of chemotherapy seems essential to improve distant control and survival in rectal cancer. The integration of newer generation chemotherapeutics and target agents into fluoropyrimidines-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been the more actively pursued intensification strategy. However, early results from randomized phase III trials, evaluating the addition of oxaliplatin to preoperative fluoropyrimidines-based CRT, did not show a significant impact on early pathological response with the addition of oxaliplatin, with the exception of the German CAO/ARO/AIO-04 study. Moreover, the integration of target agents into preoperative CRT, although attractive in principle, has yielded low rates of pathologic complete responses when combined with cetuximab and some concerns on surgical morbidity following preoperative treatment with bevacizumab have been raised. Several novel strategies with different sequence of multimodal treatment components have been developed. However, the evidence that rectal cancers are a widely heterogeneous group of tumors with different prognostic implications, has indicated that the careful assessment of the risk of recurrence is a critical issue. In the era of the preoperative approach, staging with MRI, for its ability to predict the involvement of the mesorectal fascia, should be mandatory for all patients with rectal cancer, to refine the selection of patients for different treatment strategies. Moreover, considering that response to preoperative treatment is not uniformly obtained in all patients and post-operative chemotherapy is generally met with poor adherence, a risk-adapted strategy should be pursued in the postoperative setting as well. The selection of patients for different multidisciplinary treatment strategies based on clinico-pathological features, rather than the current "one size fits all" approach, will allow minimizing therapy and maximizing outcome for rectal cancer patients. PMID:23272969

Avallone, Antonio; Aloj, Luigi; Delrio, Paolo; Pecori, Biagio; Leone, Alessandra; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Perri, Francesco; Petrillo, Antonella; Scott, Nigel; Budillon, Alfredo

2013-07-01

285

Molecular, Pathologic and MRI Investigation of the Prognostic and Redictive Importance of Extramural Venous Invasion in Rectal Cancer (MARVEL) Trial  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Diseases; Colorectal Neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases

2013-11-26

286

Combined Endoscopic Trans-Anal Rectal Mucosal Ablation and Laparoscopic Partial Proctectomy for Ulcerative Colitis – A New Procedure  

PubMed Central

A case is reported in which endoscopic trans-anal rectal mucosal ablation (ETARMA) was employed in combination with laparoscopic partial proctectomy in order to decrease complications associated with open surgery. PMID:18765018

Colegate-Stone, T; Raymond, T; Khot, U; Parker, MC; Stewart, M

2008-01-01

287

Rectal Swabs Are Suitable for Quantifying the Carriage Load of KPC-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

It is more convenient and practical to collect rectal swabs than stool specimens to study carriage of colon pathogens. In this study, we examined the ability to use rectal swabs rather than stool specimens to quantify Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to determine the concentration of the blaKPC gene relative to the concentration of 16S rRNA genes and a quantitative culture-based method to quantify CRE relative to total aerobic bacteria. Our results demonstrated that rectal swabs are suitable for quantifying the concentration of KPC-producing CRE and that qPCR showed higher correlation between rectal swabs and stool specimens than the culture-based method. PMID:23295937

Lerner, A.; Romano, J.; Chmelnitsky, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.; Edgar, R.

2013-01-01

288

Association of statin use with a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, might enhance the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 358 patients with clinically resectable, nonmetastatic rectal cancer underwent surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for either locally advanced tumors or low-lying tumors that would require abdominoperineal resection. We excluded 9 patients for radiation therapy dose <45 Gy or if statin use was unknown, leaving 349 evaluable patients. Median radiation therapy dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy), and 308 patients (88%) received 5-flurouracil-based chemotherapy. Medication use, comorbid illnesses, clinical stage as assessed by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and type of chemotherapy were analyzed for associations with pathologic complete response (pCR), defined as no microscopic evidence of tumor. Fisher's exact test was used for categoric variables, Mantel-Haenszel test for ordered categoric variables, and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: Thirty-three patients (9%) used a statin, with no differences in clinical stage according to digital rectal examination or ultrasound compared with the other 324 patients. At the time of surgery, 23 nonstatin patients (7%) were found to have metastatic disease, compared with 0% for statin patients. The unadjusted pCR rates with and without statin use were 30% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.10). Variables significant univariately at the p = 0.15 level were entered into a multivariate model, as were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which were strongly associated with statin use. The odds ratio for statin use on pCR was 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.1; p = 0.003) after adjusting for NSAID use, clinical stage, and type of chemotherapy. Conclusion: In multivariate analysis, statin use is associated with an improved pCR rate after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer. The low prevalence of statin use limits the power to detect a significant difference at a type I error threshold of p = 0.05 in this analysis. Although no definitive conclusions can be drawn on the basis of this retrospective study, the unusually high incidence of pCR after chemoradiation suggests that the use of statins in the treatment of rectal cancer warrants further evaluation.

Katz, Matthew S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Minsky, Bruce D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: minskyb@mskcc.org; Saltz, Leonard B. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Riedel, Elyn [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Chessin, David B. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Guillem, Jose G. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2005-08-01

289

Relation Between Normal Rectal Methylation, Smoking Status, and the Presence or Absence of Colorectal Adenomas  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is 1 of the leading causes of death in the Western world. CRC develops from premalignant lesions, chiefly colorectal adenomas. Currently, the most accurate and recommended screening method for finding colorectal adenomas is colonoscopy performed on all individuals aged >50 years. However, the costs and risks associated with this procedure are relatively high. The objectives of the current study were to correlate epigenetic alterations that occur in normal rectal mucosa, smoking status, and age with the presence or absence of concomitant colorectal adenomas and to assess the potential clinical value of methylation in normal rectal biopsies as a screening assay for the presence of polyps and, hence, the need for a full colonoscopy. METHODS One hundred thirteen normal rectal mucosal biopsies from 113 patients were studied. DNA was extracted, modified with sodium bisulfite, and subjected to real-time quantitative, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis for the following genes: adenomatous polyposis coli (APC); cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial) (CDH1); estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1); cytokine high in normal 1 (HIN1); hyperplastic polyposis protein 1 (HPP1); O-6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT); neural epidermal growth factor-like 1 (NELL1); splicing factor 3B, 14-kDa subunit (p14); cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 2B (inhibits CDK4) (p15); retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR?); somatostatin (SST); tachykinin, precursor 1 (TAC1); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3). Data were then analyzed using several proprietary software programs. RESULTS By using several sets of genes, clinical characteristics, and multivariate analyses, the authors developed a prediction model for the presence of concomitant colorectal adenomas at the time of rectal biopsy. They also observed strong correlations between smoking status and rectal methylation pattern and between smoking status and the presence or risk of concomitant adenomas. CONCLUSIONS A prediction model was developed for the presence of colorectal adenomas based on gene methylation patterns in the normal rectum. The results indicated that these genes may be involved in early stages of adenoma formation. The observed epigenetic alterations in these markers may be caused in part by the effects of smoking and/or age. Normal rectal methylation may be useful as a biomarker for narrowing the population in need of screening colonoscopy. PMID:20572039

Paun, Bogdan C.; Kukuruga, Debra; Jin, Zhe; Mori, Yuriko; Cheng, Yulan; Duncan, Mark; Stass, Sanford A.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Hutcheon, David; Meltzer, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

290

p53 protein overexpression and response to induction chemoradiation therapy in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The association between mutations in the p53 gene and prognosis in colorectal cancer remains controversial. This report evaluates the role of p53 protein to predict the response of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with primary locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.\\u000aMethods: Between January 1993 and December 1994, 26 patients were seen with locally advanced primary rectal adenocarcinoma, located between 0

Pedro Luna-Perez; Emma L. Arriola; Yvonne Cuadra; Isabel Alvarado; Angelina Quintero

1998-01-01

291

Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ?1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ?25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

2013-12-01

292

Long-term results of preoperative chemoradiation for distal rectal cancer correlation between final stage and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoadjuvant chemoradiation treatment (CRT) has resulted in significant tumor downstaging and improved local disease control\\u000a for distal rectal cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlation between final stage and survival\\u000a in these patients regardless of initial disease stage. Two hundred sixty patients with distal (0-7 cm from anal verge) rectal\\u000a adenocarcinoma considered resectable were treated

Angelita Habr-Gama; RodrigoOliva Perez; Wladimir Nadalin; Sérgio Carlos Nahas; Ulysses Ribeiro; Afonso Henrique Silva e Sousa; Fŕbio Guilherme Campos; Desidério Roberto Kiss; Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues

2005-01-01

293

A Penetrating Stab Wound of the Perianal Area Causing a Combined Rectal and Bladder Injury: One Case Report  

PubMed Central

Although the management of either isolated rectal or bladder injury is no more controversial, their combined effect and their optimal management has been seldom reported in the English literature. From a case report of a 45-year-old male who was found to have a combined bladder and rectal injury secondary to a stab wound of the perianal area, the authors develop a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of this uncommon trauma. PMID:22844630

Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Ahallal, Youness; Riyach, Omar; El Ammari, Jalal Eddine; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

2012-01-01

294

The effect of dietary fiber components on bile pigments in hyperbilirubinemia: implications on colo-rectal cancer  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER COMPONENTS ON BILE PIGMENTS IN HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA; IMPLICATIONS ON COLO-RECTAL CANCER A Thesis by JANE ALLEN JARMEK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement, for . he degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Biochemistry THE EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER COMPONENTS ON BILE PIGMENTS IN HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA; IMPLICATIONS ON COLO-RECTAL CANCER A Thesis by JANE ALLEN JARMEK Approved...

Jarmek, Jane Allen

2012-06-07

295

Prostate cancer detection in a clinical urological practice by ultrasonography, digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prostate cancer detection rate from screening by digital rectal examination and tactilely guided prostate biopsy is approximately 1.7%. Among 1,807 men a detection rate of 14.6% was achieved in a clinical urological practice by physician-conducted prostate ultrasonography, digital rectal examination and determination of serum prostate specific antigen. Results are presented in 5-year increments as well as for the group

William H. Cooner; B. R. Mosley; Charles L. Rutherford; Jeff H. Beard; Harry S. Pond; William J. Terry; Todd C. Igel; Donald D. Kidd

2002-01-01

296

Novel Parameter Predicting Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a novel parameter predicting rectal bleeding on the basis of generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUD) after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy and to assess the predictive value of this parameter. Methods and Materials: To account for differences among radiation treatment modalities and fractionation schedules, rectal dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of 369 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing combined therapy retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to equivalent dose-based DVHs. The gEUDs for the rectum were calculated from these converted DVHs. The total gEUD (gEUD{sub sum}) was determined by a summation of the brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy components. Results: Thirty-eight patients (10.3%) developed grade 2+ rectal bleeding. The grade 2+ rectal bleeding rate increased as the gEUD{sub sum} increased: 2.0% (2 of 102 patients) for <70 Gy, 10.3% (15 of 145 patients) for 70-80 Gy, 15.8% (12 of 76 patients) for 80-90 Gy, and 19.6% (9 of 46 patients) for >90 Gy (P=.002). Multivariate analysis identified age (P=.024) and gEUD{sub sum} (P=.000) as risk factors for grade 2+ rectal bleeding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate gEUD to be a potential predictive factor for grade 2+ late rectal bleeding after combined therapy for prostate cancer.

Shiraishi, Yutaka, E-mail: shiraishi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro [Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2013-09-01

297

A phase Ib study of the effects of black raspberries on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.  

PubMed

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the early onset of colonic polyposis and a high risk for colorectal cancer. FAP is treated by colectomy followed by lifelong removal of rectal polyps. This study determined whether black raspberries (BRBs) might regress rectal polyps in patients with FAP. Fourteen patients with FAP were treated with BRBs daily for 9 months. Seven patients received BRB powder orally plus two BRB suppositories inserted into the rectum at bedtime. The other 7 received an oral placebo plus the suppositories. Rectal polyp counts and polyp sizes were obtained at time zero and after 9 months of BRB treatment. Polyps and adjacent normal tissue were collected at both time points. The burden (P = 0.036) but not number (P = 0.069) of rectal polyps was significantly decreased. No benefit was noted with the addition of oral BRBs. Three patients were nonresponders. BRBs significantly decreased cellular proliferation, DNA methylation methyl transferase 1 protein expression, and p16 promoter methylation, but not promoter methylation of the Wnt pathway antagonists, SFRP2 and WIF1, in rectal polyps (adenomas) from responders but not from nonresponders. The MBD-seq assay revealed more demethylated transcription start sites (TSS), including those for miRNAs, in BRB-treated adenomas from the responders. In conclusion, BRB suppositories seem sufficient for regressing rectal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:24764585

Wang, Li-Shu; Burke, Carol A; Hasson, Henrietta; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Molmenti, Christine L Sardo; Seguin, Claire; Liu, Pengyuan; Huang, Tim H-M; Frankel, Wendy L; Stoner, Gary D

2014-07-01

298

A case of capecitabine-induced coronary microspasm in a patient with rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most frequently used chemotherapy agent concomitant with radiotherapy in the management of patients with rectal cancer. Capecitabine is an oral fluoropyrimidine that mimics the pharmaconkinetics of infusional 5-FU. This new drug is replacing 5-FU as a part of the combined-modality treatment of a number of gastrointestinal cancers. While cardiac events associated with the use of 5-FU are a well known side effect, capecitabine-induced cardiotoxicity has been only rarely reported. Here, we reviewed the case of a patient with rectal cancer who had a capecitabine-induced coronary vasospasm. The most prominent mutation of the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene was also analyzed. PMID:17465463

Arbea, Leire; Coma-Canella, Isabel; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; García-Foncillas, Jesús

2007-01-01

299

Comparison between endoluminal ultrasonography and spiral computerized tomography for the preoperative local staging of rectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) and spiral computerized tomography (SCT) in preoperative local staging of rectal carcinoma. EUS and SCT were performed prior to surgery in 78 patients with rectal carcinoma. After radical surgery, the preoperative findings were compared with histologic findings on the surgical specimen, and we assessed the values of EUS and SCT in staging the tumor. For T staging, accuracy was 84.6% for EUS, 70.5% for SCT (p < 0.05). For N staging, accuracy was 64.1% for EUS, 61.5% for SCT (p > 0.05). EUS is superior to SCT in judging tumor infiltrate depth, but neither could provide satisfactory assessments of lymph node metastases. PMID:20103950

Ju, Haixing; Xu, Dong; Li, Dechuan; Chen, Guiping; Shao, Guoliang

2009-04-01

300

Dosimetric uncertainties related to the elasticity of bladder and rectal walls: Adenocarcinoma of the prostate  

E-print Network

Purpose. - Radiotherapy is an important treatment for prostate cancer.During treatment sessions, bladder and rectal repletion is difficult to quantify and cannot be measured with a single and initial CT scan acquisition. Some methods, such as image-guided radiation therapy and dose-guided radiation therapy, aimto compensate thismissing information through periodic CT acquisitions. The aimis to adapt patient's position, beam configuration or prescribed dose for a dosimetric compliance. Methods. -We evaluated organmotion (and repletion) for 54 patients after having computed the original ballistic on a new CT scan acquisition. A new delineation was done on the prostate, bladder and rectum to determine the newdisplacements and define organ dosesmistakes (equivalent uniformdose, average dose and dose-volume histograms). Results. - The new CT acquisitions confirmed that bladder and rectal volumes were not constant during sessions. Some cases showed that previously validated treatment plan became unsuitable. A propo...

Voyant, Cyril; Delphine, Leschi; Briancon, Jerome; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri; 10.1016/j.canrad.2010.12.006

2011-01-01

301

Rectal cancer. Treatment advances that reduce recurrence rates and lengthen survival.  

PubMed

The risk of malignant disease arising in rectal mucosa is high. Surgery is the most effective form of treatment but results in cure in only 50% of patients. Adjuvant preoperative radiation therapy reduces the likelihood of local recurrence but does not improve survival rates. Fluorouracil is the most effective agent for adjuvant chemotherapy and slightly improves survival when given after surgery. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy appears to have a synergistic effect, and recent studies show that providing this combination after surgery improves survival. Future trends in the treatment of rectal cancer are expected to include expanded use of local excision to preserve anal sphincter function, preoperative use of a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, perioperative use of chemotherapy combined with immunostimulating therapy, and use of tumor antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:8321771

Sexe, R; Miedema, B W

1993-07-01

302

[Fibrin glue sealant for management of seminal vesicle-rectal fistula : a case report].  

PubMed

A 56- year-old man underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer (cT3bN0M0). Postoperatively, he was fairly well and started oral intake on postoperative day (POD) 9. On POD 14, he had an uncomfortable feeling during urination and noticed pneumaturia, and urinalysis revealed hematopyuria. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed air collection in the left seminal vesicle and bladder, and colonoscopy demonstrated a fistula at the anastomotic site. Abdominal CT following the fistulography under colonoscopy demonstrated fistulous communication between the rectum and left seminal vesicle. Under the diagnosis of seminal vesicle-rectal fistula, the patient was successfully treated by filling the fistula with fibrin glue by colonoscopy. No obvious recurrence of the fistula has been observed for 6 months after the treatment. PMID:24419012

Soda, Tetsuji; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

2013-12-01

303

Rectal ulcer: Due to ketoprofen, argon plasma coagulation and prostatic brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Prostatic brachytherapy with permanent seed implants is a recent and safe radiation therapy technique associated with radiation-induced digestive disease. Argon plasma coagulation procedure is a validated modality in the management of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, which is known to occasionally induce chronic rectal ulcers. We report here an original case report of an acute painful rectal ulcer as a consequence of the combination of short-term therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy, prostatic brachytherapy with malposition of seed implants and argon plasma coagulation procedure in a patient with haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. The description of this clinical observation is essential to recommend the discontinuation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy and the control of the position of seed implants in case of prostatic brachytherapy before argon plasma coagulation for radiation-induced proctitis. PMID:25493041

Koessler, Thibaud; Servois, Vincent; Mariani, Pascale; Aubert, Emilie; Cacheux, Wulfran

2014-01-01

304

Hypothalamic, rectal, and muscle temperatures in exercising dogs - Effect of cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of performance prolongation during exercise is presented. Measurements were obtained of the rectal, muscle, and hypothalamic temperature of dogs during treadmill exercise at an ambient temperature of 22 + or - 1 C, with and without cooling by use of ice packs. In comparison with exercise without cooling, exercise with cooling was found to: (1) increase exercise duration from 90 + or - 14 to 145 + or - 15 min; (2) attenuate increases in hypothalamic, rectal and muscle temperature; (3) decrease respiratory and heart rates; and (4) lower blood lactic acid content. It is shown that although significant differences were found between the brain, core, and muscle temperatures during exercise with and without cooling, an inverse relation was observed between muscle temperature and the total duration of exercise. It is suggested that sustained muscle hyperthermia may have contributed to the limitation of working ability in exercise with and without cooling.

Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

1985-01-01

305

Design of a rectal probe for diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging for chemotherapy and radiotherapy monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (DOSI) has shown great potential for the early detection of non-responding tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, already one day after therapy starts. Patients with rectal cancer receive similar chemotherapy treatment. The rectum geometry and tissue properties of healthy and tumor tissue in the rectum and the requirement of surface contact impose constraints on the probe design. In this work we present the design of a DOSI probe with the aim of early chemotherapy/radiotherapy effectiveness detection in rectal tumors. We show using Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements that the colon tissue can be characterized reliably using a source-detector separation in the order of 10 mm. We present a design and rapid prototype of a probe for DOSI measurements that can be mounted on a standard laparoscope and that fits through a standard rectoscope. Using predominantly clinically approved components we aim at fast clinical translation.

van de Giessen, Martijn; Santoro, Ylenia; Mirzaei Zarandi, Soroush; Pigazzi, Alessio; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

2014-03-01

306

[Case of rectal migratin of mesh after TVM (tension-free vaginal mesh) operation].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old woman presented with recto-cutaneous fistula after tension-free vaginal mesh reconstruction using polypropylene mesh for pelvic organ prolapse. Eleven months after the operation, an ulcerative lesion with stools smell secretion developed in the left hip. Magnetic resonance imaging and colonoscopy revealed a migration of the left arm of the mesh and a recto-cutaneous fistula. The patient underwent excision of the infected mesh and rectal wall closure together with transient colostomy. After 8 months, colonoscopy revealed a new migration of the mesh in the rectum, which was also removed. The colostomy was closed one year later and rectal erosion has not reccurred since then. The possibility of developing a rare but severe mesh-related complication as presented here should always be kept in mind. PMID:22390087

Taoka, Rikiya; Mizuno, Kei; Matsuoka, Takashi; Kita, Yuki; Nakanishi, Shotaro; Asai, Seiji; Soda, Takeshi; Inoue, Koji; Terai, Akito

2011-11-01

307

Reconstruction techniques after extralevator abdominoperineal rectal excision or pelvic exenteration: meshes, plasties and flaps.  

PubMed

Perineal wound complications after abdomino-perineal rectal resection are frequent and clinically relevant for their impact on the length of hospitalization, costs, patients' quality of life and oncologic results. With the diffusion of the preoperative radiotherapy and the gradual shift to the extra-elevator technique, the perineal morbidity rate has increased. Many series describing different techniques of primary closure of the perineal defect have been published, but high-quality clinical studies, indicating which is the best option, are missing. A biologic mesh, associated if possible to an omentoplasty, seems to be sufficient to close the perineal defect after extra-elevator abdomino-perineal rectal resection. However, when the proctectomy is associated to the resection of other organs, as for example vagina or sacrum, resulting in an ample perineal defect, the vertical rectus abdominis flap seems to be the best option. If the perineal defect is smaller, the gracilis or gluteus flaps could be other valid alternatives. PMID:24842691

Frasson, Matteo; Flor-Lorente, Blas; Carreńo, Omar

2014-03-01

308

Colonic duplication in adults: Report of two cases presenting with rectal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal duplication is an uncommon congenital abnormality in two-thirds of cases manifesting before the age of 2 years. Ileal duplication is common while colonic duplication, either cystic or tubular, is a rather unusual clinical entity that remains asymptomatic and undiagnosed in most cases. Mostly occurring in pediatric patients, colonic duplication is encountered in adults only in a few cases. This study reports two cases of colonic duplication in adults. Both cases presented with rectal bleeding on admission. The study was focused on clinical, imaging, histological, and therapeutical aspects of the presenting cases. Gastrografin enema established the diagnosis in both cases. The cystic structure and the adjacent part of the colon were excised en-block. The study implies that colonic duplication, though uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of rectal bleeding. PMID:16124070

Fotiadis, C; Genetzakis, M; Papandreou, I; Misiakos, EP; Agapitos, E; Zografos, GC

2005-01-01

309

Surgical and oncology trials for rectal cancer: who will participate? | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Patients, surgeons, and oncologists were asked whether they would be willing to enter one of five randomized controlled trials for rectal cancer. Patients’ willingness to participate was consistently low (19%-32%). Colorectal surgeons and medical and radiation oncologists also reported low levels of potential participation. The overwhelming reason for refusing to enter each trial was a dislike of the randomization process, followed by the effect of treatment on quality of life.

310

Morphine modifies the cingulate-operculum network underlying painful rectal evoked potentials.  

PubMed

The effect of opioids on brain networks underlying rectal evoked potentials (EPs) has never been investigated. This study utilized brain source connectivity to explore whether morphine induced changes in brain networks underlying painful rectal EPs would reflect changes in pain scores due to morphine. Twenty healthy volunteers were included in this placebo-controlled cross-over study. Sensory and pain thresholds to electrically induced rectal stimulation were taken before (baseline) and 70 min after placebo/morphine (30 mg) administration. The stimulation intensity required to evoke moderate pain at baseline was employed for EPs. The pain score of this stimulation intensity was recorded again 70 min after placebo/morphine administration. 62-channel EPs were recorded for both arms. Amplitudes and latencies were analysed and brain source connectivity analysis was done. Changes in any of the parameters describing EPs were correlated to changes in subjective pain ratings. Morphine increased sensory and pain thresholds by 28.8% and 27.5% (P ? 0.02). The pain score corresponding to moderate pain at baseline was attenuated in both placebo and morphine arms by 14.5% and 37.5% (P < 0.05). There was a 33.9% reduction in EP amplitudes due to placebo (P < 0.05), whereas EP amplitudes remained stable due to morphine. A dominating cingulate-operculum network to rectal pain was seen. Cingulate source shifted anteriorly in the morphine arm (P < 0.001) and this shift was positively correlated to the change in the pain score (r = 0.6, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that visceral pain relief due to morphine is associated with reorganization within cingulate cortex, which may be used as a biomarker of opioid effects. PMID:24184388

Lelic, D; Olesen, A E; Gregersen, H; Dahan, A; Kolesnikov, Y; Drewes, A M

2014-02-01

311

The effect of rectal and nasal administration of salmon calcitonin in normal subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to ascertain the blood levels and the biologic responses obtained after administration of two noninjectable forms\\u000a of salmon calcitonin (SCT) (i.e., a nasal spray and a suppository), two doses of 200 IU each were administered at 3 hour intervals\\u000a nasally to 8 normal subjects, and rectally to 9 normal subjects. Five untreated subjects served as controls. All were

T. Buclin; J. P. Randin; A. F. Jacquet; M. Azria; M. Attinger; F. Gomez; P. Burckhardt

1987-01-01

312

Evaluation of selective defunctioning stoma after low anterior resection for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Anastomotic leakage is a major concern after resection for low rectal cancer. Therefore, the use of a defunctioning stoma\\u000a (DS) has been suggested, but limited data exist to clearly determine the necessity of a routine diversion. In our department,\\u000a the indication of DS was evaluated subjectively by the operating surgeon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selective

B. Lefebure; J. J. Tuech; V. Bridoux; B. Costaglioli; M. Scotte; P. Teniere; F. Michot

2008-01-01

313

Resistance in the Rectal Carriage of Men in an Active Surveillance Cohort: Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rectal swabs can identify men with fluoroquinolone resistant bacteria and decrease the infection rate after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy by targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis. We evaluated the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in an active surveillance cohort with attention to factors associated with resistance and changes in resistance with time. Materials and Methods We evaluated 416 men with prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent rectal swabs to assess the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance compared to that in men undergoing diagnostic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. The chi-square test and Student t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Poisson regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results On the initial swab fluoroquinolone resistance was found in 95 of 416 men (22.8%) on active surveillance compared to 54 of 221 (24.4%) in the diagnostic biopsy cohort (p = 0.675). Diabetes was found in 4.0% of the fluoroquinolone sensitive group vs 14.7% of the resistant group (p <0.001). Biopsy history was not associated with resistance. Of those with a resistant first swab 62.9% had a resistant second swab and 88.9% of those with 2 resistant swabs showed resistance on the third swab. Of men with a sensitive first swab 10.6% showed resistance on the second swab and 10.6% of those with 2 sensitive swabs had resistant third swabs. Conclusions One of 4 men who present for surveillance and diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy have rectal flora resistant to fluooquinolone. Resistance is significantly associated with diabetes but the number of prior biopsies is not. Men with fluoroquinolone resistant flora tend to remain resistant with time. PMID:25111911

Cohen, Jason E.; Landis, Patricia; Trock, Bruce J.; Patel, Hiten D.; Ball, Mark W.; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Schaeffer, Edward; Carter, H. Ballentine

2015-01-01

314

Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2012-04-01

315

Vaginal Motion and Bladder and Rectal Volumes During Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Hysterectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed tomography simulations with full and empty bladders and then underwent rescanning twice weekly during IMRT; patients were asked to have full bladder for treatment. Bladder and rectal volumes and the positions of vaginal fiducial markers were determined, and changes in volume and position were calculated. Results: The mean full and empty bladder volumes at simulation were 480 cc (range, 122-1,052) and 155 cc (range, 49-371), respectively. Bladder volumes varied widely during IMRT: the median difference between the maximum and minimum volumes was 247 cc (range, 96-585). Variations in rectal volume during IMRT were less pronounced. For the 16 patients with vaginal fiducial markers in place throughout IMRT, the median maximum movement of the markers during IMRT was 0.59 cm in the right-left direction (range, 0-0.9), 1.46 cm in the anterior-posterior direction (range, 0.8-2.79), and 1.2 cm in the superior-inferior direction (range, 0.6-2.1). Large variations in rectal or bladder volume frequently correlated with significant displacement of the vaginal apex. Conclusion: Although treatment with a full bladder is usually preferred because of greater sparing of small bowel, our data demonstrate that even with detailed instruction, patients are unable to maintain consistent bladder filling. Variations in organ position during IMRT can result in marked changes in the position of the target volume and the volume of small bowel exposed to high doses of radiation.

Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sam, Marianne; Levy, Larry; Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-01-01

316

Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

Bruheim, Kjersti [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: Kjersti.Bruheim@medisin.uio.no; Svartberg, Johan [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway); Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dueland, Svein [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Haug, Egil [Hormone Laboratory, Aker University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G. [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

2008-03-01

317

A long and distant journey: a case of rectal cancer with metastasis to the orbit  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 33-year-old man with acute onset of eye pain and diplopia as the presenting symptoms of rectal cancer with orbital metastasis. Colorectal cancer with orbital metastasis is exceedingly rare with only 7 cases worldwide despite the prevalence of colorectal cancer. The rarity of this presentation may be related to the long path through multiple vascular beds that tumor emboli from the rectum must travel in order to reach the orbit. PMID:25608827

Pearlman, Michelle; Kwong, Wilson T.

2015-01-01

318

Screening digital rectal examination and prostate cancer mortality: a population-based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Although digital rectal examination (DRE) for the detection of prostate cancer has been recommended by many professional groups and has become part of the general physical examination, no randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the efficacy or effectiveness of this practice. We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the association between DRE and prostate cancer mortality.Methods. With the resources

Steven J Jacobsen; Erik J Bergstralh; Slavica K Katusic; Harry A Guess; Charles H Darby; Marc D Silverstein; Joseph E Oesterling; Michael M Lieber

1998-01-01

319

Bilateral foot drop, weight loss and rectal bleeding as an acute presentation of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

We report a 71 year old lady who presented with weight loss, rectal bleeding and bilateral foot drop having been previously fit and well. Clinical examination, laboratory investigation and postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of active Crohn's disease and acute peripheral neuropathy. The clinical course of this patient suggests that the peripheral neuropathy might have resulted from the common pathogenesis for Crohn's disease. PMID:7831180

Gariballa, S. E.; Gunasekera, N. P.

1994-01-01

320

Long-Term Survival and Recurrence Outcomes Following Surgery for Distal Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of distal rectal cancer remains clinically challenging and includes proctectomy and coloanal anastomosis (CAA) or abdominoperineal resection (APR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate operative and pathologic factors associated with long-term survival and local recurrence outcomes in patients treated for distal rectal cancer. Methods A retrospective consecutive cohort study of 304 patients treated for distal rectal cancer with radical resection from 1993 to 2003 was performed. Patients were grouped by procedure (CAA or APR). Demographic, pathologic, recurrence, and survival data were analyzed utilizing chi-square analysis for comparison of proportions. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test for univariate and Cox regression for multivariate comparison. Results The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 2 cm [interquartile range (IQR) 0.5–4 cm]. Margins were negative in all but four patients (one distal, 0.3%; three radial, 1%). The 5-year overall survival rate was 82% (88.6% stage pI, 80.5% stage pII, 67.9% stage pIII). Older age, advanced pathologic stage, presence of lymphovascular or perineural invasion, earlier treatment period, and APR surgery type were associated with worse survival on multivariate analysis. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 5.3% after CAA and 7.9% after APR (p = 0.33). Conclusions Low rates of local recurrence and good overall survival can be achieved after treatment of distal rectal cancer with stage-appropriate chemoradiation and proctectomy with CAA or APR. Sphincter preservation can be achieved even with distal margins less than 2 cm. PMID:20552409

Silberfein, Eric J.; Kattepogu, Kiran M.; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry; Das, Prajnan; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher; Kopetz, Scott; Eng, Cathy; Chang, George J.

2011-01-01

321

Molecular Markers Predict Distant Metastases After Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The outcomes of adjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer are nonuniform among patients with matching prognostic factors. We explored the role of molecular markers for predicting the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 68 patients with stages II to III rectal adenocarcinoma who were treated with total mesorectal excision and adjuvant chemoradiation. Chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin was intravenously administered each month for 6-12 cycles. Radiation therapy consisted of 54 Gy delivered in 30 fractions. Immunostaining of surgical specimens for COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, thymidine synthase (TS), and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was performed. Results: The median follow-up was 65 months. Eight locoregional (11.8%) and 13 distant (19.1%) recurrences occurred. Five-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients were 83.9%, 78.7%, 66.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. LRFFS was not correlated with TNM stage, surgical margin, or any of the molecular markers. VEGF overexpression was significantly correlated with decreased DMFS (P=.045), while RKIP-positive results were correlated with increased DMFS (P=.025). In multivariate analyses, positive findings for COX-2 (COX-2+) and VEGF (VEGF+) and negative findings for RKIP (RKIP-) were independent prognostic factors for DMFS, DFS, and OS (P=.035, .014, and .007 for DMFS; .021, .010, and <.0001 for DFS; and .004, .012, and .001 for OS). The combination of both COX-2+ and VEGF+ (COX-2+/VEGF+) showed a strong correlation with decreased DFS (P=.007), and the combinations of RKIP+/COX-2- and RKIP+/VEGF- showed strong correlations with improved DFS compared with the rest of the patients (P=.001 and <.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Molecular markers can be valuable in predicting treatment outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients.

Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koom, Woong Sub [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam-Kyu [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Bae [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ikjae; Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Ki Chang, E-mail: kckeum@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-01

322

The Impact of Ileostomy-Related Complications on the Multidisciplinary Treatment of Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Radical resection is the primary treatment for rectal cancer. When anastomosis is possible, a temporary ileostomy is used to decrease morbidity from a poorly healed anastomosis. However, ileostomies are associated with complications, dehydration, and need for a second operation. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of ileostomy related complications on the treatment of rectal cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent sphincter preserving surgery between January 2005 and December 2010 at a tertiary cancer center. The primary outcome was the overall rate of ileostomy related complications. Secondary outcomes included complications related to ileostomy status, ileostomy closure, anastomotic complications at primary resection, rate of stoma closure, and completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses were performed with STATA 12. Results A total of 294 patients were analyzed, 32% (n=95) were women. Two hundred seventy-one (92%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 7 centimeters (interquartile range 5-10). Two hundred eighty-one (96%) underwent stoma closure at a median 7 months (interquartile range 5.4 – 8.3). The most common complication related to readmission was dehydration (n=32, 11%). Readmission within 60 days of primary resection was associated with delay in initiating adjuvant chemotherapy (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.42-6.38, p=0.004). Conclusion Diverting ileostomies created during surgical treatment of rectal cancers are associated with morbidity; however this is balanced against the risk of anastomosis-related morbidity at rectal resection. Given the potential benefit of fecal diversion, patient-oriented interventions to improve ostomy management, particularly during adjuvant chemotherapy, can be expected to yield marked benefits. PMID:24085329

Phatak, Uma R.; Kao, Lillian S.; You, Y. Nancy; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Skibber, John M.; Feig, Barry W.; Nguyen, Sa; Chang, George J.

2014-01-01

323

Transanal natural orifice specimen extraction for laparoscopic anterior resection in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether transanal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) is a better technique for rectal cancer resection. METHODS: A prospectively designed database of a consecutive series of patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer with various tumor-node-metastasis classi?cations from March 2011 to February 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University was analyzed. Patient selection for transanal specimen extraction and intracorporeal anastomosis was made on the basis of tumor size and distance of rectal lesions from the anal verge. Demographic data, operative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: None of the patients was converted to laparotomy. Respectively, there were 16 cases in the low anastomosis and five in the ultralow anastomosis groups. Mean age of the patients was 45.4 years, and mean body mass index was 23.1 kg/m2. Mean distance of the lower edge of the lesion from the anal verge was 8.3 cm. Mean operating time was 132 min, and mean intraoperative blood loss was 84 mL. According to the principle of rectal cancer surgery, we performed D2 lymph node dissection in 13 cases and D3 in eight. Mean lymph nodes harvest was 17.8, and the number of positive lymph nodes was 3.4. Median hospital stay was 6.7 d. No serious postoperative complication occurred except for one anastomotic leakage. All patients remained disease free. Mean Wexner score was 3.7 at 11 mo after the operation. CONCLUSION: Transanal NOSE for total laparoscopic low/ultralow anterior resection is feasible, safe and oncologically sound. Further studies with long-term outcomes are needed to explore its potential advantages. PMID:24282364

Han, Fang-Hai; Hua, Li-Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Jian-Hai; Zhan, Wen-Hua

2013-01-01

324

Rectal cancer staging: Correlation between the evaluation with radial echoendoscope and rigid linear probe  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The National Cancer Institute estimated 40,340 new cases of rectal cancer in the United States in 2013. The correct staging of rectal cancer is fundamental for appropriate treatment of this disease. Transrectal ultrasound is considered one of the best methods for locoregional staging of rectal tumors, both radial echoendoscope and rigid linear probes are used to perform these procedures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation between radial echoendoscopy and rigid linear endosonography for staging rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A prospective analysis of 48 patients who underwent both, radial echoendoscopy and rigid linear endosonography, between April 2009 and May 2011, was done. Patients were staged according to the degree of tumor invasion (T) and lymph node involvement (N), as classified by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. Anatomopathological staging of surgical specimen was the gold standard for discordant evaluations. The analysis of concordance was made using Kappa index. Results: The general Kappa index for T staging was 0.827, with general P < 0.001 (confidence interval [CI]: 95% 0.627-1). The general Kappa index for N staging was 0.423, with general P < 0.001 (CI: 95% 0.214-0.632). Conclusion: The agreement between methods for T staging was almost perfect, with a worse outcome for T2, but still with substantial agreement. The findings may indicate equivalence in the diagnostic value of both flexible and rigid devices. For lymph node staging, there was moderate agreement between the methods. PMID:25184122

Colaiácovo, Rogério; Assef, Maurício Saab; Ganc, Ricardo Leite; Carbonari, Augusto Pincke Cruz; Silva, Flávio Amaro Oliveira Bitar; Bin, Fang Chia; Rossini, Lúcio Giovanni Baptista

2014-01-01

325

Procidentia of the rectum: Teflon sling repair of rectal prolapse, Lahey Clinic experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The Teflon-sling method of repair of rectal prolapse in the Lahey Clinic experience has proved to be one of no mortality and\\u000a low morbidity, with a recurrence rate of 7.3 per cent over an average follow-up period of nearly four years. Bowel management\\u000a and incontinence are problems inherent in the pathogenesis of the problem and, though improved, necessitate longterm patient

H. Clement Jurgeleit; Marvin L. Corman; John A. Coller; Malcolm C. Veidenheimer

1975-01-01

326

Consolidating Risk Estimates for Radiation-Induced Complications in Individual Patient: Late Rectal Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the feasibility of a new approach to synthesize published normal tissue complication data using late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer as an example. Methods and Materials: A data survey was performed to identify the published reports on the dose-response relationships for late rectal toxicity. The risk estimates for Grade 1 or greater, Grade 2 or greater, and Grade 3 or greater toxicity were obtained for a test cohort of patients treated at our institution. The influence of the potential factors that might have affected the reported toxicity levels was investigated. The studies that did not conform to the general data trends were excluded, and single, combined risk estimates were derived for each patient and toxicity level. Results: A total of 21 studies of nonoverlapping patient populations were identified. Three studies provided dose-response models for more than one level of toxicity. Of these 21 studies, 6, 14, and 5 were used to derive the initial risk estimates for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. A comparison of risk estimates between the studies reporting rectal bleeding and rectal toxicity (bleeding plus other symptoms) or between studies with follow-up <36 months and {>=}36 months did not reveal significant differences (p {>=} .29 for all comparisons). After excluding three reports that did not conform to the general data trends, the combined risk estimates were derived from 5 reports (647 patients), 11 reports (3,369 patients), and 5 reports (1,330 patients) for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed approach is feasible and allows for more systematic use of published dose-response data to estimate the complication risks for the individual patient.

Prior, Phillip; Devisetty, Kiran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Tarima, Sergey S. [Division of Biostatistics, Institute for Health and Society, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawton, Colleen A.F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Semenenko, Vladimir A., E-mail: vsemenenko@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-05-01

327

The pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular artesunate and rectal dihydroartemisinin in uncomplicated falciparum malaria  

PubMed Central

Aims To obtain pharmacokinetic data for artesunate (ARTS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) following i.m. ARTS and rectal DHA administration. Methods Twelve Vietnamese patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either i.v. or i.m. ARTS (120 mg), with the alternative preparation given 8 h later in an open crossover design. A further 12 patients were given i.v. ARTS (120 mg) at 0 h and rectal DHA (160 mg) 8 h later. Results Following i.v. bolus, ARTS had a peak concentration of 42 µm (16 mg l?1), elimination t1/2 = 3.2 min, CL = 2.8 l h?1 kg?1 and V = 0.22 l kg?1. The Cmax for DHA was 9.7 µm (2.7 mg l?1), t1/2 = 59 min, CL = 0.64 l h?1 kg?1 and V = 0.8 l kg?1. Following i.m. ARTS, Cmax was 2.3 µm (3.7 mg l?1), the apparent t1/2 = 41 min, CL = 2.9 l h?1 kg?1 and V = 2.6 l kg?1. The relative bioavailability of DHA was 88%, Cmax was 4.1 µm (1.16 mg l?1) and t1/2 = 64 min. In the rectal DHA study, relative bioavailability of DHA was 16%. Conclusions For patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria i.m. ARTS is a suitable alternative to i.v. ARTS, at equal doses. To achieve plasma DHA concentrations equivalent to parenteral administration of ARTS, rectal DHA should be given at approximately four-fold higher milligram doses. Further studies are needed to determine whether these recommendations can be applied to patients with severe malaria. PMID:11849191

Ilett, Kenneth F; Batty, Kevin T; Powell, Shane M; Binh, Tran Quang; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Hung, Nguyen Canh; Davis, Timothy M E

2002-01-01

328

Delorme's Procedure for Complete Rectal Prolapse: Does It Still Have It's Own Role?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although there are more than a hundred techniques, including the transabdominal and the perineal approaches, for the repair of the rectal prolapsed, none of them is perfect. The best repair should be chosen not only to correct the prolapse but also to restore defecatory function and to improve fecal incontinence throughout the patient's lifetime. The aim of this retrospective review is to evaluate clinical outcomes of the Delorme's procedure for the management of the complete rectal prolapse. Methods A total of 19 patients (13 females and 6 males) with complete rectal prolapses were treated by using the Delorme's procedure in St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, from February 1997 to February 2007. Postoperative anal incontinence was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score. Results All 19 patients had incontinence to liquid stool, solid stool, and/or flatus preoperatively. Three (15.8%) patients reported recurrence of the rectal prolapse (at 6, 18, 29 months, respectively, after the operation). Information on postoperative incontinence was available for 16 of the 19 patients. Twelve of the 16 patients (75%) reported improved continence (5 [31.3%] were improved and 7 [43.7%] completely recovered from incontinence) while 4 patients had unchanged incontinence symptoms. One (6.3%) patient who did not have constipation preoperatively developed constipation after the operation. Conclusion The Delorme's procedure is associated with a marked improvement in anal continence, relatively low recurrence rates, and low incidence of postoperative constipation. This allows us to conclude that this procedure still has its own role in selected patients. PMID:22413077

Lee, Sooho; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jun-Gi

2012-01-01

329

Feasibility of Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The study aims to assess the tolerance of elderly patients (70 years or older) with locally advanced rectal cancers to image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). A retrospective review of 13 elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation using IGRT was performed. Grade 3–4 acute toxicities, survival, and long-term complications were compared to 17 younger patients (<70 years) with the same disease stage. Results Grade 3–4 hematologic toxicities occurred in 7.6% and 0% (p?=?0.4) and gastrointestinal toxicities, and, in 15.2% and 5% (p?=?0.5), of elderly and younger patients, respectively. Surgery was aborted in three patients, two in the elderly group and one in the younger group. One patient in the elderly group died after surgery from cardiac arrhythmia. After a median follow-up of 34 months, five patients had died, two in the elderly and three in the younger group. The 3-year survival was 90.9% and 87.5% (p?=?0.7) for the elderly and younger group respectively. Two patients in the younger group developed ischemic colitis and fecal incontinence. There was no statistically significant difference in acute and late toxicities as well as survival between the two groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancers may tolerate preoperative chemoradiation with IGRT as well as younger patients. Further prospective studies should be performed to investigate the potential of IGRT for possible cure in elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:23967173

Nguyen, Nam P.; Ceizyk, Misty; Vock, Jacqueline; Vos, Paul; Chi, Alexander; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Pugh, Judy; Khan, Rihan; Truong, Christina; Albala, Gabby; Locke, Angela; Karlsson, Ulf; Gelumbauskas, Steve; Smith-Raymond, Lexie

2013-01-01

330

Total sacrectomy for recurrent rectal cancer – A case report featuring technical details and potential pitfalls  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Total sacrectomy for recurrent rectal cancer is controversial. However, recent publications suggest encouraging outcomes with high sacral resections. We present the first case report describing technical aspects, potential pitfalls and treatment of complications associated with total sacrectomy performed as a treatment of recurrent rectal cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A fifty-three year old man was previously treated at another institution with a low anterior resection (LAR) followed by chemo-radiation and left liver tri-segmentectomy for metastatic rectal cancer. Three years following the LAR, the patient developed a recurrence at the site of colorectal anastomosis, manifesting clinically as a contained perforation, forming a recto-cutaneous fistula through the sacrum. Abdomino-perineal resection (APR) and complete sacrectomy were performed using an anterior–posterior approach with posterior spinal instrumented fusion and pelvic fixation using iliac crest bone graft. Left sided vertical rectus abdominis muscle flap and right sided gracilis muscle flap were used for hardware coverage and to fill the pelvic defect. One year after the resection, the patient remains disease free and has regained the ability to move his lower limbs against gravity. DISCUSSION The case described in this report features some formidable challenges due to the previous surgeries for metastatic disease, and the presence of a recto-sacral cutaneous fistula. An approach with careful surgical planning including considerationof peri-operative embolization is vital for a successful outcome of the operation. A high degree of suspicion for pseudo-aneurysms formation due infection or dislodgement of metallic coils is necessary in the postoperative phase. CONCLUSION Total sacrectomy for the treatment of recurrent rectal cancer with acceptable short-term outcomes is possible.A detailed explanation to the patient of the possible complications and expectations including the concept of a very high chancefor recurrence is paramount prior to proceeding with such a surgery. PMID:24879330

Melich, George; Weber, Michael; Stein, Barry; Minutolo, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo O.

2014-01-01

331

Rectal cancer and exposure to metalworking fluids in the automobile manufacturing industry  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal cancer has been previously associated with exposure to metalworking fluids in a cohort mortality study of autoworkers. Objective To better specify the exposure–response relationship with straight metalworking fluids (mineral oils) by applying non?parametric regression methods that avoid linearity constraints and arbitrary exposure cut points and by lagging exposure to account for cancer latency, in a nested case–control analysis. Methods In addition to the classical Poisson regression with categorical exposure, survival models with penalised splines were used to estimate the exposure–response relationship between cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid and mortality from rectal cancer. Exposures to water?based metalworking fluids were treated as potential confounders, and all exposures were lagged by 5, 10, 15 and 20?years to account for cancer latency. The influence of the highest exposures was dealt with by a log transformation and outlier removal. The sensitivity of the penalised splines to alternative criteria for model selection and to the placement of knots was also examined. Results The hazard ratio for mortality from rectal cancer increased essentially linearly with cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid (with narrow confidence bands) up to a maximum of 2.2 at the 99th centile of exposure and then decreased (with wide confidence bands). Lagging exposure up to 15?years increased the initial steepness of the curve and raised the maximum hazard ratio to 3.2. Conclusions Non?parametric smoothing of lagged exposures has shown stronger evidence for a causal association between straight metalworking fluid and rectal cancer than was previously described using standard analytical methods. This analysis suggests an exposure–response trend that is close to linear and statistically significant over most of the exposure range and that increases further with lagged exposures. Smoothing should be regularly applied to environmental studies with quantitative exposure estimates to refine characterisation of the dose–response relationship. PMID:16912088

Malloy, Elizabeth J; Miller, Katie L; Eisen, Ellen A

2007-01-01

332

Efficacy and Safety of Endoscopic Resection Therapies for Rectal Carcinoid Tumors: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several endoscopic resection therapies have been applied for the treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the optimal strategy. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or modified EMR (m-EMR) versus endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors. Materials and Methods PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase and CNKI were searched up to the end of January 2014 in order to identify all studies on the effects of EMR (or m-EMR) and ESD on rectal carcinoid tumors. Results A total of fourteen studies involving 782 patients were included. The pooled data suggested a significantly higher rate of pathological complete resection among patients treated with ESD or m-EMR than those treated with EMR [odds ratio (OR)=0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.71; OR=0.10, 95% CI: 0.03-0.33, respectively], while there was no significant difference between the m-EMR group and ESD group (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.49-2.86); The procedure time of ESD was longer than EMR or m-EMR groups [mean differences (MD)=-11.29, 95% CI: -14.19 - -8.38, MD= -10.90, 95% CI: -18.69 - -3.11, respectively], but it was insignificance between the EMR and m-EMR groups. No significant differences were detected among the treatment groups with regard to complications or recurrence. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors with ESD or m-EMR is superior to EMR, and the efficacy of m-EMR is equivalence to ESD treatment. However, more well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25510749

He, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

2015-01-01

333

Properties of single- and double-barreled Cl channels of shark rectal gland in planar bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels from the apical plasma membrane fraction of rectal gland of Squalus acanthias were characterized by incorporation into planar bilayers in the presence of cAMPPK\\/ATP. In a total of 80 bilayer preparations, 21 Cl-selective channels were observed as single channels and 13 as pairs. This was a significantly greater number of double Cl channels than expected from a binomial

Steven C. Sansom; Sandra L. Carosi

1992-01-01

334

Incidence and causes of rectal bleeding in general practice as detected by colonoscopy.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Rectal bleeding is common, but it is still unclear which patients require investigation to exclude serious pathology, although it is known that colectoral cancer is very rare under the age of 40 years. Few studies have examined all patients presenting to their primary health physician rather than screening whole populations. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the view that all patients over the age of 40 who present to their general practitioner with rectal bleeding should undergo investigation by colonoscopy to rule out serious pathology, regardless of symptomatology. METHOD: A prospective study was carried out of 99 consecutive patients over 40 years presenting with rectal bleeding to 17 general practices in Newcastle upon Tyne. RESULTS: Serious pathology was detected by colonoscopy in 44.4% of patients. The diagnoses were: colorectal carcinoma, eight cases (two Dukes' grade A, two Dukes' grade B, four Dukes' grade C); one or more polyps, 25 cases (in 17 cases at least one polyp was 5 mm or greater in diameter); inflammatory bowel disease, 11 cases. In the remaining 55 patients, bleeding was associated with diverticular disease (16 cases) and haemorrhoids (28 cases). No cause was found in 11 patients. This high rate of pathology may be partly caused by selection of cases for referral by the general practitioner, despite efforts to minimize this. Three symptoms as elicited by the colonoscopist were found to be significantly associated with serious disease: blood mixed with stool (P < 0.001); change in bowel habit (P < 0.005); and the presence of abdominal pain (P < 0.025). However, symptoms elicited on primary presentation were less helpful and symptoms changed significantly between consultation with the general practitioner and colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: All patients over the age of 40 years presenting with rectal bleeding should be referred for flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Symptoms are unhelpful in deciding who requires investigation. PMID:8731622

Metcalf, J V; Smith, J; Jones, R; Record, C O

1996-01-01

335

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: Clinical features, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is an uncommon benign disease, characterized by a combination of symptoms, clinical findings and histological abnormalities. Ulcers are only found in 40% of the patients; 20% of the patients have a solitary ulcer, and the rest of the lesions vary in shape and size, from hyperemic mucosa to broad-based polypoid. Men and women are affected equally, with a small predominance in women. SRUS has also been described in children and in the geriatric population. Clinical features include rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, prolonged excessive straining, perineal and abdominal pain, feeling of incomplete defecation, constipation, and rarely, rectal prolapse. This disease has well-described histopathological features such as obliteration of the lamina propria by fibrosis and smooth muscle fibers extending from a thickened muscularis mucosa to the lumen. Diffuse collage deposition in the lamina propria and abnormal smooth muscle fiber extensions are sensitive markers for differentiating SRUS from other conditions. However, the etiology remains obscure, and the condition is frequently associated with pelvic floor disorders. SRUS is difficult to treat, and various treatment strategies have been advocated, ranging from conservative management to a variety of surgical procedures. The aim of the present review is to summarize the clinical features, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods and treatment strategies associated with SRUS. PMID:24574747

Zhu, Qing-Chao; Shen, Rong-Rong; Qin, Huan-Long; Wang, Yu

2014-01-01

336

Pharmacokinetics and anti-hypertensive effect of metoprolol tartrate rectal delivery system.  

PubMed

Abstract The main aim of this work was to develop rectal suppositories for better delivery of metoprolol tartrate (MT). The various bases used were fatty, water soluble and emulsion bases. The physical properties of the prepared suppositories were characterized such as weight variation, hardness, disintegration time, melting range and the drug content uniformity. The in vitro release of MT from the prepared suppositories was carried out. The evaluation of the pharmacological effects of MT on the blood pressure and heart rate of the healthy rabbits after the rectal administration compared to the oral tablets was studied. Moreover, the formulation with the highest in vitro release and the highest pharmacological effects would be selected for a further pharmacokinetics study compared to the oral tablets. The results revealed that the emulsion bases gave the highest rate of the drug release than the other bases used. The reduction effect of the emulsion MT suppository base on the blood pressure and heart rate was found to be faster and greater than that administered orally. The selected emulsion suppository base (F11) showed a significant increase in the AUC (1.88-fold) in rabbits as compared to the oral tablets. From the above results we can conclude that rectal route can serve as an efficient alternative route to the oral one for systemic delivery of MT which may be due to the avoidance of first-pass effect in the liver. PMID:24758140

Abou El Ela, Amal El Sayeh F; Allam, Ayat A; Ibrahim, Ehsan H

2014-04-24

337

Long source-skin distance rectal irradiation technique: a review of results.  

PubMed

Endocavitary rectal irradiation is a well established curative treatment for patients with selected early cases of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. At McGill we use a long source-skin distance (SSD) rectal irradiation technique as an alternative to the standard short SSD rectal irradiation technique originally described by Papillon. Eight patients, seven women and one man, were treated between April 1986 and November 1988. Median age was 72.5 years (range 46-86 years). Seven patients were treated with curative intent, and one for palliation. The mean follow-up period for all patients was 43 months, with a median of 54 months (range 3-65 months). Actuarial survival and disease-free survival were 86% and 72% at 65 months for the seven patients treated with curative intent. Treatments were well tolerated by all patients and only one patient developed localized proctitis that required steroid enemas, which resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Our results are comparable with those in other reports in the literature. The complications were similar in type and frequency to other published series. PMID:8281376

Shenouda, G; Gordon, P H; Podgorsak, E B; Evans, M D; Freeman, C R

1993-11-01

338

Treatment of lateral pelvic nodes metastases from rectal cancer: the future prospective  

PubMed Central

Summary One feature of rectal cancer that remains controversial is the significance of lateral lymph node, because TME does not remove these nodes. We discussed the brief history of lateral nodes dissection and some problems in performing the extended surgery. In Japan, an ongoing prospective multicenter randomized trial comparing TME alone and TME with clearance of lateral node is progress. In the West, MERCURY study showed 11.7% of patients with rectal cancer had MRI-identified suspicious pelvic side wall nodes. Judging from incidence and prognosis, pelvic side wall nodes in the west are almost similar meaning as lateral nodes in Japan. There is long-standing controversy as to whether lateral lymph nodes metastasis represent systemic or localized disease. Though there has been reports suggesting effect of RT on lateral nodes metastases, the question remains whether preoperative CRT can fully sterilize lateral nodes deposits. Is it appropriate inspection assuming that positive CRM and bowel perforation is major cause of local recurrence after abdominoperineal resection? Some reports say that lateral node metastasis is major cause of local recurrence. We must share following views that the east and the west should join forces to improve selection criteria for lateral node dissection and neoadjuvant treatment to prevent overtreatment, and ultimately aim to improve quality of life and oncological outcome for patients with low rectal cancer. PMID:24629807

MORIYA, Y.

2013-01-01

339

Prevention of post-partum hemorrhage by rectal Misoprostol: A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. This trial was conducted to study the effectiveness and safety of rectal misoprostol for PPH. Aim: To assess the effectiveness and safety of misoprostol and comparing with oxytocin for prevention of PPH. Materials and Methods: Women were randomized to receive either two 200 ?g rectal misoprostol tablets (study group) or 20 units oxytocin in 1000 cc normal saline intravenously (control group). The outcomes were incidence of PPH, amount of blood loss, duration of labor, incidence of side effects, pre- and post-delivery hemoglobin, and use of additional uterotonics. Finding: The incidence of PPH was 12% in the study group and 10% in the control group (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the groups hematocrit (P > 0.05). Other variables including severe PPH and duration of the third stage of labor were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Rectal misoprostol was as effective as intravenous oxytocin for preventing post-partum hemorrhage with the same incidence of side effects and is recommended to be use as an uterotonic agent to manage third stage of labor routinely. PMID:23633849

Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Kiapour, Azadeh; Omidvar, Shabnam

2013-01-01

340

Enhanced rectal absorption of amphotericin B lyophilized with glycyrrhizinate in rabbits.  

PubMed

The influence of bases and additives in the formulation for rectal absorption of amphotericin B (AMB) lyophilized with dipotassium glycyrrhizinate (GLYK) was investigated using rabbits in relation to an in vitro release test. The release of AMB from the fatty base of Witepsol or a medium chain triglyceride (MCT) was markedly faster than that from the hydrophilic base of macrogol. The addition of polyoxyethylene (2) lauryl ether (POE(2)LE) into the fatty bases led to a marked increase in the release rate, whereas POE(9)LE or sodium lauryl sulfate resulted in a significantly lower release rate. Animals received rectally each of seven AMB formulations of Witepsol H-15, macrogol, MCT with surfactants and aqueous solution. The absorption of the AMB lyophilized mixture with GLYK at a 1:9 molar ratio from a MCT base was significantly superior to that from macrogol. The addition of POE(2)LE into the MCT base resulted in a marked increase in bioavailability, showing the highest bioavailability of 4.9%. High serum levels of over 100 ng/ml of serum were maintained for 24 h following administration. The lowest bioavailability was 0.32% for the macrogol suppository. There was a good correlation between the release rate of AMB from the formulations and bioavailability. These results suggest that an AMB rectal formulation may provide a promising therapeutic alternative to infusion, taking into account the serum level of AMB exceeding the minimal inhibitory concentration of the infecting organism. PMID:9743256

Tanaka, M; Kuwahara, E; Takahashi, M; Koyama, O; Takahashi, N; Yotsuyanagi, T

1998-08-01

341

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in Radiation-Induced Rectal Injury  

SciTech Connect

The available dose/volume/outcome data for rectal injury were reviewed. The volume of rectum receiving >=60Gy is consistently associated with the risk of Grade >=2 rectal toxicity or rectal bleeding. Parameters for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model from four clinical series are remarkably consistent, suggesting that high doses are predominant in determining the risk of toxicity. The best overall estimates (95% confidence interval) of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters are n = 0.09 (0.04-0.14); m = 0.13 (0.10-0.17); and TD{sub 50} = 76.9 (73.7-80.1) Gy. Most of the models of late radiation toxicity come from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy dose-escalation studies of early-stage prostate cancer. It is possible that intensity-modulated radiotherapy or proton beam dose distributions require modification of these models because of the inherent differences in low and intermediate dose distributions.

Michalski, Jeff M., E-mail: jmichalski@radonc.wustl.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2010-03-01

342

Epigenetic status of LINE-1 predicts clinical outcome in early-stage rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the clinical prognostic value of methylation of two non-coding repeat sequences, long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1) and Alu, in rectal tumour tissues. In addition to DNA methylation, expression of histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K9Ac was studied in this patient cohort. Methods: LINE-1 and Alu methylation were assessed in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A pilot (30 tumour and 25 normal tissues) and validation study (189 tumour and 53 normal tissues) were performed. Histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K9Ac were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays of the study cohort. Results: In early-stage rectal cancer (stage I-II), hypomethylation of LINE-1 was an independent clinical prognostic factor, showing shorter patient survival (P=0.014; HR: 4.6) and a higher chance of tumour recurrence (P=0.001; HR: 9.6). Alu methylation did not show any significant correlation with clinical parameters, suggesting an active role of LINE-1 in tumour development. Expression of H3K27me3 (silencing gene expression) and H3K9Ac (activating gene expression) in relation to methylation status of LINE-1 and Alu supported this specific role of LINE-1 methylation. Conclusion: The epigenetic status of LINE-1, but not of Alu, is prognostic in rectal cancer, indicating an active role for LINE-1 in determining clinical outcome. PMID:24220694

Benard, A; van de Velde, C J H; Lessard, L; Putter, H; Takeshima, L; Kuppen, P J K; Hoon, D S B

2013-01-01

343

Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and there have been no reported cases of such metastasis from early colorectal cancer. We report a case of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 61 year-old-man experienced myodesopsia in the left eye 2 years and 6 months after primary rectal surgery for early cancer, and was diagnosed with left choroidal metastasis and multiple lung metastases. Radiotherapy was initiated for the left eye and systemic chemotherapy is initiated for the multiple lung metastases. The patient is living 2 years and 3 months after the diagnosis of choroidal metastasis without signs of recurrence in the left eye, and continues to receive systemic chemotherapy for multiple lung metastases. DISCUSSION Current literatures have few recommendations regarding the appropriate treatment of choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer, but an aggressive multi-disciplinary approach may be effective in local regression. CONCLUSION This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer. PMID:25460493

Tei, Mitsuyoshi; Wakasugi, Masaki; Akamatsu, Hiroki

2014-01-01

344

Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (?75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ?2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ?3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ?2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ?3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ?3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ?2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ?3 (P=.015) but not grade ?2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-04-01

345

Cost-Effectiveness of Pre-Referral Antimalarial, Antibacterial, and Combined Rectal Formulations for Severe Febrile Illness  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria and bacterial infections account for most infectious disease deaths in developing countries. Prompt treatment saves lives, but rapid deterioration often prevents the use of oral therapies; delays in reaching health facilities providing parenteral interventions are common. Rapidly and reliably absorbed antimalarial/antibacterial rectal formulations used in the community could prevent deaths and disabilities. Rectal antimalarial treatments are currently available; rectal antibacterial treatments are yet to be developed. Assessment of the likely cost-effectiveness of these interventions will inform research priorities and implementation. Methods and Findings The burden of malaria and bacterial infections worldwide and in Sub-Saharan and Southern Africa (SSA) and South and South-East Asia (SEA) was summarised using published data. The additional healthcare costs (US$) per death and per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) avoided following pre-referral treatment of severe febrile illness with rectal antimalarials, antibacterials or combined antimalarial/antibacterials in populations at malaria risk in SSA/SEA were assessed. 46 million severe malaria and bacterial infections and 5 million deaths occur worldwide each year, mostly in SSA/SEA. At annual delivery costs of $0.02/capita and 100% coverage, rectal antimalarials ($2 per dose) would avert 240,000 deaths in SSA and 7,000 deaths in SEA at $5 and $177 per DALY avoided, respectively; rectal antibacterials ($2 per dose) would avert 130,000 deaths in SSA and 27,000 deaths in SEA at $19 and $97 per DALY avoided, respectively. Combined rectal formulations ($2.50 per dose) would avert 370,000 deaths in SSA and 33,000 deaths in SEA at $8 and $79 per DALY avoided, respectively, and are a cost-effective alternative to rectal antimalarials or antibacterials alone. Conclusions Antimalarial, antibacterial and combined rectal formulations are likely to be cost-effective interventions for severe febrile illness in the community. Attention should focus on developing effective rectal antibacterials and ensuring that these lifesaving treatments are used in a cost-effective manner. PMID:21206901

Buchanan, James; Mihaylova, Borislava; Gray, Alastair; White, Nicholas

2010-01-01

346

Use of valtrac™-secured intracolonic bypass in laparoscopic rectal cancer resection.  

PubMed

The occurrence of anastomotic leakage (AL) remains a major concern in the early postoperative stage. Because of the relatively high morbidity and mortality of AL in patients with laparoscopic low rectal cancer who receive an anterior resection, a fecal diverting method is usually introduced. The Valtrac™-secured intracolonic bypass (VIB) was used in open rectal resection, and played a role of protecting the anastomotic site. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the VIB in protecting laparoscopic low rectal anastomosis and to compare the efficacy and complications of VIB with those of loop ileostomy (LI).Medical records of the 43 patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective laparoscopic low anterior resection and received VIB procedure or LI between May 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed, including the patients' demographics, clinical features, and operative data.Twenty-four patients received a VIB and 19 patients a LI procedure. Most of the demographics and clinical features of the groups, including Dukes stages, were similar. However, the median distance of the tumor edge from the anus verge in the VIB group was significantly longer (7.5?cm; inter-quartile range [IQR] 7.0-9.5?cm) than that of the L1 group (6.0?cm; IQR 6.0-7.0?cm). None of the patients developed clinical AL. The comparisons between the LI and the VIB groups were adjusted for the significant differences in the tumor level of the groups. After adjustment, the LI group experienced longer overall postoperative hospital stay (14.0 days, IQR: 12.0, 16.0 days; P?rectal cancer resection, appears to be a safe and effective, but time-limited, diverting technique to protect an elective low colorectal anastomosis. PMID:25546660

Ye, Feng; Chen, Dong; Wang, Danyang; Lin, Jianjiang; Zheng, Shusen

2014-12-01

347

Treatment of rectal cancer by transanal endoscopic microsurgery: Experience with 425 patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe our experience in treating rectal cancer by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), report morbidity and mortality and oncological outcome. METHODS: A total of 425 patients with rectal cancer (120 T1, 185 T2, 120 T3 lesions) were staged by digital rectal examination, rectoscopy, transanal endosonography, magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography. Patients with T1-N0 lesions and favourable histological features underwent TEM immediately. Patients with preoperative stage T2-T3-N0 underwent preoperative high-dose radiotherapy; from 1997 those aged less than 70 years and in good general health also underwent preoperative chemotherapy. Patients with T2-T3-N0 lesions were restaged 30 d after radiotherapy and were then operated on 40-50 d after neoadjuvant therapy. The instrumentation designed by Buess was used for all procedures. RESULTS: There were neither perioperative mortality nor intraoperative complications. Conversion to other surgical procedures was never required. Major complications (urethral lesions, perianal or retroperitoneal phlegmon and rectovaginal fistula) occurred in six (1.4%) patients and minor complications (partial suture line dehiscence, stool incontinence and rectal haemorrhage) in 42 (9.9%). Postoperative pain was minimal. Definitive histological examination of the 425 malignant lesions showed 80 (18.8%) pT0, 153 (36%) pT1, 151 (35.5%) pT2, and 41 (9.6%) pT3 lesions. Eighteen (4.2%) patients (ten pT2 and eight pT3) had a local recurrence and 16 (3.8%) had distant metastasis. Cancer-specific survival rates at the end of follow-up were 100% for pT1 patients (253 mo), 93% for pT2 patients (255 mo) and 89% for pT3 patients (239 mo). CONCLUSION: TEM is a safe and effective procedure to treat rectal cancer in selected patients without evidence of nodal involvement. T2-T3 lesions require preoperative neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:25071352

Guerrieri, Mario; Gesuita, Rosaria; Ghiselli, Roberto; Lezoche, Giovanni; Budassi, Andrea; Baldarelli, Maddalena

2014-01-01

348

Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 overexpression is associated with poor response of rectal cancers to radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the potential correlation between insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) expression and rectal cancer radiosensitivity. METHODS: Eighty-seven rectal cancer patients (cTNM?I-III) treated in our department between January 2011 and December 2012 were enrolled. All subjects were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and radical resection of rectal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to detect IGF-1R expression in pre-treatment and postoperative colorectal cancer specimens. Radiosensitivity for rectal cancer specimens was evaluated by observing rectal carcinoma mass regression combined with fibrosis on HE staining, degree of necrosis and quantity of remaining tumor cells. The relative IGF-1R expression was evaluated for association with tumor radiosensitivity. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse IGF-1R staining on rectal cancer cells with various degrees of signal density. IGF-1R expression was significantly correlated with cTNM staging (P = 0.012) while no significant association was observed with age, sex, tumor size and degree of differentiation (P = 0.424, 0.969, 0.604, 0.642). According to the Rectal Cancer Regression Grades (RCRG), there were 31 cases of RCRG1 (radiation sensitive), 28 cases of RCRG2 and 28 cases of RCRG3 (radiation resistance) in 87 rectal cancer subjects. IGF-1R protein hyper-expression was significantly correlated with a poor response to radiotherapy (P < 0.001, r = 0.401). RT-PCR results from pre-radiation biopsy specimens also showed that IGF-1R mRNA negative group exhibited a higher radiation sensitivity (P < 0.001, r = 0.497). Compared with the pre-radiation biopsy specimens, the paired post-operative specimens showed a significantly increased IGF-1R protein and mRNA expression in the residual cancer cells (P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: IGF-1R expression level may serve as a predictive biomarker for radiosensitivity of rectal cancer before preoperative radiotherapy. PMID:25473182

Wu, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Cao, Qin-Hong; Chen, Che; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Zhe; Li, Wei-Su; Liu, Fu-Kun; Yao, Xue-Quan; Li, Gang

2014-01-01

349

Smoking increases rectal cancer risk to the same extent in women as in men: results from a Norwegian cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking has recently been established as a risk factor for rectal cancer. We examined whether the smoking-related increase in rectal cancer differed by gender. Methods We followed 602,242 participants (49% men), aged 19 to 67 years at enrollment from four Norwegian health surveys carried out between 1972 and 2003, by linkage to Norwegian national registries through December 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazard models and adjusting for relevant confounders. Heterogeneity by gender in the effect of smoking and risk of rectal cancer was tested with Wald ?2. Results During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1,336 men and 840 women developed invasive rectal cancer. Ever smokers had a significantly increased risk of rectal cancer of more than 25% for both men (HR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.11-1.45) and women (HR?=?1.28, 95%?CI?=?1.11-1.48) compared with gender-specific never smokers. Men smoking ?20 pack-years had a significantly increased risk of rectal cancer of 35% (HR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.14-1.58), whereas for women, it was 47% (HR?=?1.47, 95% CI?=?1.13-1.91) compared with gender-specific never smokers. For both men and women, we observed significant dose–response associations between the risk of rectal cancer for four variables [Age at smoking initiation in years (both ptrend <0.05), number of cigarettes smoked per day (both ptrend <0.0001), smoking duration in years (ptrend <0.05, <0.0001) and number of pack-years smoked (both ptrend <0.0001)]. The test for heterogeneity by gender was not significant between smoking status and the risk of rectal cancer (Wald ?2, p -value; current smokers?=?0.85; former smokers?=?0.87; ever smokers?=?1.00). Conclusions Smoking increases the risk of rectal cancer to the same extent in women as in men. PMID:24884601

2014-01-01

350

Asymptomatic rectal carriage of blaKPC producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: who is prone to become clinically infected?  

PubMed

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are emerging extremely drug-resistant pathogens; blaKPC is the predominant carbapenemase in Israel. Early detection of asymptomatic rectal carriers is important for infection control purposes. We aimed to determine who among newly identified CRE rectal carriers is prone to have a subsequent clinical specimen with CRE. A matched case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Israel. Cases with a primary positive CRE rectal test and subsequent CRE clinical specimens were matched in a 1:2 ratio with CRE rectal carriers who did not develop subsequent CRE clinical specimens (controls). Matching was based on calendar time of primary CRE isolation, whether the primary CRE isolation was ? 48 h or > 48 h after hospital admission, and time at risk to have a subsequent clinical specimen. Data were extracted from the patients' medical records and from the hospital's computerized database. One hundred and thirty-two newly identified CRE rectal carriers (44 cases, 88 controls) were included. The median time interval between screening and subsequent clinical specimens was 11 days (range, 3-27); 86% of the clinical specimens were classified as true infections. Independent predictors of subsequent CRE clinical specimens were: admission to the intensive care unit, having a central venous catheter, receipt of antibiotics, and diabetes mellitus. Identification of the risk factors for subsequent infections among CRE-colonized patients can be used to control modifiable risk factors and to direct empirical antimicrobial therapy when necessary. PMID:22563800

Schechner, V; Kotlovsky, T; Kazma, M; Mishali, H; Schwartz, D; Navon-Venezia, S; Schwaber, M J; Carmeli, Y

2013-05-01

351

High Frequency of CD8 Positive Lymphocyte Infiltration Correlates with Lack of Lymph Node Involvement in Early Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aims. A trend towards local excision of early rectal cancers has prompted us to investigate if immunoprofiling might help in predicting lymph node involvement in this subgroup. Methods. A tissue microarray of 126 biopsies of early rectal cancer (T1 and T2) was stained for several immunomarkers of the innate and the adaptive immune response. Patients' survival and nodal status were analyzed and correlated with infiltration of the different immune cells. Results. Of all tested markers, only CD8 (P = 0.005) and TIA-1 (P = 0.05) were significantly more frequently detectable in early rectal cancer biopsies of node negative as compared to node positive patients. Although these two immunomarkers did not display prognostic effect “per se,” CD8+ and, marginally, TIA-1 T cell infiltration could predict nodal involvement in univariate logistic regression analysis (OR 0.994; 95% CI 0.992–0.996; P = 0.009 and OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.984–0.994; P = 0.05, resp.). An algorithm significantly predicting the nodal status in early rectal cancer based on CD8 together with vascular invasion and tumor border configuration could be calculated (P < 0.00001). Conclusion. Our data indicate that in early rectal cancers absence of CD8+ T-cell infiltration helps in predicting patients' nodal involvement. PMID:25609852

Däster, Silvio; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Hirt, Christian; Zlobec, Inti; Delko, Tarik; Nebiker, Christian A.; Soysal, Savas D.; Amicarella, Francesca; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Heberer, Michael; Lugli, Alessandro; Spagnoli, Giulio C.; Kettelhack, Christoph; Terracciano, Luigi; Oertli, Daniel; von Holzen, Urs; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul A.

2014-01-01

352

Total rectal resection, colo-endoanal anastomosis and colic reservoir for cancer of the lower third of the rectum.  

PubMed

The treatment of low rectal cancer is still a widely debated topic in surgical oncology. From March 1990 to August 1991, 18 patients with tumors sited in the lower third of the rectum underwent a total rectal resection extended to the ano-rectal junction. As restorative procedure, a colic J-shaped pouch and a handsewn pouch-endoanal anastomosis was adopted. All the lesions were less than 8 cm from the anal verge; in 94.5% the distal tumor margin was located within 6.5 cm of the cutaneous edge. Histological clearance of the rectum cut edge was documented in all cases. Only one patient (Dukes C) relapsed four months later at the para-anastomotic level. No mortality or major complications related to surgical procedure were found. In 13 patients perfect continence was achieved and in 12 cases less than two bowel movements a day were recorded. No one complained of severe sexual dysfunction. All patients are still alive. The follow up ranged from 6 to 22 months (median: 12). This experience together with data obtained from last years' literature indicate that a conservative surgical procedure, as total rectal resection and colo-anal anastomosis, can be considered a feasible and radical option for treatment of low rectal cancer. PMID:8314388

Leo, E; Belli, F; Baldini, M T; Vitellaro, M; Santoro, N; Mascheroni, L; Andreola, S; Bellomi, M; Rebuffoni, G; Zucali, R

1993-06-01

353

Assessment and in vitro experiment of artificial anal sphincter system based on rebuilding the rectal sensation function.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel artificial anal sphincter (AAS) system based on rebuilding the rectal sensation function is proposed to treat human fecal incontinence. The executive mechanism of the traditional AAS system was redesigned and integrated for a simpler structure and better durability. The novel executive mechanism uses a sandwich structure to simulate the basic function of the natural human anal sphincter. To rebuild the lost rectal sensation function caused by fecal incontinence, we propose a novel method for rebuilding the rectal sensation function based on an Optimal Wavelet Packet Basis (OWPB) using the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index and a support vector machine (SVM). OWPB using a DB index is used for feature vector extraction, while a SVM is adopted for pattern recognition.Furthermore, an in vitro experiment with the AAS system based on rectal sensation function rebuilding was carried out. Experimental results indicate that the novel executive mechanism can simulate the basic function of the natural human anal sphincter, and the proposed method is quite effective for rebuilding rectal sensation in patients. PMID:24619902

Zan, Peng; Liu, Jinding; Jiang, Enyu; Wang, Hua

2014-05-01

354

Dietary intake of folate and co-factors in folate metabolism, MTHFR polymorphisms, and reduced rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the contribution of polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) and the folate metabolism pathway in rectal cancer alone. Data were from participants in a case-control study conducted in Northern California and Utah (751 cases and 979 controls). We examined independent associations and interactions of folate, B vitamins, methionine, alcohol, and MTHFR polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) with rectal cancer. Dietary folate intake was associated with a reduction in rectal cancer OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.92 (>475 mcg day compared to < = 322 mcg) as was a combination of nutrient intakes contributing to higher methyl donor status (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95). Risk was reduced among women with the 677 TT genotype (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.9), but not men (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.70-1.76) and with the 1298 CC genotype in combined gender analysis (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98). These data are consistent with a protective effect of increasing dietary folate against rectal cancer and suggest a protective role of the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in women and 1298 CC in men and women. Folate intake, low methyl donor status, and MTHFR polymorphisms may play independent roles in the etiology of rectal cancer. PMID:17245555

Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Curtin, Karen; Sweeney, Carol; Wolff, Roger K.; Holubkov, Richard; Slattery, Martha L.; Caan, Bette J.

2008-01-01

355

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi); - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte

356

ARTIGOS ACEITOS ARTIGOS COMPLETOS Apresentao Oral  

E-print Network

of Sentence Alignment Methods for Brazilian Portuguese and English Parallel Texts Helena de Medeiros Caseli Fashion Marvin Oliver Schneider, JoĂŁo LuĂ­s Garcia Rosa 3 342 NeuralSumm: Uma Abordagem Conexionista para

Fernandez, Thomas

357

What is the Significance of the Circumferential Margin in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy?  

PubMed Central

Background The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is highly prognostic for local recurrence in rectal cancer surgery without neoadjuvant treatment. However, its significance in the setting of long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is not well defined. Methods Review of a single institution’s prospectively maintained database from 1998 to 2007 identified 563 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (T3/T4 and/or N1) receiving nCRT, followed after 6 weeks by total mesorectal excision (TME). Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression, and competing risk analysis were performed. Results The authors noted that 75 % of all patients had stage III disease as determined by endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With median follow-up of 39 months after resection, local and distant relapse were noted in 12 (2.1 %) and 98 (17.4 %) patients, respectively. On competing risk analysis, the optimal cutoff point of CRM was 1 mm for local recurrence and 2 mm for distant metastasis. Factors independently associated with local recurrence included CRM ?1 mm, and high-grade tumor (p = 0.012 and 0.007, respectively). CRM ?2 mm, as well as pathological, nodal, and overall tumor stage are also significant independent risk factors for distant metastasis (p = 0.025, 0.010, and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion In this dataset of locally advanced rectal cancer treated with nCRT followed by TME, CRM ?1 mm is an independent risk factor for local recurrence and is considered a positive margin. CRM ?2 mm was associated with distant recurrence, independent of pathological tumor and nodal stage. PMID:23328971

Trakarnsanga, Atthaphorn; Gonen, Mithat; Shia, Jinru; Goodman, Karyn A.; Nash, Garrett M.; Temple, Larissa K.; Guillem, José G.; Paty, Philip B.; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Weiser, Martin R.

2014-01-01

358

Late Side Effects and Quality of Life After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is little knowledge on long-term morbidity after radiotherapy (50 Gy) and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Therefore, late effects on bowel, anorectal, and urinary function, and health-related quality of life (QoL), were studied in a national cohort (n = 535). Methods and Materials: All Norwegian patients who received pre- or postoperative (chemo-)radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified. Patients treated with surgery alone served as controls. Patients were without recurrence or metastases. Bowel and urinary function was scored with the LENT SOMA scale and the St. Marks Score for fecal incontinence and QoL with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Results: Median time since surgery was 4.8 years. Radiation-treated (RT+) patients (n = 199) had increased bowel frequency compared with non-radiation-treated (RT-) patients (n = 336); 19% vs. 6% had more than eight daily bowel movements (p < 0.001). In patients without stoma, a higher proportion of RT+ (n = 69) compared with RT- patients (n = 240), were incontinent for liquid stools (49% vs. 15%, p < 0.001), needed a sanitary pad (52% vs. 13%, p < 0.001), and lacked the ability to defer defecation (44% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). Daily urinary incontinence occurred more frequently after radiotherapy (9% vs. 2%, p = 0.001). Radiation-treated patients had worse social function than RT- patients, and patients with fecal or urinary incontinence had impaired scores for global quality of life and social function (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with considerable long-term effects on anorectal function, especially in terms of bowel frequency and fecal incontinence. RT+ patients have worse social function, and fecal incontinence has a negative impact on QoL.

Bruheim, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.Bruheim@medisin.uio.n [Cancer Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Guren, Marianne G. [Cancer Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hjermstad, Marianne J. [Cancer Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Pain and Palliation Research Group, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine and Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Frykholm, Gunilla [Department of Oncology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Cancer Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2010-03-15

359

Sacral Insufficiency Fractures After Preoperative Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Course  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Sacral insufficiency (SI) fractures can occur as a late side effect of pelvic radiation therapy. Our goal was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical course of SI fractures in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Between 1989 and 2004, 562 patients with non-metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma were treated with preoperative chemoradiation followed by mesorectal excision. The median radiotherapy dose was 45 Gy. The hospital records and radiology reports of these patients were reviewed to identify those with pelvic fractures. Radiology images of patients with pelvic fractures were then reviewed to identify those with SI fractures. Results: Among the 562 patients, 15 had SI fractures. The 3-year actuarial rate of SI fractures was 3.1%. The median time to SI fractures was 17 months (range, 2-34 months). The risk of SI fractures was significantly higher in women compared to men (5.8% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.014), and in whites compared with non-whites (4% vs. 0%, p = 0.037). On multivariate analysis, gender independently predicted for the risk of SI fractures (hazard ratio, 3.25; p = 0.031). Documentation about the presence or absence of pain was available for 13 patients; of these 7 (54%) had symptoms requiring pain medications. The median duration of pain was 22 months. No patient required hospitalization or invasive intervention for pain control. Conclusions: SI fractures were uncommon in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer. The risk of SI fractures was significantly higher in women. Most cases of SI fractures can be managed conservatively with pain medications.

Herman, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kopetz, Scott [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bhosale, Priya R. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Eng, Cathy [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry W.; Chang, George J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.org

2009-07-01

360

The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered to patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (-9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (-0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are transient, impairment in sexual function may persist after the completion of therapy and merits further investigation.

Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Narang, Amol K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Reese, Jennifer B. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gearhart, Susan L. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States) [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Azad, Nolifer S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chan, June; Olsen, Leah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Efron, Jonathan E. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-01-01

361

Quality of life in rectal cancer patients after radical surgery: a survey of Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in disease-free survivors after radical surgery for rectal cancer in a Chinese mainland population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey from August 2002 to February 2011 by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires of 438 patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer. Patients who were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, had no relevant major comorbidities and whose disease had not recurred were asked to complete both questionnaires. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL were compared by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results In total, 285 patients responded to the survey (response rate, 65.1%). Psychological-related HRQoL variables such as emotional function (P?=?0.021) and future perspectives (P?=?0.044) were poorer for younger patients than for older patients; and physiological-related HRQoL was reflected by physical function (P?=?0.039), which was poorer for older patients than for younger patients. In terms of physiologic function and symptoms concerning HRQoL, such as pain (P?=?0.002) and insomnia (P?=?0.018), females had lower values than males. Low education and unemployment were associated with a worse HRQoL. HRQoL was worse for patients with stomas compared to those without, especially in psychosocial areas such as role function (P?=?0.025), social function (P <0.001) and body image (P?=?0.004). Financial HRQoL was worse for younger patients and patients with stoma. Conclusions HRQoL aspects and degrees to which they were impaired after curative surgery for rectal cancer were different when compared by many sociodemographic and clinical factors in Chinese mainland patients. PMID:24886668

2014-01-01

362

Anterior resection for rectal carcinoma - risk factors for anastomotic leaks and strictures  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the incidence and factors responsible for anastomotic leaks and stricture following anterior resection (AR) and its subsequent management. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from 108 patients with rectal carcinoma who underwent AR or low anterior resection (LAR) to identify the various preoperative, operative, and post operative factors that might have influence on anastomotic leaks and strictures. RESULTS: There were 68 males and 40 females with an average of 47 years (range 21-75 years). The median distance of the tumor from the anal verge was8 cm (range 3-15 cm). Sixty (55.6%) patients underwent handsewn anastomosis and 48 (44.4%) were stapled. The median operating time was 3.5 h (range 2.0-7.5 h). Sixteen (14.6%) patients had an anastomotic leak. Among these, 11 patients required re-exploration and five were managed expectantly. The anastomotic leak rate was similar in patients with and without diverting stoma (8/60, 13.4% with stoma and 8/48; 16.7% without stoma). In 15 (13.9%) patients, resection margins were positive for malignancy. Ninteen (17.6%) patients developed anastomotic strictures at a median duration of 8 mo (range 3-20 mo). Among these, 15 patients were successfully managed with per-anal dilatation. On multivariate analysis, advance age (> 60 years) was the only risk factor for anastomotic leak (P = 0.004). On the other hand, anastomotic leak (P = 0.00), mucin positive tumor (P = 0.021), and lower rectal growth (P = 0.011) were found as risk factors for the development of an anastomotic stricture. CONCLUSION: Advance age is a risk factor for an anastomotic leak. An anastomotic leak, a mucin-secreting tumor, and lower rectal growth predispose patients to develop anastomotic strictures. PMID:21472107

Kumar, Ashok; Daga, Ram; Vijayaragavan, Paari; Prakash, Anand; Singh, Rajneesh Kumar; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay K; Saxena, Rajan

2011-01-01

363

Single-access laparoscopic rectal resection versus the multiport technique: a retrospective study with cost analysis.  

PubMed

Background. Single-access laparoscopic surgery is not used routinely for the treatment of colorectal disease. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to compare the results of single-access laparoscopic rectal resection (SALR) versus multiaccess laparoscopic rectal resection with a mean follow-up of 24 months. Methods. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 42 patients. Between January 2010 and June 2012, 21 SALRs were performed. These patients were compared with a group of 21 other patients who had undergone multiport laparoscopic rectal resection. This control group had the same exclusion criteria and patient demographics. Short-term outcomes were reassessed with a mean follow-up of 2 years. Statistical analysis included the Student t test and Fisher's exact test. Finally, we performed a differential cost analysis between the 2 procedures. Results. Exclusion criteria, patient demographics, and indication for surgery were similar in both groups. The conversion rate was 0% in both groups. There were no intraoperative complications or deaths. Bowel recovery was similar in both groups. No interventions, readmissions, or deaths were recorded at 30 days' follow-up. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, all the patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cancer are still alive and disease free. Considering the selected 3 items, the mean cost per patient for single-access laparoscopic surgery and multiple-access laparoscopic surgery were estimated as 7213 and 7495 Euros, respectively. Conclusion. We think that SALR could be performed in selected patients by surgeons with high multiport laparoscopic skills. It is compulsory by law to evaluate outcomes and cost-effectiveness by using randomized controlled trials. PMID:24733062

Bracale, Umberto; Melillo, Paolo; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Andreuccetti, Jacopo; Stabilini, Cesare; Corcione, Francesco; Pignata, Giusto

2015-02-01

364

Patients’ Expectations of Functional Outcomes Following Rectal Cancer Surgery: a Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal cancer patients’ expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of post-surgery function has received little study. Objective We used a qualitative approach to explore patients’ expectations of outcomes related to bowel function following sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS) for rectal cancer. Design and Setting Individual telephone interviews with patients who were about to undergo SPS for rectal cancer. Patients 26 patients (14 men, 12 women) with clinical stage (cTNM) I to III disease. Main Outcome Measures The semi-structured interview script contained open-ended questions on patients’ expectations of post-operative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Results Participants’ expectations of bowel function reflected three major themes: (1) information sources, (2) personal attitudes, and (3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants’ descriptions of the certainty, importance and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer-free and getting through surgery. Limitations This study is limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Conclusions Patients’ expectations of long term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer-experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the expectation formation process offers opportunities to develop strategies to enhance patient education and appropriately manage expectations, attend to immediate and long term concerns, and support patients through the treatment and recovery process. PMID:24401875

Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P. Terry; Wong, W. Douglas; Temple, Larissa K.

2014-01-01

365

Smooth Muscle Enfoldment Internal Sphincter Construction after Intersphincteric Resection for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess smooth muscle enfoldment and internal sphincter construction (SMESC) for improvement of continence after intersphincteric resection (ISR) for rectal cancer. Methods Twenty-four Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into a conventional ISR group and experimental SMESC group, with 12 pigs in each group. The proximal sigmoid colon was anastomosed directly to the anus in the ISR group. In the SMESC group, internal sphincter construction was performed. At 12 weeks before and after surgery, rectal resting pressure and anal canal length were assessed. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to determine the thickness of the internal sphincter. After the animals were sacrificed, the rectum and anus were resected and pathological examinations were performed to evaluate the differences in sphincter thickness and muscle fibers. Results All 24 animals in the SMESC group and the ISR group survived the surgery. Twelve weeks post-surgery, the rectal resting pressure, length of the anal high-pressure zone and the postoperative internal sphincter thickness for the ISR group were significantly lower than for the SMESC group. There was a thickened area (about 2 cm) above the anastomotic stoma among animals from the SMESC group; in addition, the smooth muscles were significantly enlarged and enfolded when compared to the ISR group. Conclusion This animal model study shows that the SMESC procedure achieved acceptable reconstruction of the internal anal neo-sphincter (IAN/S), without increasing surgical risk. However, the findings in this experimental animal model must be confirmed by clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of this procedure in clinical practice. PMID:24626174

Jin, Heiying; Zhang, Bei; Yao, Hang; Du, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Leng, Qiang

2014-01-01

366

Abdominoperineal excision following preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: Unfavorable prognosis even with negative circumferential resection margin  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate whether an abdominoperineal excision (APE) is associated with increased local recurrence (LR) and shortened disease-free survival (DFS) in mid-low rectal cancer with a negative circumferential resection margin (CRM). METHODS: 283 consecutive cases of mid-low rectal cancer underwent preoperative 30 Gy/10 F radiotherapy and surgery in Peking University Cancer Hospital between August 2003 and August 2009. Patients with positive CRM and intraoperative distant metastasis were precluded according to exclusion criteria. Survival analyses were performed in patients with APE or non-APE procedures. RESULTS: 256 of the 283 (90.5%) cases were enrolled in the analysis, including 78 (30.5%) and 178 (69.5%) cases who received APE and non-APE procedures. Fewer female patients (P = 0.016), lower level of tumor (P = 0.000) and higher body mass index (P = 0.006) were found in the APE group. On univariate analysis, the APE group had a higher LR rate (5.1% vs 1.1%, P = 0.036) and decreased DFS (73.1% vs 83.4%, P = 0.021). On multivariate analysis, APE procedure was also an independent risk factor for LR (HR = 5.960, 1.085-32.728, P = 0.040) and decreased DFS (HR = 2.304, 1.298-4.092, P = 0.004). In stratified analysis for lower rectal cancer, APE procedure was still an independent risk factor for higher LR rate (5.6% vs 0%, P = 0.024) and shortened DFS (91.5% vs 73.6%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Following preoperative 30 Gy/10 F radiotherapy, APE procedure was still a predictor for LR and decreased DFS even with negative CRM. More intensive preoperative treatment should be planned for the candidates who are scheduled to receive APE with optimal imaging assessment. PMID:25083087

Wang, Lin; Gu, Guo-Li; Li, Zhong-Wu; Peng, Yi-Fan; Gu, Jin

2014-01-01

367

Extramural venous invasion is a potential imaging predictive biomarker of neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is a poor prognostic factor in rectal cancer and identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (mrEMVI). The clinical relevance of improvement in mrEMVI following neoadjuvant therapy is unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate that regression of mrEMVI following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) results in improved outcomes and mrEMVI can be used as an imaging biomarker Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted examining the staging and post-treatment MRIs of patients who had presented with EMVI-positive rectal cancer. All patients had undergone neoadjuvant CRT and curative surgery. Changes in mrEMVI were graded with a new MRI-based TRG scale–mr-vTRG; and related to disease-free survival (DFS). The study fulfilled Reporting Recommendations for Tumour Marker Prognostic Studies criteria for biomarkers. Results: Sixty-two patients were included. Thirty-five patients showed more than 50% fibrosis of mrEMVI (mr-vTRG 1-3); 3-year DFS 87.8% and 9% recurrence. Twenty-seven patients showed less than 50% fibrosis (mr-vTRG 4-5); 3-year DFS 45.8% with 44% recurrence – P<0.0001. On multivariate Cox-regression, only mr-vTRG 4-5 increased risk of disease recurrence – HR=5.748. Conclusion: Patients in whom there has been a significant response of EMVI to CRT show improved DFS. Those patients with poor response should be considered for intensive treatment. As an imaging biomarker in rectal cancer, mrEMVI can be used. PMID:24300971

Chand, M; Swift, R I; Tekkis, P P; Chau, I; Brown, G

2014-01-01

368

Management of recurrent rectal cancer: A population based study in greater Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze, retrospectively in a population-based study, the management and survival of patients with recurrent rectal cancer initially treated with a macroscopically radical resection obtained with total mesorectal excision (TME). METHODS: All rectal carcinomas diagnosed during 1998 to 2000 and initially treated with a macroscopically radical resection (632 patients) were selected from the Amsterdam Cancer Registry. For patients with recurrent disease, information on treatment of the recurrence was collected from the medical records. RESULTS: Local recurrence with or without clinically apparent distant dissemination occurred in 62 patients (10%). Thirty-two patients had an isolated local recurrence. Ten of these 32 patients (31%) underwent radical re-resection and experienced the highest survival (three quarters survived for at least 3 years). Eight patients (25%) underwent non-radical surgery (median survival 24 mo), seven patients (22%) were treated with radio- and/or chemotherapy without surgery (median survival 15 mo) and seven patients (22%) only received best supportive care (median survival 5 mo). Distant dissemination occurred in 124 patients (20%) of whom 30 patients also had a local recurrence. The majority (54%) of these patients were treated with radio- and/or chemotherapy without surgery (median survival 15 mo). Twenty-seven percent of these patients only received best supportive care (median survival 6 mo), while 16% underwent surgery for their recurrence. Survival was best in the latter group (median survival 32 mo). CONCLUSION: Although treatment options and survival are limited in case of recurrent rectal cancer after radical local resection obtained with TME, patients can benefit from additional treatment, especially if a radical resection is feasible. PMID:18932280

Bakx, Roel; Visser, Otto; Josso, Judith; Meijer, Sybren; Slors, J Frederik M; van Lanschot, J Jan B

2008-01-01

369

Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years), female sex, and history of osteoporosis were significantly associated with shorter time to sacral fracture (P=.01, P=.004, P=.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the time to sacral fracture for patients based on stage, radiotherapy dose, or chemotherapy regimen. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

Kim, Han Jo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Boland, Patrick J. [Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Meredith, Dennis S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York (United States)] [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01

370

Alterations in Hormone Levels After Adjuvant Chemoradiation in Male Rectal Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels after postoperative chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three men with rectal cancer had baseline and postchemoradiation FSH, LH, and testosterone measured. Adjuvant chemoradiation consisted of two 5-day cycles of bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) every 4 weeks at a dose of 500 mg/m{sup 2}/d followed by concurrent chemoradiation followed by two additional 5-day cycles of 5-FU at a dose of 450 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Continuous-infusion 5-FU at 225 mg/m{sup 2}/d was given during radiation. Pelvic radiation consisted of a three- or four-field technique with a median dose of 54.0 Gy in 30 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 6.1 years. Mean baseline FSH levels increased from 5.3 to a peak of 23.9 IU/L (p < 0.001) 13-24 months after chemoradiation. Mean baseline LH levels increased from 4.3 to a peak of 8.5 IU/L (p < 0.001) within 6 months after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone levels decreased from 15.4 nmol/L at baseline to 8.0 nmol/L more than 4 years after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone to mean LH ratio decreased from 4.4 at baseline to 1.1 after 48 months posttreatment, suggesting a continued decrease in Leydig cell function with time. Testicular dose was measured in 5 patients. Median dose was 4 Gy (range, 1.5-8.9 Gy). Conclusions: Chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer causes persistent increases in FSH and LH levels and decreases in testosterone levels.

Yoon, Frederick H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Perera, Francisco [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: francisco.perera@lhsc.on.ca; Fisher, Barbara [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

2009-07-15

371

Role of protective stoma in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of a protective stoma in low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies and relevant literature published between 2007 and 2014 regarding the construction of a protective stoma during LAR. A pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the outcomes of the studies, including the rate of postoperative anastomotic leakage and reoperations related to leakage. Funnel plots and Egger’s tests were used to evaluate the publication biases of the studies. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 5612 patients were examined, 2868 of whom had a protective stoma and 2744 of whom did not. The sample size of the studies varied from 34 to 1912 patients. All studies reported the number of patients who developed an anastomotic leakage and required a reoperation related to leakage. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled RR with the corresponding 95%CI because obvious heterogeneity was observed among the 11 studies (I2 = 77%). The results indicated that the creation of a protective stoma during LAR significantly reduces the rate of anastomotic leakage and the number of reoperations related to leakage, with pooled RRs of 0.38 (95%CI: 0.30-0.48, P < 0.00001) and 0.37 (95%CI: 0.29-0.48, P < 0.00001), respectively. The shape of the funnel plot did not reveal any evidence of obvious asymmetry. CONCLUSION: The presence of a protective stoma effectively decreased the incidences of anastomotic leakage and reoperation and is recommended in patients undergoing low rectal anterior resections for rectal cancer.

Wu, Sheng-Wen; Ma, Cong-Chao; Yang, Yu

2014-01-01

372

The TME trial after a median follow-up of 6 years: increased local control but no survival benefit in irradiated patients with resectable rectal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in patients with mobile rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Local recurrence is a major problem in rectal cancer treatment. Preoperative short-term radiotherapy has shown to improve local control and survival in combination with conventional surgery. The TME trial investigated the value of this regimen in

Koen C. M. J. Peeters; Corrie A. M. Marijnen; Iris D. Nagtegaal; Elma Klein Kranenbarg; Hein Putter; Theo Wiggers; Harm Rutten; Lars Pahlman; Bengt Glimelius; Jan Willem Leer

2007-01-01

373

Diagnosis and treatment of lymph node metastases of a rectal carcinoid tumor using In111-octreotide-scintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe detection  

PubMed Central

Carcinoids represent 1–2% of the rectal cancer. We report the case of a woman with a rectal carcinoid and a hypogastric node metastasis. We propose a less invasive treatment of the metastase using In11-octreotide-scintigraphy and intraoperative gamma-probe detector.

Rossetti, A; Travaglia, T; Rossini, P; Odeh, M; Arru, L; Ragni, F

2011-01-01

374

Experiences with PPH gun stapled ileo or coloanal anastomoses after ultralow rectal resections and proctocolectomies with J pouch reconstructions.  

PubMed

A new method of stapled ileo and coloanal anastomosis with PPH gun (Johnson and Johnson USA) is presented. On 47 totalcolectomised FAP and UC patients and 9 low rectal benign or clinically T1 or T2N0 rectal tumor resection there was only 5 radiologically proven anastomotic leakadge without serious septic complications. The anal sphincter function after 6 month of the ileoanal anastomosis remained good in 33/39 and acceptable in 6 cases, if the sphincter function was intact praeoperatively. There was no worthening of the moderate praeoperatively observed insufficiency. After the ultra low rectal resections all patients kept the normal anal shpincter function. The procedure seems to be as good as the double stapler method, but there remained no remnant mucosal ring between the anastomsois and the dentate line. An additional advantige of the method, that only one stapler was consumed per patient compared to the two one at the double stapler technic. PMID:17139887

Nagy, Attila; Kovacs, Tamas; Lóderer, Zoltan

2006-01-01

375

Laparoscopic and Robotic Total Mesorectal Excision in the Treatment of Rectal Cancer. Brief Review and Personal Remarks  

PubMed Central

The current standard treatment for rectal cancer is based on a multimodality approach with preoperative radiochemotherapy in advanced cases and complete surgical removal through total mesorectal excision (TME). The most frequent surgical approach is traditional open surgery, as laparoscopic TME requires high technical skill, a long learning curve, and is not widespread, still being confined to centers with great experience in minimally invasive techniques. Nevertheless, in several studies, the laparoscopic approach, when compared to open surgery, has shown some better short-term clinical outcomes and at least comparable oncologic results. Robotic surgery for the treatment of rectal cancer is an emerging technique, which could overcome some of the technical difficulties posed by standard laparoscopy, but evidence from the literature regarding its oncologic safety and clinical outcomes is still lacking. This brief review analyses the current status of minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer therapy, focusing on oncologic safety and the new robotic approach. PMID:24834429

Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Petz, Wanda; Luca, Fabrizio; Biffi, Roberto; Spinoglio, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Marco

2014-01-01

376

Delayed anastomotic leakage following sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of patients who developed delayed anastomotic leakage\\u000a (DAL) following sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. We evaluated the following factors: (1) the incidence of DAL,\\u000a (2) the clinical features of patients who developed DAL, (3) the risk factors for DAL, and (4) treatment outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed the case histories of

Ui Sup Shin; Chan Wook Kim; Chang Sik Yu; Jin Cheon Kim

2010-01-01

377

Cell reconstruction of the rectal mucosa in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: endoscopy, morphology, immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

We propose a new surgical approach to the treatment of familial colorectal adenomatous polyposis implying preservation of a portion of the rectum with removed mucosa. For reconstruction of the rectum, allotransplantation of the mixed culture of fetal allogenic somatic cells of the intestinal epithelium and mesenchymal cells of various origin is used. The mechanisms of mucosa reparation were studied in 34 patients. Endoscopic, morphological, and immunohistochemical studies showed that cell transplantation considerably accelerated reparation of the mucosa in mucosectomized rectum. The proposed treatment of familial colorectal adenomatous polyposis allows delaying the development of rectal polyps and cancer for many years. PMID:25257440

Kogan, E A; Vyshegorodtsev, D V; Faizullina, N M; Demura, T A; Kuz'minov, A M; Shelygin, Yu A; Sukhikh, G T

2014-09-01

378

Rectal Dieulafoy Lesions: A Rare Etiology of Chronic Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Dieulafoy lesion is rarely seen, yet it can be life-threatening. This lesion makes up to 1-2% of gastrointestinal bleedings and must definitely be considered in gastrointestinal bleedings whose source cannot be identified. In this case study, the 75-year-old woman was suffering from active, fresh, and massive rectal bleeding. Colonoscopy was applied in order to find out the source of bleeding. In the typical endoscopic appearance of the lesion a single round mucosal defect in the rectum and arterial bleeding were observed. To procure hemostasis, epinephrine was injected into the lesion and the bleeding vein was sutured. PMID:25349614

Dogan, Ugur; Gomceli, Ismail; Koc, Umit; Habibi, Mani; Bulbuller, Nurullah

2014-01-01

379

Carcinoma of the cervix: analysis of bladder and rectal radiation dose and complications.  

PubMed

From April 1969 through December 1980, 527 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix received radical radiation therapy at North Carolina Memorial Hospital (NCMH). The treatment was designed to deliver a combined dose (external beam plus intracavitary) of 7000-8000 cGy to Point A and 5000-6500 cGy to the pelvic lymph nodes depending upon the stage of the disease. The maximum dose to the bladder and to the rectum were calculated from the orthogonal intracavitary placement films with contrast material in these organs. Thirty-three cases of cystitis and fifty-eight cases of proctitis were recorded. The mean bladder dose for the group of patients with cystitis was higher, 6661 +/- 1309 cGy, than that for the patients without cystitis, 6298 +/- 1305 cGy, p = .19. The risk of cystitis increased as a function of bladder dose ranging from 3% for patients receiving less than or equal to 5000 cGy to the bladder to 12% for patients receiving greater than or equal to 8001 cGy to the bladder. A similar correlation was also found for rectal dose and proctitis. The mean rectal dose for the group of patients with proctitis was higher, 6907 +/- 981 cGy, than that for the patients without proctitis, 6381 +/- 1290 cGy, p = .003. The risk of proctitis increased as a function of rectal dose ranging from 2% for patients receiving less than or equal to 5000 cGy to the rectum to 18% for patients receiving greater than or equal to 8001 cGy to the rectum. A study of the severity of the cystitis as a function of bladder dose revealed a relationship between bladder dose and the severity of the complication (Grade I cystitis = 6600 +/- 1318 cGy vs Grade III cystitis = 6856 +/- 853 cGy). A dose-response relationship was found between the rectal dose and the severity of the complication (Grade I proctitis = 6810 +/- 906 cGy vs Grade III proctitis = 6997 +/- 1137 cGy). This relationship was statistically significant, p = .003. While there was no difference in the frequency of cystitis as a function of dose to the whole pelvis, the risk of proctitis did increase with increasing doses of external beam to the whole pelvis. It ranged from 3% for patients who received 2000 cGy or less to the whole pelvis to 14% for patients who received greater than 4000 cGy to the whole pelvis, p = .02. PMID:2912959

Montana, G S; Fowler, W C

1989-01-01

380

Assessment of pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intranasal diazepam relative to rectal gel in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Diazepam rectal gel (RG) is currently the only approved rescue therapy for outpatient management of seizure clusters in the United States. There is an unmet medical need for an alternative rescue therapy for seizure clusters that is effective, and more convenient to administer with a socially acceptable method of delivery. An intranasal diazepam formulation has been developed, and this study evaluates the tolerability and bioavailability of diazepam nasal spray (NS) relative to an equivalent dose of diazepam-RG in healthy adults. Twenty-four healthy adults were enrolled in a phase 1, open-label, 3-period crossover study. Plasma diazepam and metabolite concentrations were measured by serial sampling. Dose proportionality for 5- and 20-mg intranasal doses and the bioavailability of 20mg diazepam-NS relative to 20mg diazepam-RG were assessed by maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure parameters (AUC0-? and AUC0-24). The mean Cmax values for 20mg diazepam-NS and 20mg diazepam-RG were 378 ± 106 and 328 ± 152 ng/mL, achieved at 1.0 and 1.5h, respectively. Subjects administered intranasal and rectal gel formulations experienced nasal and rectal leakage, respectively. Diazepam absorption following intranasal administration was consistent but 3 subjects with diazepam-RG had low plasma drug levels at the earliest assessment of 5 min, due to poor retention, and were excluded from analysis. Excluding them, the treatment ratios (20mg diazepam-NS:20mg diazepam-RG) and 90% confidence intervals for diazepam Cmax and AUC0-24 were 0.98 (0.85-1.14) and 0.89 (0.80-0.98), respectively, suggesting that the bioavailability was comparable between the two formulations. Dose proportionality was observed between the lowest and highest dose-strengths of intranasal formulation. Both intranasal and rectal treatments were well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events. Results suggest that a single-dose of 20mg diazepam-NS is tolerable and comparable in bioavailability to that of diazepam-RG. The intranasal formulation may provide caregivers and patients with a more socially acceptable and convenient alternative rescue therapy in the acute treatment of seizure clusters. PMID:24934774

Henney, Herbert R; Sperling, Michael R; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Bream, Gary; Carrazana, Enrique J

2014-09-01

381

The American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Since the incorporation of the American Board of Proctology, development and refinement of the process of board certification has been a critical part of the establishment and growth of the specialty of colon and rectal surgery. Continued commitment to the process begun by the early pioneers of this field provides quality practitioners not only when initially trained, but increasingly throughout the continuum of each diplomate's professional career. Board certification and maintenance of certification are the most tangible examples of our commitment to our patients and the public. PMID:23997672

Schoetz, David J.

2012-01-01

382

CT appearance of the pelvis after abdomino-perineal resection for rectal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

CT scans of the pelvis in 40 patients who had undergone abdomino-perineal resection for advanced rectal carcinoma 2 weeks to 24 years earlier were reviewed to determine whether there was any difference between simple postoperative change and local recurrence. Of 21 patients with no recurrence, the postoperative bed was clean in 10 and contained minimal streaky densities in 11. In contrast, a globular mass of soft-tissue density greater than or equal to1.5 cm in diameter was noted near the operative site in 19 patients with recurrence. Factors which may contribute to the disparity between these findings and those of previous investigators are discussed.

Lee, J.K.T.; Stanley, R.J.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.; McClennan, B.L.

1981-12-01

383

Integration of Novel Agents into Combined-Modality Treatment for Rectal Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background:  With optimized local treatment – achieved through preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) and total mesorectal excision (TME)\\u000a surgery – distant metastases are by far the predominate sites of tumor failure in rectal cancer today. The challenge is to\\u000a integrate more effective systemic therapy into combined-modality programs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods:  Capecitabine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan as well as targeted therapies improved results for colorectal cancer patients

Claus Rödel; Rolf Sauer

2007-01-01

384

HIV-1 RNA Rectal Shedding Is Reduced in Men With Low Plasma HIV-1 RNA Viral Loads and Is Not Enhanced by Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections of the Rectum  

PubMed Central

Background.?Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the impact of rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on rectal HIV-1 shedding is unknown. Methods.?Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA was quantified from rectal swabs collected for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of HIV-1-infected MSM. Correlations of STIs with rectal viral load were explored using multinomial regression modeling. HIV-1 coreceptor tropism was predicted from sequencing in a subset of men. Results.?Thirty-one (39%) of 80 men (59 prescribed combination antiretroviral therapy [cART]) had HIV detected in 38 (42%) of 91 rectal swabs. Rectal HIV detection was associated with plasma virus loads above 3.15 log10 copies/mL (95% confidence limit [CL] 2.73, 3.55) and paired rectal viral loads and plasma viral loads were correlated (Kendall’s tau [?] 0.68, Spearman rho [P] = .77). Rectal STIs and abnormal anal cytology were not associated with rectal viral load. HIV coreceptor distribution was very similar between the plasma and rectum in 3 of 4 men. Conclusions.?Plasma and rectal viral load were correlated, and rectal STIs did not increase the likelihood of detecting HIV in the rectal secretions in MSM, including those with low or undetectable plasma viral load. Suppressing plasma viral load is likely to reduce risk of HIV transmission to insertive partners. PMID:21844302

Haaland, Richard E.; Patel, Pragna; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Farshy, Carol; Hanson, Debra; Mayer, Kenneth; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Brooks, John T.; Hart, Clyde E.

2011-01-01

385

Short–term effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy on anorectal function in rectal cancer patients: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by curative surgery has gained acceptance as the therapy of choice in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, deterioration of anorectal function after long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy combined with surgery for rectal cancer is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and clinical change of anorectal function after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Methods We analyzed 30 patients on whom preoperative anorectal manometry data were available both before and after chemoradiation from October 2010 to September 2011. All patients underwent long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. We compared manometric parameters between before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Results Of 30 patients, 20 were males and 10 females. The mean age was 64.9?±?9.9 years (range, 48-82). Before nCRT, the rectal compliance was higher in patients with ulceroinfiltrative type (P?=?0.035) and greater involvement of luminal circumference (P?=?0.017). However, there was the tendency of increased rectal sensory threshold for desire to defecate when the patient had decreased circumferential ratio of the tumor (P?=?0.099), down-graded T stage (P?=?0.016), or reduced tumor volume (P?=?0.063) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Conclusions Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy did not significantly impair overall sphincter function before radical operation. The relationship between tumor response of chemoradiation and sensory threshold for desire to defecate may suggest that neoadjuvant chemoradiation may be helpful for defecatory function as well as local disease control, at least in the short-term period after the radiation in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. PMID:23961877

2013-01-01

386

Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

2014-02-01

387

Outcome of Rectal Cancer Surgery After the Introduction of Preoperative Radiotherapy in a Low-Volume Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The improvement in local control by preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can be at the cost of substantial morbidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the Study  The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short-course preoperative radiotherapy on morbidity and mortality after\\u000a total mesorectal excision in a low-volume hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 2000 to 2007, 104 patients underwent rectal resection for a proven

A. Doeksen; P. J. Tanis; B. C. Vrouenraets; J. A. H. Gooszen; J. J. B. van Lanschot; W. F. van Tets

2007-01-01

388

Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

2014-01-01

389

Colorectal infantile myofibromatosis: an unusual cause of rectal prolapse and sigmoid colo-colonic intussusception: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder of infancy that can extensively involve the viscera including the gastrointestinal tract. Case presentation In this report, an exceptional case of infantile myofibromatosis is described in which rectal prolapse and sigmoid colo-colonic intussusception were the initial presentations of colorectal involvement in a 2-month-old premature female infant. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reporting rectal prolapse and the second case documenting intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal involvement by infantile myofibromatosis. PMID:19077316

Dhall, Deepti; Frykman, Philip K; Wang, Hanlin L

2008-01-01

390

Prediction of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) combined with surgery has become a standard treatment strategy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The pathological response is an important prognostic factor for LARC. The variety of tumor responses has increased the need to find a useful predictive model for the response to CRT to identify patients who will really benefit from this multimodal treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), serum carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA), molecular biomarkers analyzed by immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling are the most used predictive models in LARC. The majority of predictors have yielded encouraging results, but there is still controversy. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be the best model to detect the dynamic changes of rectal cancer and predict the response at an early stage. Gene expression profiling and single nucleotide polymorphisms hold considerable promise to unveil the underlying complex genetics of response to CRT. Because each parameter has its own inherent shortcomings, combined models may be the future trend to predict the response. PMID:24647108

Meng, Xiangjiao; Huang, Zhaoqin; Wang, Renben; Yu, Jinming

2014-02-01

391

Management of Rectal Cancer: Short- vs. Long-Course Preoperative Radiation  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable debate on the optimum approach to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. This review of major published studies of short-course preoperative radiation and the more conventional approach of long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation was undertaken in an effort to understand the potential advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches. Studies were evaluated with regard to patient selection, clinical outcomes, and toxicities. Short-course preoperative radiation has shown a clear advantage over surgery alone in reducing local recurrence rates and improving survival of patients with rectal cancer. However, studies using short-course preoperative treatment have included a significant number of early (30%; Stage I/II) and more proximal cancers yet appear to have higher positive margin rates, higher abdominoperineal resection rates, and lower aggregate survival than patients treated with long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although long-course preoperative chemoradiation is associated with higher rates of reversible acute toxicity, there appears to be more significant and a higher rate of late gastrointestinal toxicity observed in short-course preoperative radiation studies. Patient convenience and lower cost of treatment, however, can be a significant advantage in using a short-course treatment schedule. Selective utilization of either of these approaches should be based on extent of disease and goals of treatment. Patients with distal cancers or more advanced disease (T3/T4) appear to have better outcomes with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, especially where downstaging of disease is critical for more complete surgical resection and sphincter preservation.

Mohiuddin, Mohammed [Geisinger Cancer Institute, Wilkes Barre, PA (United States)], E-mail: mmohiuddin1@geisinger.edu; Marks, John; Marks, Gerald [Main Line Health System, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA (United States)

2008-11-01

392

Could preoperative short-course radiotherapy be the treatment of choice for localized advanced rectal carcinoma?  

PubMed

Short-course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used in northern Europe for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer, but its role in the era of advanced imaging techniques is uncertain. Here, we reviewed articles and abstracts on SCRT published from 1974 through 2013 with the goal of identifying patients who might be best suited for short-course RT. We included relevant articles comparing surgery with or without preoperative radiation published before and after the advent of total mesorectal excision. We also analyzed two randomized trials directly comparing short-course RT with conventionally fractionated chemoradiation (the Polish Colorectal Study Group and the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group) that compared short-course RT with conventional chemoradiotherapy. We conclude from our review that short-course RT can be generally applied for operable rectal cancer and produces high rates of pelvic control with acceptable toxicity; it reduces local recurrence rates but does not increase overall survival. SCRT seems to be best used for tumors considered "low risk," i.e., those that are >5 cm from the anal margin, without circumferential margin involvement, and involvement of fewer than 4 lymph nodes. Whether sequential chemotherapy can further improve outcomes remains to be seen, as does the best time for surgery (immediately or 6-8 weeks after RT). We further recommend that selection of patients for short-course RT should be based on findings from magnetic resonance imaging or transrectal ultrasonography. PMID:25535578

Ciria, Juan Pablo; Eguiguren, Mikel; Cafiero, Sergio; Uranga, Intza; Diaz de Cerio, Ivan; Querejeta, Arrate; Urraca, Jose Maria; Minguez, Julian; Guimon, Elena; Puertolas, Jose Ramón

2015-01-01

393

Current status of robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A bird's eye view  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer is now widely performed via the laparoscopic approach and has been validated in randomized controlled trials to be oncologically safe with better perioperative outcomes than open surgery including shorter length of stay, earlier return of bowel function, better cosmesis, and less analgesic requirement. Laparoscopic surgery, however, has inherent limitations due to two-dimensional vision, restricted instrument motion and a very long learning curve. Robotic surgery with its superb three-dimensional magnified optics, stable retraction platform and 7 degrees of freedom of instrument movement offers significant benefits during Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) including ease of operation, markedly lower conversion rates and better quality of the specimen in addition to shorter (steeper) learning curves. This review summarizes the current evidence for the adoption of robotic TME for rectal cancer with supporting data from the literature and from the authors’ own experience. All relevant articles from PubMed using the search terms listed below and published between 2000 and 2014 including randomized trials, meta-analyses, prospective studies, and retrospective reviews with substantial numbers were included. PMID:25598596

Pai, Ajit; Melich, George; Marecik, Slawomir J; Park, John J; Prasad, Leela M

2015-01-01

394

[A case of huge advanced rectal cancer resected successfully after chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6].  

PubMed

The patient, a 75-year-old woman, who was referred to our hospital in April 2010 because of diarrhea and lower abdominal pain. Abdominal CT scan revealed a large tumor, over 8 cm in diameter within the pelvis, and colonoscopy detected rectal cancer. There was no obvious distant metastasis, although invasion to the uterus and regional lymph node metastasis was suspected. After admission, she had been suffering from tumor-accompanying symptoms such as fever, melena, and abdominal pain. Although loop sigmoid colostomy was performed, symptoms were unimproved, and the tumor had grown to 11 cm in diameter. Therefore, chemotherapy(mFOLFOX6)was started. After two courses of chemotherapy, the tumor-accompanying symptoms improved. Six courses of chemotherapy were administered, and subsequent examination revealed shrinkage of the tumor(effect judgment PR). Thirteen days after final chemotherapy, the tumor was successfully resected. Pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub2, pSI(sigmoid colon), pN0, and Stage II. The surgical margin was completely free of cancer(R0), and the histological effect of chemotherapy was judged as Grade 1b. The patient had received adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT+LV for half a year after discharge. She has been free from any sign of recurrence for 11 months. This case suggests that appropriate preoperative chemotherapy is useful for locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:22902457

Kobayashi, Terutada; Tsukidate, Hisakatsu; Fukamachi, Shin; Ikezawa, Fumie; Endo, Kojin; Suzuki, Yukimasa; Nakagawa, Kunitoshi; Tezuka, Fumiaki

2012-08-01

395

Impression of prognosis regarding pathologic stage after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To ascertain pathologic stage as a prognostic indicator for rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT). METHODS: Patients with mid- and low rectal carcinoma (magnetic resonance imaging - based clinical stage II or III) between 2000 and 2009 and treated with curative radical resection were identified. Patients were divided into two groups: PCRT and No-PCRT. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was examined according to pathologic stage and addition of adjuvant treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 894 patients were identified. Of these, 500 patients received PCRT. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered to 81.5% of the No-PCRT and 94.8% of the PCRT patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given to 29.4% of the patients in the No PCRT group. The 5-year RFS for the No-PCRT group was 92.6% for Stage?I, 83.3% for Stage II, and 72.9% for Stage III. The 5-year RFS for the PCRT group was 95.2% for yp Stage 0, 91.7% for yp Stage?I, 73.9% for yp Stage II, and 50.7% for yp Stage III. CONCLUSION: Pathologic stage can predict prognosis in PCRT patients. 5-year RFS is significantly lower among PCRT patients than No-PCRT patients in pathologic stage II and III. These results should be taken into account when considering adjuvant treatment for patients treated with PCRT. PMID:25593475

Hwang, Kyungyeon; Park, In Ja; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Kim, Jin Cheon

2015-01-01

396

Evaluation of Epirubicin in Thermogelling and Bioadhesive Liquid and Solid Suppository Formulations for Rectal Administration  

PubMed Central

Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu) and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi) was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24384838

Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Yijun; Lin, Hong-Ru

2014-01-01

397

Dietary influence on MAPK-signaling pathways and risk of colon and rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Associations between genes in the DUSP, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK-signaling pathways and dietary factors associated with growth factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress and risk of colon and rectal cancer were evaluated. Data include colon cases (n = 1555) and controls (n = 1956) and rectal cases (n = 754) and controls (n = 959). Statistically significant interactions were observed for the MAPK-signaling pathways after adjustment for multiple comparisons. DUSP genes interacted with carbohydrates, mutagen index, calories, calcium, vitamin D, lycopene, dietary fats, folic acid, and selenium. MAPK1, MAPK3, MAPK1, and RAF1 within the ERK1/2 MAPK-signaling pathway interacted with dietary fats and cruciferous vegetables. Within the JNK MAPK-signaling pathway, interactions between MAP3K7 and protein, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, carbohydrates, and cruciferous vegetables; MAP3K10 and folic acid; MAP3K9 and lutein/zeaxanthin; MAPK8 and calcium; MAP3K3 and calcium and lutein; MAP3K1 and cruciferous vegetables. Interaction within the p38-signaling pathway included MAPK14 with calories, carbohydrates saturated fat, selenium, vitamin C; MAP3K2 and carbohydrates, and folic acid. These data suggest that dietary factors involved in inflammation and oxidative stress interact with MAPK-signaling genes to alter risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:23859041

Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K

2013-01-01

398

Wheat fibre, lactulose and rectal mucosal proliferation in individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

In a single-blind study 38 individuals at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer because of a family history of the disease were randomized to take 10.5 g wheat fibre (Trifyba) or 60 ml lactulose daily for 12 weeks. Rectal biopsies were taken before and after treatment and rectal mucosal proliferation was measured by the crypt cell production rate (CCPR). The mean(s.d.) CCPR was significantly lower in those taking wheat fibre after 12 weeks (7.2(3.4) crypt cells per crypt per h) compared both with values obtained before treatment with wheat fibre (10.2(5.1) crypt cells per crypt per h; P = 0.02) and after treatment with lactulose (9.4(3.8) crypt cells per crypt per h; P = 0.05). Proliferation in the lactulose group was not significantly different at 12 weeks compared with the value obtained before treatment. This study confirms an antiproliferative effect of wheat fibre in a group of high-risk individuals. PMID:7827943

Rooney, P S; Hunt, L M; Clarke, P A; Gifford, K A; Hardcastle, J D; Armitage, N C

1994-12-01

399

Nutritional factors and gender influence age-related DNA methylation in the human rectal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) occurs in many genes expressed in colonic epithelial cells, and may contribute to the dysregulation of signalling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the relative importance of age, nutritional exposures and other environmental factors in the development of CGI methylation. Rectal biopsies were obtained from 185 individuals (84 male, 101 female) shown to be free of colorectal disease, and for whom measurements of age, body size, nutritional status and blood cell counts were available. We used quantitative DNA methylation analysis combined with multivariate modelling to investigate the relationships between nutritional, anthropometric and metabolic factors and the CGI methylation of 11 genes, together with LINE-1 as an index of global DNA methylation. Age was a consistent predictor of CGI methylation for 9/11 genes but significant positive associations with folate status and negative associations with vitamin D and selenium status were also identified for several genes. There was evidence for positive associations with blood monocyte levels and anthropometric factors for some genes. In general, CGI methylation was higher in males than in females and differential effects of age and other factors on methylation in males and females were identified. In conclusion, levels of age-related CGI methylation in the healthy human rectal mucosa are influenced by gender, the availability of folate, vitamin D and selenium, and perhaps by factors related to systemic inflammation. PMID:23157586

Tapp, Henri S; Commane, Daniel M; Bradburn, D Michael; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Mathers, John C; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

2013-01-01

400

“Pooled analysis of brain activity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and controls during rectal balloon distension”  

PubMed Central

Background Brain-imaging literature of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) suggests an abnormal brain-gut communication. We analyzed the literature to evaluate and compare the aspects of brain activity in individuals with IBS and control subjects experiencing controlled rectal stimulation. Methods PubMed was searched until September 2010. Data from 16 articles reporting brain activity during rectal balloon distensions in IBS compared to control groups was analyzed. Prevalence rates and pairwise activations were assessed using binomial distributions for 11 selected regions of interest. The data was aggregated to adjust for center effect. Key Results There was considerable variability in the literature regarding regions and their activity patterns in controls and individuals with IBS. There was no significant difference found in the thalamus, ACC, PCC, and PFC, however results show limited evidence of consensus for the Anterior Insula (AI) (p = 0.22). Pairwise activity results suggest that pairs involving the AI tend to have more consistent activity together than pairs which do not involve the AI (Posterior Insula and AI, p = 0.08; Posterior Cingulate Cortex and AI, p = 0.16), however no pairwise evaluation reached significance. Conclusions & Inferences Our pooled analysis demonstrates that the literature reports are quite heterogeneous but there is some evidence that there may be patterns of higher activity more common in individuals with IBS than in controls. A consensus, though, regarding study designs, analysis approach and reporting could create a clearer understanding of brain involvement in IBS pathophysiology. PMID:21118328

Sheehan, James; Gaman, Alexander; Vangel, Mark; Kuo, Braden

2010-01-01

401

Local Recurrence in Rectal Cancer: Anatomic Localization and Effect on Radiation Target  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the sites of local recurrence after total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer in an effort to optimize the radiation target. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 patients with recurrence after abdominal resection for rectal cancer were identified from a population-based consecutive cohort of 2,315 patients who had undergone surgery by surgeons trained in the total mesorectal excision procedure. A total of 99 cross-sectional imaging studies were retrieved and re-examined by one radiologist. The clinical records were examined for the remaining patients. Results: Evidence of residual mesorectal fat was identified in 50 of the 99 patients. In 83 patients, local recurrence was identified on the imaging studies. All recurrences were within the irradiated volume if the patients had undergone preoperative radiotherapy or within the same volume if they had not. The site of recurrence was in the lower 75% of the pelvis, anatomically below the S1-S2 interspace for all patients. Only 5 of the 44 recurrences in patients with primary tumors >5 cm from the anal verge were in the lowest 20% of the pelvis. Six recurrences involved the lateral lymph nodes. Conclusion: These data suggest that a lowering of the upper limit of the clinical target volume could be introduced. The anal sphincter complex with surrounding tissue could also be excluded in patients with primary tumors >5 cm from the anal verge.

Syk, Erik [Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Erik.Syk@erstadiakoni.se; Torkzad, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Lennart [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Per J. [Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Radiology, and Clinical Immunology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

2008-11-01

402

Pattern of recurrence in rectal carcinoma: implications for the design of (future) studies on adjuvant therapy.  

PubMed

255 patients who underwent potentially curative surgical treatment for rectal carcinoma at the Cantonal Hospital Aarau from 1981 to 1989 have been followed up and the results analysed for overall survival and the timing and occurrence of local and distant recurrence in relation to the initial tumor stage. The patients had received standard surgical treatment for rectal carcinoma with the exception of 28 patients who had been randomized to the treatment arm of SAKK protocol 40/81 and were given perioperative adjuvant portal chemotherapy. 10 patients with large fixed tumors had preoperative radiation therapy. In UICC stage I most patients were cured by surgery alone, local recurrence as rare, and distant metastases appear in about 10% of pT2. cases. In stage II about one fifth of the patients developed a recurrence with one third of them having only local recurrence, and two thirds having either combined local and distant recurrence or distant recurrence alone. The small subgroup of pT4 pN0 had a very poor prognosis with early occurrence of distant metastases. In stage III the actuarial five-year survival was 25%, 60% of stage III cases had pN1 nodal disease. No patient with pN2-3 disease was alive after five years follow-up. The overall risk of distant metastases in stage III was 64%. Local recurrence rate was highly dependent on the pT-stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8245670

Barras, J P; Bachmann, R; Aeberhard, P

1993-09-01

403

A Phase I study of concurrent radiotherapy and capecitabine as adjuvant treatment for operable rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose and the dose-limiting toxicity of capecitabine with standard radiotherapy (RT) as adjuvant treatment in patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage II/III rectal cancer after surgery were eligible. Total RT dose was delivered as DT 50 Gy in fractions of 2.0 Gy/day for 5 weeks to the pelvic area. Capecitabine was administered concurrently with RT in escalating doses, twice daily with a 12-h interval, for two cycles of 14 days separated by a 7-day rest. Dose-limiting toxicity included Grade 3 or Grade 4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled at the following dose levels: 1,000 (3 patients), 1,200 (3 patients), 1,400 (3 patients), 1,500 (3 patients), 1,600 (6 patients), and 1,700 mg/m{sup 2}/day (6 patients). Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 1 patient at 1,600 mg/m{sup 2}/day (Grade 3 diarrhea) and in 2 patients at 1,700 mg/m{sup 2}/day (1 patient had Grade 3 and 1 Grade 4 diarrhea). Conclusion: The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of capecitabine given concurrently with RT was 1,600 mg/m{sup 2}, daily from the 1st to the 14th day, with a 7-day rest, for two cycles.

Jin Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Li Yexiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com; Liu Yueping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang Weihu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Song Yongwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Li Tao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Li Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu Zihao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Liu Xinfan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital/Institute, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

2006-03-01

404

Is rectal indomethacin effective in preventing of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of rectally administered indomethacin in the prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis and hyperamylasaemia in a multicentre study. METHODS: A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre study in five endoscopic units was conducted on 686 patients randomised to receive a suppository containing 100 mg indomethacin, or an inert placebo, 10-15 min before ERCP. Post-ERCP pancreatitis and hyperamylasaemia were evaluated 24 h following the procedure on the basis of clinical signs and laboratory parameters, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging findings if required. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were excluded because of incompleteness of their data or because of protocol violation. The results of 665 investigations were evaluated: 347 in the indomethacin group and 318 in the placebo group. The distributions of the risk factors in the two groups did not differ significantly. Pancreatitis developed in 42 patients (6.3%): it was mild in 34 (5.1%) and severe in eight (1.2%) cases. Hyperamylaesemia occurred in 160 patients (24.1%). There was no significant difference between the indomethacin and placebo groups in the incidence of either post-ERCP pancreatitis (5.8% vs 6.9%) or hyperamylasaemia (23.3% vs 24.8%). Similarly, subgroup analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: 100 mg rectal indomethacin administered before ERCP did not prove effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis. PMID:25110443

Döbrönte, Zoltán; Szepes, Zoltán; Izbéki, Ferenc; Gervain, Judit; Lakatos, László; Pécsi, Gyula; Ihász, Miklós; Lakner, Lilla; Toldy, Erzsébet; Czakó, László

2014-01-01

405

Impression of prognosis regarding pathologic stage after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To ascertain pathologic stage as a prognostic indicator for rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT). METHODS: Patients with mid- and low rectal carcinoma (magnetic resonance imaging - based clinical stage II or III) between 2000 and 2009 and treated with curative radical resection were identified. Patients were divided into two groups: PCRT and No-PCRT. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was examined according to pathologic stage and addition of adjuvant treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 894 patients were identified. Of these, 500 patients received PCRT. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered to 81.5% of the No-PCRT and 94.8% of the PCRT patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given to 29.4% of the patients in the No PCRT group. The 5-year RFS for the No-PCRT group was 92.6% for Stage?I, 83.3% for Stage II, and 72.9% for Stage III. The 5-year RFS for the PCRT group was 95.2% for yp Stage 0, 91.7% for yp Stage?I, 73.9% for yp Stage II, and 50.7% for yp Stage III. CONCLUSION: Pathologic stage can predict prognosis in PCRT patients. 5-year RFS is significantly lower among PCRT patients than No-PCRT patients in pathologic stage II and III. These results should be taken into account when considering adjuvant treatment for patients treated with PCRT.

Hwang, Kyungyeon; Park, In Ja; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Kim, Jin Cheon

2015-01-01