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Sample records for prominent neuropsychiatric feature

  1. Featured Image: Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In these images from the Solar Dynamics Observatorys AIA instrument (click for the full resolution!), two solar prominence eruptions (one from June 2011 and one from August 2012) are shown in pre- and post-eruption states. The images at the top are taken in the Fe XII 193 bandpass and the images at the bottom are taken in the He II 304 bandpass. When a team of scientists searched through seven years of solar images taken by the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) spacecraft, these two eruptions were found to extend all the way out to a distance of 1 AU. They were the only two examples of clear, bright, and compact prominence eruptions found to do so. The scientists, led by Brian Wood (Naval Research Laboratory), used these observations to reconstruct the motion of the eruption and model how prominences expand as they travel away from the Sun. Theimage to the rightshowsa STEREO observation compared to the teams 3D model of theprominences shape and expansion. To learn more about theresults from this study, check out the paper below.CitationBrian E. Wood et al 2016 ApJ 816 67. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/816/2/67

  2. Dynamic Features in and nearby a Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We will discuss the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 million K. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and by the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: a prominence activation and repeated motions in a loop nearby the prominence. We were able to calculate three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the average density, kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx.10(exp 5) K) loops.

  3. Prominent Feature Analysis: What It Means for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Sherry Seale; Graves, Richard L.; Morse, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of a prominent feature analysis is to describe the stylistic flexibility that a young writer, or a group of young writers, exhibits on a given day, with a given prompt. In prominent feature analysis, there are no guidebooks, no rubrics--just student papers and the expertise of teachers. Teachers come to the papers individually and yet…

  4. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature.

    PubMed

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers' ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  5. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature

    PubMed Central

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers’ ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  6. Thermal Properties of Moving UV Features in Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-thermal features with speeds of 5-70 kilometers per second perpendicular to the line of sight are common in the prominences which showed traceable motions. These speeds are noticeably higher than the typical speeds of 5-20 kilometers per second observed in H-alpha data from "quiet" prominences and are more typical of "activated" prominences in which H-alpha blob speeds of up to 40 kilometers per second have been reported. In order to make a more quantitative determination of the thermal properties of the moving features seen in the UV, we use the SOHO instruments SUMER and CDS to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The resulting observations in lines spectral lines in a range of "transition region" temperatures allow us to analyze the thermal properties of the moving prominence sources as a function of time.

  7. A Novel Presenilin 1 Mutation in Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease With Prominent Frontal Features.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Haakon B; Lippa, Carol F; Mehdi, Djekidel; Baehring, Joachim M

    2014-08-01

    Familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a rare disorder involving known autosomal dominant mutations in the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin (PSEN) 1 and 2. Here, we present a case of early-onset AD with prominent frontal features associated with a novel deletion of codon 40 in the PSEN1 gene. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and(18)F florbetapir imaging show prominent involvement of the frontal lobes, corresponding with the clinical presentation. This case report illustrates a possible link between a novel PSEN1 mutation and frontal variant AD. PMID:24463146

  8. 22q11 deletion syndrome: a review of the neuropsychiatric features and their neurobiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Squarcione, Chiara; Torti, Maria Chiara; Di Fabio, Fabio; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by an autosomal dominant microdeletion of chromosome 22 at the long arm (q) 11.2 band. The 22q11DS is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features related with the deletion, and is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, accounting for up to 1%–2% of schizophrenia cases. In recent years, several genes located on chromosome 22q11 have been linked to schizophrenia, including those encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase and proline dehydrogenase, and the interaction between these and other candidate genes in the deleted region is an important area of research. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of some genes within the 22q11.2 region may contribute to the characteristic psychiatric phenotype and cognitive functioning of schizophrenia. Moreover, an extensive literature on neuroimaging shows reductions of the volumes of both gray and white matter, and these findings suggest that this reduction may be predictive of increased risk of prodromal psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS patients. Experimental and standardized cognitive assessments alongside neuroimaging may be important to identify one or more endophenotypes of schizophrenia, as well as a predictive prodrome that can be preventively treated during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize recent data about the 22q11DS, in particular those addressing the neuropsychiatric and cognitive phenotypes associated with the deletion, underlining the recent advances in the studies about the genetic architecture of the syndrome. PMID:24353423

  9. Neuropsychiatric features associated with nutritional and metabolic status in a gastric bypass patient.

    PubMed

    Waserman, Jessica E; Hategan, Ana; Bourgeois, James A

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric patients may present for psychiatric evaluation due to exacerbation of preexisting psychiatric disorders, new onset psychiatric disorders and/or neuropsychiatric complications associated with abnormal nutritional and metabolic states following the surgical procedure. These neuropsychiatric complications can be insidious, and clinical manifestations may vary, possibly due to the individual central nervous system (CNS) vulnerability to nutritional decline. Lack of awareness of these complications and their symptoms can result in delays in diagnosis and treatment. Identifying and correcting underlying pathophysiologic processes that lead to such neuropsychiatric syndromes can be challenging. We report a case of a patient who developed a protracted course of mood and cognitive disorder after gastric bypass surgery, which illustrates some of the complexities encountered in diagnosing and managing these patients. PMID:25459978

  10. Clinical Features of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kasama, Tsuyoshi; Maeoka, Airi; Oguro, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related disorders are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by abnormalities and, in some cases, even complete failure of immune responses as the underlying pathology. Although almost all connective tissue diseases and related disorders can be complicated by various neuropsychiatric syndromes, SLE is a typical connective tissue disease that can cause neurological and psychiatric syndromes. In this review, neuropsychiatric syndromes complicating connective tissue diseases, especially SLE are outlined, and pathological and other conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:26819561

  11. Relationship Between Clinical and Immunological Features with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Female Patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Cui-Yan; Pan, Zheng-Lun; Zhao, Jun-Yu; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred neuroimaging method in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and immunological features with MRI abnormalities in female patients with NPSLE, to screen for the value of conventional MRI in NPSLE. Methods: A total of 59 female NPSLE patients with conventional MRI examinations were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients were classified into different groups according to MRI abnormalities. Both clinical and immunological features were compared between MRI abnormal and normal groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score for MRI abnormalities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated the correlation between immunological features, neuropsychiatric manifestations, and MRI abnormalities. Results: Thirty-six NPSLE patients (61%) showed a variety of MRI abnormalities. There were statistically significant differences in SLEDAI scores (P < 0.001), incidence of neurologic disorders (P = 0.001), levels of 24-h proteinuria (P = 0.001) and immunoglobulin M (P = 0.004), and incidence of acute confusional state (P = 0.002), cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.004), and seizure disorder (P = 0.028) between MRI abnormal and normal groups. In the MRI abnormal group, SLEDAI scores for cerebral atrophy (CA), cortex involvement, and restricted diffusion (RD) were much higher than in the MRI normal group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.038, respectively). Statistically significant positive correlations between seizure disorder and cortex involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 14.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–151.70; P = 0.023) and cerebrovascular disease and infratentorial involvement (OR = 10.00; 95% CI, 1.70–60.00; P = 0.012) were found. Conclusions: MRI abnormalities in NPSLE, especially CA

  12. Solar Prominences Embedded in Flux Ropes: Morphological Features and Dynamics from 3D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Wright, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov & Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  13. A maternally transmitted lethal neonatal progeroid syndrome with prominent genitourinary and gastrointestinal features.

    PubMed Central

    Delatycki, M B; Cleary, M A; Bankier, A; McDougall, P N; Ahluwalia, J S; Chow, C W; Cooke-Yarborough, C M

    1997-01-01

    Twin brothers and their maternal uncle with a previously undescribed neonatal progeroid syndrome are presented. In addition to progeroid features, they had pseudo-obstruction of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, severe leucocytosis, liver dysfunction, and low complex III and IV in muscle but not in liver. Previously described neonatal progeroid syndromes and syndromes featuring pseudo-obstruction are discussed. The two most likely aetiological mechanisms are an X linked single gene disorder or a mitochondrial disorder. The evidence for these possibilities is presented. Images PMID:9192279

  14. The growth regulatory fibroblast IK channel is the prominent electrophysiological feature of rat prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rane, S G

    2000-03-16

    Physiological effectors for mitogenic cell growth control remain to be determined for mammalian tumor cells, particularly those derived from prostatic tissue. One such effector for mitogenic Ras/MAPK signaling in fibroblasts is an intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (FIK). In this study patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to show that both AT2.1 and MatLyLu rat prostate cancer cell lines express high levels of a current identified as FIK, based on the following criteria: activation by elevation of intracellular calcium, voltage independence, potassium selectivity, and block by charybdotoxin (ChTX) and the Stichodactyla helianthus potassium channel neurotoxin (StK). FIK current densities in AT2.1 and MatLyLu cells were comparable to the high levels seen in fibroblasts transfected with oncogenic Ras or Raf, suggesting hyperactivity of the Ras/MAPK pathway in prostatic cancer cells. Voltage-gated sodium current was present in most MatLyLu cells but absent from AT2.1 cells, and all AT2.1 cells had voltage-gated potassium currents. Thus, FIK is the main electrophysiological feature of rat prostatic cancer cells as it is for mitogenically active fibroblasts, suggesting it may play a similar growth regulatory role in both. PMID:10708575

  15. A neurocutaneous phenotype with paired hypo- and hyperpigmented macules, microcephaly and stunted growth as prominent features.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Gentile, Giulia; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Iemmolo, Rosario; Guarnaccia, Maria; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Ruggieri, Martino

    2016-05-01

    Neurocutaneous disorders represent a heterogeneous group of conditions affecting the skin (with pigmentary/vascular abnormalities, hamartomas or tumors) and the central and peripheral nervous systems. In recent years, besides the well-known neurocutaneous diseases (e.g., the different forms of neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome and mosaic pigmentary/hamartomatous disorders), new distinctive syndromes have been characterized, extending our knowledge on the spectrum of these conditions. The concurrent presence of pigmentary abnormalities (both of the hypo- and hyperpigmented type), and primary microcephaly has not been commonly reported. We report on a 4.5-year-old girl with primary microcephaly, who had in addition moderate to severe developmental delay, behavioral and stereotypic abnormalities and a cutaneous pattern of paired hypo- and hyperpigmented lesions variously distributed over the body, particularly on the trunk. Failure to thrive and mild facial dysmorphic features were also present. To our knowledge, this complex malformation (neurocutaneous) phenotype has not been previously reported. PMID:26979654

  16. Infundibulocystic Structures and Prominent Squamous Metaplasia in Sebaceoma-A Rare Feature. A Clinicopathologic Study of 10 Cases.

    PubMed

    Flux, Katharina; Kutzner, Heinz; Rütten, Arno; Plaza, Jose A; Gasparov, Slavko; Michal, Michal; Guenova, Emmanuella; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe 10 cases of sebaceoma that manifested prominent infundibulocystic structures in all cases and, additionally, conspicuous squamous metaplasia in 6 neoplasms. All tumors occurred on the scalp or the face (2 cases lacked clinical information) and presented as a solitary lesion, measuring from 5 to 20 mm. The patients' age ranged from 22 to 89 years. The main component of all tumors was small, uniform basaloid cells (immature sebocytes) intermixed with mature sebocytes clearly arranged in nodules, classifying the lesions as a sebaceoma. In all neoplasms, the tumor cells showed organoid growth patterns of sebaceoma, including rippled, sinusoidal/labyrinthine, and carcinoid-like, occurring alone or in combination. Additionally, numerous infundibulocystic structures were readily noticed and were either distributed multifocally or unilocular within the tumors. In some cases, they were segregated from the main tumor bulk. The authors posit that these structures, which are different from both sebaceous ductal differentiation and squamous metaplasia, represent an authentic follicular differentiation. The infundibulocystic features (combined with squamous metaplasia), when prominent and in a limited biopsy specimen, may cause a confusion with trichoadenoma or even microcystic adnexal carcinoma. PMID:26760686

  17. Physical properties of coronal mass ejection plasma associated with erupting prominences as seen emission or absorption features in EUV and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Kathy; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the physical properties (temperature, density, mass, and energy) of coronal mass ejection plasmas observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray Telescope on Hinode. The prominences are seen as absorption features in EUV at the beginning of their eruptions. Later the prominences change to emission features during eruptions, which indicates the heating of the erupting plasma. We find the temperatures and densities of the erupting prominences using absorption properties of hydrogen and helium in different passbands. We estimate the temperatures and densities of the erupting plasma in emission features using differential emission measure method, which uses both EUV and X-ray observations applying various spectra using photospheric and coronal abundances. We verify and discuss the methods for the estimation of temperatures and densities for erupting plasmas. Lastly, we discuss the heating of the coronal mass ejection plasmas.

  18. Progression of neuropsychiatric and cognitive features due to exons 2 to 5 deletion in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Multani, Namita; Moro, Elena; Lang, Anthony; Zurowski, Mateusz; Duff Canning, Sarah; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Physical symptoms of myoclonus dystonia due to epsilon-sarcoglycan mutations are well documented; however, the progression of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms remains unclear. We present a case of a 34-year-old woman with early childhood onset of myoclonic jerks, dystonic posture and developmental delay due to exons 2 to 5 deletion in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene. Over time, she developed neuropsychiatric symptoms. She underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus for her motor symptoms, which greatly improved but she exhibited slow deterioration of her neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, particularly apathy, aggression and severe executive dysfunction. PMID:26652670

  19. Prominence Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kucera, Terry; Kawashima, Rei; DeVore, C.; Karpen, Judy; Antiochos, Spiro

    2011-01-01

    Fine structure prominence dynamics are visible in the majority of high-spatial resolution data from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We present the results of a study investigating the nature of these horizontal and vertical flows and discuss them in the context of ion-neutral coupling in a partially ionized prominence plasma. We also discuss how models can help in the interpretation of these observations.

  20. Sd(a)-antigen-like structures carried on core 3 are prominent features of glycans from the mucin of normal human descending colon.

    PubMed Central

    Capon, C; Maes, E; Michalski, J C; Leffler, H; Kim, Y S

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes structural characterization by NMR, MS and degradative studies of mucin glycans from normal human descending colon obtained freshly at autopsy. The saccharides were mainly based on core 3 (GlcNAcbeta1-3GalNAc). Among the terminal saccharide determinants Sd(a)/Cad-antigen-like structures were prominent, and Lewis x, sialyl Lewis x and sulphated Lewis x were found as minor components, whereas blood group H and A antigenic determinants were absent. The saccharides were markedly different from those of mucins from colon cancers or colon cancer cell lines analysed so far, in which cores 1 and 2 are prominent features, and in which various other terminal determinants have been found, but not Sd(a)/Cad. PMID:11577689

  1. NMDA Receptor Activity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Caro, Mario; Hadzimichalis, Norell

    2013-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a variety of physiologic roles and their proper signaling is essential for cellular homeostasis. Any disruption in this pathway, leading to either enhanced or decreased activity, may result in the manifestation of neuropsychiatric pathologies such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, substance induced psychosis, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we explore the notion that the overlap in activity of at least one biochemical pathway, the NMDA receptor pathway, may be the link to understanding the overlap in psychotic symptoms between diseases. This review intends to present a broad overview of those neuropsychiatric disorders for which alternations in NMDA receptor activity is prominent thus suggesting that continued direction of pharmaceutical intervention to this pathway may present a viable option for managing symptoms. PMID:23772215

  2. Periarticular Osteoporosis Is a Prominent Feature in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Estimation Using Shaft to Periarticular Bone Mineral Density Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Su-Jin; Ahn, Inhye E.; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Kyung-Su; Min, Jun-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to quantify periarticular osteoporosis and investigate its significance in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 106 controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine the ratio of shaft to periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) as an index of periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis was measured by conventional radiography. The BMDs of shaft and periarticular regions in eight designated areas on proximal phalanges were quantified. Clinical variables were examined to identify risk factors for periarticular osteoporosis. The assessment of periarticular osteoporosis on X-ray images reached a moderate degree of interobserver agreement among four physicians (ĸ = 0.47). For BMD quantification, we designed three types of mathematical formulae: the ratio of shaft to periarticular BMD, the mean of the ratios, and the ratio of the sums. These ratios were significantly higher in the patients with early RA (disease duration ≤ 3 yr) than in controls (P < 0.01). The findings were not as distinctive in patients with established RA. Body mass index, cumulative dose of corticosteroid, and C-terminal telopeptide were correlated with BMD ratios. Conclusively, DXA-assisted localized quantification and BMD ratio calculations are feasible for assessing periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis is a relatively distinctive feature of early RA. PMID:23399828

  3. Periarticular osteoporosis is a prominent feature in early rheumatoid arthritis: estimation using shaft to periarticular bone mineral density ratio.

    PubMed

    Moon, Su-Jin; Ahn, Inhye E; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Kyung-Su; Min, Jun-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to quantify periarticular osteoporosis and investigate its significance in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 106 controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine the ratio of shaft to periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) as an index of periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis was measured by conventional radiography. The BMDs of shaft and periarticular regions in eight designated areas on proximal phalanges were quantified. Clinical variables were examined to identify risk factors for periarticular osteoporosis. The assessment of periarticular osteoporosis on X-ray images reached a moderate degree of interobserver agreement among four physicians (ĸ = 0.47). For BMD quantification, we designed three types of mathematical formulae: the ratio of shaft to periarticular BMD, the mean of the ratios, and the ratio of the sums. These ratios were significantly higher in the patients with early RA (disease duration ≤ 3 yr) than in controls (P < 0.01). The findings were not as distinctive in patients with established RA. Body mass index, cumulative dose of corticosteroid, and C-terminal telopeptide were correlated with BMD ratios. Conclusively, DXA-assisted localized quantification and BMD ratio calculations are feasible for assessing periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis is a relatively distinctive feature of early RA. PMID:23399828

  4. Prominent features in isotopic, chemical and dust stratigraphies from GV7, a drilling site in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the new project "The IPICS 2k Array: a network of ice core climate and climate forcing records for the last two millennia", which represents a thematic research line of International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS), a 250 m deep ice core was retrieved (spanning roughly the last millennium) at GV7 site, together with several shallow firn cores and snow pits. The PNRA (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide) project "IPICS-2kyr-It" represents the Italian contribution to IPICS "The 2k Array" and it is being accomplished in collaboration with KOPRI (Korean Polar Reasearch Institute). The availability of various records from the same site all spanning a temporal period ranging from the last decades to the last centuries will allow achieving a stacked record of chemical and isotopic markers and accumulation rate that is basic for a reliable climatic reconstruction. Previous surveys in the area of GV7 (70°41' S - 158°51' E, 1950 m a.s.l., East Antarctica) showed that this site is characterized by a relatively high snow accumulation (about 240 mm water eq./year), allowing a high resolution study of the climatic variability in the last millennium. Here we present the isotopic, chemical and dust stratigraphies of the snow pits sampled at GV7 during the 2013/14 field season and analysed in Italy and in Korea. Reversibly deposited components such as nitrate and methansulphonic acid (MSA) appear to be well preserved and show a clear seasonal profiles, as one can observe from the records achieved both by Italian and Korean labs. Such a feature, together with the high accumulation rate, allowed obtaining an accurate dating of the snow pits, based on the counting of annual layers. At this purpose, a multi-parametric approach was chosen by using MSA, non-sea-salt sulphate, and d18O as seasonal markers. The dating confirmed the value of the accumulation rate found during previous samplings.

  5. Automated Video Based Facial Expression Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Barrett, Frederick; Martin, Elizabeth; Milanova, Marina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Kohler, Christian; Verma, Ragini

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in emotional expression are prominent in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Available clinical facial expression evaluations provide subjective and qualitative measurements, which are based on static 2D images that do not capture the temporal dynamics and subtleties of expression changes. Therefore, there is a need for automated, objective and quantitative measurements of facial expressions captured using videos. This paper presents a computational framework that creates probabilistic expression profiles for video data and can potentially help to automatically quantify emotional expression differences between patients with neuropsychiatric disorders and healthy controls. Our method automatically detects and tracks facial landmarks in videos, and then extracts geometric features to characterize facial expression changes. To analyze temporal facial expression changes, we employ probabilistic classifiers that analyze facial expressions in individual frames, and then propagate the probabilities throughout the video to capture the temporal characteristics of facial expressions. The applications of our method to healthy controls and case studies of patients with schizophrenia and Asperger’s syndrome demonstrate the capability of the video-based expression analysis method in capturing subtleties of facial expression. Such results can pave the way for a video based method for quantitative analysis of facial expressions in clinical research of disorders that cause affective deficits. PMID:18045693

  6. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia].

    PubMed

    Mrabet, S; Ellouze, F; Ellini, S; Mrad, M F

    2015-12-01

    Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia. Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders. She had no history of neurological or psychiatric problems. The psychiatric interview revealed delirious syndrome, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Neurological examination noted a flaccid paraplegia with peripheral neuropathic syndrome and myoclonus in the upper limbs. At the full blood count, a macrocytosis (VGM: 112.2fl) without anemia was found. The level of vitamin B12 in the blood was low. Cerebro-spinal MRI was suggestive of a neuro-Biermer and showed hyper signal in the cervical cord on T2-weighted sagittal section. In axial section, hyper signal appears at the posterior columns in the form of V. There were no brain abnormalities. A sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy was diagnosed. The patient received vitamin B12 intramuscularly for ten days associated with neuroleptic treatment. Mrs. R.M., aged 40, was brought to the psychiatry consultation for acute behavioral disorders progressively worsening over a month. An anxiety syndrome, depressive syndrome and delirious syndrome were identified. Neurological examination showed a posterior cordonal syndrome with quadripyramidal syndrome. Full blood count showed a macrocytic anemia. Serum B12 level was collapsed. Cerebro-spinal MRI was normal. She received vitamin B12 with clinical and biological improvement. Features of pernicious anemia

  7. Neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Caeiro, Lara; Figueira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-01

    Stroke survivors are often affected by psychological distress and neuropsychiatric disturbances. About one-third of stroke survivors experience depression, anxiety or apathy, which are the most common neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke. Neuropsychiatric sequelae are disabling, and can have a negative influence on recovery, reduce quality of life and lead to exhaustion of the caregiver. Despite the availability of screening instruments and effective treatments, neuropsychiatric disturbances attributed to stroke are currently underdiagnosed and undertreated. Stroke severity, stroke-related disabilities, cerebral small vessel disease, previous psychiatric disease, poor coping strategies and unfavourable psychosocial environment influence the presence and severity of the psychiatric sequelae of stroke. Although consistent associations between psychiatric disturbances and specific stroke locations have yet to be confirmed, functional MRI studies are beginning to unveil the anatomical networks that are disrupted in stroke-associated psychiatric disorders. Evidence regarding biochemical and genetic biomarkers for stroke-associated psychiatric disorders is still limited, and better understanding of the biological determinants and pathophysiology of these disorders is needed. Investigation into the management of these conditions must be continued, and should include pilot studies to assess the benefits of innovative behavioural interventions and large-scale cooperative randomized controlled pharmacological trials of drugs that are safe to use in patients with stroke. PMID:27063107

  8. Neuropsychiatric outcomes of stroke.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Maree L; Köhler, Sebastian; O'Brien, John T; Mead, Gillian E

    2014-05-01

    The most common neuropsychiatric outcomes of stroke are depression, anxiety, fatigue, and apathy, which each occur in at least 30% of patients and have substantial overlap of prevalence and symptoms. Emotional lability, personality changes, psychosis, and mania are less common but equally distressing symptoms that are also challenging to manage. The cause of these syndromes is not known, and there is no clear relation to location of brain lesion. There are important gaps in knowledge about how to manage these disorders, even for depression, which is the most studied syndrome. Further research is needed to identify causes and interventions to prevent and treat these disorders. PMID:24685278

  9. Coronal and Prominence Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of solar prominences and the solar corona are discussed. The formation of prominences, prominence diagnostics and structure, prominence dissappearance, large scale coronal structure, coronal diagnostics, small scale coronal structure, and non-equilibrium/coronal heating are among the topics covered.

  10. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, C; Cummings, J L; Velazquez, J; Garcia de la Cadena, C

    1999-01-01

    The range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been prospectively assessed. The authors, working at a tertiary medical center in Mexico City, used the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms prospectively in 44 MS patients who were stable between relapses and 25 control subjects of similar age, education, and cognitive function. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were present in 95% of patients and 16% of control subjects. Changes present were depressive symptoms (79%), agitation (40%), anxiety (37%), irritability (35%), apathy (20%), euphoria (13%), disinhibition (13%), hallucinations (10%), aberrant motor behavior (9%), and delusions (7%). The only relationships with MRI were between euphoria and hallucinations and moderately severe MRI abnormalities. The authors conclude that diverse types of neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in MS; symptoms are present between exacerbations; and there are variable correlations with MRI abnormalities. PMID:9990556

  11. Prominence Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonerupting prominences are not dull, static objects. Rather, they are composed of fine-scale blobs and threads that are highly dynamic, often appearing to travel in opposite directions on adjacent tracks (denoted counterstreaming). Because the plasma is largely constrained to travel along the magnetic field, these cool, dense features can serve as tracers of the prominence magnetic structure, a valuable resource in view of the long-standing difficulty of observing the coronal field. Conversely, greater understanding of the fundamental magnetic geometry of filament channels can provide important constraints on the physical processes governing the accumulation, support, motion, and eruption of the cool plasma. Despite over a century of detailed observations, large gaps remain in our knowledge of filament channel/plasma formation and evolution. Resolving these issues will shed light on the physics of coronal heating, helicity transport throughout the solar cycle, and the origins of eruptive activity on the Sun. I will discuss the leading models for the magnetic and plasma structure, and outline how new observations and theory /modeling could solve long-standing uncertainties regarding this majestic solar phenomenon.

  12. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Greenhouse effect in quiescent prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryutova, M.; Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Quiescent prominences, by definition, are huge ``clouds'' of cool, dense plasma overlying rarefied hot corona and supported by a complex magnetic field anchored in the photosphere along the magnetic polarity inversion line. One of the most prominent features in their dynamics is formation, growth and collapse of bubble/cavities filled by coronal plasma and emerging, often repeatedly, under a prominence body. As such, prominence/corona interface itself is subject of fundamental plasma instabilities, which include development of a regular series of plumes and spikes typical to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, often followed by a sudden collimated mass upflow, which, in nonlinear stage having an explosive character may be responsible for CMEs. These were only recently studied in detail with high cadence, high resolution data obtained from the Hinode satellite. Even more surprises are brought by the SDO/AIA instrument showing the Sun's atmosphere in 12 visible and EUV wavelengths. AIA multi-wavelength images in a temperature range from 105 ~K to 2 × 106 ~K combined with the Hinode/SOT data show that plasma inside the prominence cavity, being as expected, at coronal temperatures, in fact exceeds the temperature of the ambient corona. We suggest that an energetically open highly dynamic processes releasing energy at the prominence/cavity interface accompanied by the ``radiative exchange'', may cause additional increase of temperature and/or density inside cavity. Given pervasive character of prominences, future studies will allow us to perform quantitative and statistical analysis, and reveal relations between the size of cavity, its temperature, and magnetic properties.

  14. Dynamics of quiescent prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, Petr

    2012-07-01

    We review the state-of-the-art of the observations and modeling of prominence fine structures, with special emphasis on the dynamics. Fine structures of quiescent prominences have been recently observed by Hinode/SOT and these observations revealed a rather complex dynamics of bright threads and blobs and of dark plumes originating from large prominence bubbles. SOHO/SUMER spectra of hydrogen Lyman lines, together with H-alpha observations from MSDP, provide us with constraints on the dynamics of cool fine structures. 2D non-LTE modeling is used for analysis of the line profiles and their asymmetries. On the contrary, the SDO/AIA images, together with RHD modeling of dipped magnetic loops, lead to a better understanding of the dynamics and energetics of hotter prominence plasmas. Finally, some more global dynamics is revealed by the spectroscopic detection of quiescent prominence oscillations. We show recent results of such observations and new radiative-transfer modeling.

  15. First Light Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    Soon after the instruments opened their doors, the Sun began performing for SDO with this beautiful prominence eruption. This AIA data is from March 30, 2010, showing a wavelength band that is cent...

  16. Arching Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s STEREO (Ahead) spacecraft watched as an eruptive prominence rose up and arched out in a horseshoe shape far above the Sun’s surface (Aug. 25, 2010). The image and movie show the action in a...

  17. Prominence Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  18. Solar Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    The prominence that erupts in a prominence eruption is a magnetic structure in the chromosphere and corona. It is visible in chromospheric images by virtue of chromospheric-temperature plasma suspended in the magnetic field, and belongs to that large class of magnetic structures appropriately called filaments because of their characteristic sinewy sigmoidal form. Hence, the term "filament eruption" is used interchangeably with the term "prominence eruption". The magnetic field holding a filament is prone to undergo explosive changes in configuration. In these upheavals, because the filament material is compelled by its high conductivity to ride with the magnetic field that threads it, this material is a visible tracer of the field motion. The part of the magnetic explosion displayed by the entrained filament material is the phenomenon known as a filament eruption, the topic of this article. This article begins with a description of basic observed characteristics of filament eruptions, with attention to the magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections in which erupting filaments are embedded. The present understanding of these characteristics in terms of the form and action of the magnetic field is then laid out by means of a rudimentary three-dimensional model of the field. The article ends with basic questions that this picture leaves unresolved and with remarks on the observations needed to probe these questions.

  19. The neuropsychiatric profile of posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Isella, Valeria; Villa, Giulia; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferri, Francesca; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed scores obtained at the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) by 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and contrasted it with 20 patients having Alzheimer disease (AD). Patients with hallucinations and delusions were not included due to the high probability of a diagnosis of Lewy body disease. Prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) was 95% in the PCA group, the most frequent being apathy and anxiety. Cluster analysis on NPI subscales highlighted a behavioral subsyndrome characterized by agitated temper and irritability. Depression, anxiety, and apathy did not cluster with any other BPSD nor with each other. The PCA group showed a significantly higher proportion of anxious patients and worse anxiety score than patients with AD. No correlation was found between NPI data and demographic, clinical, or neuropsychological features nor were there significant differences for the same variables between anxious and nonanxious cases with PCA. In agreement with anecdotal reports, anxiety seems particularly relevant in PCA. PMID:25330926

  20. Recognition and management of neuropsychiatric complications in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Florian; Agbokou, Catherine; Gauthier, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is primarily considered a motor disease characterized by rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural disturbances. However, neuropsychiatric complications, including mood and anxiety disorders, fatigue, apathy, psychosis, cognitive impairment, dementia, sleep disorders and addictions, frequently complicate the course of the illness. The pathophysiologic features of these complications are multifaceted and include neuropathophysiologic changes of a degenerative disease, exposure to antiparkinsonian treatments and emotional reactions to having a disabling chronic illness. Changes in mental status have profound implications for the well-being of patients with Parkinson's disease and of their caregivers. Treatment is often efficacious but becomes a challenge in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. In this article, we review the key clinical features of neuropsychiatric complications in Parkinson's disease as well as what is known about their epidemiologic characteristics, risk factors, pathophysiologic features and management. PMID:17146092

  1. Helical flux ropes in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present numerical method for the computation of force-free, cancelling magnetic structures shows that flux cancellation at the neutral line in a sheared magnetic arcade generates helical field lines that can support a prominence's plasma. With increasing flux cancellation, the axis of the helical fields moves to greater heights; this is suggestive of a prominence eruption. Two alternative scenarios are proposed for the formation of polar crown prominences which yield the correct axial magnetic field sign. Both models are noted to retain the formation of helical flux tubes through flux cancellation as their key feature.

  2. Formation and support of prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the concepts discussed by the group on the formation and support of prominences. Only quiescent and long-lived active region prominences were considered, since transient prominence phenomena, such as sprays, surges, H alpha flare-loops, and coronal rain, are dynamically distinct from long-lived, prominences. Stable prominences (which are often referred to as filaments when seen against the disk) can be subdivided into three categories, namely active region prominences, quiescent prominences and polar crown prominences. The third category is closely related to the second since a quiescent prominence will eventually evolve into a polar crown prominence if it lasts long enough. The distinction between the first and second categories is not sharp either since intermediates exist here as well (Martin, 1973).

  3. Prominences: The Key to Understanding Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2011-01-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process also remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for

  4. Solar Prominence - Sept 24, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    These movies show the highly dynamic motions in solar prominences. The movie on the right side shows the prominence motions of material at 65,000K. The vertical stripe in the center of the image is...

  5. Prominent Doublet Ridges on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's satellite Europa was obtained from a range of 7364 miles (11851 km) by the Galileo spacecraft during its fourth orbit around Jupiter and its first close pass of Europa. The image spans 30 miles by 57 miles (48 km x 91 km) and shows features as small as 800 feet (240 meters) across, a resolution more than 150 times better than the best Voyager coverage of this area. The sun illuminates the scene from the right. The large circular feature in the upper left of the image could be the scar of a large meteorite impact. Clusters of small craters seen in the right of the image may mark sites where debris thrown from this impact fell back to the surface. Prominent doublet ridges over a mile (1.6 km) wide cross the plains in the right part of the image; younger ridges overlap older ones, allowing the sequence of formation to be determined. Gaps in ridges indicate areas where emplacement of new surface material has obliterated pre-existing terrain.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Investigation of Solar Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yingna; McCauley, Patrick; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan; Ji, Haisheng; Reeves, Katharine; DeLuca, Edward

    2015-08-01

    At first, we will present an investigation of the polar crown prominence that erupted on 2012 March 12. This prominence is observed at the southeast limb by SDO/AIA (end-on view) and displays a quasi vertical-thread structure. Bright U-shape (horn-like) structure is observed surrounding the upper portion of the prominence (171 Angstrom) before the eruption and becomes more prominent during the eruption. When viewed on the disk, STEREO-B shows that this long prominence is composed of a series of vertical threads and displays a half loop-like structure during the eruption. We focus on the magnetic support of the prominence by studying the structure and dynamics of the prominence before and during the eruption using observations from SDO and STEREO. We construct a series of magnetic field models (including sheared arcade model, twisted flux rope model, and model with HFT), then compare with observations. Various observational characteristics appear to support the twisted flux rope model. Our study suggests that the flux rope supporting the prominence enters the regime of torus instability at the onset of the fast rise phase, and signature of reconnection appears about one hour later. In the second part, we will present a statistical study on the kinematics of limb eruptive prominences observed by SDO/AIA. A brief introduction on an online catalog of prominence eruptions observed by SDO/AIA will also be presented.

  7. New perspectives on solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.

    2012-06-01

    Recent observations of prominences obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution instruments, on board satellites (Hinode, SDO) as well as on the ground (SST) have provided very intriguing movies and open a new area for understanding the nature of prominences. The main topics are still debate: formation, dynamics, and characteristics of the plasma in the core and in the transition zone between the prominence and corona. We will review briefly the recent advances made in these topics, observationally as well as theoretically.

  8. 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Modeling. II. Prominence Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2015-10-01

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  9. Attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease by motor intervention: a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Florindo; Canonici, Ana Paula; Gobbi, Sebastião; Santos-Galduroz, Ruth Ferreira; de Castilho Cação, João; Gobbi, Lílian Teresa Bucken

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of motor intervention on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and on the caregivers' burden. DESIGN: This is a controlled trial evaluating the effects of a motor intervention program on the neuropsychiatric symptoms. SETTING: The intervention was performed on community patients from two university centers specializing in physical exercise for the elderly. SUBJECTS: Patients with Alzheimer's disease were divided into two groups: sixteen received the motor intervention and sixteen controls (five controls were excluded because of clinical intercurrences). INTERVENTIONS: Aerobic exercises (flexibility, strength, and agility) and functional balance exercises were conducted over six months for 60 minutes three times per week. MAIN MEASURES: Psychopathological features of patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Caregivers were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress and Burden Interview. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to observe interactions (pre- vs. post-intervention; participants vs. controls). RESULTS: Patients from the intervention presented a significant reduction in neuropsychiatric conditions when compared to controls (Neuropsychiatric Inventory: F∶11.12; p = 0.01; Cornell Depression scale: F∶11.97; p = 0.01). The burden and stress of caregivers responsible for patients who participated in the intervention significantly decreased when compared to caregivers responsible for controls (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress: F: 9.37; p = 0.01; Burden Interview: F: 11.28; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise was associated with a reduction in the neuropsychiatric symptoms and contributed to attenuate the caregivers' burden. However, the researchers were not blinded to the patient's intervention status, which constitutes an important limitation of this study. PMID:21915483

  10. Description and Classification of Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    Solar prominences are bright cloud-like structures when observed beyond the solar limb and they appear as dark filamentary objects which are termed filaments when seen against the solar disk. The aims of prominence classifications were from the start to establish references and frameworks for understanding the physical conditions for their formation and development through interplay with the solar magnetic environment. The multi-thermal nature of solar prominences became fully apparent once observations from space in UV, VUV, EUV and X-rays could be made. The cool prominence plasma is thermally shielded from the much hotter corona and supported in the field of gravity by small- and large-scale magnetic fields of the filament channels. High cadence, subarcsecond observing facilities on ground and in space have firmly proven the highly dynamic nature of solar prominences down to the smallest observed structural sizes of 100 km. The origin of the ubiquitous oscillations and flowing of the plasma over a variety of spatial and temporal scales, whether the cool dense plasma originates from below via levitation, injections by reconnection or results from condensation processes, are central issues in prominence research today. The unveiling of instabilities leading to prominences eruptions and Coronal Mass Ejections is another important challenge. The objective of this chapter is to review the main characteristics of various types of prominences and their associated magnetic environments, which will all be addressed in details in the following chapters of this book.

  11. Prominence Energetics Measured with SOHO/SUMER and TRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which solar prominences are filled with plasma are still undetermined. In this study we perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of moving features in prominences in order to put constraints on models of prominence formation and dynamics. In order to make such measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the W we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us to analyze the thermal and kinetic energy of the moving prominence sources as functions of time.

  12. Coronal transient--eruptive prominence of 1980 August 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.J.; Seagraves, P.

    1981-06-15

    A coronal transient was observed in association with an eruptive prominence event using the Mauna Loa experiment system. The transient, a rarefaction, formed before the acceleration of the eruptive prominence. Upward velocities of various features, as seen in the plane of the sky, show a marked difference as a function of time between the transient and the eruptive prominence. A region of enhanced electron density formed slowly in front of the rarefaction.

  13. Automated image based prominent nucleoli detection

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon K.; Kalaw, Emarene M.; Singh, Malay; Chong, Kian T.; Giron, Danilo M.; Huang, Chao-Hui; Cheng, Li; Law, Yan N.; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nucleolar changes in cancer cells are one of the cytologic features important to the tumor pathologist in cancer assessments of tissue biopsies. However, inter-observer variability and the manual approach to this work hamper the accuracy of the assessment by pathologists. In this paper, we propose a computational method for prominent nucleoli pattern detection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five hematoxylin and eosin stained images were acquired from prostate cancer, breast cancer, renal clear cell cancer and renal papillary cell cancer tissues. Prostate cancer images were used for the development of a computer-based automated prominent nucleoli pattern detector built on a cascade farm. An ensemble of approximately 1000 cascades was constructed by permuting different combinations of classifiers such as support vector machines, eXclusive component analysis, boosting, and logistic regression. The output of cascades was then combined using the RankBoost algorithm. The output of our prominent nucleoli pattern detector is a ranked set of detected image patches of patterns of prominent nucleoli. Results: The mean number of detected prominent nucleoli patterns in the top 100 ranked detected objects was 58 in the prostate cancer dataset, 68 in the breast cancer dataset, 86 in the renal clear cell cancer dataset, and 76 in the renal papillary cell cancer dataset. The proposed cascade farm performs twice as good as the use of a single cascade proposed in the seminal paper by Viola and Jones. For comparison, a naive algorithm that randomly chooses a pixel as a nucleoli pattern would detect five correct patterns in the first 100 ranked objects. Conclusions: Detection of sparse nucleoli patterns in a large background of highly variable tissue patterns is a difficult challenge our method has overcome. This study developed an accurate prominent nucleoli pattern detector with the potential to be used in the clinical settings. PMID:26167383

  14. Antioxidants as potential therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Chirayu D; Howell, Kristy R; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression etc. Both genetic and nongenetic factors have been found to cause increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species beyond the capacity of antioxidant defense mechanism in patients of psychiatric disorders. These factors trigger oxidative cellular damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, leading to abnormal neural growth and differentiation. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies such as supplementation with antioxidants can be effective for long-term treatment management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of antioxidants and PUFAs as supplements in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders has provided some promising results. At the same time, one should be cautious with the use of antioxidants since excessive antioxidants could dangerously interfere with some of the protective functions of reactive oxygen species. The present article will give an overview of the potential strategies and outcomes of using antioxidants as therapeutics in psychiatric disorders. PMID:23123357

  15. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease.

  16. Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the axial fields in high-latitude quiescent prominences is considered. The fact that almost all quiescent prominences obey the same hemisphere-dependent rule strongly suggests that the solar differential rotation plays an important role in producing the axial fields. However, the observations are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the axial fields are produced by differential rotation acting on an existing coronal magnetic field. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. The possibility that the sign of the axial field depends on the topology of the magnetic field in which the prominence is embedded is examined, as is the possibility that the neutral line is tilted with respect to the east-west direction, so that differential rotation causes the neutral line also to rotate with time. The possibility that the axial fields of quiescent prominences have their origin below the solar surface is also considered.

  17. The dynamics of funnel prominences

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present numerical simulations in 2.5D settings where large-scale prominences form in situ out of coronal condensation in magnetic dips, in close agreement with early as well as recent reporting of funnel prominences. Our simulation uses full thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parameterized heating as main ingredients to establish a realistic arcade configuration from chromosphere to corona. The chromospheric evaporation, especially from transition region heights, ultimately causes thermal instability, and we witness the growth of a prominence suspended well above the transition region, continuously gaining mass and cross-sectional area. Several hours later, the condensation has grown into a structure connecting the prominence-corona transition region with the underlying transition region, and a continuous downward motion from the accumulated mass represents a drainage that matches observational findings. A more dynamic phase is found as well, with coronal rain, induced wave trains, and even a reconnection event when the core prominence plasma weighs down the field lines until a flux rope is formed. The upper part of the prominence is then trapped in a flux-rope structure, and we argue for its violent kink-unstable eruption as soon as the (ignored) length dimension would allow for ideal kink deformations.

  18. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Topic-Prominence and Subject-Prominence in L2 Acquisition: Evidence of English-to-Chinese Typological Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hong Gang

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether topic-prominence transfer is a universal developmental stage or a transferable typology by analyzing the behavior of 46 native speakers of English learning Chinese, a subject-prominence (SP) language, as a second language. Results found that the learners displayed a process of systematically transferring English SP features to…

  20. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.

    PubMed

    Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

    2012-10-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

  1. Neuropsychiatric Effects of HIV Antiviral Medications.

    PubMed

    Treisman, Glenn J; Soudry, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    The development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically increased the lifespan of HIV patients but treatment is complicated by numerous adverse effects and toxicities. ART complications include neuropsychiatric, metabolic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and numerous other toxicities, and clinicians often have to choose one toxicity over another to offer the best medication regimen for a patient. Some antiviral drugs cause significant neuropsychiatric complications, including depression, cognitive impairment, and sleep disturbance. Even in careful studies, it may be difficult to determine which effects are related to the virus, the immune system, or the treatment. Of the six currently marketed classes of antiviral drugs, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors have been most commonly associated with neuropsychiatric complications. Within these classes, certain drugs are more likely to cause difficulty than others. We review the contention regarding the central nervous system (CNS) complications of efavirenz, as well as debate about the role of CNS penetration in drug effectiveness and toxicity. A thorough working knowledge of the neuropsychiatric consequences of ART allows clinicians to tailor treatment more successfully to individual patients as well as to identify ART more quickly as the source of a problem or symptom. PMID:27534750

  2. Corticosteroid-induced neuropsychiatric disorders: review and contrast with neuropsychiatric lupus.

    PubMed

    Bhangle, Samir D; Kramer, Neil; Rosenstein, Elliot D

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the available literature regarding the neuropsychiatric (NP) disturbances associated with corticosteroid (CS) therapy; to determine the nature, severity, and frequency of these NP symptoms; and to identify the various risk factors involved in the development of CS-induced NP disturbances. We searched the available literature since the advent of corticosteroid therapy (1950) utilizing the PubMed database ( www.pubmed.gov). Primary articles were identified, and they and their pertinent references were reviewed. Due to potential confusion between NP manifestations of CS therapy and central nervous system (CNS) involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a condition often treated with CS, a brief review of NP manifestations of SLE was also performed. The presentation of CS-induced neuropsychiatric disorders (CIPD) can be quite varied with depression, hypomania, and overt psychosis being the most common manifestations. CIPD can also include bipolar affective changes, delirium, panic attacks, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, fatigue, catatonia, reversible dementia-like cognitive changes, impaired memory, and concentration. No factors have been identified that allow for the accurate prediction of development of CIPD. A dose-dependent relationship (increased risk when the daily prednisone-equivalent dose is ≥40 mg) has been observed in most cases of CIPD, although there have been case reports with lower doses, alternate-day therapy, and even inhaled CS. Women are more commonly affected with most symptoms occurring in the first 6 weeks of starting treatment. SLE has been the only specific illness that has been linked to a greater risk of CIPD and the NP manifestations of SLE may mimic those of CIPD, with most occurring in the first year of diagnosis. Antiribosomal P, antineuronal, or antiphospholipid antibodies are frequently seen in patients with SLE developing CIPD. Imaging and EEG

  3. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  4. Damped kink oscillations of flowing prominence threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, R.; Ruderman, M. S.; Goossens, M.

    2012-10-01

    Transverse oscillations of thin threads in solar prominences are frequently reported in high-resolution observations. Two typical features of the observations are that the oscillations are damped in time and that simultaneous mass flows along the threads are detected. Flows cause the dense threads to move along the prominence magnetic structure while the threads are oscillating. The oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves of the magnetic flux tubes, which support the threads. The damping is most likely due to resonant absorption caused by plasma inhomogeneity. The technique of seismology uses the observations combined with MHD wave theory to estimate prominence physical parameters. This paper presents a theoretical study of the joint effect of flow and resonant absorption on the amplitude of standing kink waves in prominence threads. We find that flow and resonant absorption can either be competing effects on the amplitude or both can contribute to damp the oscillations depending on the instantaneous position of the thread within the prominence magnetic structure. The amplitude profile deviates from the classic exponential profile of resonantly damped kink waves in static flux tubes. Flow also introduces a progressive shift of the oscillation period compared to the static case, although this effect is in general of minor importance. We test the robustness of seismological estimates by using synthetic data aiming to mimic real observations. The effect of the thread flow can significantly affect the estimation of the transverse inhomogeneity length scale. The presence of random background noise adds uncertainty to this estimation. Caution needs to be paid to the seismological estimates that do not take the influence of flow into account.

  5. Prominence material identified in magnetic cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuo; Marsch, E.; Tu, C.-Y.

    2010-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often appear in coronagraph images as three-part structures composed of a leading bright front, a dark cavity and a bright core, which are believed to be associated with the sheath of compressed solar wind, the erupting magnetic flux rope and the cool and dense prominence plasma, respectively. However, a convincing identification of this three-part structure in the in-situ solar wind is extremely rare. Therefore, there still remains an open question as to what kind of signatures these three CME parts will reveal in the in situ data ([5]). Our work presents a clear identification of prominence material from in situ observations of the solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters. The Helios 2 solar probe detected a magnetic cloud at 0.5 AU on 30 March 1976. In this event, we found a region with lower proton temperature and higher proton number density than outside, which is consistent with key features of a prominence as cold and dense solar material. During the same time we also found the occurrence of what possibly is He+, which is a special ion expected to occur only in prominence ejecta. Furthermore, the above observations were all made at a location related to the turning point of a bipolar structure of the interplanetary magnetic field, which is coincident with the notion that a solar prominence lies under the magnetic field lines of a bipolar region and is oriented along the neutral line. Furthermore, from our analysis of solar wind velocity distribution functions (VDFs) we can confirm by kinetic evidence that the plasma inside this special region is colder and more isotropic than outside. Above all, our observations circumstantially confirm the 3-part CME model as described in references [10] and [7].

  6. Tracking prominent points in image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael

    1994-03-01

    Measuring image motion and inferring scene geometry and camera motion are main aspects of image sequence analysis. The determination of image motion and the structure-from-motion problem are tasks that can be addressed independently or in cooperative processes. In this paper we focus on tracking prominent points. High stability, reliability, and accuracy are criteria for the extraction of prominent points. This implies that tracking should work quite well with those features; unfortunately, the reality looks quite different. In the experimental investigations we processed a long sequence of 128 images. This mono sequence is taken in an outdoor environment at the experimental field of Mercedes Benz in Rastatt. Different tracking schemes are explored and the results with respect to stability and quality are reported.

  7. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    PubMed Central

    Akahoshi, Keiko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Masuko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations. Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome. PMID:22888254

  8. Thermal Properties of Prominence Motions as Observed in the UV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms by which solar prominences are filled with plasma are still undetermined. In this study we perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of moving features in prominences in order to put constraints on models of prominence formation and dynamics. In order to make such measurements of quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO instruments SUMER and CDS to take a time series of exposures at a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The resulting observations in spectral lines in a range of 'transition region' temperatures allow us to analyze the thermal properties of the moving prominence sources as a function of time.

  9. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study. PMID:6395136

  10. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  11. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarun D.; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To conduct a prospective analysis of the neuropsychiatric symptoms(NPS) across the three categories of primary progressive aphasia(PPA) and apraxia of speech(PPAOS), to compare the prevalence and nature of the symptoms, and look at which symptoms could be helpful to better differentiate these PPA and PPAOS categories. Methods 106 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of semantic variant{svPPA}(13), logopenic variant{lvPPA}(37), agrammatic variant{agPPA}(15) or PPAOS(41), were included in this prospective study. The NPS were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Results There were 65 patients with PPA and 41 with PPAOS diagnosis. The most distinguishing features between the two groups were anxiety, apathy, aberrant motor behavior and appetite, while among the subtypes of PPA were disinhibition and appetite changes. PPA and PPAOS patients initially exhibited depression but with increase in disease duration, the PPAOS patients showed apathy (55.5%) while the PPA patients showed disinhibition (28.6%) and aberrant motor behavior (14.3%). Conclusion Mood symptoms like anxiety and appetite changes are more likely to be present in initial stages of PPA whereas behavioral symptoms like aberrant motor behavior and apathy are likely to occur in PPAOS. The NPS seems to evolve with the progression of the disease in both PPA and PPAOS. PMID:25613190

  12. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fraunberger, Erik A.; Scola, Gustavo; Laliberté, Victoria L. M.; Duong, Angela; Andreazza, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26640614

  13. Neuropsychiatric effects of cardiovascular drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Keller, Seth; Frishman, William H

    2003-01-01

    Various cardiovascular drugs have been shown to have neuropsychiatric effects that can be harmful or therapeutically beneficial to patients. As an example, both sedation and mental depression have been described in patients receiving centrally acting antihypertensive drugs and beta-adrenergic blockers, related to their antiadrenergic actions. In contrast, because of these antiadrenergic actions, agents like clonidine have been used to treat opiate, alcohol, and nicotine withdrawal, while beta blockers have been used to treat symptoms of performance anxiety, migraine, and psychocardiac disorders. Some antiarrhythmic drugs have been associated with delirium, and digitalis toxicity has been shown to cause hallucinations, mania, euphoria, and depression. The calcium-channel blocker verapamil has been used as an adjunctive treatment in patients with bipolar disorders. Since neuropsychiatric symptoms are seen in patients with cardiovascular disease, clinicians should be aware of the possible relationship between these symptoms and concurrent cardiovascular drug therapy. PMID:12620132

  14. The human histaminergic system in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ling; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2015-03-01

    Histaminergic neurons are exclusively located in the hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus, from where they project to many brain areas. The histaminergic system is involved in basic physiological functions, such as the sleep-wake cycle, energy and endocrine homeostasis, sensory and motor functions, cognition, and attention, which are all severely affected in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present recent postmortem findings on the alterations in this system in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), depression, and narcolepsy. In addition, we highlight the need to validate animal models for these diseases and also for Tourette's syndrome (TS) in relation to alterations in the histaminergic system. Moreover, we discuss the potential for, and concerns over, the use of novel histamine 3 receptor (H3R) antagonists/inverse agonists as treatment for such disorders. PMID:25575625

  15. Neuropsychiatric aspects of treated Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Svetel, Marina; Potrebić, Aleksandra; Pekmezović, Tanja; Tomić, Aleksandra; Kresojević, Nikola; Jesić, Rada; Dragasević, Natasa; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the current cross-sectional study was to use standardized psychiatric interviews (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory; NPI) in order to better characterize psychiatric symptoms in 50 consecutive, treated and clinically stable patients with Wilson's disease (WD). Nine patients (18%) had one, 7 patients (14%) had two, and 20 (40%) had >or= 3 neuropsychiatric symptoms present. The most often endosed symptoms were anxiety (62%), depression (36%), irritability (26%), as well as disinhibition and apathy (24% each). Twenty two patients (44%) had a score >or= 4 on at least one of the NPI items: again, most frequently anxiety (17 patients; 34%), depression (13 patients; 26%) and apathy (9 patients; 18%). Therefore, even among stable, long-term treated patients with WD approximately 70% experienced psychiatric symptoms. PMID:19559640

  16. The perception of prominence patterns.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Klaus J

    2008-01-01

    The term 'stress' is used to refer to the perceptual salience at certain places in strings of syllables, but it has several different referents: (a) relative syllable salience in an utterance; this is syllable-, not word-oriented; (b) stress in a word; this is part of the lexical phonology; (c) stressing of words in utterances for various aspects of propositional and expressive meaning, often called 'accent(uation)'. Referents b and c are word- and meaning-oriented. In this article, the terms are more stringently defined. 'Stress' is only used to refer to a lexical stress position (referent b), i.e. a syllable in a word that becomes the docking place for various types of 'accent' to weight words in utterances (referent c). 'Stress' has no physical attributes by itself. 'Prominence' refers to the patterns of salience in syllable strings (referent a). The article reports results of an experiment in prominence perception of the logatome baba, in which the physical parameters F0, syllabic duration, and overall acoustic energy were systematically varied across the bisyllable. Sixteen German subjects had to indicate, by pressing buttons of a computerized reaction time device, whether the first or the second syllable was more prominent. F(0) was a more powerful cue than the other two. Equal syllable duration on a monotone resulted in more first-syllable judgements, which could be counteracted by a slightly falling F(0) contour on the second syllable to reach equal response frequencies for the two syllables. This ties in with Lehiste's earlier findings that F(0) movement increases the perception of duration. Extrapolating from the results, a research programme for prominence perception is developed that will eventually shed new light on the investigation into the nature and manifestation of speech rhythm. PMID:19221454

  17. Neuropsychiatric aspects of adult-onset Tay-Sachs disease: two case reports with several new findings.

    PubMed

    Hurowitz, G I; Silver, J M; Brin, M F; Williams, D T; Johnson, W G

    1993-01-01

    Deficiency of hexosaminidase A causes the GM2 gangliosidosis known as Tay-Sachs disease. It is now known that this condition has several late-onset variants that cause numerous neuropsychiatric disturbances. Early recognition is important because treatment with phenothiazines and heterocyclic antidepressants may worsen the course. The authors report two cases with several new findings, including prominent psychiatric symptoms without psychosis early in the course of the illness. PMID:8428133

  18. The Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wijn, Alfred; Bethge, Christian; McIntosh, Scott; Tomczyk, Steven; Burkepile, Joan

    2013-04-01

    The Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer (ChroMag) is a synoptic instrument with the goal of quantifying the intertwined dynamics and magnetism of the solar chromosphere and in prominences through imaging spectro-polarimetry of the full solar disk in a synoptic fashion. The picture of chromospheric magnetism and dynamics is rapidly developing, and a pressing need exists for breakthrough observations of chromospheric vector magnetic field measurements at the true lower boundary of the heliospheric system. ChroMag will provide measurements that will enable scientists to study and better understand the energetics of the solar atmosphere, how prominences are formed, how energy is stored in the magnetic field structure of the atmosphere and how it is released during space weather events like flares and coronal mass ejections. An essential part of the ChroMag program is a commitment to develop and provide community access to the `inversion' tools necessary to interpret the measurements and derive the magneto-hydrodynamic parameters of the plasma. Measurements of an instrument like ChroMag provide critical physical context for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) as well as ground-based observatories such as the future Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A prototype is currently under construction at the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO, USA. The heart of the ChroMag instrument is an electro-optically tunable wide-fielded narrow-band birefringent six-stage Lyot filter with a built-in polarimeter. We will present a progress update on the ChroMag design, and present results from the prototype instrument.

  19. Determining Prominent Subdomains in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Powell J.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss an automated method for identifying prominent subdomains in medicine. The motivation is to enhance the results of natural language processing by focusing on sublanguages associated with medical specialties concerned with prevalent disorders. At the core of our approach is a statistical system for topical categorization of medical text. A method based on epidemiological evidence is compared to another that considers frequency of occurrence of Medline citations. We suggest the isolation of UMLS terminology peculiar to individual medical specialties as a way of enhancing natural language processing systems in the biomedical domain. PMID:16778999

  20. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup –1}cm{sup –2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  1. Obscuration of Flare Emission by an Eruptive Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    We report on the eclipsing of microwave flare emission by an eruptive prominence from a neighboring region as observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The obscuration of the flare emission appears as a dimming feature in the microwave flare light curve. We use the dimming feature to derive the temperature of the prominence and the distribution of heating along the length of the filament. We find that the prominence is heated to a temperature above the quiet Sun temperature at 17 GHz. The duration of the dimming is the time taken by the eruptive prominence in passing over the flaring region. We also find evidence for the obscuration in EUV images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission.

  2. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  3. Neuropsychiatric Profile in Malaria: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Chandra, Subhash; Agrawal, Jatin; Kanogiya, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humans causes clinical illness over 300-500 million people globally and over one million death every year globally. The involvement of the nervous system in malaria is studied in this paper, to help formulate a strategy for better malaria management. Aim To study the Neuropsychiatric manifestation in malaria. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational study in 170 patients with a clinical diagnosis of malaria admitted in various medical wards of medicine department of PBM Hospital, Bikaner during epidemic of malaria. It included both sexes of all age groups except the paediatric range. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by examination of thick and thin smear/optimal test/strip test. Only those cases that had asexual form of parasite of malaria in the blood by smear examination or optimal test were included in the study. Results Out of total 170 patients 104 (62%) reported Plasmodium falciparum (PF), Plasmodium vivax (PV) were 57 (33.5%) followed by mixed (PF+PV) 9 (5.3%) cases. The total PBF-MP test positivity was 84.5%. Maximum patients were belonging to the age range of 21-40 year with male predominance. Neuropsychiatric manifestation seen in falciparum malaria (n=111) as follow: altered consciousness 20 (18.01%), headache 17 (15.32%), neck rigidity 5 (4.5%), convulsion 5 (4.55%), extra pyramidal rigidity 2 (1.8%), decorticate rigidity 1 (0.90%), decerebrate rigidity 1 (0.90%), cerebellar ataxia 3 (2.7%), subarachnoid haemorrhage 1 (0.90%), aphasia 2 (1.8%), subconjunctival haemorrhage 1 (0.90%), conjugate deviation of eye 1 (0.90%) and psychosis 6 (5.40%). Twenty one patients presented with cerebral malaria out of 111 patients. Most patients of cerebral malaria presented with altered level of consciousness followed by headache and psychosis. Acute confusional state with clouding of consciousness was the most common presentation of psychosis (50%). Conclusion Neuropsychiatric

  4. Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Yasaman; Boeve, Bradley F.; Duffy, Joseph; Petersen, Ronald C.; Knopman, David S.; Cejka, Vladimir; Smith, Glenn E.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have reported neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA), a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the left hemisphere. Depression is associated with left-sided stroke, but it remains unclear if depression and other NPS are also associated with PPA. The authors compared the frequency of NPS in 55 cases of PPA with 110 cognitively normal persons matched for age, sex and education. Depression, apathy, agitation, anxiety, appetite change, and irritability are associated with PPA. Hallucinations, delusion and night time behavior were not associated with PPA. PMID:21677245

  5. [Neuropsychiatric non motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Peralta, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed substantial progress towards the understanding of Parkinson's disease. According to pathological and neuroimaging studies, the traditional view of Parkinson's disease that begins with the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, has begun to change. It is now understood that there would be a "premotor" or "preclinical" period in which the alphasynuclein pathology begins outside of the substantia nigra in the lower brainstem and autonomic nervous system. Although the pathophysiology of this phase is still unclear, it is currently thought that its symptoms would correspond to the so-called "non-motor symptoms". Hyposmia, depression, constipation and REM sleep disorders are one of the most relevant non-motor symptoms at this "premotor" stage. The spectrum of non-motor symptoms is very broad and covers the domains of neuropsychiatric, dysautonomic, gastrointestinal and sensory symptoms as well as sleep disorders. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, impulse control disorder, psychosis and dementia, are a major cause of disability as they are directly related to quality of life. PMID:23979552

  6. Neuropsychiatric effects of cocaine use disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Charles U.; Mimiko, Olubansile A.; McCurtis, Henry L.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2005-01-01

    Individuals who use cocaine report a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms that are yet to be adequately targeted with treatment modalities. To address this problem requires an understanding of these symptoms and their neurobiological origins. Our paper reviewed the existing data on the neuropsychiatic implications of cocaine. We conducted a Medline search from 1984-2004 using terms, such as "cocaine", "cocaine addiction", "cocaine abuse", "cocaine neuropsychiatry" and "dual diagnosis". The search produced additional reference materials that were used in this review, although we focused on data that have likely clinical implications. The literature evidence suggested that, whereas acute cocaine overdose is potentially fatal, the ingestion of mild-to-moderate doses could result in fatal or nonfatal neuropsychiatric events. Also, chronic cocaine use may be associated with deficits in neurocognition, brain perfusion and brain activation patterns. Some of these deficits were unresolved with periods of abstinence ranging from 3-200 days. Taken together, these studies suggest the need for further investigations to fully characterize the neurobiological substrates of cocaine use disorders (CUDs) with the future possibility of more efficient treatment modalities. PMID:16334497

  7. Transition modeling of neuropsychiatric impairment in HIV.

    PubMed

    Bisaso, Kuteesa R; Mukonzo, Jackson K; Ette, Ene I

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have reported analyses of neuropsychiatric impairment (NPI) data from HIV patients, in a real world clinical setting with the aim of establishing association between anti-retroviral drug concentrations and NPI development and resolution. No study has modeled the effect of efavirenz exposure beyond the pre-steady state period on the frequency and duration of NPI. The data used consists of 196 HIV patients whose efavirenz pharmacokinetic parameters were previously determined. Neuropsychiatric evaluation was done at baseline, week 2 and week 12. Patients were classified into NORMAL and NPI states. The duration of NPI was further classified as transient (NPI at week 2 but not at week 12), persistent (NPI at week 2 and 12) and delayed (NPI at week 12 but not at week 2). The proportion of patients in each duration category out of the total NPI patients was calculated. A continuous time Markov model was developed in NONMEM 7.3 and used to describe the relationship between efavirenz exposure and the duration of NPI. Monte Carlo simulations with the model were used to describe the effect of efavirenz dose reduction from 600mg to 400mg on the duration of NPI. The model adequately described the data. The influence of efavirenz exposure on the rate of development of NPI decayed with a half-life of 8.4 days. Efavirenz dose reduction to 400mg significantly reduces the duration of NPI, but has no impact on delayed NPI symptoms or efficacy. PMID:27107677

  8. The role of oxytocin in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, D; Catena Dell'osso, M

    2008-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neurohypophysial hormone synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Although OT-like substances have been identified in all vertebrates, OT has been found only in mammals where it plays a major role in the onset and maintaining of behaviors which are typical of these animals, such as labour and lactation. Recently, several data have suggested the involvement of OT in the formation of infant attachment, maternal behavior, pair bonding and, more generally, in linking social signals with cognition, behaviors and reward. The aim of this paper was to review critically the role of OT in the regulation of different physiological functions and complex behaviors, as well as its possible involvement in the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders. MEDLINE and PubMed (1972-2007) databases were searched for English language articles by using the following keywords: oxytocin, physiology, cognitive functions, attachment, psychopathology, psychiatric disorders. Papers were examined that addressed the following aspects of the OT system: synthesis and localization, receptors, physiology: In addition, latest findings showing abnormalities of OT and OT system in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, addiction, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder and Prader-Willy syndrome, will be also discussed together with the possible clinical use of OT or its analogues and/or antagonists. PMID:18336283

  9. Observations of loops and prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.

    1994-01-01

    We review recent observations by the Yohkoh-SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) in collaboration with other spacecraft and ground-based observatories of coronal loops and prominences. These new results point to problems that SoHO will be able to address. With a unique combination of rapid-cadence digital imaging (greater than or equal to 32 s full-disk and greater than or equal to 2 s partial-frame images), high spatial resolution (greater than or equal to 2.5 arcsec pixels), high sensitivity (EM less than or equal to 10(exp 42) cm(exp -3)), a low-scatter mirror, and large dynamic range, SXT can observe a vast range of targets on the Sun. Over the first 21 months of Yohkoh operations SXT has taken over one million images of the corona and so is building up an invaluable long-term database on the large-scale corona and loop geometry. The most striking thing about the SXT images is the range of loop sizes and shapes. The active regions are a bright tangle of magnetic field lines, surrounded by a network of large-scale quiet-Sun loops stretching over distances in excess of 105 km. The cross-section of most loops seems to be constant. Loops displaying significant Gamma's are the exception, not the rule, implying the presence of widespread currents in the corona. All magnetic structures show changes. Time scales range from seconds to months. The question of how these structures are formed, become filled with hot plasma, and are maintained is still open. While we see the propagation of brightenings along the length of active-region loops and in X-ray jets with velocities of several hundred km/s, much higher velocities are seen in the quiet Sun. In XBP flares, for example, velocities of over 1000 km/s are common. Active-region loops seem to be in constant motion, moving slowly outward, carrying plasma with them. During flares, loops often produce localized brightenings at the base and later at the apex of the loop. Quiescent filaments and prominences have been observed regularly

  10. Observation of Low Level Heating in an Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.

    2007-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of low level heating in an erupting prominence observed in the UV and EUV over a wide range of temperatures and wavelengths by SOHO's SUMER instrument, TRACE and also in H-alpha by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The eruption occurred on 2004 April 30. The heating is relatively mild, leading only to the ionization of neutral hydrogen and probably helium. It is also localized, occurring along the bottom edge of the erupting prominence and in a kink-like feature in the prominence. The heating is revealed as a decrease in the Lyman absorption. This decrease results in an apparent increase in emission in all the lines observed by SUMER, especially those formed at temperatures -1 0A5. However, this is due to the disappearance of cooler absorbing material in the prominence rather than an increase in these higher temperature species.

  11. Observation of Low Level Heating in an Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Theresa; Landi, E.

    2007-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of low level heating in an erupting prominence observed in the UV and EUV over a wide range of temperatures and wavelengths by SOHO's SUMER instrument, TRACE and also in H-alpha by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The eruption occurred on 2004 April 30. The heating is relatively mild, leading only to the ionization of neutral hydrogen and probably helium. It is also localized, occurring along the bottom edge of the erupting prominence and in a kink-like feature in the prominence. The heating is revealed as a decrease in the Lyman absorption. This decrease results in an apparent increase in emission in all the lines observed by SUMER, especially those formed at temperatures approx. 10(exp 5). However, this is due to the disappearance of cooler absorbing material in the prominence rather than an increase in these higher temperature species.

  12. Solar Prominence Fine Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review recent observational and theoretical results on the fine structure and dynamics of solar prominences, beginning with an overview of prominence classifications, the proposal of possible new ``funnel prominence'' classification, and a discussion of the recent ``solar tornado'' findings. We then focus on quiescent prominences to review formation, down-flow dynamics, and the ``prominence bubble'' phenomena. We show new observations of the prominence bubble Rayleigh-Taylor instability triggered by a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear flow instability occurring along the bubble boundary. Finally we review recent studies on plasma composition of bubbles, emphasizing that differential emission measure (DEM) analysis offers a more quantitative analysis than photometric comparisons. In conclusion, we discuss the relation of prominences to coronal magnetic flux ropes, proposing that prominences can be understood as partially ionized condensations of plasma forming the return flow of a general magneto-thermal convection in the corona.

  13. Some crucial corona and prominence observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    A number of theories and hypotheses are currently being developed to explain the often complex behavior of corona and prominence plasmas. In order to test the theories and hypotheses certain crucial observations are necessary. Some of these observations are examined and a few conclusions are drawn. Corona mass balance, corona and prominence classifications, prominence formation and stability, and coronal mass ejection are dicussed.

  14. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham's chorea (SC)-the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder-and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been documented by

  15. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham’s chorea (SC)—the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder—and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been

  16. Posterior fossa lesions associated with neuropsychiatric symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Pollak, L; Klein, C; Rabey, J M; Schiffer, J

    1996-11-01

    We reviewed 7 cases with posterior fossa structural abnormalities (3 tumors, 2 megacisterna magna and 2 Dandy-Walker syndrome) presenting with neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Derangement in the balance of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenergic networks has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, affective and even personality disorders. Disruption of the cerebellar output to mesial dopaminergic areas, locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei, or deafferentation of the thalamolimbic circuits by a cerebellar lesion may lead to behavioral changes. Seven patients (pts) (comprising 4 men and 3 women with mean age 22 years) were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis (2 pts), major depression (1 pt), personality disorders (2 pts) and somatoform disorders (2 pts) (DSM-IV criteria). Brain CT scan (7 pts) and MRI (4 pts) revealed tumors of the posterior fossa (2 pts), megacisterna magna (2 pts) and Dandy-Walker variant (2 pts). In one patient a IVth ventricle tumor was removed in childhood. PMID:9003973

  17. Integrative neuroscience approach to neuropsychiatric lupus

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Elizabeth L.; Rey, Carson; Huerta, Tomás S.; Huerta, Patricio T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a succinct review of our approach to study the interactions between the DNA-reactive antibodies that cross-react with the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, denoted DNRABs, and their brain targets in subjects with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). We have analyzed the DNRAB-based brain symptomatology in mouse models of NPSLE by using an integrative neuroscience approach, which includes behavioral assessment coupled with electrophysiological studies of neural networks and synaptic connections in target brain regions, such as the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Our results suggest a framework for understanding the interactions between immune factors and neural networks. PMID:26467973

  18. Re-interpreting Prominences Classified as Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Some papers in the recent literature identify tornado prominences with barbs of quiescent prominences while papers in the much older historic literature include a second category of tornado prominence that does not correspond to a barb of a quiescent prominence. The latter are described as prominence mass rotating around a nearly vertical axis prior to its eruption and the rotation was verified by spectral measurements. From H alpha Doppler-shifted mass motions recorded at Helio Research or the Dutch Open Telescope, we illustrate how the apparent tornado-like motions, identified with barbs, are illusions in our mind’s eye resulting from poorly resolved counterstreaming threads of mass in the barbs of quiescent prominences. In contrast, we confirm the second category of rotational motion in prominences shortly before and during eruption. In addition, we identify this second category as part of the late phase of a phenomenon called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of the prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption continues, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and its rotational motion also continues. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in some historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence. However, when we now observe entire eruptions in time-lapse sequences, the similarity to terrestrial tornadoes is lost. We conclude that neither prominence barbs, that give the illusion of rotation, nor the cases of true rotational motion, in the legs of erupting prominences, are usefully described as tornado prominences when the complete prominence structure or complete erupting event is observed.

  19. Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Amir I.A.; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Kramers, Cees; Feuth, Ton; Rosenberg, Paul B.; van der Marck, Marjolein A.; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the treatment of dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients with dementia and clinically relevant NPS were randomly assigned to receive THC 1.5 mg or matched placebo (1:1) 3 times daily for 3 weeks. Primary outcome was change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), assessed at baseline and after 14 and 21 days. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. Results: Twenty-four patients received THC and 26 received placebo. NPS were reduced during both treatment conditions. The difference in reduction from baseline between THC and placebo was not significant (mean difference NPItotal: 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] −3.6 to 10.0), nor were changes in scores for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory 4.6, 95% CI −3.0 to 12.2), quality of life (Quality of Life–Alzheimer's Disease −0.5, 95% CI −2.6 to 1.6), or activities of daily living (Barthel Index 0.6, 95% CI −0.8 to 1.9). The number of patients experiencing mild or moderate adverse events was similar (THC, n = 16; placebo, n = 14, p = 0.36). No effects on vital signs, weight, or episodic memory were observed. Conclusions: Oral THC of 4.5 mg daily showed no benefit in NPS, but was well-tolerated, which adds valuable knowledge to the scarce evidence on THC in dementia. The benign adverse event profile of this dosage allows study of whether higher doses are efficacious and equally well-tolerated. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with dementia-related NPS, low-dose THC does not significantly reduce NPS at 21 days, though it is well-tolerated. PMID:25972490

  20. Simulations of Buoyant Plumes in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, N.; Berger, T.

    2012-08-01

    Observations of solar prominences reveal a complex, dynamic flow field within them. The flow field within quiescent prominences is characterized by long "threads" and dark "bubbles" that fall and rise (respectively) in a thin sheet. The flow field in active prominences display more helical motions that travel along the axis of the prominence. We explore the possible dynamics of both of these with the aid of 2.5D MHD simulations. Our model, compressible plasma possesses density and temperature gradients and resides in magnetic field configurations that mimc those of a solar prominence. We present results of various configurations and discuss the nonlinear behavior of the resulting dynamics.

  1. Causal information quantification of prominent dynamical features of biological neurons.

    PubMed

    Montani, Fernando; Baravalle, Roman; Montangie, Lisandro; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2015-12-13

    Neurons tend to fire a spike when they are near a bifurcation from the resting state to spiking activity. It is a delicate balance between noise, dynamic currents and initial condition that determines the phase diagram of neural activity. Many possible ionic mechanisms can be accounted for as the source of spike generation. Moreover, the biophysics and the dynamics behind it can usually be described through a phase diagram that involves membrane voltage versus the activation variable of the ionic channel. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to characterize the dynamics of this system, which takes into account the fine temporal 'structures' of the complex neuronal signals. This allows us to accurately distinguish the most fundamental properties of neurophysiological neurons that were previously described by Izhikevich considering the phase-space trajectory, using a time causal space: statistical complexity versus Fisher information versus Shannon entropy. PMID:26527819

  2. Subjective sleep problems in Huntington's disease: A pilot investigation of the relationship to brain structure, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric function.

    PubMed

    Baker, Chaya Rochel; Domínguez D, Juan F; Stout, Julie C; Gabery, Sanaz; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Egan, Gary F; Petersén, Åsa; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Poudel, Govinda R

    2016-05-15

    Subjective reports of sleep disturbance are a common feature of Huntington's disease (HD); however, there is limited research investigating the relationship between sleep problems with changes in brain and behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether subjective reports of sleep problems in HD are associated with brain volume, neurocognitive decline, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. This retrospective pilot study used brain volume, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric data from premanifest (pre-HD) and symptomatic HD (symp-HD). Subjective sleep problem was measured using the sleep item of the Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Pre-HD individuals reporting sleep problems had significantly poorer neuropsychiatric outcomes compared to those not reporting sleep problems. In the symp-HD group, those with sleep problems had significantly accelerated thalamic degeneration and poorer neuropsychiatric outcomes compared to those without sleep problems. There was no relationship between subjective sleep problems and neurocognitive measures. These findings suggest an association between subjective sleep disturbance, neuropathology, and development of neuropsychiatric symptoms in HD. Further studies using quantitative EEG-based monitoring of sleep in HD and changes in the brain and behaviour will be necessary to establish the causal nature of this relationship. PMID:27084236

  3. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  4. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  5. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Zafonte, Ross D.; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by U.S. adults reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms and whether this prevalence changes based on the number of symptoms reported. Additional objectives include identifying patterns of CAM use, reasons for use, and disclosure of use with conventional providers in U.S. adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design Secondary database analysis of a prospective survey. Participants A total of 23,393 U.S. adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Methods We compared CAM use between adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Symptoms included self-reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, memory deficits, attention deficits, and excessive sleepiness. CAM use was defined as use of mind—body therapies (eg, meditation), biological therapies (eg, herbs), or manipulation therapies (eg, massage) or alternative medical systems (eg, Ayurveda). Statistical analysis included bivariable comparisons and multivariable logistical regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of CAM use among adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms within the previous 12 months and the comparison of CAM use between those with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms had a greater prevalence of CAM use compared with adults who did not have neuropsychiatric symptoms (43.8% versus 29.7%, P < .001); this prevalence increased with an increasing number of symptoms (trend, P < .001). Differences in the likelihood of CAM use as determined by the number of symptoms persisted after we adjusted for covariates. Twenty percent of patients used CAM because standard treatments were either too expensive or ineffective, and 25% used CAM because it was recommended by a conventional provider. Adults with at least one neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely to disclose the use of CAM to a conventional provider (47.9% versus 39.0%, P < .001

  6. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Burhan, Amer M; Marlatt, Nicole M; Palaniyappan, Lena; Anazodo, Udunna C; Prato, Frank S

    2015-01-01

    This is a focused review of imaging literature to scope the utility of hybrid brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders. The review focuses on brain imaging modalities that utilize hybrid (fusion) techniques to characterize abnormal brain molecular signals in combination with structural and functional changes that have been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. An overview of clinical hybrid brain imaging technologies for human use is followed by a selective review of the literature that conceptualizes the use of these technologies in understanding basic mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric disorders and their therapeutics. Neuronal network abnormalities are highlighted throughout this review to scope the utility of hybrid imaging as a potential biomarker for each disorder. PMID:26854172

  7. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Marlatt, Nicole M.; Palaniyappan, Lena; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Prato, Frank S.

    2015-01-01

    This is a focused review of imaging literature to scope the utility of hybrid brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders. The review focuses on brain imaging modalities that utilize hybrid (fusion) techniques to characterize abnormal brain molecular signals in combination with structural and functional changes that have been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. An overview of clinical hybrid brain imaging technologies for human use is followed by a selective review of the literature that conceptualizes the use of these technologies in understanding basic mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric disorders and their therapeutics. Neuronal network abnormalities are highlighted throughout this review to scope the utility of hybrid imaging as a potential biomarker for each disorder. PMID:26854172

  8. Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, G.; Grabe, E.; Coleman, J.; Rosner, B.

    2005-08-01

    We explored a database covering seven dialects of British and Irish English and three different styles of speech to find acoustic correlates of prominence. We built classifiers, trained the classifiers on human prominence/nonprominence judgments, and then evaluated how well they behaved. The classifiers operate on 452 ms windows centered on syllables, using different acoustic measures. By comparing the performance of classifiers based on different measures, we can learn how prominence is expressed in speech. Contrary to textbooks and common assumption, fundamental frequency (f0) played a minor role in distinguishing prominent syllables from the rest of the utterance. Instead, speakers primarily marked prominence with patterns of loudness and duration. Two other acoustic measures that we examined also played a minor role, comparable to f0. All dialects and speaking styles studied here share a common definition of prominence. The result is robust to differences in labeling practice and the dialect of the labeler.

  9. Prominence mass supply and the cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, Donald J.; Innes, D.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.

    2013-12-20

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system: the cavity is under-dense because it is evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolution of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model with diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prominence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å bandpass near the prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of our one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  10. Formation and Plasma Circulation of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous downflows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret because plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward, dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The circulation of prominence plasma is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromosphere and the formation of prominence plasma via continuous condensation. Plasma evaporates from the chromosphere, condenses into the prominence in the corona, and drains back to the chromosphere, establishing a stable chromosphere–corona plasma cycle. Synthetic images of the modeled prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly closely resemble actual observations, with many dynamical threads underlying an elliptical coronal cavity.

  11. Tornados and Transverse Oscillations during Prominence Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dipankar; Chandrashekhar, K.; Morton, Richard; Pant, Vaibhav; Datta, Ajanta

    2016-07-01

    We report and analyse different phases of a prominence eruption. The winding-unwinding of two footpoints and a tornado like swirling motion is studied. The prominence eruption is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This prominence eruption is associated with a CME at a central principal angle of 340 degree, according to the SOHO/LASCO CME catalogue. We can observe the prominence threads and the time distance maps reveal that the loop threads are entangled. We also study the transverse oscillations in the threads. Swirling motions after the eruptions are also quantified and its possible link with the CME kinematics is also studied

  12. Gluten Sensitivity Presenting as a Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing recognition in the medical community and the general public of the widespread prevalence of gluten sensitivity. Celiac disease (CD) was initially believed to be the sole source of this phenomenon. Signs and symptoms indicative of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), in which classical serum and intestinal findings of CD may be absent, have been frequently reported of late. Clinical manifestations in patients with NCGS are characteristically triggered by gluten and are ameliorated or resolved within days to weeks of commencing a gluten-free diet. Emerging scientific literature contains several reports linking gluten sensitivity states with neuropsychiatric manifestations including autism, schizophrenia, and ataxia. A clinical review of gluten sensitivity is presented alongside a case illustrating the life-changing difference achieved by gluten elimination in a patient with a longstanding history of auditory and visual hallucinations. Physicians in clinical practice should routinely consider sensitivity issues as an etiological determinant of otherwise inexplicable symptoms. Pathophysiologic mechanisms to explain the multisystem symptomatology with gluten sensitivity are considered. PMID:24693281

  13. MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudik, J.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Zapior, M.; Heinzel, P.

    2012-12-10

    We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outside of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.

  14. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Expenditure on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Sherman, Laura M.; Davis, Roger B.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Shenton, Martha E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults. These symptoms are often refractory to standard therapies, and patients may consequently opt for complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM). We sought to determine the demand for CAM by those with neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to those without neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by out-of-pocket expenditure. Method We compared CAM expenditure between US adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 23,393) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Symptoms included depression, anxiety, insomnia, attention deficits, headaches, excessive sleepiness, and memory loss. CAM was defined per guidelines from the National Institutes of Health as mind-body therapies, biological therapies, manipulation therapies, or alternative medical systems. Expenditure on CAM by those without neuropsychiatric symptoms was compared to those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Of the adults surveyed, 37% had ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom and spent $ 14.8 billion out-of-pocket on CAM. Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely than those without neuropsychiatric symptoms to spend on CAM (27.4% vs 20.3%, P < .001). Likelihood to spend on CAM increased with number of symptoms (27.2% with ≥ 3 symptoms, P < .001). After adjustment was made for confounders using logistic regression, those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom remained more likely to spend on CAM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.22–1.48), and the likelihood increased to 1.55 (95% Cl, 1.34–1.79) for ≥ 3 symptoms. Anxiety (OR = 1.40 [95% Cl, 1.22–1.60]) and excessive sleepiness (OR=1.36 [95% Cl, 1.21–1.54]) were the most closely associated with CAM expenditure. Conclusions Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom had disproportionately higher demand for CAM than those without symptoms. Research regarding safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of CAM is limited; therefore, future research should evaluate

  15. Omics-Based Biomarkers: Application of Metabolomics in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    One of the major concerns of modern society is to identify putative biomarkers that serve as a valuable early diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients with increased risk to develop neuropsychiatric disorders. Biomarker identification in neuropsychiatric disorders is proposed to offer a number of important benefits to patient well-being, including prediction of forthcoming disease, diagnostic precision, and a level of disease description that would guide treatment choice. Nowadays, the metabolomics approach has unlocked new possibilities in diagnostics of devastating disorders like neuropsychiatric disorders. Metabolomics-based technologies have the potential to map early biochemical changes in disease and hence provide an opportunity to develop predictive biomarkers that can be used as indicators of pathological abnormalities prior to development of clinical symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review highlights different -omics strategies for biomarker discovery in neuropsychiatric disorders. We also highlight initial outcomes from metabolomics studies in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addictive disorders. This review will also present issues and challenges regarding the implementation of the metabolomics approach as a routine diagnostic tool in the clinical laboratory in context with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26453695

  16. Formation of Prominences and Dynamics Before Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Solar prominences have fascinated to astronomers since the first scientific observations of eclipses. Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. These are cool and dense structures suspended in the very hot solar corona. The continuous improvements in spatial and temporal resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have revealed a rich structure and dynamics of prominences. Despite over one century of observations, the magnetic structure of a solar prominence, the origin of its mass, and their dynamics remain vigorously debated issues with profound implications for space weather. In this talk I will address the question of the origin of the cool mass of prominences by reviewing past and recent advances in theoretical modelling.

  17. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  18. Basic properties and models of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Prominences are relatively cool (10,000 K) and dense plasma clouds which may persist for 100 days or more in the midst of the much hotter (1 million K) and more tenuous (10 exp 9/cu cm) corona. Many observations imply that the magnetic field in and around prominences is responsible both for isolating prominences from the corona and for supporting them against gravity. It is not at all obvious how the magnetic field can do both these tasks, but the limited theoretical models that are available suggest that a magnetic-flux rope is involved. Using a new analytical model, it is argued that the flux rope could also play a key role in the eruption of a prominence by supplying the magnetic energy necessary to drive the prominence outwards.

  19. Investigation on Eruptive Prominences Observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yingna; McCauley, Patrick; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan; Ji, Haisheng; Reeves, Katharine; DeLuca, Edward

    2015-04-01

    We will present an investigation of the polar crown prominence that erupted on 2012 March 12. This prominence is observed at the southeast limb by SDO/AIA (end-on view) and displays a quasi vertical-thread structure. Bright U-shape (horn-like) structure is observed surrounding the upper portion of the prominence (171 Angstrom) before the eruption and becomes more prominent during the eruption. When viewed on the disk, STEREO-B shows that this long prominence is composed of a series of vertical threads and displays a half loop-like structure during the eruption. We focus on the magnetic support of the prominence by studying the structure and dynamics of the prominence before and during the eruption using observations from SDO and STEREO. During the eruption, AIA observes dark ribbons seen in absorption at 171 Angstrom in corresponding to the bright ribbons at 304 Angstrom. We construct a series of magnetic field models (including sheared arcade model, twisted flux rope model, and model with HFT), then compare with observations. Various observational characteristics appear to support the twisted flux rope model. Our study suggests that the flux rope supporting the prominence enters the regime of torus instability at the onset of the fast rise phase, and evidence of reconnection (post-eruption arcade, new U-shape Structure, rising blobs) appears about one hour later. We will also present a statistical study on the kinematics of limb eruptive prominences observed by SDO/AIA. A brief introduction on an online catalog of prominence eruptions observed by SDO/AIA will also be presented.

  20. Genes with de novo mutations are shared by four neuropsychiatric disorders discovered from NPdenovo database

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinchen; Cai, Tao; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Huiqian; He, Xin; Chen, Chao; Li, Xianfeng; Shao, Qianzhi; Ran, Xia; Li, Zhongshan; Xia, Kun; Liu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Wu, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    Currently, many studies on neuropsychiatric disorders have utilized massive trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify numerous de novo mutations (DNMs). Here, we retrieved 17,104 DNMs from 3,555 trios across four neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epileptic encephalopathy (EE), intellectual disability (ID), schizophrenia (SCZ), in addition to unaffected siblings (Control), from 36 studies by WES/WGS. After eliminating non-exonic variants, we focused on 3,334 exonic DNMs for evaluation their association with these diseases. Our results revealed a higher prevalence of DNMs in the probands of all four disorders than the one in the controls (P < 1.3 × 10-7). The elevated DNM frequency is dominated by loss-of-function/deleterious single nucleotide variants and frameshift indels (i.e., extreme mutations, P < 4.5 × 10-5). With extensive annotation of these “extreme” mutations, we prioritized 764 candidate genes in these four disorders. A combined analysis of Gene Ontology, microRNA targets, and transcription factor targets revealed shared biological process and non-coding regulatory elements of candidate genes in the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of human laminar-specific neocortical expression data showed that candidate genes are convergent on eight shared modules with specific layer-enrichment and biological process features. Furthermore, we identified that 53 candidate genes are associated with more than one disorder (P < 0.000001), suggesting a possibly shared genetic etiology underlying these disorders. Particularly, DNMs of the SCN2A gene are frequently occurred across all four disorders. Finally, we constructed a freely available NPdenovo database, which provides a comprehensive catalog of the DNMs identified in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25849321

  1. Neuropsychiatric questionnaires in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tani, C; Palagini, L; Moraes-Fontes, M F; Carli, L; Mauri, M; Bombardieri, S; Mosca, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be affected by a multitude of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms with a wide range of prevalence and severity. Irrespectively from attribution to SLE or other causes, neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms strongly impact short-term and long-term outcomes, thus NP evaluation during routine clinical practice in SLE should be undertaken regularly. The assessment of NP involvement in SLE patients is challenging and the available diagnostic tools fail to guarantee optimal diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity to changes as well as feasibility in routine clinical care. Standardised questionnaires (both physician-administered and self-reported) can offer valuable help to the treating physician to capture all possible NP syndromes; few SLE-specific NP questionnaire have been developed but validation in large cohort or cross-cultural adaptations are still pending. On the other hand, general instruments have been largely applied to SLE patients. Both kinds of questionnaires can address all possible NP manifestations either globally or, more frequently, focus on specific NP symptoms. These latter have been mainly used in SLE to detect and classify mild and subtle symptoms, more likely to be overlooked during routine clinical assessment such as headache, cognitive impairment and psychiatric manifestations. In conclusion, this literature review highlights a clear case for validation studies in this area and the wider implementation of questionnaires to assess NP involvement is still warranted. The broader use of such instruments could have important consequences; first of all, by standardising symptom assessment, a better definition of the prevalence of NP manifestation across different centres could be achieved. Secondly, prospective studies could allow for the evaluation of clinical significance of mild symptoms and their impact on the patient's function and quality of life. PMID:25365091

  2. Key Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Common Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Sadak, Tatiana I.; Katon, Jodie; Beck, Cornelia; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Borson, Soo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) among people with common dementias and equip interdisciplinary clinicians and health services planners with large-sample data necessary to plan care for patients and families. We analyzed selected variables from baseline assessments of older adults with dementia of one or more etiologies (N = 3,768) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data repository. Dementias included Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (DLB), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and vascular dementia (VaD). We compared the prevalence of four NPS clusters (agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, anxiety, irritability/lability) across dementia etiologies and stages using logistic regression and AD as the reference group. NPS profiles differed significantly across dementia types and stages. Compared with primary AD, DLB was associated with greater odds of depression/dysphoria (OR = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.20) and anxiety (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.37, 2.36), with similar findings when DLB was diagnosed in combination with AD (depression/dysphoria: OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.11, 2.89; anxiety: OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.17, 3.02). Primary bvFTD was associated with greater odds of agitation/aggression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.17, 2.18). The prevalence of anxiety and irritability/lability was highest in moderate stages of dementia, and agitation/aggression was most prevalent in severe dementia. Differential diagnosis and staging of dementias and inclusion of single and overlapping etiologies is important for planning and implementing appropriate strategies to anticipate, report, and intervene with key NPS that complicate home and health care. PMID:24079749

  3. UV Observations of Prominence Activation and Cool Loop Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 MK. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: an activated prominence and repeated motions in a loop near the prominence. We calculated three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the mass, pressure, average density, and kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx. 10(exp 5) K)loops, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding the mechanism(s) leading to energy and mass flow in these solar features.

  4. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  5. Topological Analyses of Symmetric Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, O.; Martin, S. F.

    Erupting prominences (filaments) that we have analyzed from Hα Doppler data at Helio Research and from SOHO/EIT 304 Å, show strong coherency between their chirality, the direction of the vertical and lateral motions of the top of the prominences, and the directions of twisting of their legs. These coherent properties in erupting prominences occur in two patterns of opposite helicity; they constitute a form of dynamic chirality called the ``roll effect." Viewed from the positive network side as they erupt, many symmetrically-erupting dextral prominences develop rolling motion toward the observer along with right-hand helicity in the left leg and left-hand helicity in the right leg. Many symmetricaly-erupting sinistral prominences, also viewed from the positive network field side, have the opposite pattern: rolling motion at the top away from the observer, left-hand helical twist in the left leg, and right-hand twist in the right leg. We have analysed the motions seen in the famous movie of the ``Grand Daddy" erupting prominence and found that it has all the motions that define the roll effect. From our analyses of this and other symmetric erupting prominences, we show that the roll effect is an alternative to the popular hypothetical configuration of an eruptive prominence as a twisted flux rope or flux tube. Instead we find that a simple flat ribbon can be bent such that it reproduces nearly all of the observed forms. The flat ribbon is the most logical beginning topology because observed prominence spines already have this topology prior to eruption and an initial long magnetic ribbon with parallel, non-twisted threads, as a basic form, can be bent into many more and different geometrical forms than a flux rope.

  6. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  7. The initial trajectories of eruptive solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B. P.

    2016-03-01

    Trajectories of eruptive prominences are compared with the shapes of coronal neutral surfaces calculated in a potential approximation using photospheric measurements. Space-based Solar Dymamics Observatory and STEREO observations carried out at different viewing angles enable a precise determination of a prominence's position at successive times during its eruption. In the initial segments of their trajectories, eruptive prominences move along neutral surfaces ( B r = 0) of the potential coronal magnetic field. This can be used to predict the directions of subsequent coronal mass ejections and to estimate their geoefficiency.

  8. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Interferon-α

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Demetrashvili, Marina; Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant preparations of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-α are increasingly used to treat a number of medical conditions, including chronic viral hepatitis and several malignancies. Although frequently effective, IFNα induces a variety of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including an acute confusional state that develops rapidly after initiation of high-dose IFNα, a depressive syndrome that develops more slowly over weeks to months of treatment, and manic conditions most often characterised by extreme irritability and agitation, but also occasionally by euphoria. Acute IFNα-induced confusional states are typically characterised by disorientation, lethargy, somnolence, psychomotor retardation, difficulties with speaking and writing, parkinsonism and psychotic symptoms. Strategies for managing delirium should be employed, including treatment of contributing medical conditions, use of either typical or atypical antipsychotic agents and avoidance of medications likely to worsen mental status. Significant depressive symptoms occur in 21–58% of patients receiving IFNα, with symptoms typically manifesting over the first several months of treatment. The most replicated risk factor for developing depression is the presence of mood and anxiety symptoms prior to treatment. Other potential, but less frequently replicated, risk factors include a past history of major depression, being female and increasing IFNα dosage and treatment duration. The available data support two approaches to the pharmacological management of IFNα-induced depression: antidepressant pretreatment or symptomatic treatment once IFNα has been initiated. Pretreatment might be best reserved for patients already receiving antidepressants or for patients who endorse depression or anxiety symptoms of mild or greater severity prior to therapy. Several recent studies demonstrate that antidepressants effectively treat IFNα-induced depression once it has developed, allowing the vast majority of

  9. NASA's SDO Sees Unraveling Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    An elongated solar prominence rose up above the sun’s surface and slowly unraveled on Feb. 3, 2016, as seen in this video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO. The sun appears to move in th...

  10. EUV observations of quiescent prominences from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, O. K.; Cook, J. W.; Mango, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of line intensities and line widths for three quiescent prominences observed with Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on ATM/Skylab are reported. The wavelengths of the observed lines cover the range 1175 A to 1960 A. The measured intensities have been calibrated to within approximately a factor 2 and are average intensities over a 2 arcsec by 60 arcsec slit. Nonthermal velocities from the measured line widths are derived. The nonthermal velocity is found to increase with temperature in the prominence transition zone. Electron densities and pressures are derived from density sensitive line ratios. Electron pressures for two of the prominences are found to lie in the range 0.04-0.08 dyn/sq cm, while values for the third and most intense and active of the three prominences are in the range 0.07-0.22 dyn/sq cm.

  11. Ring-shaped Prominence Erupts from Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) on Jan. 31, 2013 was accompanied by a large prominence eruption best visible in light with a wavelength of 304 angstroms. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured ...

  12. Hefty Prominence Eruption Observed by SDO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A mass of solar material gathered itself into a twisting mass, spun around for a bit, then rose up and broke apart over a 10-hour period on Oct. 13, 2015. Prominences are unstable clouds of gas tet...

  13. Formation and eruption of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    A model for the magnetic field associated with solar prominences is considered. It is shown that flux cancellation at the neutral line of a sheared magnetic arcade leads to the formation of helical field lines which are capable, in principle, of supporting prominence plasma. A numerical method for the computation of force-free, canceling magnetic structures is presented. Starting from an initial potential field we prescribe the motions of magnetic footpoints at the photosphere, with reconnection occurring only at the neutral line. As more and more flux cancels, magnetic flux is transferred from the arcade field to the helical field. Results for a particular model of the photospheric motions are presented. The magnetic structure is found to be stable: the arcade field keeps the helical field tied down at the photosphere. The axis of the helical field moves to larger and larger height, suggestive of prominence eruption. These results suggest that prominence eruptions may be trigered by flux cancellation.

  14. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  15. A DROPLET MODEL OF QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DOWNFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Haerendel, G.; Berger, T.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of quiescent prominences with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite have revealed the ubiquitous existence of downflows forming coherent thin and highly structured vertically oriented threads with velocities between 10 and 20 km s{sup -1}. Their widths range between 300 and 500 km. They are often initiated at the top of the visible prominence, but sometimes also at intermediate level. We propose that the downflows are made of plasma packets that squeeze themselves through the dominantly horizontal field under the action of gravity. Their origin is assumed to be hot plasma supplied from either inside or the immediate vicinity of the prominence and condensing at its top. Under compression and further cooling, the matter overflows to the flanks of the prominence dragging its magnetic field with it. Under the increasing action of gravity, vertical structures are forming which eventually disconnect from the field of the inflow channel thus forming finite plasma packets. This process is reminiscent of water flowing over a mountain ridge and breaking up into a multitude of droplets. Like water droplets being subject to air drag, the falling plasma droplets experience a drag force by the horizontal prominence field and assume a steady vertical velocity. This happens via the excitation of Alfven waves. Lateral confinement by the prominence field determines their spatial extent. The small scales of the droplets and the directional balance of their internal tangled magnetic fields can explain the absence of appreciable vertical components in magnetic field measurements. On the basis of the observed width and vertical speed of the downflows and by adopting a prominence field of about 8 G, we derive central density and temperature of the droplets, which turn out to be quite consistent with known prominence characteristics. In the formulation of the drag force a dimensionless 'magnetic drag coefficient' has been introduced with a value well below unity.

  16. An arcade-like eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shu-Hua; Zhan, La-Sheng

    2004-12-01

    An eruptive prominence happened on the east-northern limb of the Sun on March 7, 1991. It appeared in a relatively quiet region where any activity phenomena such as flare, filament and sunspot etc. was not found. The maximum height reachable of the prominence was 6.97×104km and its maximum length reached as 11.6×104km. The eruptive prominence might belong to the one of the middle-smaller scale according to its size in morphology. The course of the eruption exhibited some properties: ascending rapidly and descending slowly just like the process of the flare eruption. After the eruption, the most material in the prominence basically moved along a parabola under the action of magnetic force lines forming the arcade-like shape and keeping it till to the disappearance of the prominence. Before and after descending, a little matter came from the top part was ejected and divorced from the main body of the prominence and diffused into the interplanetary space.

  17. Neural markers of errors as endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Manoach, Dara S.; Agam, Yigal

    2013-01-01

    Learning from errors is fundamental to adaptive human behavior. It requires detecting errors, evaluating what went wrong, and adjusting behavior accordingly. These dynamic adjustments are at the heart of behavioral flexibility and accumulating evidence suggests that deficient error processing contributes to maladaptively rigid and repetitive behavior in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies reveal highly reliable neural markers of error processing. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that abnormalities in these neural markers can serve as sensitive endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the behavioral and neural hallmarks of error processing, their mediation by common genetic polymorphisms, and impairments in schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude that neural markers of errors meet several important criteria as endophenotypes including heritability, established neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates, association with neuropsychiatric disorders, presence in syndromally-unaffected family members, and evidence of genetic mediation. Understanding the mechanisms of error processing deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders may provide novel neural and behavioral targets for treatment and sensitive surrogate markers of treatment response. Treating error processing deficits may improve functional outcome since error signals provide crucial information for flexible adaptation to changing environments. Given the dearth of effective interventions for cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, this represents a potentially promising approach. PMID:23882201

  18. DIAGNOSING THE PROMINENCE-CAVITY CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, Sarah

    2013-06-10

    Prominences and cavities are ubiquitously observed together, but the physical link between these disparate structures has not been established. We address this issue by using dynamic emission in the extreme ultraviolet to probe the connections of these structures. The SDO/AIA observations show that the cavity exhibits excessive emission variability compared to the surrounding quiet-Sun streamer, particularly in the 171 A bandpass. We find that this dynamic emission takes the form of coherent loop-like brightening structures which emanate from the prominence into the central cavity. The geometry of these structures, dubbed prominence horns, generally mimics the curvature of the cavity boundary. We use a space-time statistical analysis of two cavities in multiple AIA bandpasses to constrain the energetic properties of 45 horns. In general, we find there is a positive correlation between the light curves of the horns in the 171 A and 193 A bandpasses; however, the 193 A emission is a factor of five weaker. There is also a strong correlation between structural changes to the prominence as viewed in the He II 304 A bandpass and the enhanced 171 A emission. In that bandpass, the prominence appears to extend several megameters along the 171 A horn where we observe co-spatial, co-temporal 304 A and 171 A emission dynamics. We present these observations as evidence of the magnetic and energetic connection between the prominence and the cavity. Further modeling work is necessary to explain the physical source and consequences of these events, particularly in the context of the traditional paradigm: the cavity is underdense because it supplies mass to the overdense prominence.

  19. Update on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Kalapatapu, Raj K; Neugroschl, Judith A

    2009-04-01

    The neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia can lead to a decreased quality of life, rapid cognitive decline, early patient institutionalization, tremendous caregiver burden, and increased cost of care. A thorough assessment to evaluate and treat any underlying causes of symptoms is essential. With the lack of an approved drug to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, nonpharmacologic interventions take on added importance. Behavioral management, cognitive stimulation therapy, and caregiver and health care staff education have shown the most promise to reduce symptom burden over the long term. The antipsychotic drugs have been the traditional choice of medications to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, but safety problems emerged with their use, leading to the issuance of label changes ("black box" warnings) by the Food and Drug Administration. Aside from antipsychotic drugs, multiple classes of medications have been tried to treat such symptoms but long-term data showing efficacy and safety are often lacking. PMID:19400596

  20. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Torok, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight as it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 Angstrom line in EUVI and in the H alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR1 by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed towards the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equals 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg. from the original filament orientation inferred from H alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation is reached within approximately equals 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  1. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight a it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 A line in EUVI and in the H-alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR I by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three-dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed toward the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equal to 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg from the original filament orientation inferred from H-alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation are reached within approximately equal to 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  2. Anatomical Brain Images Alone Can Accurately Diagnose Chronic Neuropsychiatric Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ravi; Staib, Lawrence H.; Laine, Andrew F.; Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Liu, Jun; Weissman, Myrna; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Diagnoses using imaging-based measures alone offer the hope of improving the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, thereby reducing the costs associated with incorrect treatments. Previous attempts to use brain imaging for diagnosis, however, have had only limited success in diagnosing patients who are independent of the samples used to derive the diagnostic algorithms. We aimed to develop a classification algorithm that can accurately diagnose chronic, well-characterized neuropsychiatric illness in single individuals, given the availability of sufficiently precise delineations of brain regions across several neural systems in anatomical MR images of the brain. Methods We have developed an automated method to diagnose individuals as having one of various neuropsychiatric illnesses using only anatomical MRI scans. The method employs a semi-supervised learning algorithm that discovers natural groupings of brains based on the spatial patterns of variation in the morphology of the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. We used split-half and leave-one-out cross-validation analyses in large MRI datasets to assess the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of those groupings. Results In MRI datasets from persons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Schizophrenia, Tourette Syndrome, Bipolar Disorder, or persons at high or low familial risk for Major Depressive Disorder, our method discriminated with high specificity and nearly perfect sensitivity the brains of persons who had one specific neuropsychiatric disorder from the brains of healthy participants and the brains of persons who had a different neuropsychiatric disorder. Conclusions Although the classification algorithm presupposes the availability of precisely delineated brain regions, our findings suggest that patterns of morphological variation across brain surfaces, extracted from MRI scans alone, can successfully diagnose the presence of chronic neuropsychiatric disorders. Extensions of these

  3. Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Shree Ram; Parajuli, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Chronic organophosphate (OP)-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a rare condition following prolonged exposure to OP compounds. Due to the lack of valid diagnostic tools and criteria, very few cases are seen in clinical practice and are often misdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment that may increase the risk of morbidity or suicidality. In this paper, we present the case of a 35-year-old male who needed support in breathing from a mechanical ventilator and developed neuropsychiatric behavioral problems following ingestion of OP compounds, which lead to suicidality. The patient was treated by the psychiatric team with antipsychotic and antidepressants and improved following the regular use of medication. PMID:26893566

  4. Magnetic Reconnection Models of Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that prominences form by magnetic reconnection between initially distinct flux systems in the solar corona, we simulate coronal magnetic field evolution when two flux systems are driven together by boundary motions. In particular, we focus on configurations similar to those in the quiescent prominence formation model of Martens & Zwaan. We find that reconnection proceeds very weakly, if at all, in configurations driven with global shear flows (i.e., differential rotation); reconnection proceeds much more efficiently in similar configurations that are driven to collide directly, with converging motions along the neutral line that lead to flux cancellation; reconnected fields from this process can exhibit sheared, dipped field lines along the neutral line, consistent with prominence observations. Our field configurations do not possess the ``breakout'' topology, and eruptions are not observed, even though a substantial amount of flux is canceled in some runs.

  5. The Effects of Partial Ionization on Prominence Mass Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Olson, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Martinez Gomez, D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the prominence mass has been an open question since this cool plasma suspended in the hot corona was first discovered. We have known for a long time that the mass must come from the chromosphere, but it is unclear whether this mass is lifted bodily through magnetic levitation, injected by reconnection-driven upflows, or driven from the chromosphere by evaporation and then condensed. One evaporation-condensation scenario, the thermal nonequilibrium (TNE) model, is the most fully developed, quantitative model for the prominence plasma to date. In the TNE scenario, localized heating concentrated at the coronal loop footpoints produces chromospheric evaporation, filling the flux tube with hot, dense plasma that subsequently collapses radiatively to form cool condensations. Thus far this model has been successful in explaining the key properties of the long, persistent threads and small, highly dynamic, transient blobs in prominences, the damping of large-amplitude field-aligned prominence oscillations, the appearance of horn-shaped features above the cool prominence in EUV images of coronal cavities, and coronal rain in the ambient corona. To date, all studies of TNE have assumed that the plasma is fully ionized, which is appropriate for the hot coronal gas but unrealistic for the cool plasma below ~30,000 K. The energetics, dynamics, and evolutionary time scales of the TNE process are expected to be altered when the effects of ionization and recombination are considered. We have modified ARGOS, our 1D hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, to include an equation of state that accounts for the effects of partial ionization of the plasma over a wide range of temperatures and densities. We will discuss the results of these simulations and their comparison with our previous studies of TNE in typical filament-supporting flux tubes. This work was partially supported by NASA's LWS Strategic Capability program.

  6. THE THERMAL INSTABILITY OF SOLAR PROMINENCE THREADS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Goossens, M.; Ballester, J. L.

    2011-04-10

    The fine structure of solar prominences and filaments appears as thin and long threads in high-resolution images. In H{alpha} observations of filaments, some threads can be observed for only 5-20 minutes before they seem to fade and eventually disappear, suggesting that these threads may have very short lifetimes. The presence of an instability might be the cause of this quick disappearance. Here, we study the thermal instability of prominence threads as an explanation of their sudden disappearance from H{alpha} observations. We model a prominence thread as a magnetic tube with prominence conditions embedded in a coronal environment. We assume a variation of the physical properties in the transverse direction so that the temperature and density continuously change from internal to external values in an inhomogeneous transitional layer representing the particular prominence-corona transition region (PCTR) of the thread. We use the nonadiabatic and resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations, which include terms due to thermal conduction parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, radiative losses, heating, and magnetic diffusion. We combine both analytical and numerical methods to study linear perturbations from the equilibrium state, focusing on unstable thermal solutions. We find that thermal modes are unstable in the PCTR for temperatures higher than 80,000 K, approximately. These modes are related to temperature disturbances that can lead to changes in the equilibrium due to rapid plasma heating or cooling. For typical prominence parameters, the instability timescale is of the order of a few minutes and is independent of the form of the temperature profile within the PCTR of the thread. This result indicates that thermal instability may play an important role for the short lifetimes of threads in the observations.

  7. Measurements of magnetic fields in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deglinnocenti, Egidio Landi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be measured, in solar prominences, by means of two different basic mechanisms that are responsible for the introduction (or the reduction) of a given amount of polarization in spectral lines: these are the Zeeman effect and the Hanle effect. Through the splitting of the magnetic components of a spectral line, the Zeeman effect is capable of introducing a certain amount of circular polarization across the line profile. The Hanle effect consist of a modification of the linear polarization that is induced in spectral lines by the anisotropic illumination of the prominence plasma by the photospheric radiation field. These two effects are briefly discussed.

  8. Exploring the properties of Solar Prominence Tornados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, E.; Panesar, N. K.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar prominences consist of relatively cool and dense plasma embedded in the hotter solar corona above the solar limb. They form along magnetic polarity inversion lines, and are magnetically supported against gravity at heights of up to ~100 Mm above the chromosphere. Often, parts of prominences visually resemble Earth-based tornados, with inverted-cone-shaped structures and internal motions suggestive of rotation. These "prominence tornados" clearly possess complex magnetic structure, but it is still not certain whether they actually rotate around a ''rotation'' axis, or instead just appear to do so because of composite internal material motions such as counter-streaming flows or lateral (i.e. transverse to the field) oscillations. Here we study the structure and dynamics of five randomly selected prominences, using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) 171 Å images obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. All of the prominences resided in non-active-region locations, and displayed what appeared to be tornado-like rotational motions. Our set includes examples oriented both broadside and end-on to our line-of-sight. We created time-distance plots of horizontal slices at several different heights of each prominence, to study the horizontal plasma motions. We observed patterns of oscillations at various heights in each prominence, and we measured parameters of these oscillations. We find the oscillation time periods to range over ~50 - 90 min, with average amplitudes of ~6,000 km, and with average velocities of ~7 kms-1. We found similar values for prominences viewed either broadside or end-on; this observed isotropy of the lateral oscillatory motion suggests that the apparent oscillations result from actual rotational plasma motions and/or lateral oscillations of the magnetic field, rather than to counter-streaming flows. This research was supported by the National

  9. Prominence and Cool Loop Energetics Measured in the UV, EUV, and H-alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of moving features in a prominence jet, a approx. 10(exp 5)K loop near a prominence channel, and an erupting prominence. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands and with ground based H-alpha data to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us perform DEM analysis and to calculate limits on densities, pressures, and the thermal and kinetic energies of the moving sources.

  10. Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

  11. Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Acute Epidemic Encephalitis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Franklin G.

    2007-01-01

    In reviewing the enormous number of articles on all phases of acute epidemic encephalitis one cannot help being impressed by the lack of attention paid to children who have suffered from this disease. This is especially true of the important neuropsychiatric sequelae. During the past few months, seventeen patients have been referred to the…

  12. Familial Linkage between Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Interests

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Benjamin C.; Wang, Samuel S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    From personality to neuropsychiatric disorders, individual differences in brain function are known to have a strong heritable component. Here we report that between close relatives, a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders covary strongly with intellectual interests. We surveyed an entire class of high-functioning young adults at an elite university for prospective major, familial incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders, and demographic and attitudinal questions. Students aspiring to technical majors (science/mathematics/engineering) were more likely than other students to report a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.037). Conversely, students interested in the humanities were more likely to report a family member with major depressive disorder (p = 8.8×10−4), bipolar disorder (p = 0.027), or substance abuse problems (p = 1.9×10−6). A combined PREdisposition for Subject MattEr (PRESUME) score based on these disorders was strongly predictive of subject matter interests (p = 9.6×10−8). Our results suggest that shared genetic (and perhaps environmental) factors may both predispose for heritable neuropsychiatric disorders and influence the development of intellectual interests. PMID:22291951

  13. Familial linkage between neuropsychiatric disorders and intellectual interests.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Benjamin C; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2012-01-01

    From personality to neuropsychiatric disorders, individual differences in brain function are known to have a strong heritable component. Here we report that between close relatives, a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders covary strongly with intellectual interests. We surveyed an entire class of high-functioning young adults at an elite university for prospective major, familial incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders, and demographic and attitudinal questions. Students aspiring to technical majors (science/mathematics/engineering) were more likely than other students to report a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.037). Conversely, students interested in the humanities were more likely to report a family member with major depressive disorder (p = 8.8×10(-4)), bipolar disorder (p = 0.027), or substance abuse problems (p = 1.9×10(-6)). A combined PREdisposition for Subject MattEr (PRESUME) score based on these disorders was strongly predictive of subject matter interests (p = 9.6×10(-8)). Our results suggest that shared genetic (and perhaps environmental) factors may both predispose for heritable neuropsychiatric disorders and influence the development of intellectual interests. PMID:22291951

  14. Sexual Abuse Allegations by Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…

  15. Intonational Prominence on Negatives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaeger-Dror, Malcah L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study done to determine which intonational parameters are most important to the meaning being conveyed within different social settings. Defines the factors that appear to influence the use of pitch and/or intensity prominence on negative words. Found that, in many situations, interactional rules take precedence over linguistic rules.…

  16. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  17. The Hα and Hβ emissions in solar prominence structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, G.; Wiehr, E.

    1994-10-01

    High precision photometry of the Halpha_ and Hbeta_ emissions is performed from spectra of four spatially high resolved quiescent prominences. The data are compared with recent observations and calculations. It is found that for faint emissions the observed Balmer decrement D=E_tot_(Halpha_)/E_tot_(Hbeta_) significantly exceeds the limiting value D=10.0 calculated for slab models. In contrast to former observations, the spatially and spectrally high resolved emission profiles do not require a hot and a cool component for an optimal fit. The deduced source functions do not yield a common value for different prominences, but show an individual mean for each prominence with a tendency for an increase with the optical thickness of Halpha_. Optically thick Halpha_ emissions with central absorptions are spatially related with narrow Hbeta_ emissions and hence with small kinetic temperatures. The narrow Hbeta_ emissions exist over a large range of optical thickness and show equal macroscopic shifts for individual emission features favouring a picture of closely tied bundles of threads.

  18. Models of Filament-Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian T.

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  19. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  20. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  1. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered. PMID:26291770

  2. On the thermal durability of solar prominences, or how to evaporate a prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malherbe, J. M.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal disappearance of solar prominences under strong perturbations due to wave heating, Ohmic heating, viscous heating or conduction was investigated. Specifically, how large a thermal perturbation is needed to destroy a stable thermal equilibrium was calculated. It was found that the prominence plasma appears to be thermally very rugged. Its cold equilibrium may most likely be destroyed by either strong magnetic heating or conduction in a range of parameters which is relevant to flares.

  3. Mastocytosis in adulthood and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Gaillard, Raphaël; Moura, Daniela; Hermine, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Patients with mastocytosis can display various disabling general and neuropsychological symptoms among one third of them, including general signs such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain, which can have a major impact on quality of life. Neurological symptoms are less frequent and mainly consist of acute or chronic headache (35%), rarely syncopes (5%), acute onset back pain (4%), and in a few cases, clinical and radiological symptoms resembling or allowing the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (1.3%). Headaches are associated with symptoms related to mast cell activation syndrome (flushes, prurit, and so forth) and more frequently present as migraine (37.5%), with often aura (66%). Depression-anxiety like symptoms can occur in 40% to 60% of the patients and cognitive impairment is not rare (38.6%). The pathophysiology of these symptoms could be linked to tissular mast cell infiltration or to mast cell mediators release or both. The tryptophan metabolism could be involved in mast cell-induced neuroinflammation through indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activation. Treatments targeting mast cell may be useful to target neuropsychological features associated with mastocytosis, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:27063957

  4. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Rai, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière's disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière's disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well. PMID:25745302

  5. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Rai, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière's disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière's disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well. PMID:25745302

  6. The neuropsychiatric manifestations of Huntington's disease-like 2.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christopher A; Licht, Eliot A; Mendez, Mario F

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder that resembles HD but results from a distinct mutation. The authors present a patient with HDL2, hospitalized for psychiatric management, and they review the neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disorder. Depression, irritability/aggression, and frontal lobe personality changes are common presentations of HDL2 and are comparable to classic HD. Patients with HDL2 may differ from those with HD in having a lower incidence of obsessive-compulsive acts, known suicides, antisocial acts, and changes in sexuality. Clinicians should be aware of the psychiatric presentations of this disorder, when to obtain genetic testing, and how to manage problematic behaviors. PMID:23224457

  7. B Vitamin deficiency and neuropsychiatric syndromes in alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Cook, C C; Hallwood, P M; Thomson, A D

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol misuse and alcohol withdrawal are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes, some of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. B vitamin deficiency is known to contribute to the aetiology of a number of these syndromes, and B vitamin supplementation thus plays a significant part in prophylaxis and treatment. In particular, the Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). due to thiamine deficiency, is a common condition in association with alcohol misuse, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide deficiency may result in a rarer condition, alcoholic pellagra encephalopathy, which often has a similar clinical presentation to WKS. This review considers the role of B vitamins in the aetiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with alcohol misuse, with particular emphasis on WKS. PMID:9719389

  8. Disturbed Amino Acid Metabolism in HIV: Association with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gostner, Johanna M.; Becker, Kathrin; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Blood levels of the amino acid phenylalanine, as well as of the tryptophan breakdown product kynurenine, are found to be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. Both essential amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine, are important precursor molecules for neurotransmitter biosynthesis. Thus, dysregulated amino acid metabolism may be related to disease-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as development of depression, fatigue, and cognitive impairment. Increased phenylalanine/tyrosine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios are associated with immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection and decrease upon effective antiretroviral therapy. Recent large-scale metabolic studies have confirmed the crucial involvement of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV-associated disease. Herein, we summarize the current status of the role of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV disease and discuss how inflammatory stress-associated dysregulation of amino acid metabolism may be part of the pathophysiology of common HIV-associated neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:26236243

  9. Neuropsychiatric changes following penetrating head injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Badhiwala, Jetan H.; Blackham, Janet R.; Bhardwaj, Ratan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Penetrating head injuries demand the prompt attention of a neurosurgeon. While most neurosurgical centers are experienced in the acute management of these injuries, less is known about the long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of penetrating head trauma. In adults, direct injury to the frontal lobe classically has been associated with mental status changes. However, there is less published data in children. Case Description: We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who suffered a penetrating head injury to the frontal lobes secondary to a self-inflicted gunshot wound, and experienced subsequent resolution of pre-existing bipolar disorder and new onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion: Children with penetrating head injury require close multidisciplinary follow-up in order to monitor, and accordingly implement management strategies, for associated sequelae, including behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes. PMID:25422782

  10. CAN NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION ENHANCE COGNITION IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS?

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas-Tatlidede, Asli; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core symptom of many neuropsychiatric diseases and a key contributor to the patient’s quality of life. However, an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be developed. Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, namely transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are promising techniques that are under investigation for a variety of otherwise treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric diseases. Notably, these tools can induce alterations in neural networks subserving cognitive operations and thus may provide a means for cognitive restoration. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence concerning cognitive enhancing properties of noninvasive brain stimulation in neuropsychiatry. We specifically focus on major depression, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), where cognitive dysfunction is a major symptom and some studies have been completed with promising results. We provide a critical assessment of the available research and suggestions to guide future efforts. PMID:22749945

  11. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in identical siblings.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

    2011-04-01

    Termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), these cases of childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder and tic disorders resemble the presentation of Sydenham chorea, in that they have an acute onset following a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (group A Streptococcus), with accompanying neurological signs, and an episodic or sawtooth course. Familial associations of this subgroup of patients remain understudied. This report provides phenotypic descriptions of three youth with PANDAS as well as their genetically identical siblings (in two cases of twins and one case of triplets). These cases highlight the potential for environmental influences for discordant presentations in genetically identical siblings. Despite identical genetics, presentations showed marked variation across siblings (from a full PANDAS presentation to asymptomatic). Further research into environmentally driven influences such as postinfectious molecular mimicry and epigenetic factors that may influence the manifestation of these pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders will promote our understanding of their prevention and treatment. PMID:21486169

  12. Epigenetic Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moos, Walter H; Maneta, Eleni; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Hoffman, Michelle E; Faller, Douglas V; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical Research Neuropsychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions that often share underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and biological pathways implicated in their pathogenesis, progression, and treatment. To date, these disorders have proven notoriously resistant to molecular-targeted therapies, and clinical options are relegated to interventional types, which do not address the core symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss emerging epigenetic-driven approaches using novel acylcarnitine esters (carnitinoids) that act on master regulators of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes and mitophagic pathways. These carnitinoids are actively transported, mitochondria-localizing, biomimetic coenzyme A surrogates of short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit histone deacetylase and may reinvigorate synaptic plasticity and protect against neuronal damage. We outline these neuroprotective effects in the context of treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Drug Dev Res 77 : 53-72, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26899191

  13. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  14. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  15. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Posterior Cortical Atrophy and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J.; Franco-Macías, Emilio; Gil-Néciga, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by early progressive visual dysfunction in the context of relative preservation of memory and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving the posterior cortex. The aim of the present study is to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of PCA. Methods: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess 12 neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 28 patients with PCA and 34 patients with typical Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, disease duration, and illness severity. Results: The most commonly reported NPS in both groups were depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability. However, aside from a trend toward lower rates of apathy in patients with PCA, there were no differences in the percentage of NPS presented in each group. All those patients presenting visual hallucinations in the PCA group also met diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Auditory hallucinations were only present in patients meeting diagnosis criteria for DLB. Conclusion: Prevalence of the 12 NPS examined was similar between patients with PCA and AD. Hallucinations in PCA may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between PCA-AD and PCA-DLB. PMID:26404166

  16. Morphology Of A Hot Prominence Cavity Observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Mark A.; Reeves, K. K.; Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Prominence cavities appear as circularly shaped voids in coronal emission over polarity inversion lines where a prominence channel is straddling the solar limb. The presence of chromospheric material suspended at coronal altitudes is a common but not necessary feature within these cavities. These voids are observed to change shape as a prominence feature rotates around the limb. We use a morphological model projected in cross-sections to fit the cavity emission in Hinode/XRT passbands, and then apply temperature diagnostics to XRT and SDO/AIA data to investigate the thermal structure. We find significant evidence that the prominence cavity is hotter than the corona immediately outside the cavity boundary. This investigation follows upon "Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-ray Telescope on Hinode" by Reeves et al., 2012, ApJ, in press.

  17. Neuropsychiatric co-morbidities in non-demented Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Nirendra Kumar; Goyal, Vinay; Kumar, Nand; Shukla, Garima; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Singh, Sumit; Behari, Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate neuropsychiatric co-morbidities (depression, psychosis and anxiety) in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Background: Non-motor symptoms like neuropsychiatric co-morbidities are common in Parkinson's disease and may predate motor symptoms. Currently there is scarcity of data regarding neuropsychiatry manifestations in Indian patients with PD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study consecutive 126 non-demented patients with PD (MMSE ≥25) were enrolled. They were assessed using Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage, Schwab and England (S&E) scale of activity of daily life. Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) was used for diagnosis of depression, psychosis and anxiety. Beck's depression inventory (BDI), Brief psychiatric rating scale (BSRS) and Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAM-A) scales were used for assessment of severity of depression, psychosis and anxiety respectively. Results: Mean age and duration of disease was 57.9 ± 10.9 years and 7.3 ± 3.6 years respectively. At least one of the neuropsychiatric co-morbidity was present in 64% patients. Depression, suicidal risk, psychosis and anxiety were present in 43.7%, 31%, 23.8% and 35.7% respectively. Visual hallucinations (20.6%) were most frequent, followed by tactile (13.5%), auditory (7.2%) and olfactory hallucinations (1.6%). Patients with depression had higher motor disability (UPDRS-motor score 33.1 ± 14.0 vs 27.3 ± 13.3; and UPDRS-total 50.7 ± 21.8 vs 41.0 ± 20.3, all p values <0.05). Patients with psychosis were older (63.6 ± 8.0 years vs 56.1 ± 11.1 years, p < 0.05) and had longer duration of illness (8.6 ± 3.4 years vs 6.9 ± 3.5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: About two third patients with Parkinson's disease have associated neuropsychiatric co-morbidities. Depression was more frequent in patients with higher disability and psychosis with longer duration of disease and older age. These co

  18. Pathological Changes of von Economo Neuron and Fork Neuron in Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-ning; Arzberger, Thomas; Zhu, Ming-wei

    2016-02-01

    von Economo neuron (VEN) is a bipolar neuron characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma. VEN is generally distributed in the layer V of anterior insular lobe and anterior cingulate cortex. Fork neuron is another featured bipolar neuron. In recent years,many studies have illustrated that VEN and fork neurons are correlated with complicated cognition such as self-consciousness and social emotion. Studies in the development and morpholigies of these two neurons as well as their pathological changes in various neurological and psychiatric disorders have found that the abnormal number and functions of VEN can cause corresponding dysfunctions in social recognition and emotions both during the neuro-developmental stages of childhood and during the nerve degeneration in old age stage. Therefore, more attentions should be paid on the research of VEN and fork neurons in neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:26996211

  19. A Solar Prominence, Elbow-Prominence, Image From Skylab-3 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Some of the prominences that float like lazy clouds above the solar surface suddenly erupt and break away from the Sun in cataclysmic action. The trigger of this coronal transient, like many others seen by Skylab's coronagraph, was an eruptive prominence that surged outward from the limb of the Sun, ejecting matter that disturbed the outer corona. This image is of the surge in action in ultraviolet light of ionized helium. Simultaneous observations like this made possible an almost immediate understanding of the new-found cosmic phenomenon. The elbow prominence was accidentally photographed by Astronaut Garriott (Skylab-3) while observing a small flare near the limb of the Sun beneath the mighty arch on August 9, 1973.

  20. Autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: Sydenham chorea, PANDAS, and PANDAS variants.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Parano, Enrico; Rizzo, Renata; Trifiletti, Rosario R

    2006-09-01

    Streptococcal infection in children is usually benign and self-limited. In a small percentage of children, prominent neurologic and/or psychiatric sequelae can occur. Sydenham chorea is the best defined and best recognized. PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection) is a well-defined syndrome in which tics (motor and/or vocal) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder consistently exacerbate in temporal correlation to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. PANDAS constitutes a subset of children with tics, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to strictly defined PANDAS, we and others have recognized several PANDAS variants, including adult-onset variant, a dystonic variant, a myoclonic variant, and a "chronic" PANDAS variant. The nosology and classification of these entities are rapidly evolving. The recognition that some pediatric neurobehavioral syndromes have infectious and/or immunologic triggers points to important new avenues of disease treatment. In this review, we summarize this complex and rapidly evolving area of clinical research. PMID:16970875

  1. ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-10

    Observations in the 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional H{alpha} observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  2. Are Giant Tornadoes the Legs of Solar Prominences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Observations in the 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional Hα observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  3. Explosive Instability of Prominence Flux Ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O; Fong, R H L; Cowley, S C

    2002-09-04

    The rapid, Alfvenic, time scale of erupting solar-prominences has been an enigma ever since they where first identified. Investigators have proposed a variety of different mechanisms in an effort to account for the abrupt reconfiguration observed. No one mechanism clearly stands out as the single cause of these explosive events. Recent analysis has demonstrated that field lines in the solar atmosphere are metastable to ballooning type instabilities. It has been found previously that in ideal MHD plasmas marginally unstable ballooning modes inevitably become ''explosive'' evolving towards a finite time singularity via a nonlinear 3D instability called ''Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Detonation.'' Thus, this mechanism is a good candidate to explain explosive events observed in the solar atmosphere of our star or in others.

  4. Can prominences form in current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malherbe, J. M.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the formation of cold condensations in a vertical current sheet have been performed using the radiative, resistive MHD equations with line-tied boundary conditions at one end of the sheet. Prominence-like condensations are observed to appear above and below an X-line produced by the onset of the tearing-mode instability. Cooling in the sheet is initiated by Ohmic decay, with the densest condensations occurring in the region downstream of a fast-mode shock. This shock, which is due to the line-tied boundary conditions, terminates one of the two supermagnetosonic reconnection jets that develop when the tearing is fully developed. The condensation properties of shock waves, which may trigger or considerably enhance the conditions for thermal condensation are emphasized.

  5. Observational Constraints on Stellar Flares and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Multi-wavelength surveys have catalogued a wealth of stellar flare data for stars representing a broad range of masses and ages. Young solar analogs inform our understanding of the Sun's evolution and the influence of its activity on early solar system formation, while field star observations allow us to place its current activity into context within a statistical ensemble of main-sequence G-type stars. At the same time, stellar observations probe a variety of interior and coronal conditions, providing constraints on models of equilibrium (and loss thereof!) for magnetic structures. In this review, I will focus on our current understanding of stellar flares, prominences, and coronal mass ejections as a function of stellar parameters. As our interpretation of stellar data relies heavily on solar-stellar analogy, I will explore how far into extreme stellar parameter spaces this comparison can be invoked.

  6. Cognitive Training for Impaired Neural Systems in Neuropsychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Fisher, Melissa; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with dysfunction in distributed prefrontal neural systems that underlie perception, cognition, social interactions, emotion regulation, and motivation. The high degree of learning-dependent plasticity in these networks—combined with the availability of advanced computerized technology—suggests that we should be able to engineer very specific training programs that drive meaningful and enduring improvements in impaired neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric illness. However, cognitive training approaches for mental and addictive disorders must take into account possible inherent limitations in the underlying brain ‘learning machinery' due to pathophysiology, must grapple with the presence of complex overlearned maladaptive patterns of neural functioning, and must find a way to ally with developmental and psychosocial factors that influence response to illness and to treatment. In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge from studies of cognitive remediation in psychiatry and we highlight open questions. We then present a systems neuroscience rationale for successful cognitive training for neuropsychiatric illnesses, one that emphasizes the distributed nature of neural assemblies that support cognitive and affective processing, as well as their plasticity. It is based on the notion that, during successful learning, the brain represents the relevant perceptual and cognitive/affective inputs and action outputs with disproportionately larger and more coordinated populations of neurons that are distributed (and that are interacting) across multiple levels of processing and throughout multiple brain regions. This approach allows us to address limitations found in earlier research and to introduce important principles for the design and evaluation of the next generation of cognitive training for impaired neural systems. We summarize work to date using such neuroscience-informed methods and indicate

  7. Characterization of the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyal D.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Kennel, Allison; Mutch, P. Jane; Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Hanks, Camille E.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.; Toufexis, Megan D.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Rodriguez, Carina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS. Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4–14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures. Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics. Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach. PMID:25314221

  8. Multiple-Thread Model of a Prominence Observed by SUMER and EIT on SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiik, J. E.; Dammasch, I. E.; Schmieder, B.; Wilhelm, K.

    1999-07-01

    A quiescent polar crown prominence was observed at Meudon in Hα and Ca ii lines, and by EIT and SUMER on board SOHO in UV lines from 9 to 10 March 1996. SUMER observed the prominence continuously in a scanning mode between 21:40 UT on 9 March, and 18:13 UT on 10 March, in the nitrogen line N v (λ1238) with a 1 arc sec2 resolution. Altogether 190 prominence images (121×108 pixels) were obtained. These are presented in a movie. The prominence is highly dynamic. Large-scale features, such as mixed loop systems and dark cavities are changing on time scales of a few hours. Filamentary structure is evident and is changing within a few frames of the movie. A lifetime of 20 25 min for the fine structure has been found by the autocorrelation method. We have statistically analysed the three moments of the N v line in the prominence: line intensity, Doppler shift and linewidth, in the context of a multiple-thread model. We find that the data are consistent with a model where the prominence is assumed to be an ensemble of small threads. In the brightest parts of the prominence it is possible that there are many unresolved threads (15 20) along the line of sight with diameters smaller than a few hundred kilometers. The filling factor is probably very small and in that case the structures occupy only a fraction of the volume.

  9. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  10. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  11. A Study of quiescent prominences using SDO and STEREO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep Kaur

    2014-05-01

    In this dissertation, we have studied the structure, dynamics and evolution of two quiescent prominences. Quiescent prominences are large structures and mainly associated with the quiet Sun region. For the analysis, we have used the high spatial and temporal cadence data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). We combined the observations from two different directions and studied the prominence in 3D. In the study of polar crown prominence, we mainly investigated the prominence flows on limb and found its association with on-disk brightenings. The merging of diffused active region flux in the already formed chain of prominence caused the several brightenings in the filament channel and also injected the plasma upward with an average velocity of 15 km/s. In another study, we investigated the triggering mechanism of a quiescent tornado-like prominence. Flares from the neighboring active region triggered the tornado-like motions of the top of the prominence. Active region field contracts after the flare which results in the expansion of prominence cavity. The prominence helical magnetic field expands and plasma moves along the field lines which appear as a tornado-like activity. In addition, the thermal structure of the tornado-like prominence and neighbouring active region was investigated by analysing emission in six of the seven EUV channels from the SDO. These observational investigations led to our understanding of structure and dynamics of quiescent prominences, which could be useful for theoretical prominence models.

  12. Stability Study of Coronal Cavities and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Toma, Giuliana; Gibson, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Cavity/prominence systems are large-scale coronal structures that can live for many weeks and even months and often end their life in the form of large coronal eruptions. To determine the role of the surrounding ambient coronal field in stabilizing thesesystems against eruption, we examined the extent to which the decline with height of the external coronal magnetic field influences their evolution and likelihood to erupt. We selected coronal cavities observed with SDO/AIA during the rising phase of cycle 24 and divided them in two groups, eruptive and non-eruptive. The height of the cavity, both at the cavity center and top, was directly measured from the SDO/AIA images. The ambient coronal field was derived from a PFSS extrapolation of SDO/HMI magnetograms. We find that the decay index of the potential field above the coronal cavity varies significantly in value for both eruptive and non-eruptive cases but stable cavity systems have, on average, a lower decay index and less complex topology than the eruptive ones.

  13. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Evrensel, Alper; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin

    2016-08-31

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information. PMID:27489376

  14. Ethics and Neuropsychiatric Genetics: A Review of Major Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, Steven K.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means that more patients will seek genetic information, and physicians must manage the process of informed consent to allow meaningful decisions. Patients should be helped to understand the often-limited predictive power of current knowledge, potential psychological impact, risks of stigma and discrimination, and possible implications for family members. Decisions for predictive testing of children raise additional concerns, including distortions of family dynamics and negative effects on children’s self-image; testing is best deferred until adulthood unless preventive interventions exist. Pharmacogenomic testing, part of personalized medicine, may bring collateral susceptibility information for which patients should be prepared. The implications of genetic findings for families raise the question of whether physicians have duties to inform family members of implications for their health. Finally, participation in research in neuropsychiatric genetics evokes a broad range of ethical concerns, including the contentious issue of the extent to which results should be returned to individual subjects. As genetic science becomes more widely applied, the public will become more sophisticated and will be likely to demand a greater role in determining social policy on these issues. PMID:22272758

  15. Longitudinal Neuropsychiatric Predictors of Death in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Long, Jeffrey D; Robinson, Robert G; Trequattrini, Alberto; Pizzoli, Sonia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Orfei, Maria D

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics associated with life expectancy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still far from known. Here we aimed at examining the ability of baseline/longitudinal clinical variables to predict time to death. One-hundred fifty AD outpatients underwent diagnostic, neuropsychiatric, and functional assessment at baseline (when ApoE ɛ4 was also investigated) and at each subsequent annual visit. A random effects joint modeling approach was used to simultaneously model the baseline and longitudinal trajectory of each factor and predict the time to death, adjusting for demographic covariates. An ancillary analysis of ApoE ɛ4 status as a predictor was also conducted. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to elucidate the relationship between each factor and the estimated probability of death over time. Shorter survival was associated with male gender, higher education, older age, lower cognition, and worse functioning in daily life, but not ApoE ɛ4 status. Longitudinal trajectories increased predictive power over using just baseline levels highlighting apathy, and secondarily aberrant motor behaviors and sleep disorders, as a highly reliable predictor for mortality. Apathy was the strongest neuropsychiatric predictor of time to death, which supports its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. An increased knowledge of factors modulating survival in AD is a strategic prerequisite to plan therapeutic interventions. PMID:26402103

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury – Modeling Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Malkesman, Oz; Tucker, Laura B.; Ozl, Jessica; McCabe, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Each year in the US, ∼1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms – and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies – are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory, and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential. PMID:24109476

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as progressive neuropsychiatric disorders: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien-Hsun; Chou, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2013-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare form of autoimmune coagulopathy. In this syndrome, the most common neurologic abnormality is transient ischemic attack. This can be easily overlooked if a patient presents with progressive neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression or dementia. We report two cases of young women, aged 35 and 22 years, presenting with progressive depression and mental decline over a certain period. The neuropsychological diagnoses of the two patients were, respectively, dementia with disinhibition and borderline dementia with depression. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple old infarcts with encephalomalacia in the former case, and only one cortical hemorrhagic infarction, over the right temporoparietal lobe, observed in the latter case. The outcomes of the two cases were also very different. Progressive neuropsychiatric disorders are increasingly observed in the young; therefore, APS and other autoimmune diseases should be considered during the differential diagnosis. Brain imaging examinations may prevent a delay in the detection of a structural lesion and facilitate the early intervention with good prognosis. Careful investigations by experts from different disciplines are always encouraged in complicated cases. PMID:23723705

  18. Cariprazine:New dopamine biased agonist for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    De Deurwaerdère, P

    2016-02-01

    Cariprazine (RGH-188, MP-214, Vraylar[TM]) is a new dopamine receptor ligand developed for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Cariprazine displays higher affinity at dopamine D3 receptors and a similar affinity at D2 and 5-HT2B receptors. At variance with some atypical antipsychotics, its affinity at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and histamine H1 receptors is modest compared with its three main targets. Cariprazine could correspond to a biased agonist at dopamine receptors, displaying either antagonist or partial agonist properties depending on the signaling pathways linked to D2/D3 receptors. The compound crosses the blood-brain barrier, as revealed by positron emission tomography and pharmacokinetic studies in various species. Two main metabolites result mainly from the activity of CYP34A and display properties similar to those of the parent drug. Behavioral data report that cariprazine is efficacious in animal models addressing positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia with no extrapyramidal side effects. In September 2015, the FDA approved the use of cariprazine for the treatment of schizophrenia and type I bipolar disorder. The efficacy of cariprazine in other neuropsychiatric diseases is currently being evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. Side effects have been observed in humans, including extrapyramidal side effects and akathisia of mild to moderate intensity. PMID:27092339

  19. Severity of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Engedal, Knut; Wu, Bei; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Corazzini, Kirsten; Røen, Irene; Selbæk, Geir

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at assessing time shift in the severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home residents between 2004/2005 and 2010/2011 and associations between NPS and socio-demographic variables, physical health status, dementia severity, and the use of psychotropic drugs. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home Version was used in 2004/2005 (n = 1,163) and 2010/2011 (n = 1,858). Linear mixed model analysis was applied. There was no time shift in the severity of apathy, psychosis, and affective symptoms, but agitation did exhibit a time shift. Agitation was less severe in 2010/2011 than in 2004/2005 in residents with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) sum of boxes score ≤4, and more severe in residents with a CDR sum of boxes score >16. Higher CDR sum of boxes scores and use of psychotropic medication were associated with more severe apathy, agitation, psychosis, and affective symptoms. Poor physical health was associated with more severe apathy, psychosis, and affective symptoms. Women had more severe agitation and less severe affective symptoms than men. A longer stay in a nursing home was associated with more severe agitation and less severe affective symptoms. In conclusion, agitation was less severe in 2010/2011 than in 2004/2005 among nursing home residents with a milder degree of dementia, and more severe in residents with severe dementia. PMID:26933438

  20. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Evrensel, Alper; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information. PMID:27489376

  1. Clinical NOE 13C MRS for neuropsychiatric disorders of the frontal lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Robertson, Larry W.; Harris, Kent C.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Allen, Peter S.; Ross, Brian D.

    2008-12-01

    In this communication, a scheme is described whereby in vivo 13C MRS can safely be performed in the frontal lobe, a human brain region hitherto precluded on grounds of SAR, but important in being the seat of impaired cognitive function in many neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. By combining two well known features of 13C NMR—the use of low power NOE and the focus on 13C carbon atoms which are only minimally coupled to protons, we are able to overcome the obstacle of SAR and develop means of monitoring the 13C fluxes of critically important metabolic pathways in frontal brain structures of normal volunteers and patients. Using a combination of low-power WALTZ decoupling, variants of random noise for nuclear overhauser effect enhancement it was possible to reduce power deposition to 20% of the advised maximum specific absorption rate (SAR). In model solutions 13C signal enhancement achieved with this scheme were comparable to that obtained with WALTZ-4. In human brain, the low power procedure effectively determined glutamine, glutamate and bicarbonate in the posterior parietal brain after [1- 13C] glucose infusion. The same 13C enriched metabolites were defined in frontal brain of human volunteers after administration of [1- 13C] acetate, a recognized probe of glial metabolism. Time courses of incorporation of 13C into cerebral glutamate, glutamine and bicarbonate were constructed. The results suggest efficacy for measurement of in vivo cerebral metabolic rates of the glutamate-glutamine and tricarboxylic acid cycles in 20 min MR scans in previously inaccessible brain regions in humans at 1.5T. We predict these will be clinically useful biomarkers in many human neuropsychiatric and genetic conditions.

  2. Indications of stellar prominence oscillations on fast rotating stars: the cases of HK Aqr and PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Greimel, R.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of six nights of spectroscopic monitoring of two young and fast rotating late-type stars, namely the dMe star HK Aqr and the dG/dK star PZ Tel. On both stars we detect absorption features reminiscent of signatures of co-rotating cool clouds or prominences visible in Hα. Several prominences on HK Aqr show periodic variability in the prominence tracks which follow a sinusoidal motion (indication of prominence oscillations). On PZ Tel we could not find any periodic variability in the prominence tracks. By fitting sinusoidal functions to the prominence tracks we derive amplitudes and periods which are similar to those of large amplitude oscillations seen in solar prominences. In one specific event we also derive a periodic variation of the prominence track in the Hβ spectral line which shows an anti-phase variation with the one derived for the Hα spectral line. Using these parameters and estimated mass density of a prominence on HK Aqr we derive a minimum magnetic field strength of ˜2 G. The relatively low strength of the magnetic field is explained by the large height of this stellar prominence (≥ 0.67 stellar radii above the surface).

  3. Magnetic topology and prominence patterns on AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Semel, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report new Zeeman--Doppler imaging observations of the rapidly rotating young K0 dwarf AB Doradus, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope in 1996 December. From such observations, simultaneous brightness and magnetic images of the stellar photosphere of AB Dor were reconstructed at three different epochs. The magnetic topology of AB Dor is found to be very complex, with at least 12 different radial field regions of opposite polarities located all around the star. Significant azimuthal field fluxes are also detected in the form of one negative polarity region close to the equator, a series of positive polarity patches at intermediate latitudes and an almost complete ring of negative polarity encircling the rotational pole at high latitudes. In particular, the azimuthal polarities we reconstruct are in very good agreement with those obtained by Donati & Cameron, confirming that this field component is directly related to the dynamo-generated large-scale toroidal magnetic structure. The triple polarity latitudinal pattern observed for this structure in the upper hemisphere of AB Dor indicates that the degree of the underlying large-scale poloidal structure in an axisymmetric spherical harmonics expansion is equal to or greater than five. It also strengthens the idea that the dynamo processes operating in AB Dor feature a non-solar component distributed throughout the convective zone. From the subtle distortion of successive brightness images, we can also confirm the surface differential rotation first measured on this star by Donati & Cameron in both sense and magnitude, with a pole rotating more slowly than the equator by about one part in 220. Finally, the rotation periods we measure for four prominences (from the recurrence rate of their spectral signatures in Balmer lines) confirm the presumption that such clouds are anchored at intermediate to high latitudes. The intrinsic variability of these prominences is not associated with any abrupt changes in the

  4. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304Å line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and mainly focus on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25×25 to 150×500 Mm2 in size and obtain distributions of many of their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size, and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to rarely exceed 3 km/s. In addition, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to estimate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (1012 - 1014 kg and 1029 - 1031 erg). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive it to be a power-law of index -1.1 ± 0.2.

  5. D-Cycloserine in Neuropsychiatric Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schade, Sebastian; Paulus, Walter

    2016-04-01

    D-Cycloserine, known from tuberculosis therapy, has been widely introduced to neuropsychiatric studies, since its central active mechanism as a partial NMDA-agonist has been found. In this review, we evaluate its therapeutic potential in neuropsychological disorders and discuss its pitfalls in terms of dosing and application frequency as well as its safety in low-dose therapy. Therefore, we identified 91 clinical trials by performing a Medline search. We demonstrate in part preliminary but increasing evidence that D-cycloserine may be effective in various psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, addiction, eating disorders, major depression, and autism as well as in neurological diseases, including dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and spinocerebellar degeneration. D-Cycloserine in low-dose therapy is safe, but there is still a need for new drugs with higher specificity to the different N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunits. PMID:26364274

  6. PANDAS (Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection).

    PubMed

    Lynch, N E; Deiratany, S; Webb, D W; McMenamin, J B

    2006-05-01

    PANDAS (Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection) is a rare condition first described in 1998. It describes the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tics with an episodic course, and a temporal relationship to Group A beta haemolytic streptococcal infection (GABHS). Recurrent episodes can be disruptive and upsetting for a child, but the best way to treat the condition has yet to be established. Penicillin prophylaxis has not proved effective, and other therapies are experimental. There is some evidence in the literature to support the role of tonsillectomy in improving the condition. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with tic and hemi-chorea associated with GABHS throat infection. He had a recurrence of his symptoms associated with a further GABHS infection, but has had no further symptoms following tonsillectomy. This case report lends further evidence to the role of tonsillectomy in the management of PANDAS. PMID:16892924

  7. The role of B cells and autoantibodies in neuropsychiatric lupus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Stock, Ariel D; Chalmers, Samantha A; Putterman, Chaim

    2016-09-01

    The central nervous system manifestations of SLE (neuropsychiatric lupus, NPSLE) occur frequently, though are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Symptoms of NPSLE can be quite diverse, including chronic cognitive and emotional manifestations, as well as acute presentations, such as stroke and seizures. Although the pathogenesis of NPSLE has yet to be well characterized, B-cell mediated damage is believed to be an important contributor. B-cells and autoantibodies may traverse the blood brain barrier promoting an inflammatory environment consisting of glia activation, neurodegeneration, and consequent averse behavioral outcomes. This review will evaluate the various suggested roles of B-cells and autoantibodies in NPSLE, as well as therapeutic modalities targeting these pathogenic mediators. PMID:27389531

  8. D-Cycloserine in Neuropsychiatric Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    D-Cycloserine, known from tuberculosis therapy, has been widely introduced to neuropsychiatric studies, since its central active mechanism as a partial NMDA-agonist has been found. In this review, we evaluate its therapeutic potential in neuropsychological disorders and discuss its pitfalls in terms of dosing and application frequency as well as its safety in low-dose therapy. Therefore, we identified 91 clinical trials by performing a Medline search. We demonstrate in part preliminary but increasing evidence that D-cycloserine may be effective in various psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, addiction, eating disorders, major depression, and autism as well as in neurological diseases, including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and spinocerebellar degeneration. D-Cycloserine in low-dose therapy is safe, but there is still a need for new drugs with higher specificity to the different N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunits. PMID:26364274

  9. Neuropsychiatric sequelae in an efavirenz treated patient with hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Emma; Patel, Anish S

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old man of African origin, positive for both HIV and hepatitis B virus, who developed symptoms of mania and psychosis while being treated with efavirenz (a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in HIV therapy) that required inpatient psychiatric admission and treatment with antipsychotic medication. Our case illustrates multiple predisposing and precipitating factors occurring simultaneously that have been previously implicated individually in the development of neuropsychiatric complications with efavirenz (and other HIV treatments in general). We suggest that patient’s commenced on antiretroviral medication should have a screening process for pre-existing mental and medical health problems as well as psychosocial risk factors that might put a patient at risk. In addition with advances in pharmacogenomics we advocate future cytochrome P450 gene variant testing coupled with routine efavirenz plasma concentration monitoring to help ensure maximum treatment benefit and minimal risk of side effects. PMID:22121393

  10. Unexplained neuropsychiatric symptoms in intensive care: A Fahr Syndrome case.

    PubMed

    Calili, Duygu Kayar; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Mutlu Titiz, Ayse Pinar; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Aydin, Eda Macit; Turan, Isil Ozkocak

    2016-08-01

    Fahr Syndrome is a rare disease where calcium and other minerals are stored bilaterally and symmetrically in the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and white matter. Fahr Syndrome is associated with various metabolic disorders, mainly parathyroid disorders. The presented case discusses a 64-year old male patient admitted to the intensive care unit of our hospital diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia and urosepsis. The cranial tomography examination to explain his nonspecific neurological symptoms showed bilateral calcifications in the temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellar hemisphere and medulla oblongata posteriorly. His biochemical test results also indicated parathormone-calcium metabolic abnormalities. Fahr Syndrome must be considered for a definitive diagnosis in patients with nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms and accompanying calcium metabolism disorders in order to control serious morbidity and complications because of neurological damage. PMID:27524543

  11. The little imitator--porphyria: a neuropsychiatric disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Crimlisk, H L

    1997-01-01

    Three common subtypes of porphyria give rise to neuropsychiatric disorders; acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, and coproporphyria. The second two also give rise to cutaneous symptoms. Neurological or psychiatric symptoms occur in most acute attacks, and may mimic many other disorders. The diagnosis may be missed because it is not even considered or because of technical problems, such as sample collection and storage, and interpretation of results. A negative screening test does not exclude the diagnosis. Porphyria may be overrepresented in psychiatric populations, but the lack of control groups makes this uncertain. The management of patients with porphyria and psychiatric symptoms causes considerable problems. Three cases are described to illustrate some of these issues. Advances in molecular biology permit identification of patients and latent carriers in the family. Care to avoid relapses and improved treatments have reduced the mortality. PMID:9120442

  12. [Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández Ibieta, M; Ramos Amador, J T; Auñón Martínc, I; Marín, M A; González Tomé, M I; Simón de Las Heras, R

    2005-05-01

    Compulsive neuropsychiatric disorders are common in children and the most frequent is Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Recently, a new disease has been described: the PANDAS syndrome (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci). The etiology of this syndrome is uncertain but it has been associated with recent group A streptococcal infection (GAS). After an episode of pharyngitis, a boy aged 3 years and 9 months showed abrupt onset of a variety of neurobehavioral problems such as tics (consisting of elevation of the head and ipsilateral shoulder, winking, and grimaces) and compulsions (such as repeatedly hitting objects). A complete biochemical study was performed, including Cu and ceruloplasmin (which had normal values), antistreptolysin O (ASLO) and anti-DNAse (showing elevated values). Pharyngeal culture revealed GAS. The child was initially treated with valproic acid, but his subsequent improvement coincided with penicillin treatment for 10 days. Three months afterwards, ASLO values were reduced and at the 6-month follow-up the improvement was maintained even after suspension of valproic acid. Immunohistochemical studies were requested. PANDAS syndrome was first described in 1998 in a group of children who presented 1) obsessive compulsive disorders and/or tics, 2) episodic course with abrupt exacerbations, 3) abnormal results of neurologic examination (choreiform movements), and 4) temporal relation between GAS infection and onset of symptoms. The etiology of this syndrome is unclear, and it has been postulated that certain streptococcal antigens trigger antibodies which, through a process of molecular mimicry, cross-react with epitopes on the basal ganglia of susceptible hosts, such as the B8/17 antigen, among others. Current recommendations include penicillin treatment of each exacerbation with positive throat culture, and more aggressive therapies (intravenous immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis) when symptoms are severe. We

  13. Identifying phenotypic signatures of neuropsychiatric disorders from electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Lyalina, Svetlana; Percha, Bethany; LePendu, Paea; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Altman, Russ B; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mental illness is the leading cause of disability in the USA, but boundaries between different mental illnesses are notoriously difficult to define. Electronic medical records (EMRs) have recently emerged as a powerful new source of information for defining the phenotypic signatures of specific diseases. We investigated how EMR-based text mining and statistical analysis could elucidate the phenotypic boundaries of three important neuropsychiatric illnesses—autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Methods We analyzed the medical records of over 7000 patients at two facilities using an automated text-processing pipeline to annotate the clinical notes with Unified Medical Language System codes and then searching for enriched codes, and associations among codes, that were representative of the three disorders. We used dimensionality-reduction techniques on individual patient records to understand individual-level phenotypic variation within each disorder, as well as the degree of overlap among disorders. Results We demonstrate that automated EMR mining can be used to extract relevant drugs and phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and characteristic patterns of associations among them. Patient-level analyses suggest a clear separation between autism and the other disorders, while revealing significant overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They also enable localization of individual patients within the phenotypic ‘landscape’ of each disorder. Conclusions Because EMRs reflect the realities of patient care rather than idealized conceptualizations of disease states, we argue that automated EMR mining can help define the boundaries between different mental illnesses, facilitate cohort building for clinical and genomic studies, and reveal how clear expert-defined disease boundaries are in practice. PMID:23956017

  14. SIMULATING THE IN SITU CONDENSATION PROCESS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-10

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 10{sup 13} up to 10{sup 15} g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  15. Simulating the in Situ Condensation Process of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-01

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 1013 up to 1015 g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  16. Magnetic Flux Cancellation and Formation of Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Kim, Mun Song; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Kyong Chol

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic flux cancellation appears to be closely related to various kinds of solar activities such as flares, microflares/surges/jets, X-ray bright points, erupting mini-filaments, transition region explosive events, filament formation, filament activation and eruption, and coronal mass ejections. It is commonly believed that magnetic reconnections in the low atmosphere are responsible for canceling magnetic features, and magnetic fragments are observed to originate as bipoles. According to the Sweet-Parker type reconnection model, the inflow speed closely corresponds to the converging speed of each pole in a canceling magnetic feature and the rate of flux cancellation must be explained by the observed converging speed. As distinct from the corona, the efficiency of photospheric magnetic reconnection may be due to the small Cowling conductivity, instead of the Spitzer, of weakly ionized and magnetized plasma in the low atmosphere of the sun. Using the VAL-C atmospheric model and Cowling conductivity, we have computed the parameters describing Sweet-Parker type reconnecting current sheets in the plasma of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, and particularly for the phenomena of magnetic flux cancellation and dark filament formation which occurred on July 2, 1994 we have estimated the rate of flux cancellation, the inflow speed(the converging speed) and the upward mass flux to compare with the observation. The results show that when taking account of the Cowling conductivity in the low atmosphere, large flux cancellation rates(>1019Mxhr-1) in solar active regions are better explained than by the Spitzer conductivity-considered reconnection model. Particularly for the flux cancellation event on July 2, 1994, the inflow speed(0.26kms-1)is almost similar to the converging speed(0.22kms-1)and the upward mass flux(3.3X1012gs-1) in the model is sufficient for the large dark filament formation in a time of several hours through magnetic flux cancellation process.

  17. Comparison of the Clinical Manifestations, Brain MRI and Prognosis between NeuroBehçet's Disease and Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Oh, Su-Jin; Ko, Hyeok-Jae; Yoon, Chong-Hyun; Jung, So-Lyung; Min, Do-June

    2007-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) shows some similarities to neuroBehçet's disease (NBD) in that both conditions have some analogous clinical features and they are both pathologically associated cerebral vasculopathy. This study compared the clinical manifestations, brain MRI findings and prognosis of NPSLE and NBD patients. Methods Forty three patients with NPSLE (n = 25) or NBD (n = 18), who were monitored at a single center, were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and brain MRI data. The neuropsychiatric manifestations were classified in both groups according to the new American College of Rheumatology nomenclature for NPSLE. Results The diffuse symptoms that included mood disorders, psychosis, confusion, cognitive dysfunctions, generalized seizures and headaches other than migraine or cluster headaches were more commonly observed in the NPSLE patients, while the frequency of focal diseases such as cranial neuropathy tended to be higher in the NBD patients. The brain MRI revealed that the NBD patients had more abnormalities in the brain stem than did the NPSLE patients. Most of the patients improved, at least partially, after being treated with glucocorticoid and/or immune suppressants. However, the disease course differed significantly between the two groups. There were more episodic cases in the NPSLE group of patients, while there were more remittent cases in the NBD group of patients. Conclusion NPSLE had a tendency to cause diffuse neuropsychiatric manifestations, and it has a different predilection of brain lesions compared with NBD. The NBD patients showed a poorer outcome than did the NPSLE patients, suggesting that different therapeutic strategies for the two diseases need to be considered. PMID:17616022

  18. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer’s disease is highly heritable

    PubMed Central

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W.; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S.; Naj, Adam C.; Beecham, Gary W.; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%–7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself. PMID:27103524

  19. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer's disease is highly heritable.

    PubMed

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S; Naj, Adam C; Beecham, Gary W; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Crane, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%-7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself. PMID:27103524

  20. Formation of active region and quiescent prominence magnetic field configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.; Bao, J. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the formation of prominences, researchers studied chromospheric mass injection into an overlying coronal dipole magnetic field using a 2-D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. Researchers propose that active region prominences are formed by chromospheric plasmas injected directly into the overlying coronal magnetic field and that quiescent prominences are formed by plasmas evaporated at the interface between spicules and corona. Hence, for the simulation of an active region prominence magnetic field we inject the mass from one side, but use a symmetric mass injection to form a quiescent prominence field configuration. Researchers try to find optimum conditions for the formation of Kippenhahn-Schuluter(K-S)type field configuration for stable support of the injection plasmas. They find that the formation of K-S type field configuration by mass injection requires a delicate balance between injection velocity, density, and overlying magnetic fields. These results may explain why a prominence does not form on every neutral line.

  1. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  2. The variations of prominence activities during solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Masumi

    The prominence activities (prominence eruption/disappearance) in the solar atmosphere closely relate with the CMEs that cause great influences on heliosphere and magnetosphere. Gopal-swarmy et al. (2003) reported that 72 The Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) is observing Sun in microwave (17 GHz) since 1992. At a flare, the main component of the microwave from Sun is emitted from non-thermal electrons that are accelerated by flare. On the other hand, the main component of the microwave is thermal emission when Sun is quiet, and a prominence is clearly observed in microwave because there is the prominence on the limb. We developed the automatic prominence activity detection program based on 17 GHz images observed by NoRH, and investigated the variation of the properties of the prominence activities that oc-curred from 1992 to the end of 2009. We found the following results. 1. The variation in the number of prominence activities is similar to that of sunspots during one solar cycle but there are differences between the peak times of prominence activities and sunspots. 2. The frequency distribution as a function of the magnitude of the prominence activities the size of activated prominences at each phase shows a power-law distribution. The power-law index of the distribution does not change except around the solar minimum. 3. The number of promi-nence activities has a dependence on the latitude On the other hand the average magnitude is independent of the latitude. In the paper, we will also discuss the relationship the other properties of prominence eruptions, solar cycle and the photospheric magnetic field.

  3. Old and New Aspects of Prominence Physics from Coronal Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, S.; Filippov, B.; Lamy, P.

    2007-05-01

    Classical W-L eclipse observations at typical spatial resolution of 10 arcsec show dark cavities surrounding prominences. Images at higher spatial resolution processed with a spatial filter reveal small dynamical cool clouds moving inside the inner corona around prominences. More recently EIT/SoHO observations taken using the 304 Å channel showed He+ prominences sometimes not seen in cooler lines. TRACE movies of the Fe IX and XI emissions where prominences are seen in absorption also bring appreciable informations on the dynamical surrounding of prominences, without showing obvious correlations between prominence and coronal structures. Accordingly, we re-examine the significance of the cavity and propose a possible interpretation as magnetic interlaced 3-D flux ropes and loops evacuating the corona, in addition to twisted flux ropes where the prominence plasma is condensing. Future space missions like ASPIICS should pay more attention to cavities and emptiness, to coronal dynamics around prominences, in order to resolve the long-standing problem of the origin of prominences and perhaps, perform a new diagnostic of the erupting process responsible for many CMEs.

  4. Internal Dynamics of a Twin-layer Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    Modern observations revealed rich dynamics within solar prominences. The globally stable quiescent prominences, characterized by the presence of thin vertical threads and falling knobs, are frequently invaded by small rising dark plumes. These dynamic phenomena are related to magnetic Rayleigh–Taylor instability, since prominence matter, 100 times denser than surrounding coronal plasma, is lifted against gravity by weak magnetic field. To get a deeper understanding of the physics behind these phenomena, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the nonlinear magnetoconvective motions in a twin-layer prominence in a macroscopic model from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. The properties of simulated falling “fingers” and uprising bubbles are consistent with those in observed vertical threads and rising plumes in quiescent prominences. Both sheets of the twin-layer prominence show a strongly coherent evolution due to their magnetic connectivity, and demonstrate collective kink deformation. Our model suggests that the vertical threads of the prominence as seen in an edge-on view, and the apparent horizontal threads of the filament when seen top-down are different appearances of the same structures. Synthetic images of the modeled twin-layer prominence reflect the strong degree of mixing established over the entire prominence structure, in agreement with the observations.

  5. Prominence in triconstituent compounds: pitch contours and linguistic theory.

    PubMed

    Kösling, Kristina; Kunter, Gero; Baayen, Harald; Plag, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    According to the widely accepted Lexical Category Prominence Rule (LCPR), prominence assignment to triconstituent compounds depends on the branching direction. Left-branching compounds, that is, compounds with a left-hand complex constituent, are held to have highest prominence on the left-most constituent, whereas right-branching compounds have highest prominence on the second of the three constituents. The LCPR is, however, only poorly empirically supported. The present paper tests a new hypothesis concerning the prominence of triconstituent compounds and suggests a new methodology for the empirical investigation of compound prominence. According to this hypothesis, the prominence pattern of the embedded compound has a decisive influence on the prominence of the whole compound. Using a mixed-effects generalized additive model for the analysis of the pitch movements, it is shown that all triconstituent compounds have an accent on the first constituent irrespective of branching, and that the placement of a second, or even a third, accent is dependent on the prominence pattern of the embedded compound. The LCPR is wrong. PMID:24597276

  6. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26464122

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease and the family caregivers' distress 1

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Luana Baldin; Quintino, Débora Teles; Silva, Natália Michelato; Kusumota, Luciana; Marques, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the relationship between the distress of the family caregiver and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the Geriatric and Dementias Clinic of a general tertiary hospital, with 96 elderly people with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia and their family caregivers. Questionnaires to characterize the elderly and caregivers, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were used. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: 68.7% of the elderly were women, average age 80.8 years, 56.2% had Alzheimer's disease and 43.7%, mixed dementia. Among caregivers, 90.6% were women, average age 56, 70.8% took care of parents and 64.6% lived with the elderly. There was a strong (r = 0.82) and significant (p <0.01) correlation between the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress and strong (r = 0.80) and significant (p <0 01) correlation between the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Distress and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms, i.e., the higher the number, frequency and severity of these symptoms in the elderly, the more intense is the caregiver distress. Conclusion: the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the elderly was related to increased distress in caregivers. PMID:27533264

  8. The Involvement of Secondary Neuronal Damage in the Development of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Brain Insults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Garcia, Gregory E.; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and affect the health of billions of people. Previous publications have demonstrated that neuropsychiatric disorders can cause histomorphological damage in particular regions of the brain. By using a clinical symptom-comparing approach, 55 neuropsychiatric signs or symptoms related usually to 14 types of acute and chronic brain insults were identified and categorized in the present study. Forty percent of the 55 neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms have been found to be commonly shared by the 14 brain insults. A meta-analysis supports existence of the same neuropsychiatric signs or symptoms in all brain insults. The results suggest that neuronal damage might be occurring in the same or similar regions or structures of the brain. Neuronal cell death, neural loss, and axonal degeneration in some parts of the brain (the limbic system, basal ganglia system, brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex) might be the histomorphological basis that is responsible for the neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. These morphological alterations may be the result of secondary neuronal damage (a cascade of progressive neural injury and neuronal cell death that is triggered by the initial insult). Secondary neuronal damage causes neuronal cell death and neural injury in not only the initial injured site but also remote brain regions. It may be a major contributor to subsequent neuropsychiatric disorders following brain insults. PMID:24653712

  9. A closer view of prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Shark, Half-Dome, Pumpkin, Flat Top and Frog are at center. Little Flat Top is at right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. Multimodal Neuroimaging-Informed Clinical Applications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Rafael; Kopell, Brian H; Sprooten, Emma; Goodman, Wayne K; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key gray matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability therefore relevant

  11. Multimodal Neuroimaging-Informed Clinical Applications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Rafael; Kopell, Brian H.; Sprooten, Emma; Goodman, Wayne K.; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key gray matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability therefore relevant

  12. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  13. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  14. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of required statements. (a) A word, statement,...

  15. A prominence eruption driven by flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Kai; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, S.

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a prominence eruption originating from a quadrupolar field configuration, in which the prominence was embedded in a side arcade. Within the two-day period prior to its eruption on 2012 October 22, the prominence was perturbed three times by chromospheric fibrils underneath, which rose upward, became brightened, and merged into the prominence, resulting in horizontal flows along the prominence axis, suggesting that the fluxes carried by the fibrils were incorporated into the magnetic field of the prominence. These perturbations caused the prominence to oscillate and to rise faster than before. The absence of intense heating within the first two hours after the onset of the prominence eruption, which followed an exponential increase in height, indicates that ideal instability played a crucial role. The eruption involved interactions with the other side arcade, leading up to a twin coronal mass ejection, which was accompanied by transient surface brightenings in the central arcade, followed by transient dimmings and brightenings in the two side arcades. We suggest that flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils might be an important mechanism to trigger coronal eruptions.

  16. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  17. Stereoscopic Analysis of the 31 August 2007 Prominence Eruption and Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Panasenco, O.; Hall, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The spectacular prominence eruption and CME of 31 August 2007 are analyzed stereoscopically using data from NASA's twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The technique of tie pointing and triangulation (T&T) is used to reconstruct the prominence (or filament when seen on the disk) before and during the eruption. For the first time, a filament barb is reconstructed in three-dimensions, confirming that the barb connects the filament spine to the solar surface. The chirality of the filament system is determined from the barb and magnetogram and confirmed by the skew of the loops of the post-eruptive arcade relative to the polarity reversal boundary below. The T&T analysis shows that the filament rotates as it erupts in the direction expected for a filament system of the given chirality. While the prominence begins to rotate in the slow-rise phase, most of the rotation occurs during the fast-rise phase, after formation of the CME begins. The stereoscopic analysis also allows us to analyze the spatial relationships among various features of the eruption including the pre-eruptive filament, the flare ribbons, the erupting prominence, and the cavity of the coronal mass ejection (CME). We find that erupting prominence strands and the CME have different (non-radial) trajectories; we relate the trajectories to the structure of the coronal magnetic fields. The possible cause of the eruption is also discussed.

  18. Magnetic Field in Atypical Prominence Structures: Bubble, Tornado, and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Dalmasse, K.; Gelly, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  19. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic. PMID:19240010

  20. Neuropsychiatric Manifestation of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in an Adolescent and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Sarkar, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is usually underdiagnosed and untreated because of complex neuropsychiatric manifestation. We report a case of an adolescent female with Hashimoto's encephalopathy who responded well to a combination of aspirin and levothyroxine. A 16-year-old girl presented at psychiatric emergency services with a depressive episode, menstrual irregularities, and a 5-month past history of thyroid swelling. On clinical examination, she was in a euthyroid state with insignificant neurological history. However, her previous investigation revealed a hypothyroid state. Her magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated infarcts in the bilateral gangliocapsular region and left frontal periventricular deep white matter lesion. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed lymphocytic thyroiditis. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (289 IU/ml) antibody titer was elevated (289 IU/mL). Her depressive symptoms responded well to antidepressants, mood stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levothyroxine. She remained in the euthyroid state and then in the euthymic state for 3 years. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Most researchers have observed a dramatic response to steroids with or without levothyroxine. A clinician may consider aspirin as an alternative to a steroid in long-term management to avoid steroid-related side effects and contraindications. PMID:27570351

  1. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: an overview.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Bianchini, S; Baggi, E; Fattizzo, M; Rigante, D

    2014-12-01

    The acronym PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) has been used to describe a syndrome characterized by various obsessions, compulsions, tics, hyperactivity, motor stereotypies, and paroxysmal movement disorders that are correlated with prior infection by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) infections. Five clinical criteria can be used to diagnose PANDAS: (1) the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or any other tic disorders; (2) prepuberal onset (between 3 years of age and the start of puberty); (3) abrupt onset and relapsing-remitting symptom course; (4) a distinct association with GABHS infection; and (5) association with neurological abnormalities during exacerbations (adventitious movements or motoric hyperactivity). The exact pathogenesis of PANDAS remains unclear, and several theories that focus on multiple etiologic or contributive factors have emerged. PANDAS appears to be a neurobiological disorder that potentially complicates GABHS infections in genetically susceptible individuals. The current standard of care for PANDAS patients remains symptomatic, and cognitive behavioral therapy, such as exposure and response prevention, combined with family counseling and psychoeducation, should be the first approach for treating PANDAS. This review examines current theories of PANDAS pathogenesis, identifies possible treatments for managing this complex condition, and highlights areas for future research. Moving forward, developing more standardized diagnostic criteria and identifying specific laboratory markers to facilitate PANDAS diagnoses are crucial. PMID:24953744

  2. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kugaya, A; Fujita, M; Innis, R B

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [123I]beta-CIT ((1R)-2beta-Carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [123I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [123I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:10770574

  3. Neuroimmunopathology in a murine model of neuropsychiatric lupus

    PubMed Central

    Ballok, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Animal models are extremely useful tools in defining pathogenesis and treatment of human disease. For many years researchers believed that structural damage to the brain of neuropsychiatric (NP) patients lead to abnormal mental function, but this possibility was not extensively explored until recently. Imaging studies of NP-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) support the notion that brain cell death accounts for the emergence of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms, and evidence suggests that it is an autoimmunity-induced brain disorder characterized by profound metabolic alterations and progressive neuronal loss. While there are a number of murine models of SLE, this article reviews recent literature on the immunological connections to neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction in the Fas-deficient MRL model of NP-SLE. Probable links between spontaneous peripheral immune activation, the subsequent central autoimmune/inflammatory responses in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL–lpr) mice and the sequential mode of events leading to Fas-independent neurodegenerative autoimmune-induced encephalitis will be reviewed. The role of hormones, alternative mechanisms of cell death, the impact of central dopaminergic degeneration on behavior, and germinal layer lesions on developmental/regenerative capacity of MRL–lpr brains will also be explored. This model can provide direction for future therapeutic interventions in patients with this complex neuroimmunological syndrome. PMID:17223198

  4. Changes in neural network homeostasis trigger neuropsychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Aline; Maggio, Nicola; Eller, Joanna; Caliskan, Gürsel; Semtner, Marcus; Häussler, Ute; Jüttner, René; Dugladze, Tamar; Smolinsky, Birthe; Kowalczyk, Sarah; Chronowska, Ewa; Schwarz, Günter; Rathjen, Fritz G.; Rechavi, Gideon; Haas, Carola A.; Kulik, Akos; Gloveli, Tengis; Heinemann, Uwe; Meier, Jochen C.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission and intrinsic neuronal excitability are well characterized; however, the mechanisms that promote disease-causing neural network dysfunction are poorly defined. We generated mice with targeted neuron type–specific expression of a gain-of-function variant of the neurotransmitter receptor for glycine (GlyR) that is found in hippocampectomies from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In this mouse model, targeted expression of gain-of-function GlyR in terminals of glutamatergic cells or in parvalbumin-positive interneurons persistently altered neural network excitability. The increased network excitability associated with gain-of-function GlyR expression in glutamatergic neurons resulted in recurrent epileptiform discharge, which provoked cognitive dysfunction and memory deficits without affecting bidirectional synaptic plasticity. In contrast, decreased network excitability due to gain-of-function GlyR expression in parvalbumin-positive interneurons resulted in an anxiety phenotype, but did not affect cognitive performance or discriminative associative memory. Our animal model unveils neuron type–specific effects on cognition, formation of discriminative associative memory, and emotional behavior in vivo. Furthermore, our data identify a presynaptic disease–causing molecular mechanism that impairs homeostatic regulation of neural network excitability and triggers neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24430185

  5. Are cytokines associated with neuropsychiatric syndromes in humans?

    PubMed

    Hickie, I; Lloyd, A

    1995-08-01

    Traditional aetiological models in neuropsychiatry have placed little emphasis on the abnormal behavioural responses (decreased psychomotor activity, anorexia, weight loss, decreased social exploration and sexual behaviour, impaired cognitive function and increased somnolence) that are common to both psychiatric syndromes, notably depression, and the illness behaviour of sick animals. In recent years, the possible role of cytokines, as mediators of not only the immunological and metabolic responses to infection and inflammation but also a co-ordinated behavioural response, has been described. Further, a range of possible mechanisms for these effects has been postulated, notably involving corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and prostaglandins of the E series (PgE) with the central nervous system (CNS). Here we outline a series of human clinical conditions where neuropsychiatric syndromes co-occur with a host response to infection or inflammation. These may be characterized by cytokine production (e.g. acute, recurrent and chronic viral illness, systemic autoimmune diseases and chronic fatigue syndrome). Other clinical situations characterized by exposure to or in vivo production of cytokines (e.g. treatment of chronic infections and malignancies, progression and/or recurrence of malignancies) are also discussed. We postulate that the stereotyped behavioural repertoire observed is mediated by cytokine-dependent mechanisms within the CNS. Systematic studies of the behavioural responses of such patient groups are suggested, noting specifically correlations between the time course and severity of immune and neuroendocrine and behavioural responses and dose-response effects. PMID:8847162

  6. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Update: Forensic Neuropsychiatric Implications.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Granacher, Robert P

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a wide range of potential neuropsychiatric outcomes, from death or profound impairment to full and fast recovery. This circumstance has contributed to an atmosphere with considerable potential for both clinical confusion and unjustified medicolegal outcomes. Given that mild (m)TBI accounts for most (∼80%) TBI events and is generally associated with an excellent prognosis, the risk for erroneous clinical formulations and unmerited legal outcomes seems particularly high in cases involving mTBI. In this article, we summarize the recent results published by the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis (ICMTBIP) and the new approach of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, to TBI, and we explore the clinical and medicolegal implications. Symptoms that emerge after mTBI remain nonspecific, and potential etiologies are diverse. Clinicians and medicolegal experts should be familiar with the natural history of mTBI, able to recognize atypical outcomes, and willing to search for alternative explanations when confronted with persistent or severe impairment. PMID:26668228

  7. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an indication for tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Alan A Z; Patel, Nitin J; Southammakosane, Cathy A; Mortensen, Melissa M

    2011-06-01

    Children with obsessive compulsive disorder or tic disorders that are associated with streptococcal infections (Group A beta-hemolytic) in the oro-pharyngeal region are given the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Tonsillectomy has been reported to resolve the neuro-psychiatric symptoms in these children. We have a case of a 9-year-old boy who was seen in our clinic with multiple recurrent streptococcal infections of the oro-pharyngeal cavity. He also exhibited neuro-psychiatric symptoms including agitation, hyperactivity, and tics. These symptoms followed his recurrent infections. Tonsillectomy was performed and in one year follow-up the patient did not have any recurrent streptococcal infections, and his neuro-psychiatric symptoms resolved completely. Guidelines for medical and surgical management of recurrent strep infections in the face of PANDAS are reviewed. PMID:21466900

  8. Drug Repurposing Is a New Opportunity for Developing Drugs against Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Min; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes. One alternative approach, drug repurposing, has emerged taking advantage of off-target effects of the existing drugs. In order to identify new opportunities for the existing drugs, it is essential for us to understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, both biologically and pharmacologically. By doing this, drug repurposing would be a more effective method to develop drugs against neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Here, we review the difficulties in drug discovery and development in neuropsychiatric disorders and the extent and perspectives of drug repurposing. PMID:27073698

  9. Drug Repurposing Is a New Opportunity for Developing Drugs against Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Min; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes. One alternative approach, drug repurposing, has emerged taking advantage of off-target effects of the existing drugs. In order to identify new opportunities for the existing drugs, it is essential for us to understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, both biologically and pharmacologically. By doing this, drug repurposing would be a more effective method to develop drugs against neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Here, we review the difficulties in drug discovery and development in neuropsychiatric disorders and the extent and perspectives of drug repurposing. PMID:27073698

  10. The best-laid plans go oft awry: synaptogenic growth factor signaling in neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Aislinn J.; Umemori, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors play important roles in synapse formation. Mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases suggest that defects in synaptogenic growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways can lead to disordered neural development and various behavioral phenotypes, including anxiety, memory problems, and social deficits. Genetic association studies in humans have found evidence for similar relationships between growth factor signaling pathways and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Accumulating data suggest that dysfunction in neuronal circuitry, caused by defects in growth factor-mediated synapse formation, contributes to the susceptibility to multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, including epilepsy, autism, and disorders of thought and mood (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively). In this review, we will focus on how specific synaptogenic growth factors and their downstream signaling pathways might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24672476

  11. Neuropsychiatric Morbidity in Adolescent and Adult Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency Patients

    PubMed Central

    Knerr, Ina; Gibson, K. Michael; Jakobs, Cornelis; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria) is a rare neurometabolic disorder of γ-aminobutyric acid degradation. While neurological manifestations, such as developmental delay, are typical during infancy, limited data are available on adolescent and adult symptomatology. Methods We overview the phenotype of 33 adolescents and adults (10.1–39.5 years of age, mean: 17.1 years, 48% females) with SSADH deficiency. For this purpose, we applied a database with systematic questionnaire-based follow-up data. Results Two thirds of patients (n=21) presented by 6 months of age, 14% from 6–12 months of age, 5% from 1–2 years of age, and 14% from 2–4 years of age, mean age at first symptoms was 11±12 months. However, mean age at diagnosis was 6.6±6.4 years of age. Presenting symptoms encompassed motor delay, hypotonia, speech delay, autistic features, seizures, and ataxia. Eighty-two percent demonstrated behavioral problems, such as attention deficit, hyperactivity, anxiety, or aggression, and 33% had ≥3 behavior problems. Electroencephalograms showed background slowing or epileptiform discharges in 40% of patients. Treatment approaches are then summarized. Conclusion The variable phenotype in SSADH deficiency suggests the likelihood that this disease may be under-diagnosed. Families of patients with SSADH deficiency should be counseled and supported regarding the anticipated persistence of various neuropsychiatric symptoms into adulthood. PMID:18622364

  12. Automated Facial Action Coding System for Dynamic Analysis of Facial Expressions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G.; Gur, Ruben C.; Verma, Ragini

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, which can facilitate statistical study of large populations in disorders affecting facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity. PMID:21741407

  13. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections in Research and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described>15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. Methods: A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). Results were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). Results: As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86–92%), school issues (75–81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60–65%), urinary symptoms (42–81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association

  14. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Christine; Poole, Jason; Palmer, Keith T; Peveler, Robert; Coggon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides. Methods From a postal survey of men born between 1933 and 1977 and resident in three rural areas of England and Wales (response rate 31%), data were obtained on lifetime history of work with pesticides, neurological symptoms in the past month, current mental health and tendency to be troubled by non‐neurological somatic symptoms (summarised as a somatising tendency score). Risk factors for current neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed by modified Cox regression. Results Data were available for 9844 men, including 1913 who had worked with sheep dip, 832 with other insecticides but not sheep dip and 990 with other pesticides but never with sheep dip or insecticides. Neurological symptoms were consistently 20–60% more common in past users of sheep dip than in men who had never worked with pesticides, but their prevalence was also higher in men who had worked only with pesticides other than sheep dip or insecticides. They clustered strongly within individuals, but this clustering was not specific to men who had worked with sheep dip. Reporting of three or more neurological symptoms was associated with somatising tendency (prevalence ratio (PR) 15.0, 95% CI 11.4 to 19.5, for the highest vs the lowest category of somatisation) and was more common in users of sheep dip (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6), other insecticides (PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) and other pesticides (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) than in non‐users. Among users of sheep dip, prevalence was higher in men who had dipped most often, but not in those who had worked with sheep dip concentrate. Past use of pesticides was not associated with current anxiety or depression. Conclusion Neurological symptoms are more common in men who have worked with sheep dip, but the association is not specific to sheep dip or insecticides. A toxic cause for the excess cannot be ruled out, but several

  15. Thermal and Kinetic Properties of Motions in a Prominence Activation and Nearby Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese; Landi, E.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of a prominence activation and motions in a nearby loop. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us to analyze the thermal and kinetic energy of the moving sources as functions of time. The loop and prominence are most apparent in lines formed at temperatures below 250,000 K. We find that in most cases the temperature distribution of plasma in a moving feature changes relatively little over time periods of about 20 minutes.

  16. Pathways of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Utilization: Implications for Brain Function in Neuropsychiatric Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joanne J.; Green, Pnina; Mann, J. John; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have profound effects on brain development and function. Abnormalities of PUFA status have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms could involve not only suboptimal PUFA intake, but also metabolic and genetic abnormalities, defective hepatic metabolism, and problems with diffusion and transport. This article provides an overview of physiologic factors regulating PUFA utilization, highlighting their relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:25498862

  17. Mass composition and dynamics in quiet sun prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Gary K.

    2009-06-01

    Solar prominences are transient phenomena in the solar atmosphere that display highly dynamic activity and can result in dramatic eruptions, ejecting a large amount of material into the heliosphere. The dynamics of the prominence plasma reveal information about its interaction with the magnetic field of the prominence, while the eruptions are associated with coronal mass ejections, which greatly affect space weather near Earth and throughout the solar system. My research on these topics was conducted via observational analyses of the partially-ionized prominence material, its composition, and the dynamics over time in prominences that range in activity from quiescent to highly active. The main results are evidence that (1) in quiescent prominences, neutral He is located more in the lower part of the structure, (2) a higher level of activity in prominences is related to a mixing of the material, and (3) an extended period of high activity and mixing occurs prior to eruptions, possibly due to mass loading. In addition, innovative modifications to analytical techniques led to measurements of the material's mass, composition, and small-scale dynamics.

  18. Synthetic differential emission measure curves of prominence fine structures. II. The SoHO/SUMER prominence of 8 June 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Parenti, S.; Anzer, U.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: This study is the first attempt to combine the prominence observations in Lyman, UV, and EUV lines with the determination of the prominence differential emission measure derived using two different techniques, one based on the inversion of the observed UV and EUV lines and the other employing 2D non-LTE prominence fine-structure modeling of the Lyman spectra. Methods: We use a trial-and-error method to derive the 2D multi-thread prominence fine-structure model producing synthetic Lyman spectra in good agreement with the observations. We then employ a numerical method to perform the forward determination of the DEM from 2D multi-thread models and compare the synthetic DEM curves with those derived from observations using inversion techniques. Results: A set of available observations of the June 8, 2004 prominence allows us to determine the range of input parameters, which contains models producing synthetic Lyman spectra in good agreement with the observations. We select three models, which represent this parametric-space area well and compute the synthetic DEM curves for multi-thread realizations of these models. The synthetic DEM curves of selected models are in good agreement with the DEM curves derived from the observations. Conclusions: We show that the evaluation of the prominence fine-structure DEM complements the analysis of the prominence hydrogen Lyman spectra and that its combination with the detailed radiative-transfer modeling of prominence fine structures provides a useful tool for investigating the prominence temperature structure from the cool core to the prominence-corona transition region.

  19. Missing and Possible Link between Neuroendocrine Factors, Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takahiro A.; Hayakawa, Kohei; Monji, Akira; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine systems have long been suggested to be one of the important factors in neuropsychiatric disorders, while the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. Traditionally, neuropsychiatric disorders have been mainly considered the consequence of abnormal conditions in neural circuitry. Beyond the neuronal doctrine, microglia, one of the glial cells with inflammatory/immunological functions in the central nervous system (CNS), have recently been suggested to play important roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the crosstalk between neuroendocrine factors, neuropsychiatric disorders, and microglia has been unsolved. Therefore, we herein introduce and discuss a missing and possible link between these three factors; especially highlighting the following hormones; (1) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis-related hormones such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoids, (2) sex-related hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and (3) oxytocin. A growing body of evidence has suggested that these hormones have a direct effect on microglia. We hypothesize that hormone-induced microglial activation and the following microglia-derived mediators may lead to maladaptive neuronal networks including synaptic dysfunctions, causing neuropsychiatric disorders. Future investigations to clarify the correlation between neuroendocrine factors and microglia may contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23874274

  20. 15q11.2 Duplication Encompassing Only the UBE3A Gene Is Associated with Developmental Delay and Neuropsychiatric Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Noor, Abdul; Dupuis, Lucie; Mittal, Kirti; Lionel, Anath C; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Stockley, Tracy; Vincent, John B; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J

    2015-07-01

    Duplications of chromosome region 15q11-q13 with the maternal imprint are associated with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, learning difficulties, schizophrenia, and seizures. These observations suggest there is a dosage-sensitive imprinted gene or genes within this region that explains the increased risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes. We present a female patient with developmental delay in whom we identified a maternally inherited 129-Kb duplication in chromosome region 15q11.2 encompassing only the UBE3A gene. Expression analysis in cultured fibroblasts confirmed overexpression of UBE3A in the proband, compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We further tested segregation of this duplication in four generations and found it segregated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Our study shows for the first time clinical features associated with overexpression of UBE3A in humans and underscores the significance of this gene in the phenotype of individuals with 15q11-q13 duplication. PMID:25884337

  1. Prominence and Control: The Weighted Rich-Club Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opsahl, Tore; Colizza, Vittoria; Panzarasa, Pietro; Ramasco, José J.

    2008-10-01

    Complex systems are often characterized by large-scale hierarchical organizations. Whether the prominent elements, at the top of the hierarchy, share and control resources or avoid one another lies at the heart of a system’s global organization and functioning. Inspired by network perspectives, we propose a new general framework for studying the tendency of prominent elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the majority of a system’s resources. We explore associations between prominence and control in the fields of transportation, scientific collaboration, and online communication.

  2. Multiscale modeling for clinical translation in neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Lytton, William W.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Kerr, Cliff C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale modeling of neuropsychiatric illness bridges scales of clinical importance: from the highest scales (presentation of behavioral signs and symptoms), through intermediate scales (clinical testing and surgical intervention), down to the molecular scale of pharmacotherapy. Modeling of brain disease is difficult compared to modeling of other organs, because dysfunction manifests at scales where measurements are rudimentary due both to inadequate access (memory and cognition) and to complexity (behavior). Nonetheless, we can begin to explore these aspects through the use of information-theoretic measures as stand-ins for meaning at the top scales. We here describe efforts across five disorders: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. We look at the use of therapeutic brain stimulation to replace lost neural signals, a loss that produces diaschisis, defined as activity changes in other brain areas due to missing inputs. These changes may in some cases be compensatory, hence beneficial, but in many cases a primary pathology, whether itself static or dynamic, sets in motion a series of dynamic consequences that produce further pathology. The simulations presented here suggest how diaschisis can be reversed by using a neuroprosthetic signal. Despite having none of the information content of the lost physiological signal, the simplified neuroprosthetic signal can restore a diaschitic area to near-normal patterns of activity. Computer simulation thus begins to explain the remarkable success of stimulation technologies - deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, ultrasound stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation - across an extremely broad range of pathologies. Multiscale modeling can help us to optimize and integrate these neuroprosthetic therapies by taking into consideration effects of different stimulation protocols, combinations of stimulation with neuropharmacological therapy, and interplay of these

  3. Activin Signaling in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Link, Andrea S.; Zheng, Fang; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Activins are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family and serve as multifunctional regulatory proteins in many tissues and organs. In the brain, activin A, which is formed by two disulfide-linked βA subunits, is recognized as the predominant player in activin signaling. Over the last years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating novel and unexpected functions of activin in the normal and diseased brain and in deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms. Initially identified as a neurotrophic and protective factor during development and in several forms of acute injury, the scope of effects of activin A in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been considerably broadened by now. Here, we will highlight recent findings that bear significance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases and might hold promise for novel therapeutic strategies. While the basal level of activin A in the adult brain is low, significant short-term up-regulation occurs in response to increased neuronal activity. In fact, brief exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is already sufficient to considerably strengthen activin signaling. Enhancement of this pathway tunes the performance of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in a fashion that impacts on cognitive functions and affective behavior, counteracts death-inducing signals through extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We will discuss how impaired activin signaling is involved in anxiety disorders, depression, drug dependence, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and how reinforcement of activin signaling might be exploited for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27242425

  4. Prominence condensation and magnetic levitation in a coronal loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Hoven, G.; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a model dynamic simulation of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of the confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of the normal-polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter-type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex. The simplicity of this 1.5-dimensional model, with its accompanying diagnostics, elucidates the various contributions to the nonlinear dynamics of prominence condensation and levitation.

  5. Prominent dysautonomia in a patient with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Sharda; Issa, Naoum P; Barboi, Alexandru C; Lee, John M

    2016-06-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare, multisystem disorder characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and/or skin changes. Here we present an unusual case of a patient with POEMS syndrome who exhibited a prominent autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27165541

  6. Solar Prominence Eruption Marks 1 Million on Helioviewer

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a prominence eruption on April 20, 2013, was the millionth movie made on Helioviewer.org. The wispy eruption seen here eventually blossomed into a much larger cloud of solar material,...

  7. Repetition is easy: Why repeated referents have reduced prominence

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    The repetition and predictability of a word in a conversation are two factors that are believed to affect whether or not it is emphasized: predictable, repeated words are less acoustically prominent than unpredictable, new words. However, because predictability and repetition are correlated, it is unclear whether speakers lengthen unpredictable words to facilitate comprehension or whether this lengthening is the result of difficulties in accessing a new (non-repeated) lexical item. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between acoustic prominence, repetition, and predictability in a description task. In Experiment 1, we find that repeated referents are produced with reduced prominence, even when these referents are unexpected. In Experiment 2, we find that predictability and repetition both have independent effects on duration and intensity. However, word duration was primarily determined by repetition, and intensity was primarily determined by predictability. The data are most consistent with an account in which multiple cognitive factors influence the acoustic prominence of a word. PMID:21156876

  8. Hinode and IRIS Observations of a Prominence-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2016-05-01

    Long-lived solar prominences often have a coronal cavity enclosing the prominence. Within the cavity, hot X-ray emission can persist above the prominence and in the central regions of the cavity. We present the results of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264) study of a prominence-cavity system. The X-ray Telescope (XRT) observes an inflow of bright X-ray emission that strikes and envelops the prominence-cavity system causing an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, an increase in X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observe strong blue shifts in both chromosphere and coronal lines during the eruption. The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission along the eruption path with complex turbulent plasma motions. The IRIS Si IV 1394 Angstrom spectra along the on-disk portion of the prominence show a region of decreased emission near the base of the prominence, suggesting a magnetic field bald-patch topology along the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). Combined, these observations imply a cylindrical flux rope best represents the prominence-cavity system. A model of the magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.Patricia Jibben and Kathy Reeves are supported by under contract 80111112705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO, grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO, and contract Z15-12504 from HAO to SAO under a grant from AFOSR. Yingna Su is supported by the Youth Fund of

  9. Comparison of cognitive and neuropsychiatric profiles in hospitalised elderly medical patients with delirium, dementia and comorbid delirium–dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Maeve; McInerney, Shane; McFarland, John; Condon, Candice; Awan, Fahad; O'Connor, Margaret; Reynolds, Paul; Meaney, Anna Maria; Adamis, Dimitrios; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Differentiation of delirium and dementia is a key diagnostic challenge but there has been limited study of features that distinguish these conditions. We examined neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms in elderly medical inpatients to identify features that distinguish major neurocognitive disorders. Setting University teaching hospital in Ireland. Participants and measures 176 consecutive elderly medical inpatients (mean age 80.6±7.0 years (range 60–96); 85 males (48%)) referred to a psychiatry for later life consultation-liaison service with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV delirium, dementia, comorbid delirium–dementia and cognitively intact controls. Participants were assessed cross-sectionally with comparison of scores (including individual items) for the Revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98), Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q). Results The frequency of neurocognitive diagnoses was delirium (n=50), dementia (n=32), comorbid delirium–dementia (n=62) and cognitively intact patients (n=32). Both delirium and comorbid delirium–dementia groups scored higher than the dementia group for DRS-R98 and CTD total scores, but all three neurocognitively impaired groups scored similarly in respect of total NPI-Q scores. For individual DRS-R98 items, delirium groups were distinguished from dementia groups by a range of non-cognitive symptoms, but only for impaired attention of the cognitive items. For the CTD, attention (p=0.002) and vigilance (p=0.01) distinguished between delirium and dementia. No individual CTD item distinguished between comorbid delirium–dementia and delirium. For the NPI-Q, there were no differences between the three neurocognitively impaired groups for any individual item severity. Conclusions The neurocognitive profile of delirium is similar with or without comorbid dementia and differs from dementia without delirium. Simple tests of attention and

  10. A case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Marek; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis can often be a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult malignancy such as ovarian teratoma and rarely teratoma of mediastinum or testis and small cell lung carcinoma. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody–positive autoimmune encephalitis in a young patient who presented with neuropsychiatric features and made a very good recovery following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The case highlights the need for increased vigilance for the condition in young females with or without a previous psychiatric history and emphasises the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this challenging disorder with a good prognosis. PMID:27489663

  11. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-12-20

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.

  12. On the Asymmetric Longitudinal Oscillations of a Pikelner's Model Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraśkiewicz, J.; Murawski, K.; Solov'ev, A.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    We present analytical and numerical models of a normal-polarity quiescent prominence that are based on the model of Pikelner (Solar Phys. 17, 44, 1971). We derive the general analytical expressions for the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium plasma quantities such as the mass density and gas pressure, and we specify magnetic-field components for the prominence, which corresponds to a dense and cold plasma residing in the dip of curved magnetic-field lines. Adapting of these expressions, we numerically solve the 2D, nonlinear, ideal MHD equations for the Pikelner model of a prominence that is initially perturbed by reducing the gas pressure at the dip of magnetic-field lines. Our findings reveal that as a result of pressure perturbations, the prominence plasma starts evolving in time. This leads to antisymmetric magnetoacoustic-gravity oscillations and to the mass-density growth at the magnetic dip, and the magnetic-field lines subside there. This growth depends on the depth of the magnetic dip. For a shallower dip, less plasma is condensed, and vice versa. We conjecture that the observed long-period magnetoacoustic-gravity oscillations in various prominence systems are in general the consequence of the internal-pressure perturbations of the plasma residing in equilibrium at the prominence dip.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Velocities in Quiescent Prominences Observed with Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, David; Freed, Michael

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution observations of solar prominences, especially with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode, reveal the presence of upward and downward flows consistent with convection, at length scales that were not accessible with previous telescopes. Since prominences are magnetic structures, the strength and arrangement of their magnetic fields are crucial for determining whether a given prominence will erupt into a coronal mass ejection. Convective flows can twist and tangle those magnetic fields. However, the magnetic fields within the prominences are extremely difficult to measure; therefore measurements of the dynamics of the magnetized plasma in prominences, and the balance between magnetic and gas-pressure forces, are valuable for understanding how these apparently stable structures can evolve to become suddenly eruptive. We will show our findings from analysis of the dynamics in a few solar prominences using local correlation tracking, and make estimates of the kinetic energy, diffusivity, and vorticity.This work is supported by NASA under contract NNM07AB07C with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  14. The prominent role of serotonergic degeneration in apathy, anxiety and depression in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul; Lhommée, Eugénie; Météreau, Elise; Klinger, Hélène; Favre, Emilie; Le Bars, Didier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bichon, Amélie; Pelissier, Pierre; Fraix, Valérie; Castrioto, Anna; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Tremblay, Léon; Thobois, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    , putamen, ventral striatum, pallidum and thalamus, but also a specific bilateral dopaminergic disruption within the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area complex, as well as a specific serotonergic alteration within the insula, the orbitofrontal and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. When comparing the two parkinsonian groups, the apathetic patients mainly displayed greater serotonergic alteration in the ventral striatum, the dorsal and the subgenual parts of the anterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally, as well as in the right-sided caudate nucleus and the right-sided orbitofrontal cortex. Regression analyses also revealed that the severity of apathy was moreover mainly related to specific serotonergic lesions within the right-sided anterior caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex, while the degree of both depression and anxiety was primarily linked to serotonergic disruption within the bilateral subgenual parts and/or the right dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, without prominent role of the dopaminergic degeneration in the pathogenesis of these three non-motor signs. Altogether, these findings highlight a prominent role of the serotonergic degeneration in the expression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27538418

  15. Two Categories of Apparent Tornado-like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2014-06-01

    Two categories of solar prominences have been described in the literature as having a pattern of mass motions and/or a shape similar to terrestrial tornados. We first identify the two categories associated with prominences in the historic literature and then show that counterparts do exist for both in recent literature but one has not been called a tornado prominence. One category described as being similar to tornados is associated with the barbs of quiescent filaments but barbs appear to have rotational motion only under special conditions. H alpha Doppler observations from Helio Research confirm that this category is an illusion in our mind’s eye resulting from counterstreaming in the large barbs of quiescent filaments. The second category is a special case of rotational motion occurring during the early stages of some erupting prominences, in recent years called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of an erupting prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption proceeds, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and has true rotational motion. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in the historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence and spectra recorded in these cases provide proof of the rotational motion. When one observes an entire eruption which exhibits the rolling motion, as accomplished at Helio Research, the similarity to a tornado is lost because the event as a whole has quite a different nature and the analogy to a terrestrial tornado not longer appears suitable or helpful in understanding the observed and deduced physical processes. Our conclusion is that there are no solar prominences with motions that are usefully described as tornado or tornado-like events aside from the fun of observing

  16. SEISMOLOGY OF STANDING KINK OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Arregui, I.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2010-10-20

    We investigate standing kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a prominence fine structure modeled as a straight and cylindrical magnetic tube only partially filled with the prominence material and with its ends fixed at two rigid walls representing the solar photosphere. The prominence plasma is partially ionized and a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer is included between the prominence thread and the coronal medium. Thus, ion-neutral collisions and resonant absorption are the damping mechanisms considered. Approximate analytical expressions of the period, the damping time, and their ratio are derived for the fundamental mode in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. We find that the dominant damping mechanism is resonant absorption, which provides damping ratios in agreement with the observations, whereas ion-neutral collisions are irrelevant for damping. The values of the damping ratio are independent of both the prominence thread length and its position within the magnetic tube, and coincide with the values for a tube fully filled with the prominence plasma. The implications of our results in the context of the MHD seismology technique are discussed, pointing out that the reported short-period (2-10 minutes) and short-wavelength (700-8000 km) thread oscillations may not be consistent with a standing mode interpretation and could be related to propagating waves. Finally, we show that the inversion of some prominence physical parameters, e.g., Alfven speed, magnetic field strength, transverse inhomogeneity length scale, etc., is possible using observationally determined values of the period and damping time of the oscillations along with the analytical approximations of these quantities.

  17. Markers of acute neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abda, Essam A; Selim, Zahraa I; Radwan, Moustafa E M; Mahmoud, Nagham M; Herdan, Omar M; Mohamad, Khalid A; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2013-05-01

    This study was aimed to assess: (1) the additive diagnostic utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) over conventional MRI in detecting brain lesions in patients with acute primary neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), and (2) the relevance of their findings to the associated NP manifestations. Included were 34 patients with acute NPSLE with mean age of 33.26 ± 10.14 years and duration of illness of 3.33 ± 1.71 years. Clinical interviewing and psychiatric and cognitive evaluations were performed by applying the criteria of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health disorders criteria (DSM-IV), Stanford Binet Subset Testing, Mini-Mental State Examination and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Serologic tests included looking for antinuclear antibodies, anti-double strand DNA, anti-phospholipid antibodies. Radiologic evaluation included conventional MRI, DWI and MRA. One or more NP manifestations were diagnosed in 28 patients, in which cognitive deficits were reported with headache, psychosis and CVS. Anti-phospholipid antibodies were reported in patients with CVS. Twenty patients (71.43 %) with primary NPSLE (n = 28) had MRI abnormalities in which hyperintense signals at subcortical and periventricular white matter and at the junction between the gray and white matter represented 75 % (n = 15) and with headache (n = 6), psychosis (n = 6) and acute confusional state (n = 3) with and without cognitive deficits, respectively. Moderate-sized infarctions with restricted diffusion in the distribution of middle cerebral arteries were represented in 35 % (n = 7) and with CVS, of them, 71.43 % (n = 5) had beading and focal narrowing of carotid arteries were consistent with vasculitis. Brain atrophy represented 20 % (n = 4) and with psychosis. Compared to those with normal MRI, patients with MRI abnormalities were older (P < 0.050) and had longer duration of illness (P < 0.050). To conclude, although DWI

  18. Terra incognita—cerebellar contributions to neuropsychiatric and cognitive dysfunction in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Rachel H.; Devenney, Emma; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Hodges, John R.; Hornberger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although converging evidence has positioned the human cerebellum as an important relay for intact cognitive and neuropsychiatric processing, changes in this large structure remain mostly overlooked in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a disease which is characterized by cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits. The present study assessed whether degeneration in specific cerebellar subregions associate with indices of cognition and neuropsychiatric performance in bvFTD. Our results demonstrate a relationship between cognitive and neuropsychiatric decline across various domains of memory, language, emotion, executive, visuospatial function, and motivation and the degree of gray matter degeneration in cerebellar lobules V–VII. Most notably, bilateral cerebellar lobule VII and the posterior vermis emerged as distinct for memory processes, the right cerebellar hemisphere underpinned emotion, and the posterior vermis was highlighted in language dysfunction in bvFTD. Based on cortico-cerebellar connectivity maps, these findings in the cerebellum are consistent with the neural connections with the cortices involved in these domains in patients with bvFTD. Overall, the present study underscores the significance of cortical-cerebellar networks associated with cognition and neuropsychiatric dysfunction in bvFTD. PMID:26191000

  19. Neuropsychiatric disturbances associated with traumatic brain injury: a practical approach to evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vani; Koliatsos, Vassilis; Ahmed, Faizi; Lyketsos, Constantine; Kortte, Kathleen

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disturbances associated with great functional impairments and low quality of life. These disturbances include disorders of mood, behavior, and cognition, and changes in personality. The diagnosis of specific neuropsychiatric disturbances can be difficult because there is significant symptom overlap. Systematic clinical evaluations are necessary to make the diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan that often requires a multipronged approach. Management of TBI-associated neuropsychiatric disorders should always include nonpharmacological interventions, including education, family involvement, supportive and behavioral psychotherapies, and cognitive rehabilitation. Pharmacological treatments include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, dopaminergic agents, and cholinesterase inhibitors. However, evidence-based treatments are extremely limited, and management relies on clinical empiricism and resemblance of TBI neuropsychiatric symptom profiles with those of idiopathic psychiatric disorders. Although the understanding of TBI-associated neuropsychiatric disorders has improved in the last decade, further research is needed including prospective, longitudinal studies to explore biomarkers that will assist with management and prognosis as well as randomized-controlled studies to validate pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. The current review summarizes the available literature in support of a structured, systematic evaluation approach and treatment options as well as recommendations for further research directions. PMID:25714869

  20. Neuropsychiatric symptom profile differs based on pathology in patients with clinically diagnosed behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is pathologically heterogeneous. With emerging therapeutics, determining underlying pathology during life is increasingly important. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are prevalent and diagnostic in bvFTD. Methods We assessed the neuropsychiatric profile in patients with clinically diagnosed bvFTD as a function of pathology at autopsy. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of bvFTD at initial visit were selected from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. Neuropsychiatric symptoms endorsed on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire were analyzed. Results Of 149 patients with clinically diagnosed bvFTD, pathology was primarily Alzheimer's disease in 20.5%. These patients differed from those with underlying frontotemporal lobar degeneration: patients with AD pathology (plaques and tangles) were more likely to have hallucinations, delusions, or agitation. Patients were further differentiated into tau positive (30 % of cases, including Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism with tau-positive, and other tauopathies) or tau-negative (70% of cases including bvFTD tau-negative ubiquitin-positive inclusions). These patients also differed in some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms seen. Tau-negative cases were more likely to demonstrate depression, delusions, and changes in appetite and eating. Conclusions These preliminary findings contribute to our increasing ability to predict, using simple clinical tools the neuropathological underpinnings of bvFTD during life. PMID:24135712

  1. Eight-Year Follow-Up of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Brain Structural Changes in Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Irene M.; Böttcher, Anna; Hennermann, Julia B.; Beck, Michael; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Brain structural alterations and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been described repeatedly in Fabry disease, yet cognitive deficits have been shown to be only mild. Here, we aimed to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and brain structure longitudinally. We expected no clinically relevant increase of neuropsychiatric symptoms in parallel to increased brain structural alterations. We assessed 14 Fabry patients (46.1 ± 10.8 years) who had participated in our investigation eight years ago. Patients engaged in neuropsychiatric testing, as well as structural magnetic resonance imaging and angiography to determine white matter lesions, hippocampal volume, and the diameter of the larger intracranial arteries. While Fabry patients did not differ on cognitive performance, they showed progressive and significant hippocampal volume loss over the 8-year observation period. White matter lesions were associated with older age and higher white matter lesion load at baseline, but did not reach statistical significance when comparing baseline to follow-up. Likewise, intracranial artery diameters did not increase significantly. None of the imaging parameters were associated with the neuropsychiatric parameters. Depression frequency reduced from 50% at baseline to 21% at follow-up, but it did not reach significance. This investigation demonstrates clinical stability in cognitive function, while pronounced hippocampal atrophy is apparent throughout the 8 years. Our middle-aged Fabry patients appeared to compensate successfully for progressive hippocampal volume loss. The hippocampal volume decline indicates brain regional neuronal involvement in Fabry disease. PMID:26340726

  2. SDO/AIA observations of a partially erupting prominence

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Reeves, Katharine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Joshi, Navin C.

    2013-12-01

    We report an observation of a partially erupting prominence and its associated dynamical plasma processes based on observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The prominence first went through a slow rise (SR) phase followed by a fast rise (FR) phase. The SR phase began after a couple of small brightenings were seen toward the footpoints. When the prominence had transitioned from SR to FR, it had already become kinked. The prominence shows strong brightening at the central kink location during the start of FR. We interpret this as an internal magnetic reconnection occurring at a vertical current sheet forming between the two legs of the erupting prominence (flux rope). The brightening at the central kink location is seen in all EUV channels of AIA. The contributions of differential emission at higher temperatures are larger compared to that for typical coronal temperatures supporting a reconnection scenario at the central kink location. The plasma above the brightening location is ejected as a hot plasmoid-like structure embedded in a coronal mass ejection, and those below the brightening move down in the form of blobs moving toward the Sun's surface. The unique time resolution of the AIA has allowed these eruptive aspects, including SR-to-FR, kinking, central current sheet formation, plasmoid-like eruption, and filament 'splitting', to be observed in a single event, providing strong and comprehensive evidence in favor of the model of partially erupting flux ropes.

  3. Can bubbles in quiescent prominences be purely magnetic phenomena?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Zapior, Maciej; Heinzel, Petr

    2012-07-01

    We present a model of the magnetic field constituting quiescent prominences. The model assumes a linear force-free field with a weakly twisted flux-tube in an OX/OF topology perturbed by presence of parasitic polarities within the filament channel. The parasitic polarities locally create the cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles exactly as those observed by the SDO/AIA and Bialkow Observatory. We find that the observations are best reproduced if the parasitic bipoles are sheared with respect to the main inversion line. We show that the bubbles are in fact constituted by the arcade-like field lines, as opposed to that of the prominence, which is created by magnetic dips. A pair of null points is always associated with the parasitic bipole. These null points are connected by a separator passing through the prominence bubble. We show how the presence of an additional parasitic bipole moves the separator to the boundary between the bubble and the rest of the prominence, producing a topology favorable for reconnection and possibly for the formation of plumes.

  4. On the Magnetism and Dynamics of Prominence Legs Hosting Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  5. Magnetic Field and Plasma Diagnostics from Coordinated Prominence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Levens, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-04-01

    We study the magnetic field in prominences from a statistical point of view, by using THEMIS in the MTR mode, performing spectropolarimetry of the He I D3 line. Combining these measurements with spectroscopic data from IRIS, Hinode/EIS as well as ground-based telescopes, such as the Meudon Solar Tower, we infer the temperature, density, and flow velocities of the plasma. There are a number of open questions that we aim to answer: - What is the general direction of the magnetic field in prominences? Is the model using a single orientation of magnetic field always valid for atypical prominences? %- Does this depend on the location of the filament on the disk (visible in Hα, in He II 304 Å) over an inversion line between weak or strong network ? - Are prominences in a weak environment field dominated by gas pressure? - Measuring the Doppler shifts in Mg II lines (with IRIS) and in Hα can tell us if there are substantial velocities to maintain vertical rotating structures, as has been suggested for tornado-like prominences. We present here some results obtained with different ground-based and space-based instruments in this framework.

  6. STEREOSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION FROM STEREO/EUV IMAGERS DATA OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE AND EXPANSION OF AN ERUPTING PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.

    2009-08-10

    On 2007 May 9, a prominence eruption was observed in the He II {lambda}304 filter by the two EUV Imagers (EUVI) telescopes aboard the STEREO A and B spacecrafts. The high spatial resolution ({approx}1.''5 pixel{sup -1}) EUVI images have been used to infer via triangulation the three-dimensional (3D) shape and orientation of the prominence {approx_equal}12 minutes after the beginning (13:40 UT) of the eruption. At this time, the prominence has the shape of a 'hook' with the base anchored at the Sun. The 'hook' prominence is highly inclined southward with respect to the radial direction, has an average thickness of 0.061 R {sub sun}, a length of 0.43 R {sub sun}, and lies in first approximation on a plane inclined by {approx}54.{sup 0}5 with respect to the line of sight. Thanks to the very high temporal cadence ({approx}37 s) of EUVI observations it has been possible also to infer the 3D early eruption trajectory. In the following {approx}20 minutes the prominence rotates westward, undergoing a strong latitudinal acceleration, {approx}3 times larger than the radial acceleration. In this time interval, the prominence expands in a direction mainly parallel to the plane of the sky; the total volume occupied by the plasma increases by a factor of {approx}8, while the prominence thickness increases only by {approx}12%. This is related to the fact that the early prominence expansion is anisotropic and occurs mainly on a plane parallel to the plane of the sky. Even if the small-scale spatial distribution of the erupting material observed in the He II EUVI images is quite complex, both the approximately planar shape and the successive planar expansion suggest that on larger spatial scales the prominence can be globally approximated as a two-dimensional 'ribbon-like' feature, instead of a 3D twisted flux tube.

  7. Study of a Prominence Eruption using PROBA2/SWAP and STEREO/EUVI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierla, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Berghmans, D.; Chifu, I.; De Groof, A.; Inhester, B.; Rodriguez, L.; Stenborg, G.; Zhukov, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    Observations of the early rise and propagation phases of solar eruptive prominences can provide clues about the forces acting on them through the behavior of their acceleration with height. We have analyzed such an event, observed on 13 April 2010 by SWAP on PROBA2 and EUVI on STEREO. A feature at the top of the erupting prominence was identified and tracked in images from the three spacecraft. The triangulation technique was used to derive the true direction of propagation of this feature. The reconstructed points were fitted with two mathematical models: i) a power-law polynomial function and ii) a cubic smoothing spline, in order to derive the accelerations. The first model is characterized by five degrees of freedom while the second one is characterized by ten degrees of freedom. The results show that the acceleration increases smoothly, and it is continuously increasing with height. We conclude that the prominence is not accelerated immediately by local reconnection, but rather is swept away as part of a large-scale relaxation of the coronal magnetic field.

  8. Interpretation of the prominence differential emissions measure for 3 geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers have used prominence extreme ultraviolet line intensities observed from Skylab to derive the differential emission measure Q(T) in the prominence-corona (PC) interface from 3 x 10,000 to 3 times 1 million K, including the effects of Lyman Continuum absorption. Using lines both shortward and longward of the Lyman limit, researchers have estimated the importance of absorption as function of temperature. The magnitude of the absorption, as well as its rate of increase as a function of temperature, place limits on the thread scales and the character of the interfilar medium. Researchers have calculated models based on three assumed geometries: (1) threads with hot sheaths and cool cores; (2) isothermal threads; and (3) threads with longitudinal temperature gradients along the magnetic field. Comparison of the absorption computed from these models with the observed absorption in prominences shows that none of the geometries is totally satisfactory.

  9. Brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are present during the disease course of nearly all AD patients and consist of psychosis, agitation/aggression, and depression, among others. Given their detrimental consequences regarding life expectancy, cognition, and socio-economic costs, it is essential to elucidate their neurochemical etiology to facilitate the development of novel and effective pharmacotherapeutics. This study attempted to identify brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of NPS by measuring the levels of eight monoamines and metabolites in nine relevant postmortem brain regions of 40 behaviorally characterized AD patients, i.e., dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine and their respective metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), using RP-HPLC-ECD. Likewise, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score correlates of monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations were calculated. As a result, MMSE scores, used as a measure of dementia severity, correlated positively with hippocampal 5-HIAA levels as well as with 5-HT levels of the superior temporal gyrus and cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, hippocampal 5-HIAA levels inversely correlated with agitation scores, whereas thalamic MHPG levels comparably did with the presence of hallucinations. Finally, in the cerebellar cortex, DOPAC/DA ratios, indicative of DA turnover, correlated with physically agitated behavior while MHPG levels correlated with affective disturbances. These findings support the assumption that specific NPS features in AD might be (in)directly related to brain region-specific monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations. Additionally, the effect of AD pathology on neurochemical alterations in the cerebellum requires further examination due to its important but underestimated role in the neurochemical pathophysiology of NPS in AD. PMID:24685637

  10. [Adult-onset Hartnup disease presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms but without skin lesions].

    PubMed

    Mori, E; Yamadori, A; Tsutsumi, A; Kyotani, Y

    1989-06-01

    Hartnup disease is an inborn abnormality of renal and intestinal transport involving the neutral amino acids. Intermittent pellagra-like rash, attacks of cerebellar ataxia and psychiatric disturbance are characteristic symptoms of this disease. We described here a patient with adult-onset Hartnup disease who presented unique neuropsychiatric symptoms but no dermatologic symptoms, and reported features of amino acids transport in this patient and his family. The patient, a man aged 37 years, was referred to us because of lasting daytime bruxism. He is the second child of healthy parents who are first cousin; his elder brother who has been mentally retarded became bed-ridden and died at 32 years of age. His younger brother is completely healthy. Although the patient's development in infancy has been slightly retarded, he completed compulsory 9-year education. At 29 years of age, he experienced episodes of diplopia, ataxic gait and insomnia, and at 33 years of age, of transient stupor. There had been no history of photosensitivity or dermatitis. On neurological examination, there were trunkal ataxia, increased muscular tone and decreased mental activity besides bruxism. These symptoms remained unchanged despite of several medications including trihexyphenidyl, diazepam, halloperidol, tiapride and sulpiride. Two months later, the patient became stuporous; bruxism and hypertonicity became exaggerated. Myerson's sign, sucking reflex and grasp reflex in both hand appeared. There was no dermal lesion. A cranial computed tomography revealed a small calcification in the right frontal subcortical region and a single photon emission tomography indicated possible bifrontal hypoperfusion. Electroencephalograms demonstrated non-specific slowing. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocities were normal. There were constant indicanuria and amino-aciduria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2582682

  11. ERRATUM: Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Halpha lines), Sac Peak (in Ha, Hß, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  12. PROPAGATING WAVES TRANSVERSE TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2013-11-10

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ({sup T}élescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires{sup )} with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D{sub 3} line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s{sup –1}, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  13. Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2013-11-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s-1, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  14. THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF SOLAR QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Following the two-stage catastrophic flux rope model presented by Zhang et al., we investigate how magnetic flux emergence affects the formation and evolution of solar quiescent prominences. The magnetic properties of the flux rope are described with its toroidal magnetic flux per radian Φ{sub p} and poloidal flux Φ{sub ψ}, and Φ{sub p} is defined as the emerging strength (ES) of the magnetic flux. After the first catastrophe, the quiescent prominences are supported by the vertical current sheet and located in cavities below the curved transverse current sheet in the inner corona, for which both ES and Φ{sub ψ} are in the certain ranges. We calculate the strength range as 0.25 < ES < 0.50 for the quadrupolar field, and obtain the equation Φ{sub p}Φ{sub ψ} = const., that is, the relationship between Φ{sub p} and Φ{sub ψ} of the emerging flux for which the quiescent prominences are formed in the inner corona. After the second catastrophe, the quiescent prominences would either fall down onto the solar surface or erupt as an important part of coronal mass ejections. During the eruption of the quiescent prominences, most of the magnetic energy in the flux rope is lost, and less than half of the energy loss of the rope is released in the form of Alfvèn waves. We argue that there would be two important conditions required for the formation and eruption of solar quiescent prominences, a complicated source region and emerging toroidal magnetic flux that exceeds a critical strength.

  15. Morphology and evolution of a h-alpha eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okten, A.; Dermendjiev, V. N.; Petrov, N. I.; Ozisik, T.; Esenoglu, H. H.

    An eruptive prominence has been observed in H-alpha on 18 June 1989 at western solar limb (N10 degree;W90degree) in time interval 08:39-09:22 UT. The eruption started as expansion of the upper part of a filament channel crossing the equator. Several arches of erupting prominence material have been registered in more than 31 frames. All the frames have been processed and analyzed by means of microdensitometer and image processing technique for study the morphology of the eruptive event.

  16. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  17. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  18. Olfactory neuroepithelium as a cellular model for the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Soto-Vázquez, Ramón; Labastida-López, Carlos; Romero-Castello, Samuel; Benítez-King, Gloria; Parra-Cervantes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The neuroepithelium has been used as an experimental model to find biological markers for neuropsychiatric disease diagnosis. Patent information permits understanding of the state of the art of neuroepithelium in neuropsychiatric disease diagnosis, as well as the identification of trends in research and development on this theme. In this article, we discuss diverse methods for obtaining primary cultures of olfactory neurons obtained by animal dissection or by postmortem biopsy of human cadavers. The principal owners of patents related to olfactory neuroepithelia are universities such as John Hopkins and Bristol-Myers Squibb. The USA has the most research lines and approved patents in the world, while Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, provides composition and methods related to the diagnoses and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24354978

  19. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri; Kosmicki, Jack A; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Grove, Jakob; Maller, Julian; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Sanders, Stephan J; Ripke, Stephan; Martin, Joanna; Hollegaard, Mads V; Werge, Thomas; Hougaard, David M; Neale, Benjamin M; Evans, David M; Skuse, David; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Børglum, Anders D; Ronald, Angelica; Smith, George Davey; Daly, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we find genome-wide genetic links between ASDs and typical variation in social behavior and adaptive functioning. This finding is evidenced through both LD score correlation and de novo variant analysis, indicating that multiple types of genetic risk for ASDs influence a continuum of behavioral and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology. PMID:26998691

  20. From “Directed Differentiation” to “Neuronal Induction”: Modeling Neuropsychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Seok-Man; Topol, Aaron; Brennand, Kristen J

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant behavior and function of neurons are believed to be the primary causes of most neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. Human postmortem samples have limited availability and, while they provide clues to the state of the brain after a prolonged illness, they offer limited insight into the factors contributing to disease onset. Conversely, animal models cannot recapitulate the polygenic origins of neuropsychiatric disease. Novel methods, such as somatic cell reprogramming, deliver nearly limitless numbers of pathogenic human neurons for the study of the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disease initiation and progression. First, this article reviews the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology and introduces two major methods, “directed differentiation” and “neuronal induction,” by which it is now possible to generate neurons for modeling neuropsychiatric disease. Second, it discusses the recent applications, and the limitations, of these technologies to in vitro studies of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26045654

  1. Towards an Understanding of Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Fragile X Premutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Tua-Elisabeth; Allison, Stephen C.; Hagerman, Randi; Seritan, Andreea L.; Bourgeois, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X-associated disorders (FXD) are a group of disorders caused by expansion of non-coding CGG repeat elements in the fragile X (FMR1) gene. One of these disorders, fragile X syndrome (FXS), is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability, and is caused by large CGG repeat expansions (>200) resulting in silencing of the FMR1 gene. An increasingly recognized number of neuropsychiatric FXD have recently been identified that are caused by ‘premutation’ range expansions (55-200). These disorders are characterized by a spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations ranging from an increased risk of neurodevelopmental, mood and anxiety disorders to neurodegenerative phenotypes such as the fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Here, we review advances in the clinical understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders in premutation carriers across the lifespan and offer guidance for the detection of such disorders by practicing psychiatrists and neurologists. PMID:25013385

  2. Non-aversive treatment of repetitive absconding behaviour in clients with severe neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Giles, Gordon Muir; Wilson, James; Dailey, William

    2009-01-01

    Research relating to the causes and treatment of absconding behaviour among individuals with severe neuropsychiatric disability is reviewed and a non-aversive intervention is reported. Interventions with two clients with severe neuropsychiatric disability and repetitive absconding behaviour are presented in a multiple-baseline within-client single-case format. Multiple empirical treatment approaches were applied to culminate in a successful non-aversive intervention. The effective intervention used reinforcement approaches that were congruent with the client's goals rather than increased restriction. The design of one case included reversal, indicating that it was the intervention, not other factors, that reduced the absconding behaviour. Absconding attempts and absconding incidents were reduced to zero using non-aversive interventions where more restrictive interventions had failed to have a lasting impact. A counter-intuitive non-aversive intervention was effective in eliminating dangerous absconding behaviour in two clients with severe neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19101841

  3. The potential of genetic and gene expression analysis in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    van de Leemput, Joyce; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are difficult to diagnose because of phenotypic heterogeneity within and symptomatic overlap between disorders. This review describes how genomics and blood-based gene expression have shown potential as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder) yet also discusses how a complex genetic landscape has limited sole genetic diagnostic tools for these disorders. In addition to their potential use as classifiers for neuropsychiatric disorders, genomic and blood-based biomarkers have revealed clues to the molecular pathways contributing to etiology. A comprehensive overview of studies to date has been given, and the authors provide suggestions for steps to be taken to ultimately move the laboratory-based classifiers towards application in a clinical setting. Furthermore, they share their vision for the future of these classifiers, both in clinical application and in opening up new ways to gain insights into the underlying biology. PMID:27017833

  4. Biomarkers of vascular risk, systemic inflammation, and microvascular pathology and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; Wiechmann, April R; Johnson, Leigh A; Edwards, Melissa; Barber, Robert C; Winter, A Scott; Singh, Meharvan; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2013-01-01

    Numerous serum and plasma based biomarkers of systemic inflammation have been linked to both neuropsychiatric disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigated the relationship of clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular risk (cholesterol, triglycerides, and homocysteine) and a panel of markers of systemic inflammation (CRP, TNF-α, IL1-ra, IL-7, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18) and microvascular pathology (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) to neuropsychiatric symptoms in a sample with mild AD. Biomarker data was analyzed on a sample of 194 diagnosed with mild to moderate probable AD. The sample was composed of 127 females and 67 males. The presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms was gathered from interview with caretakers/family members using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. For the total sample, IL-15, VCAM (vascular adhesion molecule), and triglycerides were significantly and negatively related to number of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and total cholesterol and homocysteine were positively related and as a group accounted for 16.1% of the variance. When stratified by gender, different patterns of significant biomarkers were found with relationships more robust for males for both total symptoms and symptom clusters. A combination of biomarkers of systemic inflammation, microvascular pathology, and clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular risk can account for a significant portion of the variance in the occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD supporting a vascular and inflammatory component of psychiatric disorders found in AD. Gender differences suggest distinct impact of specific risks with total cholesterol, a measure of cardiovascular risk, being the strongest marker for males and IL-15, a marker of inflammation, being the strongest for females. PMID:23403534

  5. A systematic review of neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with both epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van Ool, Jans S; Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Francesca M; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Tan, In Y; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Hendriksen, Jos G M

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological condition that is particularly common in people with intellectual disability (ID). The care for people with both epilepsy and ID is often complicated by the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders, defined as psychiatric symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between epilepsy or epilepsy-related factors and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with ID and between ID and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with epilepsy. We performed a systematic review of the literature, published between January 1995 and January 2015 and retrieved from PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC and assessed the risk of bias using the SIGN-50 methodology. Forty-two studies were identified, fifteen of which were assessed as having a low or acceptable risk-of-bias evaluation. Neuropsychiatric comorbidities were examined in relation to epilepsy in nine studies; in relation to epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure activity, seizure type, and medication in four studies; and in relation to the presence and degree of ID in five studies. We conclude that the presence of epilepsy only was not a clear determinant of neuropsychiatric comorbidity in patients with ID, although a tendency towards negative mood symptoms was identified. Epilepsy-related factors indicating a more severe form of epilepsy were associated with neuropsychiatric comorbidity as was the presence of ID as compared to those without ID in patients with epilepsy, although this should be validated in future research. A large proportion of the studies in this area is associated with a substantial risk of bias. There is a need for high quality studies using standardized methods to enable clear conclusions to be drawn that might assist in improving the quality of care for this population. PMID:27206231

  6. Diagnosing the Prominence-Cavity Connection in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.

    The energetic equilibrium of the corona is described by a balance of heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. Prominences can be described by the thermal instability of coronal energy balance which leads to the formation of cool condensations. Observationally, the prominence is surrounded by a density depleted elliptical structure known as a cavity. In this dissertation, we use extreme ultraviolet remote sensing observations of the prominence-cavity system to diagnose the static and dynamic properties of these structures. The observations are compared with numerical models for the time-dependent coronal condensation process and the time-independent corona-prominence magnetic field. To diagnose the density of the cavity, we construct a three-dimensional structural model of the corona. This structural model allows us to synthesize extreme ultraviolet emission in the corona in a way that incorporates the projection effects which arise from the optically thin plasma. This forward model technique is used to constrain a radial density profile simultaneously in the cavity and the streamer. We use a χ2 minimization to find the density model which best matches a density sensitive line ratio (observed with Hinode/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) and the white light scattered intensity (observed with Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MK4 coronagraph). We use extreme ultraviolet spectra and spectral images to diagnose the dynamics of the prominence and the surrounding corona. Based on the doppler shift of extreme ultraviolet coronal emission lines, we find that there are large regions of flowing plasma which appear to occur within cavities. These line of sight flows have speeds of 10 km/s-1 and projected spatial scales of 100 Mm. Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) dataset, we observe dynamic emission from the prominence-cavity system. The SDO/AIA dataset observes multiple spectral bandpasses with different temperature

  7. BrainSeq: Neurogenomics to Drive Novel Target Discovery for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    2015-12-16

    We outline an ambitious project to characterize the genetic and epigenetic regulation of multiple facets of transcription in distinct brain regions across the human lifespan in samples of major neuropsychiatric disorders and controls. Initially focused on schizophrenia and mood disorders, the goal of this consortium is to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of genetic associations with the goal of identifying novel therapeutic targets. The consortium currently consists of seven pharmaceutical companies and a not-for-profit medical research institution working as a precompetitive team to generate and analyze publicly available archival brain genomic data related to neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:26687217

  8. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  9. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. Further Validation of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, J. Paige; Hall, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine select psychometric properties of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale (CIPS), including the reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. Coaches (N = 338) who averaged 37 (SD = 12.27) years of age, had a mean of 13 (SD = 9.90) years of coaching experience,…

  11. Controlling the Dynamics of Laboratory Simulations of Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, P. M.; Hansen, J. F.

    2000-05-01

    Solar prominence eruptions have been simulated in the laboratory using a magnetized plasma gun. Still photographs obtained from two high-speed cameras in a stereographic configuration have been combined to make three-dimensional movies of the evolution of the plasma. The plasmas resemble actual solar prominences, and evolve in a reproducible sequence through three stages. First, initial breakdown forms a main current channel consisting of several filaments. Second, the filaments twist around each other. Third, the entire plasma takes on a helical structure and expands outward. The three-dimensional structure of the plasma has a chirality consistent with the sign of the injected helicity. Plasma behavior has been investigated using various boundary conditions. Most recently, coils generating a vacuum magnetic field straddling the plasma loop have been constructed. Experiments in this configuration show that the vacuum magnetic field delays the eruption of the prominence, as well as limiting the lateral bulging of the plasma loop. The arched flux tube has a minor radius of 5-15 mm and spans 12 cm between footpoints. The major radius is initially 6 cm and then increases to several times this value as the simulated prominence erupts. Typical maximum plasma currents are 60 kA and typical magnetic fields are 1-5 kG. The duration of the experiment is about 7 microseconds. The experiment takes place in a 1.4 m diameter, 2 m long vacuum chamber and uses hydrogen gas.

  12. Polarimetric measurements in prominences and "tornadoe" observed by THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; López Ariste, Arturo; Levens, Peter; Labrosse, Nicolas; Dalmasse, Kévin

    2015-10-01

    Since 2013, coordinated campaigns with the THEMIS spectropolarimeter in Tenerife and other instruments (space based: Hinode/SOT, IRIS or ground based: Sac Peak, Meudon) are organized to observe prominences. THEMIS records spectropolarimetry at the He I D3 and we use the PCA inversion technique to derive their field strength, inclination and azimuth.

  13. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  14. BENZODIAZEPINES FOR PROMINENT AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS: A REPORT AND HYPOTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    1995-01-01

    A case is reported of diazepam - induced amelioration of prominent auditory hallucinations experienced by a female paranoid schizophrenic. With the assumption that subvocal speech may be primary to such hallucinations, it is proposed that diazepam may have acted by exerting a relaxant effect on speech musculature. This is a hypothesis testable in future research. PMID:21743715

  15. Patterns of Flows in an Intermediate Prominence Observed by Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-09-01

    The investigation of plasma flows in filaments/prominences gives us clues to understanding their magnetic structures. We studied the patterns of flows in an intermediate prominence observed by Hinode/SOT. By examining a time series of Hα images and Ca II H images, we have found horizontal flows in the spine and vertical flows in the barb. Both of these flows have a characteristic speed of 10-20 km s-1. The horizontal flows displayed counterstreaming. Our detailed investigation revealed that most of the moving fragments in fact reversed direction at the end point of the spine near a footpoint close to the associated active region. These returning flows may be one possible explanation of the well-known counterstreaming flows in prominences. In contrast, we have found vertical flows—downward and upward—in the barb. Most of the horizontal flows in the spine seem to switch into vertical flows when they approach the barb, and vice versa. We propose that the net force resulting from a small deviation from magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where magnetic fields are predominantly horizontal, may drive these patterns of flow. In the prominence studied here, the supposed magnetohydrostatic configuration is characterized by magnetic field lines sagging with angles of 13° and 39° in the spine and the barb, respectively.

  16. Exaltation in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropsychiatric symptom or portal to the divine?

    PubMed

    McCrae, Niall; Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    Religiosity is a prominent feature of the Geschwind syndrome, a behavioural pattern found in some cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Since the 1950s, when Wilder Penfield induced spiritual feelings by experimental manipulation of the temporal lobes, development of brain imaging technology has revealed neural correlates of intense emotional states, spurring the growth of neurotheology. In their secular empiricism, psychiatry, neurology and psychology are inclined to pathologise deviant religious expression, thereby reinforcing the dualism of objective and phenomenal worlds. Considering theological perspectives and the idea of cosmic consciousness, the authors urge a holistic approach to the spiritual events of epileptic aura, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of the mind and its transcendent potential. PMID:25017116

  17. The Double Helix Takes the Witness Stand: Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Genetics in Court

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments—but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse. PMID:24908480

  18. Improving post-intensive care unit neuropsychiatric outcomes: understanding cognitive effects of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Suchyta, Mary R; Farrer, Thomas J; Needham, Dale

    2012-12-15

    Critical illness and its treatment often result in long-term neuropsychiatric morbidities. Consequently, there is a need to focus on means to prevent or ameliorate these morbidities. Animal models provide important data regarding the neurobiological effects of physical activity, including angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and release of neurotrophic factors that enhance plasticity. Studies in noncritically ill patients demonstrate that exercise is associated with increased cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and brain volume, which are associated with improved cognition. Clinically, research in both healthy and diseased human subjects suggests that exercise improves neuropsychiatric outcomes. In the critical care setting, early physical rehabilitation and mobilization are safe and feasible, with demonstrated improvements in physical functional outcomes. Such activity may also reduce the duration of delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) and improve neuropsychiatric outcomes, although data are limited. Barriers exist regarding implementing ICU rehabilitation in routine care, including use of sedatives and lack of awareness of post-ICU cognitive impairments. Further research is necessary to determine whether prior animal and human research, in conjunction with preliminary results from existing ICU studies, can translate into improvements for neuropsychiatric outcomes in critically ill patients. Studies are needed to evaluate biological mechanisms, risk factors, the role of pre-ICU functional level, and the timing, duration, and type of physical activity for optimal patient outcomes. PMID:23065013

  19. Spontaneous brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging as a potential biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Kun; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Song, Sonya W.

    2010-01-01

    As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have yielded increasing amounts of information about the brain’s spontaneous activity, they have revealed fMRI’s potential to locate changes in brain hemodynamics that are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review studies that support the notion that changes in brain spontaneous activity observed by fMRI can be used as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment evaluation in neuropsychiatric disorders. We first review the methods used to study spontaneous activity from the perspectives of (1) the properties of local spontaneous activity, (2) the spatial pattern of spontaneous activity, and (3) the topological properties of brain networks. We also summarize the major findings associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders obtained using these methods. Then we review the pilot studies that have used spontaneous activity to discriminate patients from normal controls. Finally, we discuss current challenges and potential research directions to further elucidate the clinical use of spontaneous brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22132039

  20. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group a streptococcal infection: the role of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Pavone, P; Rapisarda, V; Serra, A; Nicita, F; Spalice, A; Parano, E; Rizzo, R; Maiolino, L; Di Mauro, P; Vitaliti, G; Coco, A; Falsaperla, A; Trifiletti, R R; Cocuzza, S

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS) is a well-defined syndrome in which tics (motor and/or vocal) and/or obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) consistently exacerbate in temporal correlation to a Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. In children with PANDAS, there is speculation about whether tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy might improve the neuropsychiatric course. Our objective was to examine whether such surgery impacted remission or, in patients without remission, modified clinical course of the disease, streptococcal antibody titers, neuronal antibodies or clinical severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and/or tics. Study participants (n = 120) with positive PANDAS criteria were recruited, examined, and divided into surgical or non-surgery groups. The surgical group consisted of children with tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy (n=56). The remaining children were categorized as non-surgery (n=64). Clinical follow-up was made every 2 months for more than 2 years. Surgery did not affect symptomatology progression, streptococcal and neuronal antibodies, or the clinical severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms in these children. In conclusion, in our series clinical progression, antibody production, and neuropsychiatric symptom severity did not differ on the basis of surgical status. We cannot uphold surgical management as likely to impact positive remission rates, course of OCD/tics, or antibody concentrations in children with PANDAS. PMID:25280028

  1. Paedatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection in an Indian Adolescent--A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sachin; Vaish, Supriya; Chopra, Saurabh; Singh, Vindyaprakash; Sharma, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a unique constellation of signs and symptoms that exist in a subset of children with rapid onset or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorders due to an initial autoimmune reaction to a Group A Beta Hemolytic…

  2. Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection: A Case-Control Study among Privately Insured Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Douglas L.; Kozma, Laura; Martin, Andres; Landeros, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; King, Robert A.; Leckman, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The link between streptococcal infections and the onset of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders is studied using a national sample of privately insured children. Findings suggest that patients with new-onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome or tic orders were more likely to have been diagnosed with streptococcal infections in…

  3. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-05-01

    INTRODUCTION : There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS : A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. RESULTS : Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457-1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168-3739 per DALY adverted). CONCLUSION : This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. PMID:26491060

  4. Genetics and Epigenetics of Circadian Rhythms and Their Potential Roles in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyu; Chung, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms alterations have been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly sleep-wake disorders, addiction, and anxiety and mood disorders. Circadian rhythms are known to be maintained by a set of classic clock genes that form complex mutual and self regulatory loops. While many other genes showing rhythmic expression have been identified through genome-wide studies, their roles in the circadian regulation remain largely unknown. In attempts to directly connect circadian rhythms and neuropsychiatric disorders, genetic studies have identified genes with mutations associated with several rare forms of sleep disorders or sleep-related traits. Other than that, genetic studies of circadian genes in psychiatric disorders have yielded limited success. As important mediator of environmental factors and regulators of circadian rhythms, the epigenetic system may hold the key to the etiology or pathology of psychiatric disorders, their subtypes or endophenotypes. Epigenomic regulations of the circadian system and its related changes have not been thoroughly explored in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. We argue for systematic investigation of the circadian system, particularly epigenetic regulation, and its involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders, to improve our understanding of human behavior and disease etiology. PMID:25652815

  5. Neuropsychiatric effects of neurodegeneration of the medial versus lateral ventral prefrontal cortex in humans.

    PubMed

    Huey, Edward D; Lee, Seonjoo; Brickman, Adam M; Manoochehri, Masood; Griffith, Erica; Devanand, D P; Stern, Yaakov; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-12-01

    Animal evidence suggests that a brain network involving the medial and rostral ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central for threat response and arousal and a network involving the lateral and caudal PFC plays an important role in reward learning and behavioral control. In this study, we contrasted the neuropsychiatric effects of degeneration of the medial versus lateral PFC in 43 patients with Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 11 patients with Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) using MRI, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the Sorting, Tower, Twenty Questions, and Fluency tests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Deviations in MRI grey matter volume from 86 age-matched healthy control subjects were determined for the patients using FreeSurfer. Multivariate regression was used to determine which brain areas were associated with specific neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Decreased grey matter volume of the right medial ventral PFC was associated with increased anxiety and apathy, decreased volume of the right lateral ventral PFC with apathy and inappropriate repetitive behaviors, and of the left lateral ventral PFC with poor performance on the sorting and Twenty Questions task in patients with FTD and CBS. Similar to in animal studies, damage to the medial OFC appears to be associated with a disruption of arousal, and damage to the lateral OFC appears to be associated with deficits in trial-and-error learning and behavioral dysregulation. Studies of brain dysfunction in humans are valuable to bridge animal and human neuropsychiatric research. PMID:26343341

  6. Annual Research Review: The Promise of Stem Cell Research for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccarino, Flora M.; Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Stevens, Hanna E.; Szekely, Anna; Abyzov, Alexej; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    The study of the developing brain has begun to shed light on the underpinnings of both early and adult onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging of the human brain across developmental time points and the use of model animal systems have combined to reveal brain systems and gene products that may play a role in autism spectrum disorders,…

  7. The double helix takes the witness stand: behavioral and neuropsychiatric genetics in court.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-06-01

    Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments-but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse. PMID:24908480

  8. Can patients without early, prominent visual deficits still be diagnosed of posterior cortical atrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-González, A.; Crutch, S.J.; Roldán Lora, F.; Franco-Macías, E.; Gil-Néciga, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early and progressive disabling visual impairment is a core feature for the diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However, some individuals that fulfil criteria over time might initially present with an onset of prominent posterior dysfunction other than visuoperceptual. Methods The clinical profile of five patients with a predominantly ‘non-visual’ posterior presentation (PCA2) was investigated and compared with sixteen individuals with visually predominant PCA (PCA1) and eighteen with typical amnestic Alzheimer disease (tAD). Results PCA2 patients showed significantly better performance than PCA1 in one visuospatial task and were free of Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Compared to tAD, PCA2 showed trends towards significantly lower performance in visuoperceptual tasks, more severe apraxia and more symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome. Conclusions Our sample of PCA2 patients did not present with clinically prominent visual symptoms but did show visual dysfunction on formal neuropsychological assessment (less pronounced than in PCA1 but more than in tAD) in addition to other posterior deficits. Broadening the definition of PCA to encompass individuals presenting with prominent ‘non-visual’ posterior dysfunction should be potentially considered in clinical and research contexts. PMID:27423559

  9. A clinical classification acknowledging neuropsychiatric and cognitive impairment in Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Involuntary movements, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment are all part of the symptom triad in Huntington’s disease (HD). Despite the fact that neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline may be early manifestations of HD, the clinical diagnosis is conventionally based on the presence of involuntary movements and a positive genetic test for the HD CAG repeat expansion. After investigating the frequencies of the triad manifestations in a large outpatient clinical cohort of HD gene-expansion carriers, we propose a new clinical classification. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 107 gene-expansion carriers from a Danish outpatient clinic were recruited. All participants underwent neurological examination, psychiatric evaluation and neuropsychological testing. Participants were categorised according to motor symptoms, neuropsychiatric symptoms, the use of psychotropic medication, and cognitive impairment. Results Among the motor manifest HD gene-expansion carriers, 51.8% presented with the full symptom triad, 25.0% were defined as cognitively impaired in addition to motor symptoms, and 14.3% had neuropsychiatric symptoms along with motor symptoms. Only 8.9% had isolated motor symptoms. Among gene-expansion carriers without motor symptoms, 39.2% had neuropsychiatric symptoms, were cognitively impaired, or had a combination of the two. Conclusion This is the first study to report the frequencies of both motor symptoms, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in HD gene-expansion carriers in a national outpatient HD clinical cohort. We found that almost 40% of the gene-expansion carriers without motor symptoms had either neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment or both, emphasising that these patients are not premanifest in psychiatric and cognitive terms, suggesting that the current clinical classification is neither necessarily suitable nor helpful for this patient group. Some premanifest gene-expansion carriers

  10. Prominence oscillations: Effect of a time-dependent background temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Small amplitude oscillations in prominences have been known about for a long time, and from a theoretical point of view, these oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing or propagating linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In general, these oscillations were studied by producing small perturbations in a background equilibrium with stationary physical properties. Aims: Taking into account that prominences are dynamic plasma structures, the assumption of a stationary equilibrium is not realistic. Therefore, our main aim is to study the effects produced by a non-stationary background on slow MHD waves, which could be responsible for prominence oscillations. Methods: Assuming that the radiation term is proportional to temperature and constant external heating, we have derived an expression for the temporal variation of the background temperature, which depends on the imbalance between heating and cooling processes. Furthermore, radiative losses, together with parallel thermal conduction, have also been included as damping mechanisms for the waves. Results: As temperature increases with time, the period of slow waves decreases and the amplitude of the velocity perturbations is damped. The inclusion of radiative losses enhances the damping. As temperature decreases with time, the period of slow waves increases and the amplitude of velocity perturbations grows while, as expected, the inclusion of radiative losses contributes to the damping of oscillations. Conclusions: There is observational evidence that, in different locations of the same prominence, oscillations are damped or amplified with time. This temporal damping or amplification can be obtained by a proper combination of a variable background temperature, together with radiative damping. Furthermore, decayless oscillations can also be obtained with an appropriate choice of the characteristic radiation time.

  11. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s‑1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  12. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, CENTER LEFT; STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF THE STEEL ORE BIN; AND THE BAKER COOLER, LOWER RIGHT. THESE MACHINES AND OTHERS IN THE AREA WERE PART OF THE UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT. THE ROASTER IS OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT (EAST). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  14. Latent classes of neuropsychiatric symptoms in NACC controls and conversion to MCI or dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Forrester, Sarah N.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have linked neuropsychiatric symptoms to increase risk of dementia. Objective To determine if risk of conversion to mild cognitive impairment or dementia among healthy controls varied as a function of their pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Method We studied individuals in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center dataset collected from 34 Alzheimer Disease Centers between 2005 and 2013. The analysis included 4,517 volunteers who were ≥ 60 years old, cognitively normal, and had complete Neuropsychiatric Inventory data at their baseline visit, and had at least one follow-up. We used latent class analysis to identify 4 classes based on patterns of NPI symptoms. We used a cox proportional hazards model to determine if time to MCI or dementia varied by baseline latent class membership. Results We identified 4 latent classes of neuropsychiatric symptoms: irritable, depressed, complex (depression, apathy, irritability and nighttime behaviors) and asymptomatic. 873 participants converted to MCI or dementia. Hazard ratios for conversion by class were 1.76 (95% CI: 1.34, 2.33) for the irritable class, 3.20 (95% CI: 2.24, 4.58) for the complex class, and 1.90 (95% CI: 1.49, 2.43) for the depressed class, with the asymptomatic class as the reference. Conclusions Membership in all 3 symptomatic classes was associated with greater risk of conversion to MCI or dementia; the complex class had the greatest risk. Different patterns of neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent different underlying neuropathological pathways to dementia. Further work imaging and pathology research is necessary to determine if this is the case. PMID:26402012

  15. Brain MRI in neuropsychiatric lupus: associations with the 1999 ACR case definitions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Woong; Her, Minyoung; Bae, Jong Seok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Dongyook; Park, Nayoung; Chung, Won Tae; Lee, Sang Yeob; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, In Joo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and to investigate the association between MRI findings and neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE. Brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE from 2002 to 2013 from three tertiary university hospitals were screened. All clinical manifestations evaluated by brain MRI were retrospectively reviewed. If the clinical manifestations were compatible with the 1999 NPSLE American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions, the brain MRIs were assessed for the presence of white matter hyperintensities, gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, atrophy, enhancement, and abnormalities in diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The number, size, and location of each lesion were evaluated. The neuropsychiatric manifestation of each brain MRI was classified according to the 1999 ACR NPSLE case definitions. The associations between MRI findings and NPSLE manifestations were examined. In total, 219 brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE were screened, and 133 brain MRIs met the inclusion criteria for NPSLE. The most common MRI abnormality was white matter hyperintensities, which were observed in 76 MRIs (57.1 %). Gray matter hyperintensities were observed in 41 MRIs (30.8 %). Parenchymal defects were found in 31 MRIs (23.3 %), and atrophy was detected in 20 MRIs (15.0 %). Patients who had seizures were more associated with gray matter hyperintensities than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were more associated with gray matter hyperintensity, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. In addition to white matter hyperintensities, which were previously known as SLE findings, we also noted the presence of gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI in a substantial portion of SLE

  16. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.

  17. Twisting, Rolling Motions, and Helicity in Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas A.; McCauley, Patrick; Su, Yingna

    2015-04-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. Mass motions in prominence eruptions tend to be complicated and characterizing these motions is a challenge. We use the AIA filament eruption catalog [3] as a source for finding events. If rolling motions are detected then we will investigate the handedness prediction. We use magnetograms from HMI to determine the strength and asymmetric properties of the photospheric magnetic field in the regions of interest and will use AIA observations to determine the handedness of the rolling motions. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness to determine if there is a relationship between the two. We also determine the chirality of the prominences to see if there is any interesting relationship to the twist, rolling motion and/or handedness of the roll.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)[3] http://aia.cfa.harvard.edu/filament/

  18. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  19. [The Sotos syndrome. Clinical and neuropsychiatric considerations in 1 case].

    PubMed

    Trizio, M; Intino, M T; Lanzi, C; Krajewska, G; Perniola, T

    1983-01-01

    A case of Sotos' syndrome or cerebral gigantism is described. The main clinical features of this syndrome are macrocrania, accelerated skeleton maturation and somatic development, cranio-facial dysmorfism, psychomotor retardation in 80% of the cases. Less frequently other skeleton abnormalities associated with neurological and/or endocrinological disorders are reported. In our patient the typical features of the syndrome are accompanied by several neurological signs (mental retardtion, strabism, hypothonia, motor impairment, seizures, CT scan abnormalities) and ophtalmological changes as optic disk pallor. The above mentioned range of symptoms should be considered as a direct consequence of the primary defect which characterizes the Sotos' syndrome. In our case the cerebral nervous system seems to be more specifically involved. Besides, important behavioural difficulties have emerged with regard to the double relation mother-daughter and in the familiar environment as well. For this reason we emphasize the necessity of evaluating and clearing up all problems which often arise in connection with various pathological conditions in childhood. This should be done in order to grant the families an appropriate support. PMID:6680796

  20. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  1. Formation and Evolution of a Multi-Threaded Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, M.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the process of formation and subsequent evolution of prominence plasma in a filament channel and its overlying arcade. We construct a three-dimensional time-dependent model of a filament-channel prominence suitable to be compared with observations. We combine this magnetic field structure with one-dimensional independent simulations of many flux tubes. The magnetic structure is a three-dimensional sheared double arcade, and the thermal non-equilibrium process governs the plasma evolution. We have found that the condensations in the corona can be divided into two populations: threads and blobs. Threads are massive condensations that linger in the field line dips. Blobs are ubiquitous small condensations that are produced throughout the filament and overlying arcade magnetic structure, and rapidly fall to the chromosphere. The total prominence mass is in agreement with observations. The threads are the principal contributors to the total mass, whereas the blob contribution is small. The motion of the threads is basically horizontal, while blobs move in all directions along the field. The peak velocities for both populations are comparable, but there is a weak tendency for the velocity to increase with the inclination, and the blobs with motion near vertical have the largest values of the velocity. We have generated synthetic images of the whole structure in an H proxy and in two EUV channels of the AIA instrument aboard SDO. These images show the plasma at cool, warm and hot temperatures. The theoretical differential emission measure of our system agrees very well with observations in the temperature range log T = 4.6-5.7. We conclude that the sheared-arcade magnetic structure and plasma dynamics fit well the abundant observational evidence.

  2. Prominent follicular mucinosis with diffuse scalp alopecia resembling alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Missall, Tricia A; Hurley, M Yadira; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2013-10-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of alopecia. On examination, she had diffuse hair loss of her scalp with some discrete patches of nonscarring alopecia. Histopathology revealed an inflammatory nonscarring alopecia with prominent follicular mucinosis and findings suggestive of alopecia areata. The patient's alopecia completely resolved with oral prednisone. The histopathologic findings and clinical presentation are most consistent with a diagnosis of alopecia areata with follicular mucinosis, although the differential diagnosis is broad. As follicular mucinosis may be associated with both benign and malignant conditions, it is important to be cautious regarding the clinical diagnosis when this reaction pattern is observed histopathologically. PMID:23962142

  3. Model comparison for the density structure along solar prominence threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, I.; Soler, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Quiescent solar prominence fine structures are typically modelled as density enhancements, called threads, which occupy a fraction of a longer magnetic flux tube. This is justified from the spatial distribution of the imaged plasma emission or absorption of prominences at small spatial scales. The profile of the mass density along the magnetic field is unknown, however, and several arbitrary alternatives are employed in prominence wave studies. The identification and measurement of period ratios from multiple harmonics in standing transverse thread oscillations offer a remote diagnostics method to probe the density variation of these structures. Aims: We present a comparison of theoretical models for the field-aligned density along prominence fine structures. They aim to imitate density distributions in which the plasma is more or less concentrated around the centre of the magnetic flux tube. We consider Lorentzian, Gaussian, and parabolic profiles. We compare theoretical predictions based on these profiles for the period ratio between the fundamental transverse kink mode and the first overtone to obtain estimates for the density ratios between the central part of the tube and its foot-points and to assess which one would better explain observed period ratio data. Methods: Bayesian parameter inference and model comparison techniques were developed and applied. To infer the parameters, we computed the posterior distribution for the density gradient parameter that depends on the observable period ratio. The model comparison involved computing the marginal likelihood as a function of the period ratio to obtain the plausibility of each density model as a function of the observable. We also computed the Bayes factors to quantify the relative evidence for each model, given a period ratio observation. Results: A Lorentzian density profile, with plasma density concentrated around the centre of the tube, seems to offer the most plausible inversion result. A

  4. Prominent Eustachian Valve in Newborns: A Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ashraf; Mannan, Javed; Chhabra, Manoj; Zhang, Xi Xiao Yang; Narula, Pramod; Hoang, Danthanh

    2015-01-01

    The Eustachian valve (EV) is an embryological remnant of the inferior vena cava that during fetal life helps divert oxygenated blood from the IVC toward the foramen ovale to escape the pulmonary circulation. This remnant usually regresses after birth and is considered a benign finding in the majority of cases. However, EV can lead to complications in the neonatal period or later in life. In this short case series, we present four newborn infants with prominent EV who were symptomatic after birth and required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26929867

  5. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  6. Pattern of MRI brain in neuro-psychiatric SLE. Effect of anti-phospholipid antibodies: A study at a tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Khalid; Al-Arfaj, Abdul Rahman Saud; Hamdani, Muhammad Afzal; Naseeb, Faisal; Daif, Abdulkader; Hussain, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the neuro-radiologic findings in Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in different neuro-psychiatric manifestations. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was carried out at King Khalid University Hospital, a tertiary care teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2012 to January 2015. Ninety seven SLE patients with neuro-psychiatric manifestations were included in the study and divided into two groups. Group I (50 patients) SLE with aPL and group II (47 patients) SLE without aPL. We compared Demographic features, clinical manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain findings. Results: Demographic and clinical characteristics of two groups were similar. In Group-I, anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were most common (86%). In patients with headache, most of the patients in Group-I had white matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) (50% vs 27%) while most of the patients in Group-II had normal MRI brain (38% vs 73%). Similarly WMHIs were found more in Group-I patients with seizures (60% vs 21%), while ischemia/infarction, atrophy and normal MRI were found in Group-II. MRI brain in patients with neurological deficit and psychiatric disorder were not much different in both the groups. Conclusion: We found no statistically significant differences in frequencies of MRI brain abnormalities in SLE patients with and without aPL antibodies. Each of the three aPL may have a variable effect on the brain. PMID:26649010

  7. Hinode SOT Observations of Solar Quiescent Prominence Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Slater, Gregory L.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Tsuneta, Saku; Lites, Bruce W.; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2008-03-01

    We report findings from multihour 0.2'' resolution movies of solar quiescent prominences (QPs) observed with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Hinode satellite. The observations verify previous findings of filamentary downflows and vortices in QPs. SOT observations also verify large-scale transverse oscillations in QPs, with periods of 20-40 minutes and amplitudes of 2-5 Mm. The upward propagation speed of several waves is found to be ~10 km s-1, comparable to the sound speed of a 10,000 K plasma, implying that the waves are magnetoacoustic in origin. Most significantly, Hinode SOT observations reveal that dark, episodic upflows are common in QPs. The upflows are 170-700 km in width, exhibit turbulent flow, and rise with approximately constant speeds of ~20 km s-1 from the base of the prominence to heights of ~10-20 Mm. The upflows are visible in both the Ca II H-line and Hα bandpasses of SOT. The new flows are seen in about half of the QPs observed by SOT to date. The dark upflows resemble buoyant starting plumes in both their velocity profile and flow structure. We discuss thermal and magnetic mechanisms as possible causes of the plumes.

  8. Rolling Motions During Solar Prominence Eruptions in Asymmetric Magnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold; McCauley, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. We will present initial results of our work to investigate this prediction. To determine the strength and any asymmetric properties of the magnetic field in the regions of interest in the photosphere, we use magnetograms from HMI. We use AIA observations to determine if there is any rolling motion and, if so, what handedness the rolling motions have. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness information to determine if there is any relationship between the two. Finally, we will discuss prospects for diagnosing rolling motions of erupting prominence using off-limb IRIS observations.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)

  9. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OBSERVATIONS OF HOT PROMINENCE SHROUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Scholl, I.; Druckmueller, M.; Rusin, V.; Daw, A.; Johnson, J.; Arndt, M.

    2010-08-20

    Using observations of the corona taken during the total solar eclipses of 2006 March 29 and 2008 August 1 in broadband white light and in narrow bandpass filters centered at Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, and Fe XIV 530.3 nm, we show that prominences observed off the solar limb are enshrouded in hot plasmas within twisted magnetic structures. These shrouds, which are commonly referred to as cavities in the literature, are clearly distinct from the overlying arch-like structures that form the base of streamers. The existence of these hot shrouds had been predicted by model studies dating back to the early 1970s, with more recent studies implying their association with twisted magnetic flux ropes. The eclipse observations presented here, which cover a temperature range of 0.9 to 2 x10{sup 6} K, are the first to resolve the long-standing ambiguity associated with the temperature and magnetic structure of prominence cavities.

  10. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  11. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  12. The Significance of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Akansha; Roberto, Aaron J; Mohan, Abhishek; Lorenzo, Aileen; Jones, Kathryn; Carney, Martin J; Liogier-Weyback, Luis; Hwang, Soonjo; Lapidus, Kyle A B

    2016-03-01

    The relationship of cortical structure and specific neuronal circuitry to global brain function, particularly its perturbations related to the development and progression of neuropathology, is an area of great interest in neurobehavioral science. Disruption of these neural networks can be associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Herein we review activity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - TLE), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders. We discuss the implications of DMN disruptions and their relationship to the neurocognitive model of each disease entity, the utility of DMN assessment in clinical evaluation, and the changes of the DMN following treatment. PMID:27505016

  13. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an overview.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303

  14. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an overview

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303

  15. Frédéric Chopin and his neuropsychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Karenberg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Few musicians who suffered from any kind of serious neuropsychiatric problems were able to create works that are still admired today. This new research will show that Frédéric Chopin, who reinvented piano music in the first half of the nineteenth century, was one of those few. He died in Paris aged only 39. While the somatic illness that killed him continues to generate speculation, his recurrent depressive mood swings have remained largely unexamined. A few neuropsychiatric publications make a simplistic effort to assign his emotional condition to a modern diagnostic category, e.g., temporal lobe epilepsy. Because it is impossible to prove such hypotheses, these studies are nothing more than erudite speculation. This chapter will instead incorporate the cultural and medical context of the first half of the nineteenth century in order to explore new possibilities for medical biographies of musicians. PMID:25684299

  16. A review of trials investigating efavirenz-induced neuropsychiatric side effects and the implications.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Razia; Truter, Ilse; Grobler, Christoffel; Kotze, Theunis; Godman, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Efavirenz is part of the first-line treatment for HIV patients including those in South Africa with approximately 50% experiencing neuropsychiatric side effects. A systematic review of papers reporting neuropsychiatric side effects with efavirenz published between January 2001 and December 2014 was performed, to provide guidance. 13 articles were reviewed. Patient ages ranged between 37 to 41 years, with a high percentage males. Scales used to measure incidence and severity of side effects were varied; with disease severity or stage not reported. Patients with psychoses were excluded. Most commonly reported side effects were a reduction in sleep quality, depression, dizziness and anxiety. These were generally mild and not warranting discontinuation of efavirenz. It is difficult to directly compare the studies. Standardised methods need to be introduced and all patient groups represented including the elderly, children, patients with active symptomatic illness and more women especially among the African population. PMID:26900637

  17. A Comprehensive Rehabilitation Approach in a Patient With Serious Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) involves the central and peripheral nervous system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is essential to specify the problems faced by patients with NPSLE because it causes diverse disabilities and impairs quality of life. After performing a comprehensive evaluation, tailored management should be provided for the patient's specific problems. We report here the case of a 30-year-old female with SLE who experienced serious neuropsychiatric symptoms cerebral infarction followed by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and peripheral polyneuropathy. We systemically assessed the patient using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model as a clinical problem-solving tool and provided comprehensive rehabilitation by focusing on her problems. PMID:27606283

  18. Role of Borna disease virus in neuropsychiatric illnesses: are we inching closer?

    PubMed

    Thakur, R; Sarma, S; Sharma, B

    2009-01-01

    The biological cause of psychiatric illnesses continues to be under intense scrutiny. Among the various neurotropic viruses, Borna disease virus (BDV) is another virus that preferentially targets the neurons of the limbic system and has been shown to be associated with behavioural abnormalities. Presence of various BDV markers, including viral RNA, in patients with affective and mood disorders have triggered ongoing debate worldwide regarding its aetiopathogenic relationship. This article analyses its current state of knowledge and recent advances in diagnosis in order to prove or refute the association of BDV in causation of human neuropsychiatric disorders. This emerging viral causative association of behavioural disorders, which seems to be inching closer, has implication not only for a paradigm shift in the treatment and management of neuropsychiatric illnesses but also has an important impact on the public health systems. PMID:19584498

  19. Targeting Glia Cells: Novel Perspectives for the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, B; Rupprecht, R

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are devastating mental illnesses with a high economic burden. The additional morbidity associated with social issues that arises along with the course of these diseases increases the need for a clear understanding of their etiopathogenesis to allow an implementation of novel pharmacological strategies. Yet a poor knowledge about interactions occurring at the glia-neuron interface in health and disease still hampers innovative discoveries, despite the fact that glia cells have been long described to actively participate in the regulation of brain circuits. The purpose of this review was to collect the scattered literature on the involvement of glia cells in neuropsychiatric disorders and to describe how also these cells besides neurons might be responsive to current pharmacological interventions. We hope thereby to offer alternative approaches for investigations that may open avenues to search for new potential targets for drug discovery. PMID:23997752

  20. The Significance of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Akansha; Roberto, Aaron J.; Mohan, Abhishek; Lorenzo, Aileen; Jones, Kathryn; Carney, Martin J.; Liogier-Weyback, Luis; Hwang, Soonjo; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of cortical structure and specific neuronal circuitry to global brain function, particularly its perturbations related to the development and progression of neuropathology, is an area of great interest in neurobehavioral science. Disruption of these neural networks can be associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Herein we review activity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - TLE), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders. We discuss the implications of DMN disruptions and their relationship to the neurocognitive model of each disease entity, the utility of DMN assessment in clinical evaluation, and the changes of the DMN following treatment.

  1. A Comprehensive Rehabilitation Approach in a Patient With Serious Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yong Jae; Lee, Yang Gyun; Park, Ji Woong; Ahn, Sung Ho; Kwak, Jin Myoung; Choi, Yoon-Hee

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) involves the central and peripheral nervous system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is essential to specify the problems faced by patients with NPSLE because it causes diverse disabilities and impairs quality of life. After performing a comprehensive evaluation, tailored management should be provided for the patient's specific problems. We report here the case of a 30-year-old female with SLE who experienced serious neuropsychiatric symptoms cerebral infarction followed by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and peripheral polyneuropathy. We systemically assessed the patient using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model as a clinical problem-solving tool and provided comprehensive rehabilitation by focusing on her problems. PMID:27606283

  2. Psychotic Symptoms in a Child with Long Standing SLE Nephritis: Neuropsychiatric Manifestation or Sequelae to Lupus?

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Ananya; Sharma, Pawan; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, which affects multiple organ systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Though not common, childhood onset SLE is a known and established entity. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in childhood onset SLE. Of these, psychosis and behavioural symptoms are relatively rare, and there is no consensus on the proper treatment of such cases. We report a case of 13-year-old boy, diagnosed with lupus nephritis, and presented with psychosis and behavioural symptoms. The highlight of this case is that the psychiatric symptoms were present despite the primary illness being quiescent. Thus, the patient was treated with Olanzapine and lorazepam, while continuing immunosuppressive therapy as previously. Also, MRI brain revealed vasculitic changes in the right hemisphere, which might be one of the etiological factors playing role in the development of these neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:27274749

  3. What can rodent models tell us about apathy and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Magnard, R; Vachez, Y; Carcenac, C; Krack, P; David, O; Savasta, M; Boulet, S; Carnicella, S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to classical motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display incapacitating neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as apathy, anhedonia, depression and anxiety. These hitherto generally neglected non-motor symptoms, have gained increasing interest in medical and scientific communities over the last decade because of the extent of their negative impact on PD patients' quality of life. Although recent clinical and functional imaging studies have provided useful information, the pathophysiology of apathy and associated affective impairments remains elusive. Our aim in this review is to summarize and discuss recent advances in the development of rodent models of PD-related neuropsychiatric symptoms using neurotoxin lesion-based approaches. The data collected suggest that bilateral and partial lesions of the nigrostriatal system aimed at inducing reliable neuropsychiatric-like deficits while avoiding severe motor impairments that may interfere with behavioral evaluation, is a more selective and efficient strategy than medial forebrain bundle lesions. Moreover, of all the different classes of pharmacological agents, D2/D3 receptor agonists such as pramipexole appear to be the most efficient treatment for the wide range of behavioral deficits induced by dopaminergic lesions. Lesion-based rodent models, therefore, appear to be relevant tools for studying the pathophysiology of the non-motor symptoms of PD. Data accumulated so far confirm the causative role of dopaminergic depletion, especially in the nigrostriatal system, in the development of behavioral impairments related to apathy, depression and anxiety. They also put forward D2/D3 receptors as potential targets for the treatment of such neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD. PMID:26954980

  4. Trial design innovations: Clinical trials for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J; Zhong, K

    2015-11-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent progress has been made with clinical trials, advancing new therapies for psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD), agitation in AD, and apathy in AD. Definitions have emerged for agitation and apathy in patients with cognitive impairment, facilitating recruitment of clinical trial populations. Progress in clinical trial design and the agents being assessed promise to advance therapies for disabling symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and caregivers. PMID:26206713

  5. Circulating microRNAs as a Novel Class of Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kichukova, Tatyana M; Popov, Nikolay T; Ivanov, Hristo Y; Vachev, Tihomir I

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are a huge burden on society, impairing the health of those affected, as well as their ability to learn and work. Biomarkers that reflect the dysregulations linked to neuropsychiatric diseases may potentially assist the diagnosis of these disorders. Most of these biomarkers are found in the brain tissue, which is not easily accessible. This is the challenge for the search of novel biomarkers that are present in various body fluids, including serum or plasma. As a group of important endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes. Previously, researchers discovered that miRNAs contribute to the neurodevelopment and maturation, including neurite outgrowth, dendritogenesis and dendritic spine formation. These developments underline the significance of miRNAs as potential biomarkers for diagnosing and prognosing central nervous system diseases. Accumulated evidence indicates that there are considerable differences between the cell-free miRNA expression profiles of healthy subjects and those of patients. Therefore, circulating miRNAs are likely to become a new class of noninvasive, sensitive biomarkers. Despite the fact that little is known about the origin and functions of circulating miRNAs, their essential roles in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of neuropsychiatric diseases make them attractive biomarkers. In this review we cover the increasing amounts of dataset that have accumulated in the last years on the use of circulating miRNAs and their values as potential biomarkers in most areas of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27180342

  6. Associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition in Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-03-01

    The associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition, frontal lobe function and frontal behavioral changes in the Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) population are largely unknown. This study included 348 idiopathic PD patients from southwest China. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were investigated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI), and cognition was assessed using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) was used to evaluate frontal function and the Frontal Behavior Inventory (FBI) was used to assess frontal behavioral changes. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the PD patients was 60.24 ± 12.07 years, and the mean disease duration was 3.88 ± 3.34 years. The mean NPI score was 3.49 ± 4.00. The mean score of ACE-R was 76.82 ± 16.73. The mean score of FAB was 15.27 ± 2.90, and the mean score of FBI was 3.18 ± 5.17. Weak negative correlations between the NPI and ACE-R scores as well as FAB score were found in the total sample, the male patient subgroup, the early onset PD subgroup and the late onset PD subgroup. Strong positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the total sample (r=0.661, p<0.001), the male patient subgroup (r=0.789, p<0.001) and the late onset PD subgroup (r=0.749, p<0.001). Moderate positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the female patient subgroup (r=0.536, p<0.001) and the early onset PD subgroup (r=0.462, p<0.001). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were closely associated with frontal behavioral changes but were not closely related with worse cognition and frontal lobe function in the Chinese idiopathic PD population. PMID:25582976

  7. Therapeutic implications of the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid interface in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Demeestere, Delphine; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2015-11-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) comprises an epithelial monolayer that forms an important physical, enzymatic and immunologic barrier, called the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). It is a highly vascularized organ located in the brain ventricles that is key in maintaining brain homeostasis as it produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and has other important secretory functions. Furthermore, the CP-CSF interface plays a putative role in neurogenesis and has been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as the neurodevelopmental disorders schizophrenia and autism. A role for this CNS border was also implicated in sleep disturbances and chronic and/or severe stress, which are risk factors for the development of neuropsychiatric conditions. Understanding the mechanisms by which disturbance of the homeostasis at the CP-CSF interface is involved in these different chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases can give new insights into therapeutic strategies. Hence, this review discusses the different roles that have been suggested so far for the CP in these neuropsychiatric disorders, with special attention to potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26116435

  8. Neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with statins: epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Tuccori, Marco; Montagnani, Sabrina; Mantarro, Stefania; Capogrosso-Sansone, Alice; Ruggiero, Elisa; Saporiti, Alessandra; Antonioli, Luca; Fornai, Matteo; Blandizzi, Corrado

    2014-03-01

    Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, such as lovastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin and pitavastatin, are cholesterol-lowering drugs used in clinical practice to prevent coronary heart disease. These drugs are generally well tolerated and have been rarely associated with severe adverse effects (e.g. rhabdomyolysis). Over the years, case series and data from national registries of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports have demonstrated the occurrence of neuropsychiatric reactions associated with statin treatment. They include behavioural alterations (severe irritability, homicidal impulses, threats to others, road rage, depression and violence, paranoia, alienation, antisocial behaviour); cognitive and memory impairments; sleep disturbance (frequent awakenings, shorter sleep duration, early morning awakenings, nightmares, sleepwalking, night terrors); and sexual dysfunction (impotence and decreased libido). Studies designed to investigate specific neuropsychiatric endpoints have yielded conflicting results. Several mechanisms, mainly related to inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis, have been proposed to explain the detrimental effects of statins on the central nervous system. Approaches to prevent and manage such adverse effects may include drug discontinuation and introduction of dietary restrictions; maintenance of statin treatment for some weeks with close patient monitoring; switching to a different statin; dose reduction; use of ω-3 fatty acids or coenzyme Q10 supplements; and treatment with psychotropic drugs. The available information suggests that neuropsychiatric effects associated with statins are rare events that likely occur in sensitive patients. Additional data are required, and further clinical studies are needed. PMID:24435290

  9. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain "fog" is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain "fog" characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as "minimal cognitive impairment," an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain "fog" may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain "fog" in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain "fog." PMID:26190965

  10. Five Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome of Differing Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Frankovich, Jennifer; Thienemann, Margo; Rana, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is diagnosed by the abrupt onset of new obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or food-restricting symptoms, and at least two of a variety of other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Detailed clinical presentation of youth with this condition has not yet been provided in the literature. Methods: We review the clinical charts of five youth meeting criteria for PANS in our PANS Clinic. These five patients were selected for differing underlying causes thought to be driving an inflammatory response that appeared to impact psychiatric symptoms. Results: Five youth with varying potential etiologies impacting neuropsychiatric symptoms were identified. These youth were from 8 to 18 years old at the onset of their PANS illness, and had bacterial, autoimmune, and unknown etiologies. Treatment directed at presumed etiologies ranged from antibiotics to intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) to other immunomodulatory regimens, and appeared to improve the psychiatric illness. Conclusions: Youth with PANS may present in differing ways, with psychiatric and physical symptoms overlapping with inflammatory or infectious diseases, pain syndromes, and other psychiatric diagnoses. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may respond to treatments targeting the underlying cause of physical illness. Faced with a pediatric patient demonstrating the abrupt onset or exacerbation of psychiatric and physical symptoms, clinicians should consider PANS in their differential diagnosis. PMID:25695942

  11. A Systems Approach Identifies Networks and Genes Linking Sleep and Stress: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R.; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D.; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C.; Yang, He S.; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are co-morbid complex traits, which often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multi-level organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J×A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests the interplay between sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerge from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework to interrogate the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25921536

  12. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are related to functional connectivity alterations in the salience network.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Marcio L F; Pereira, Fabrício R S; Lopes, Tátila M; da Silva, Elvis L; Coan, Ana Carolina; Campos, Brunno M; Duncan, Niall W; Stella, Florindo; Northoff, Georg; Damasceno, Benito P; Cendes, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Neuropsychiatric syndromes are highly prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their neurobiology is not completely understood. New methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging, such as intrinsic functional connectivity or "resting-state" analysis, may help to clarify this issue. Using such approaches, alterations in the default-mode and salience networks (SNs) have been described in Alzheimer's, although their relationship with specific symptoms remains unclear. We therefore carried out resting-state functional connectivity analysis with 20 patients with mild to moderate AD, and correlated their scores on neuropsychiatric inventory syndromes (apathy, hyperactivity, affective syndrome, and psychosis) with maps of connectivity in the default mode network and SN. In addition, we compared network connectivity in these patients with that in 17 healthy elderly control subjects. All analyses were controlled for gray matter density and other potential confounds. Alzheimer's patients showed increased functional connectivity within the SN compared with controls (right anterior cingulate cortex and left medial frontal gyrus), along with reduced functional connectivity in the default-mode network (bilateral precuneus). A correlation between increased connectivity in anterior cingulate cortex and right insula areas of the SN and hyperactivity syndrome (agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, euphoria, and disinhibition) was found. These findings demonstrate an association between specific network changes in AD and particular neuropsychiatric symptom types. This underlines the potential clinical significance of resting state alterations in future diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23418130

  13. Disrupted Circadian Rhythm as a Common Player in Developmental Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Velarde, Elena; Llorente, Ricardo; Laviola, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The environment in which individuals develop and mature is critical for their physiological and psychological outcome; in particular, the intrauterine environment has reached far more clinical relevance given its potential influence on shaping brain function and thus mental health. Gestational stress and/or maternal infection during pregnancy has been related with an increased incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. In this framework, the use of animal models has allowed a formal and deep investigation of causal determinants. Despite disruption of circadian clocks often represents a hallmark of several neuropsychiatric disorders, the relationship between disruption of brain development and the circadian system has been scarcely investigated. Nowadays, there is an increasing amount of studies suggesting a link between circadian system malfunction, early-life insults and the appearance of neuropsychiatric diseases at adulthood. Here, we briefly review evidence from clinical literature and animal models suggesting that the exposure to prenatal insults, i.e. severe gestational stress or maternal immune activation, changes the foetal hormonal milieu increasing the circulating levels of both glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These two biological events have been reported to affect genes expression in experimental models and critically interfere with brain development triggering and/or exacerbating behavioural anomalies in the offspring. Herein, we highlight the importance to unravel the individual components of the body circadian system that might also be altered by prenatal insults and that may be causally associated with the disruption of neural and endocrine developmental programming. PMID:26728169

  14. Genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders in Costa Rica: a model for the use of isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Carol A; Reus, Victor I; Bejarano, Julio; Escamilla, Michael A; Fournier, Eduardo; Herrera, Luis Diego; Lowe, Thomas L; McInnes, L Alison; Molina, Julio; Ophoff, Roel A; Raventos, Henrietta; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A; Service, Susan K; Spesny, Mitzi; León, Pedro E; Freimer, Nelson B

    2004-03-01

    The importance of genetics in understanding the etiology of mental illness has become increasingly clear in recent years, as more evidence has mounted that almost all neuropsychiatric disorders have a genetic component. It has also become clear, however, that these disorders are etiologically complex, and multiple genetic and environmental factors contribute to their makeup. So far, traditional linkage mapping studies have not definitively identified specific disease genes for neuropsychiatric disorders, although some potential candidates have been identified via these methods (e.g. the dysbindin gene in schizophrenia; Straub et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 2003). For this reason, alternative approaches are being attempted, including studies in genetically isolated populations. Because isolated populations have a high degree of genetic homogeneity, their use may simplify the process of identifying disease genes in disorders where multiple genes may play a role. Several areas of Latin America contain genetically isolated populations that are well suited for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetic studies of several major psychiatric illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, schizophrenia, Tourette Syndrome, alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, are currently underway in these regions. In this paper we highlight the studies currently being conducted by our groups in the Central Valley of Costa Rica to illustrate the potential advantages of this population for genetic studies. PMID:15091311

  15. Neurobiological and Neuropsychiatric Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA Sulfate (DHEAS)

    PubMed Central

    Maninger, Nicole; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Reus, Victor I.; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.

    2009-01-01

    DHEA and DHEAS are steroids synthesized in human adrenals, but their function is unclear. In addition to adrenal synthesis, evidence also indicates that DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in the brain, further suggesting a role of these hormones in brain function and development. Despite intensifying research into the biology of DHEA and DHEAS, many questions concerning their mechanisms of action and their potential involvement in neuropsychiatric illnesses remain unanswered. We review and distill the preclinical and clinical data on DHEA and DHEAS, focusing on (i) biological actions and putative mechanisms of action, (ii) differences in endogenous circulating concentrations in normal subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, and (iii) the therapeutic potential of DHEA in treating these conditions. Biological actions of DHEA and DHEAS include neuroprotection, neurite growth, and antagonistic effects on oxidants and glucocorticoids. Accumulating data suggest abnormal DHEA and/or DHEAS concentrations in several neuropsychiatric conditions. The evidence that DHEA and DHEAS may be fruitful targets for pharmacotherapy in some conditions is reviewed. PMID:19063914

  16. CHRNA7 triplication associated with cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric phenotypes in a three-generation pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Alfonso, Claudia; Carvalho, Claudia MB; Ge, Jun; Roney, Erin K; Bader, Patricia I; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna E; Miller, Rachel M; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Bi, Weimin; Schaaf, Christian P

    2014-01-01

    Although deletions of CHRNA7 have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), seizures and neuropsychiatric phenotypes, the pathogenicity of CHRNA7 duplications has been uncertain. We present the first report of CHRNA7 triplication. Three generations of a family affected with various neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, developmental delay and ID, were studied with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). High-resolution aCGH revealed a 650-kb triplication at chromosome 15q13.3 encompassing the CHRNA7 gene, which encodes the alpha7 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. A small duplication precedes the triplication at the proximal breakpoint junction, and analysis of the breakpoint indicates that the triplicated segment is in an inverted orientation with respect to the duplication. CHRNA7 triplication appears to occur by a replication-based mechanism that produces inverted triplications embedded within duplications. Co-segregation of the CHRNA7 triplication with neuropsychiatric and cognitive phenotypes provides further evidence for dosage sensitivity of CHRNA7. PMID:24424125

  17. Brain “fog,” inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin

    PubMed Central

    Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Stewart, Julia M.; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain “fog” is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain “fog” characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as “minimal cognitive impairment,” an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain “fog” may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain “fog” in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain “fog.” PMID:26190965

  18. [Evaluation of a Neuropsychiatric Disorder: From PANDAS to PANS and CANS].

    PubMed

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Donuk, Tuğba; Erermiş, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections) syndrome is a disorder seen before adolescence that possesses an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and/or tics. Swedo and colleagues defined this disorder in 1998 as a syndrome related to Group A streptoccoccus (GAS) infection with neurological issues, such as motor hyperactivation and choreiform movements. The progress of the disorder may be described as wax-and-waning, apart from abrupt onset, and this relapse and remission course is associated with exacerbating infections, according to the creators of PANDAS syndrome. Ruling out of Rheumatoid Fever and Sydenham's Chorea was a necessity for making a proper diagnosis. Since the recognition of this syndrome, clinicians encountered many children who could not fulfill all 5 criteria, which must be met for PANDAS diagnosis. In addition, due to literature showing failure and lack of strong evidence of a major role of GAS, the newly-defined categories PANS (Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) and CANS (Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) were created to encompass those of "almost met" non-PANDAS cases. PANS and CANS include concurrent significant psychiatric symptoms with abrupt onset of OCD symptoms and/or tics but do not require identification of any infection agent, immune dysfunction, or enviromental precipitants. In this paper, we aimed to discuss PANS/ CANS, alterations of PANDAS, and diagnoses in which "almost met" PANDAS patients should be classified on the basis of a case who developed an abrupt onset of anxiety, obsessions, and vocal tics. PMID:27370066

  19. Accuracy of screening instruments for detection of neuropsychiatric syndromes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Leentjens, Albert F G; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray; Schrag, Anette E; Weintraub, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease includes neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosis, and impulse control disorders, which often are unreported by patients and caregivers or undetected by doctors. Given their substantial impact on patients and caregivers as well as the existence of effective therapies for some of these disorders, screening for neuropsychiatric symptoms is important. Instruments for screening have a particular methodology for validation, and their performance is expressed in terms of accuracy compared with formal diagnostic criteria. The present study reviews the attributes of the screening instruments applied for detection of the aforementioned major neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A quasi-systematic review (including predefined selection criteria, but not evaluating the quality of the reviewed studies) was carried out on the basis of previous systematic reviews (commissioned by the American Academy of Neurology and the Movement Disorder Society) and made current by conducting a literature search (2005-2014). For depression, 11 scales and questionnaires were shown to be valid for Parkinson's disease screening. The recently developed Parkinson Anxiety Scale and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory demonstrate satisfactory properties as screening instruments for anxiety, and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale for detection of apathy. No scale adequately screens for psychosis, so a specific psychosis instrument should be developed. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (Questionnaire and Rating Scale) are valid for comprehensive screening of impulse control disorders, and the Parkinson's Disease-Sexual Addiction Screening Test for hypersexuality specifically. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:26695691

  20. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcus: Comparison of Diagnosis and Treatment in the Community and at a Specialty Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Coffey, Barbara J.; Babb, James S.; Meyer, Laura; Wachtel, Carly; Anam, Seeba; Rabinovitz, Beth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine whether pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus were appropriately diagnosed in the community and to determine subsequent rates of unwarranted use of antibiotic treatment for tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms without the identification of an infection. METHODS The design was a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 176 children and adolescents who were evaluated in a specialty program for tics, Tourette's disorder, and related problems. Previously published diagnostic criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in our clinic. RESULTS Subjects were significantly less likely to receive a diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus at the specialty clinic than in the community. In the community, subjects were significantly more likely to be treated with antibiotics or immunosuppressant medication if they received a diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus. Of the 27 subjects with a community diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus who were treated with antibiotics, 22 (82%) were treated without laboratory evidence of an infection; 2 were treated with immunomodulatory medications. CONCLUSIONS Our results support our hypothesis that pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus are frequently diagnosed in the community without the application of all working diagnostic criteria. This phenomenon has resulted in unwarranted use of antibiotic treatment for tics/obsessive-compulsive disorder without evidence of laboratory infection. PMID:18676543

  1. Substance use is a risk factor for neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric distress in acute and early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott L; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M; Moore, David J; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-02-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naive adults with median duration of infection of 75 days relative to a sample of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States, a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, the results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use. PMID:23250704

  2. Modelling of solar magnetic field and prominence structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shi Tsan

    1988-01-01

    Using plasma theory, the interaction is studied between high frequency and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from which a set of coupling equations resulted. On the basis of this formalism, the modulation instabilities of an electromagnetic soliton in a current sheet are examined, and it is shown that there is a resistive instability at the onset of the magnetic field reconnection. This mechanism could be used to explain the onset of solar flares and prominences. To improve the resolution of vector magnetic fields at the sun's surface, state-of-the-art optics is examined to improve the design and fabrication of a new spaceborne solar vector magnetograph as part of the SAMEX (Solar Active Measurements Experiment) program.

  3. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  4. Solar corona/prominence seen through the White Light Coronograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The solar corona and a solar prominence as seen through the White Light Coronograph, Skylab Experiment S052, on January 17, 1974. This view was reproduced from a television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The bright spot is a burn in the vidicon. The solar corona is the halo around the Sun which is normally visible only at the time of solar eclipse by the Moon. The Skylab coronography uses an externally-mounted disk system which occults the brilliant solar surface while allowing the fainter radiation of the corona to enter an annulus and be photographed. A mirror system allows either TV viewing of the corona or photographic recording of the image.

  5. The role of Magnetic Reconnection in flares and prominence eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Reconnection is often invoked as the primary mechanism for driving a flare or a prominence eruption. This paper argues that a catastrophic loss of mechanical equilibrium, rather than reconnection, is probably the primary mechanism for driving these phenomena. However, reconnection is still essential in order for any significant amount of energy to be released. To illustrate this idea, some recent results are presented from an MHD simulation based on a catastrophe mechanism first proposed by Van Tend and Kuperus. In order for this mechanism to be effective, a substantial amount of reconnection must occur within a few Alfven-scale times. Such rapid reconnection is plausible since the loss of mechanical equilibrium can generate flows which drive the reconnection at a rapid rate.

  6. The production effect in memory: a prominent mnemonic in children.

    PubMed

    Icht, Michal; Mama, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    The 'Production Effect' (PE) refers to a memory advantage for items studied aloud over items studied silently. Thus, vocalizing may serve as a mnemonic that can be used to assist learners in improving their memory for new concepts. Although many other types of mnemonic have been suggested in the literature, the PE seems especially appropriate for young children, as it does not involve literacy skills. The present study is a first investigation of the PE in children. In two experiments we tested five-year-olds in a PE paradigm using pictures of objects as stimuli. In Experiment 1, pictures of familiar objects were presented to be remembered, and in Experiment 2 we used pictures of unfamiliar objects (evaluating new vocabulary acquisition). In both experiments we showed a memory advantage for vocally produced words ('look and say') over other types of learning ('look', 'look and listen'), suggesting the PE as a prominent memory and learning tool. PMID:25404488

  7. Source of a Prominent Poleward Surge During Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeates, A. R.; Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2015-11-01

    As an observational case study, we consider the origin of a prominent poleward surge of leading polarity, visible in the magnetic butterfly diagram during Solar Cycle 24. A new technique is developed for assimilating individual regions of strong magnetic flux into a surface-flux transport model. By isolating the contribution of each of these regions, the model shows the surge to originate primarily in a single high-latitude activity group consisting of a bipolar active region present in Carrington Rotations 2104 - 05 (November 2010 - January 2011) and a multipolar active region in Rotations 2107 - 08 (February - April 2011). This group had a strong axial dipole moment opposed to Joy's law. On the other hand, the modelling suggests that the transient influence of this group on the butterfly diagram will not be matched by a large long-term contribution to the polar field because it is located at high latitude. This is in accordance with previous flux-transport models.

  8. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  9. A Driven Mechanism of CMEs and Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Krall, J.

    1997-05-01

    It has long been thought that solar magnetic structures such as arcades and flux ropes can erupt if the photospheric footpoints of the magnetic field lines are slowly sheared. The possible mechanisms of eruption include catastrophic loss of equilibrium and some large-scale instabilities such as the MHD kink instability. In this ``storage-release'' scenario, the shearing motion increases the twist in the coronal field, which is equivalent to a quasi-static increase in the energy associated with the horizontal component of the field of an arcade or the poloidal field of a flux rope. Alternatively, it has been shown recently [1] that an equilibrium flux rope under coronal conditions and comparable in size to quiescent prominences can erupt if the poloidal flux is increased on the timescale of eruption. The resulting dynamical properties are consistent with those of CMEs/eruptive prominences, and the computed model structure in the heliosphere closely resembles observed interplanetary magnetic clouds. We explore potentially observable signatures of this alternative scenario in which the initial structure (e.g., a flux rope) is driven by newly emergent magnetic flux. We increase the poloidal flux both quasi-statically and on the timescale of eruption. We compare the different dynamical behaviors in terms of physical observables such as the acceleration/speed of eruption, variation in the magnetic field of the flux rope, and the resulting structures at 1 AU, which can be observed by in situ measurements. The initial equilibrium flux rope and the ``erupting'' flux rope are both found to be stable to the kink mode. The physical processes in the driven versus storage-release scenarios are discussed, and possible observational discriminators are suggested. 1. Chen, J., JGR, vol. 101, 27499, 1996

  10. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; Rachmeler, L.; Reeves, K. K.; Schmieder, B.; Schmit, D. J.; Seaton, D. B.; Sterling, A. C.; Tripathi, D.; Williams, D. R.; Zhang, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  11. Fine Magnetic Structure and Origin of Counter-streaming Mass Flows in a Quiescent Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends.

  12. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  13. Observational Detection of Drift Velocity between Ionized and Neutral Species in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Elena; Collados, Manuel; Díaz, Antonio J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the detection of differences in the ion and neutral velocities in prominences using high-resolution spectral data obtained in 2012 September at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife). A time series of scans of a small portion of a solar prominence was obtained simultaneously with high cadence using the lines of two elements with different ionization states, namely, Ca ii 8542 Å and He i 10830 Å. The displacements, widths, and amplitudes of both lines were carefully compared to extract dynamical information about the plasma. Many dynamical features are detected, such as counterstreaming flows, jets, and propagating waves. In all of the cases, we find a very strong correlation between the parameters extracted from the lines of both elements, confirming that both lines trace the same plasma. Nevertheless, we also find short-lived transients where this correlation is lost. These transients are associated with ion-neutral drift velocities of the order of several hundred m s‑1. The patches of non-zero drift velocity show coherence in time–distance diagrams.

  14. Resonant Absorption of Transverse Oscillations and Associated Heating in a Solar Prominence. II. Numerical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolin, P.; Okamoto, T. J.; De Pontieu, B.; Uitenbroek, H.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-08-01

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and may be responsible for generating the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process and heating from these waves remains elusive. Through advanced numerical simulations combined with appropriate forward modeling of a prominence flux tube, we provide the observational signatures of transverse MHD waves in prominence plasmas. We show that these signatures are characterized by a thread-like substructure, strong transverse dynamical coherence, an out-of-phase difference between plane-of-the-sky motions and line-of-sight velocities, and enhanced line broadening and heating around most of the flux tube. A complex combination between resonant absorption and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) takes place in which the KHI extracts the energy from the resonant layer and dissipates it through vortices and current sheets, which rapidly degenerate into turbulence. An inward enlargement of the boundary is produced in which the turbulent flows conserve the characteristic dynamics from the resonance, therefore guaranteeing detectability of the resonance imprints. We show that the features described in the accompanying paper through coordinated Hinode and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations match the numerical results well.

  15. Parkinsonian features in a case of pellagra: a historical report.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Nani, Andrea; Williams, Adrian C

    2013-01-01

    Pellagra is a complex systemic disease resulting from inadequate dietary intake of coenzyme precursors nicotinamide and tryptophan. Improved nutritional habits in most developed economies have led to a decrease in clinicians' and researchers' attention to this condition and its pathophysiological bases, although new cases of pellagra have recently been identified in association with alcohol abuse and HIV infection in Western countries. Pellagra is characterized by a complex clinical picture, which can include neuropsychiatric symptoms and Parkinsonian features. Interestingly, pellagra and Parkinson's disease could share some basic pathophysiological mechanisms at the level of nicotinamide metabolism, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in dopaminergic pathways. Both neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms were mentioned in historical reports of pellagra cohorts. Here we present the English translation of the first detailed description of an original case of pellagra with Parkinsonian features, documented in a clinical note by Dr Giuseppe Paravicini one century ago. PMID:24028927

  16. On the Relationship Between a Hot-channel-like Solar Magnetic Flux Rope and its Embedded Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Srivastava, A. K.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2014-07-01

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) is a coherent and helical magnetic field structure that has recently been found likely to appear as an elongated hot channel prior to a solar eruption. In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between the hot channel and the associated prominence through analysis of a limb event on 2011 September 12. In the early rise phase, the hot channel was initially cospatial with the prominence. It then quickly expanded, resulting in a separation of the top of the hot channel from that of the prominence. Meanwhile, they both experienced an instantaneous morphology transformation from a Λ shape to a reversed-Y shape and the top of these two structures showed an exponential increase in height. These features are a good indication of the occurrence of kink instability. Moreover, the onset of kink instability is found to coincide in time with the impulsive enhancement of flare emission underneath the hot channel, suggesting that ideal kink instability likely also plays an important role in triggering fast flare reconnection besides initiating the impulsive acceleration of the hot channel and distorting its morphology. We conclude that the hot channel is most likely the MFR system and the prominence only corresponds to the cool materials that are collected in the bottom of the helical field lines of the MFR against gravity.

  17. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A HOT-CHANNEL-LIKE SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS EMBEDDED PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2014-07-10

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) is a coherent and helical magnetic field structure that has recently been found likely to appear as an elongated hot channel prior to a solar eruption. In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between the hot channel and the associated prominence through analysis of a limb event on 2011 September 12. In the early rise phase, the hot channel was initially cospatial with the prominence. It then quickly expanded, resulting in a separation of the top of the hot channel from that of the prominence. Meanwhile, they both experienced an instantaneous morphology transformation from a Λ shape to a reversed-Y shape and the top of these two structures showed an exponential increase in height. These features are a good indication of the occurrence of kink instability. Moreover, the onset of kink instability is found to coincide in time with the impulsive enhancement of flare emission underneath the hot channel, suggesting that ideal kink instability likely also plays an important role in triggering fast flare reconnection besides initiating the impulsive acceleration of the hot channel and distorting its morphology. We conclude that the hot channel is most likely the MFR system and the prominence only corresponds to the cool materials that are collected in the bottom of the helical field lines of the MFR against gravity.

  18. Eliciting the most prominent perceived differences between microphones.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Andy; Brookes, Tim; Dewhirst, Martin; Mason, Russell

    2016-05-01

    The attributes contributing to the differences perceived between microphones (when auditioning recordings made with those microphones) are not clear from previous research. Consideration of technical specifications and expert opinions indicated that recording five programme items with eight studio and two microelectromechanical system microphones could allow determination of the attributes related to the most prominent inter-microphone differences. Pairwise listening comparisons between the resulting 50 recordings, followed by multi-dimensional scaling analysis, revealed up to 5 salient dimensions per programme item; 17 corresponding pairs of recordings were selected exemplifying the differences across those dimensions. Direct elicitation and panel discussions on the 17 pairs identified a hierarchy of 40 perceptual attributes. An attribute contribution experiment on the 31 lowest-level attributes in the hierarchy allowed them to be ordered by degree of contribution and showed brightness, harshness, and clarity to always contribute highly to perceived inter-microphone differences. This work enables the future development of objective models to predict these important attributes. PMID:27250188

  19. Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  20. PROMINENCE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS THROUGH EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Reale, F.

    2013-07-20

    In this paper, we introduce a new diagnostic technique that uses EUV and UV absorption to determine the electron temperature and column emission measure, as well as the He/H relative abundance of the absorbing plasma. If a realistic assumption on the geometry of the latter can be made and a spectral code such as CHIANTI is used, then this technique can also yield the absorbing plasma hydrogen and electron density. This technique capitalizes on the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium at different wavelength ranges and temperature regimes. Several cases where this technique can be successfully applied are described. This technique works best when the absorbing plasma is hotter than 15,000 K. We demonstrate this technique on AIA observations of plasma absorption during a coronal mass ejection eruption. This technique can be easily applied to existing observations of prominences and cold plasmas in the Sun from almost all space missions devoted to the study of the solar atmosphere, which we list.

  1. Prominent reflexive eye-movement orienting associated with deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Valsecchi, Matteo; Pavani, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Profound deafness affects orienting of visual attention. Until now, research focused exclusively on covert attentional orienting, neglecting whether overt oculomotor behavior may also change in deaf people. Here we used the pro- and anti-saccade task to examine the relative contribution of reflexive and voluntary eye-movement control in profoundly deaf and hearing individuals. We observed a behavioral facilitation in reflexive compared to voluntary eye movements, indexed by faster saccade latencies and smaller error rates in pro- than anti-saccade trials, which was substantially larger in deaf than hearing participants. This provides the first evidence of plastic changes related to deafness in overt oculomotor behavior, and constitutes an ecologically relevant parallel to the modulations attributed to deafness in covert attention orienting. Our findings also have implications for designers of real and virtual environments for deaf people and reveal that experiments on deaf visual abilities must not ignore the prominent reflexive eye-movement orienting in this sensory-deprived population. PMID:24168645

  2. Radiologic comparison of erosive polyarthritis with prominent interphalangeal involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.H.; Bassett, L.W.; Theros, E.G.

    1982-05-01

    Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease, and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis may manifest prominent interphalangeal joint and cutaneous involvement. All three disorders may also affect the sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite these similarities, there are basic radiologic differences enabling distinction between the three disorders. Erosive osteoarthritis must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of interphalangeal erosive arthritis. Psoriatic erosions are characteristically ill defined, often bilaterally asymmetrical, usually unaccompanied by significant osteoporosis, and frequently associated with florid proliferation of subperiosteal new bone. An unilateral polyarticular pattern, which often occurs in a single ray, is the most prevalent of several patterns of involvement. Reiter's disease exhibits many clinical and radiologic similarities to psoriatic arthritis, but in the former there tends to be selective involvement of the joints of the lower limbs and particularly the feet, with relative sparing of the hands and wrists, while in the latter the joints of the upper and lower limbs tend to be involved to an equal extent. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MR). Lesions predominate in skin and synovium and result in sharply circumscribed, rapidly progressive, strikingly bilaterally symmetrical erosions spreading from joint margins to articular surfaces. Most or all of the diarthrodial joints may be affected, but interphalangeal joint predominance and early and severe atlanto-axial involvement are characteristic. Erosive osteoarthritis is characterized by interphalangeal subchondral erosions, accompanying periosteal new bone that is more subtle than that of psoriatic arthritis, and interphalangeal bony ankylosis that occurs with the same frequency as that of psoriatic arthritis.

  3. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence.

    PubMed

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed. PMID:25300341

  4. 76 FR 59704 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prominent and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prominent and Conspicuous Mark of Manufacturers on Single-Use Devices AGENCY... of information technology. Prominent and Conspicuous Mark of Manufacturers on Single-Use Devices...

  5. Catalogue of equivalent widths and line intensities for prominences observed during 1964-1965

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakhubovskiy, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    The method of observation and processing of the prominence spectra are described briefly. The equivalent widths, central intensities, half-widths and Doppler halfwidths are presented of the emission lines of the prominences.

  6. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Otte, A; Weiner, S M; Peter, H H; Mueller-Brand, J; Goetze, M; Moser, E; Gutfleisch, J; Hoegerle, S; Juengling, F D; Nitzsche, E U

    1997-07-01

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40+/-14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40+/-12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922+/-0.045 in patients and 1.066+/-0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892+/-0.060 in patients and 1. 034+/-0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. PMID:9211766

  7. Executive Dysfunctions: The Role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future

  8. Executive Dysfunctions: The Role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C H; Tomaz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future

  9. Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Brief Clinical Form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Choi, Kyoung Hue; Kim, Seung H.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Yang, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aims to provide a brief questionnaire form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q) in Korean translated from the original NPI-Q that is intended for the evaluation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in routine clinical practice. Patients and Methods We developed a Korean version of the NPI-Q (KNPI-Q) and compared subitems with those of the Korean version of the NPI (KNPI) in 63 dementia patients; 47 patients had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease with dementia, 8 with vascular dementia, and 8 with dementia with Lewy body disease. The diagnosis was based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke - Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for possible and probable Alzheimer's disease and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, criteria for vascular dementia and other dementing diseases. All patients received the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating within 1 month of the KNPI-Q. Results Test-retest reliability of the KNPI-Q using a Pearson correlation index was r = 0.89 for the total symptom scale and r = 0.90 for the distress scale. The prevalence of analogous symptom ratings differed by less than 6.7%. Convergent validity between the KNPI-Q and the NPI using a Pearson correlation index was r = 0.879 for the total symptom scale and r = 0.92 for the distress scale. Conclusions The KNPI-Q is a reliable and brief instrument that can be employed for screening in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and associated caregiver distress. It may be suitable for use in general clinical practice and could be administered as a brief neuropsychiatric interview. PMID:27350782

  10. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, APOE ε4, and the risk of incident dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Anna; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Bartley, Mairead M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Sochor, Ondrej; Machulda, Mary M.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Knopman, David S.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Mielke, Michelle M.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the population-based interaction between a biological variable (APOE ε4), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the risk of incident dementia among subjects with prevalent mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We prospectively followed 332 participants with prevalent MCI (aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging for a median of 3 years. The diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria, after reviewing neurologic, cognitive, and other pertinent data. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were determined at baseline using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models, with age as a time scale, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Models were adjusted for sex, education, and medical comorbidity. Results: Baseline agitation, nighttime behaviors, depression, and apathy significantly increased the risk of incident dementia. We observed additive interactions between APOE ε4 and depression (joint effect HR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.24–3.91; test for additive interaction, p < 0.001); and between APOE ε4 and apathy (joint effect HR = 1.93; 95% CI = 0.93–3.98; test for additive interaction, p = 0.031). Anxiety, irritability, and appetite/eating were not associated with increased risk of incident dementia. Conclusions: Among prevalent MCI cases, baseline agitation, nighttime behaviors, depression, and apathy elevated the risk of incident dementia. There was a synergistic interaction between depression or apathy and APOE ε4 in further elevating the risk of incident dementia. PMID:25653291

  11. Neuropsychiatric morbidity in early HIV disease: implications for military occupational function.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Jenkins, R A

    1993-01-01

    The Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research Program's (MMCARR) Behavioral Medicine Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research component is conducting a tri-service, comprehensive, and longitudinal research study in military HIV-infected personnel at all stages of infection. Identification of neuropsychiatric and psychosocial outcomes and their determinants will help the military minimize the impact of the HIV epidemic on military readiness and function. Neuropsychiatric and psychosocial findings are among the most common complications seen in early HIV disease and among the most likely to have an adverse impact on military readiness and function. The study has demonstrated that the average HIV-infected service person experiences at least transient military occupational difficulty following notification of HIV status. More than 15% at any given time have levels of clinical or subclinical anxiety or depression that are referrable for mental health intervention. Ten per cent of study subjects have a current major mood disorder and 5% have a psychoactive substance use disorder. Finally, 17% of study subjects have experienced serious suicidal ideation or behaviours at least once since notification of seropositivity. Fortunately, however, data also indicate at least partial effectiveness of current primary, secondary and tertiary preventive efforts. Only about 1% of Air Force HIV-infected persons are discharged for psychiatric reasons prior to eventual medical discharge. Further, a large majority of active-duty patients demonstrate solid military occupational and social performance. Though military HIV neurobehavioural research is still in progress, preliminary data identify social support and pre-HIV psychiatric predisposition as important factors associated with current neuropsychiatric status. PMID:8488711

  12. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients. PMID:26663627

  13. Diagnoses of alcohol abuse and other neuropsychiatric disorders among house painters compared with house carpenters.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Gustavsson, A; Högberg, M; Nise, G

    1992-06-01

    The incidence of alcoholism and the incidence of other neuropsychiatric diagnoses were compared between the 767 house painters and the 1212 house carpenters, born in 1925 or later, who were members of the Stockholm branches of their respective trade unions in 1965 and who had been members for at least 10 years before 1970. Four different outcome registers were used: (1) the alcohol crime register, which contained all persons who had broken any law regulating the handling and consumption of alcohol (follow up period 1972-6). (2) The register of diagnoses at early retirement (follow up period 1971-84). (3) The register of diagnoses at discharge from inpatient psychiatric care (follow up period 1968-83). (4) The register of causes of death (follow up period 1965-86). Exposures to solvents and consumption of alcohol were evaluated by interviews with samples of the cohorts. A high average cumulative exposure to solvents was found among the painters. The mean consumption of alcohol was similar in the two cohorts. The incidence of diagnoses of neuropsychiatric disorders was higher in painters than in carpenters in all registers. Alcoholism was the most common neuropsychiatric disorder diagnosed and showed the highest relative risk. The excess of alcoholism among the painters was, however, due singularly to painters who had several registrations in the alcohol crime register or diagnoses of alcoholism in multiple registers. Thus the study implies that excessive alcohol consumption or severe damage due to alcohol, or both, but not less severe problems, were more common in painters than in carpenters. This suggests an interaction between exposure to solvents and intake of alcohol causing an increase in diagnosis of alcoholism among painters. PMID:1606027

  14. Transcriptomics analysis of iPSC-derived neurons and modeling of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingyan; Lachman, Herbert M; Zheng, Deyou

    2016-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons and neural progenitors are great resources for studying neural development and differentiation and their disruptions in disease conditions, and hold the promise of future cell therapy. In general, iPSC lines can be established either specifically from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders or from healthy subjects. The iPSCs can then be induced to differentiate into neural lineages and the iPSC-derived neurons are valuable for various types of cell-based assays that seek to understand disease mechanisms and identify and test novel therapies. In addition, it is an ideal system for gene expression profiling (i.e., transcriptomic analysis), an efficient and cost-effective way to explore the genetic programs regulating neurodevelopment. Moreover, transcriptomic comparison, which can be performed between patient-derived samples and controls, or in control lines in which the expression of specific genes has been disrupted, can uncover convergent gene targets and pathways that are downstream of the hundreds of candidate genes that have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. The results, especially after integration with spatiotemporal transcriptomic profiles of normal human brain development, have indeed helped to uncover gene networks, molecular pathways, and cellular signaling that likely play critical roles in disease development and progression. On the other hand, despite the great promise, many challenges remain in the usage of iPSC-derived neurons for modeling neuropsychiatric disorders, for example, how to generate relatively homogenous populations of specific neuronal subtypes that are affected in a particular disorder and how to better address the genetic heterogeneity that exists in the patient population. PMID:26631648

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Kristin M.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.; Dawid, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  16. Neuropsychiatric aspects of the adult variant of Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, G M; Rosebush, P I; Mazurek, M F

    1998-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (a GM2 gangliosidosis) is an inherited neuronal storage disease that can affect individuals across the age spectrum. Psychosis is reported in 30% to 50% of adult-onset patients, and many are misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. Mood disorders are present in more than 25% and cognitive impairment in more than 20%. Treatment of psychosis with neuroleptics may not have a favorable risk/benefit ratio, but treatment with benzodiazepines or electroconvulsive therapy may be efficacious. Metabolic diseases such as gangliosidosis are probably under-recognized as causes of neuropsychiatric illness. Increased awareness of these disorders will lead to accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment selection, and genetic counseling. PMID:9547461

  17. A link between perianal strep and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Toufexis, Megan; Deoleo, Caroline; Elia, Josephine; Murphy, Tanya K

    2014-04-01

    Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is an infection caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Children with a pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) phenotype may have tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms secondary to a systemic immune activation by GAS infecting perianal areas. In this retrospective case series, the authors describe three children with symptoms consistent with PANDAS and a confirmed perianal streptococcal dermatitis as the likely infectious trigger. Concomitant perianal dermatitis and new-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics are strong indications for perianal culture and rapid antigen detection test in young children. PMID:24763762

  18. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    PubMed

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations. PMID:26850613

  19. Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Gans, Sniezyna; Poznansky, Olga; McGeoch, Pamela; Weaver, Carrie; King, Enid Gertmanian; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of preliminary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition. In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior. PMID:12418359

  20. Depression and seizures as the main neuropsychiatric manifestation of mixed connective tissue disorder.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Qureshi, Safina Hameed; Shah, Faridullah

    2014-05-01

    A 38 years female presented with arthralgia, dyspnoea, progressive proximal muscle weakness, seizures, weight loss, dysphagia, alopecia, and dryness of the eyes and mouth with tightening of the skin. Psychiatric evaluation revealed major depression. She had oral ulcers, tightening of the skin of the hands with restricted mouth opening, and proximal muscle weakness. Mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD) with predominant polymyositis and neuropsychiatric manifestations was diagnosed as the patient had anti-RNP positive with significantly raised muscle enzymes. This case is unique because major depression in MCTD is rarely documented, severe polymyositis is a rarity and ANA was negative but characteristic anti-RNP antibody was positive. PMID:24906270

  1. Neuregulin-ERBB signaling in nervous system development and neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lin; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neuregulins (NRGs) comprise a large family of growth factors that stimulate ERBB receptor tyrosine kinases. NRGs and their receptors ERBBs have been identified as susceptibility genes for diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder. Recent studies have revealed complex Nrg/Erbb signaling networks that regulate the assembly of neural circuitry, myelination, neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Evidence indicates there is an optimal level of NRG/ERBB signaling in the brain and deviation from it impairs brain functions. NRGs/ERBBs and downstream signaling pathways may provide therapeutic targets for specific neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24991953

  2. Best method for analysis of brain oscillations in healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Başar, Erol; Gölbaşı, Bilge Turp; Tülay, Elif; Aydın, Serap; Başar-Eroğlu, Canan

    2016-05-01

    The research related to brain oscillations and their connectivity is in a new take-off trend including the applications in neuropsychiatric diseases. What is the best strategy to learn about functional correlation of oscillations? In this report, we emphasize combined application of several analytical methods as power spectra, adaptive filtering of Event Related Potentials, inter-trial coherence and spatial coherence. These combined analysis procedure gives the most profound approach to understanding of EEG responses. Examples from healthy subjects, Alzheimer's Diseases, schizophrenia, and Bipolar Disorder are described. PMID:25689625

  3. Validity and Reliability of the European Portuguese Version of Neuropsychiatric Inventory in an Institutionalized Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Martins, Sonia; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Fernandes, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in dementia and have been associated with patient and caregiver distress, increased risk of institutionalization and higher costs of care. In this context, the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) is the most widely used comprehensive tool designed to measure neuropsychiatric Symptoms in geriatric patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to present the validity and reliability of the European Portuguese version of NPI. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of institutionalized patients (≥ 50 years old) in three nursing homes in Portugal. All patients were also assessed with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (cognition), geriatric depression scale (GDS) (depression) and adults and older adults functional assessment inventory (IAFAI) (functionality). NPI was administered to a formal caregiver, usually from the clinical staff. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed in a subsample of 25 randomly selected subjects. Results The sample included 166 elderly, with a mean age of 80.9 (standard deviation: 10.2) years. Three out of the NPI behavioral items had negative correlations with MMSE: delusions (rs = -0.177, P = 0.024), disinhibition (rs = -0.174, P = 0.026) and aberrant motor activity (rs = -0.182, P = 0.020). The NPI subsection of depression/dysphoria correlated positively with GDS total score (rs = 0.166, P = 0.038). NPI showed good internal consistency (overall α = 0.766; frequency α = 0.737; severity α = 0.734). The inter-rater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 - 1.00), as well as test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.91, 95% CI 0.80 - 0.96). Conclusion The results found for convergent validity, inter-rater and test-retest reliability, showed that this version appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized elderly

  4. Radio observations of the setting of a quiescent prominence behind the solar limb and the interpretation of results on the eclipse of a prominence on July 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Apushkinskii, G.P.; Topchilo, N.A.

    1985-07-01

    Radio observations of the setting of a quiescent prominence behind the solar limb at 0.8 cm permit a determination of its structure. The chromosphere below the prominence does not emit in the radio range: The radio radius equals the optical radius. The results of the eclipse of July 31, 1981, can be interpreted similarly.

  5. Damping of prominence longitudinal oscillations due to mass accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruderman, Michael S.; Luna, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    We study the damping of longitudinal oscillations of a prominence thread caused by the mass accretion. We suggested a simple model describing this phenomenon. In this model we considered a thin curved magnetic tube filled with the plasma. The prominence thread is in the central part of the tube and it consists of dense cold plasma. The parts of the tube at the two sides of the thread are filled with hot rarefied plasma. We assume that there are flows of rarefied plasma toward the thread caused by the plasma evaporation at the magnetic tube footpoints. Our main assumption is that the hot plasma is instantaneously accommodated by the thread when it arrives at the thread, and its temperature and density become equal to those of the thread. Then we derive the system of ordinary differential equations describing the thread dynamics. We solve this system of ordinary differential equations in two particular cases. In the first case we assume that the magnetic tube is composed of an arc of a circle with two straight lines attached to its ends such that the whole curve is smooth. A very important property of this model is that the equations describing the thread oscillations are linear for any oscillation amplitude. We obtain the analytical solution of the governing equations. Then we obtain the analytical expressions for the oscillation damping time and periods. We find that the damping time is inversely proportional to the accretion rate. The oscillation periods increase with time. We conclude that the oscillations can damp in a few periods if the inclination angle is sufficiently small, not larger that 10°, and the flow speed is sufficiently large, not less that 30 km s-1. In the second model we consider the tube with the shape of an arc of a circle. The thread oscillates with the pendulum frequency dependent exclusively on the radius of curvature of the arc. The damping depends on the mass accretion rate and the initial mass of the threads, that is the mass of the

  6. Demonstration of prominent actin filaments in the root columella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, D. A.; Zsuppan, G.; Allen, N. S.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of actin filaments within the gravity-sensing columella cells of plant roots remains poorly understood, with studies over numerous years providing inconsistent descriptions of actin organization in these cells. This uncertainty in actin organization, and thus in actin's role in graviperception and gravisignaling, has led us to investigate actin arrangements in the columella cells of Zea mays L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Linum usitatissiilium L. and Nicotianla benthamiana Domin. Actin organization was examined using a combination of optimized immunofluorescence techniques, and an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin labeling method reliant on 3-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS) cross-linking combined with glycerol permeabilization. Confocal microscopy of root sections labeled with anti-actin antibodies revealed patterns suggestive of actin throughout the columella region. These patterns included short and fragmented actin bundles, fluorescent rings around amyloplasts and intense fluorescence originating from the nucleus. Additionally, confocal microscopy of MBS-stabilized and Alexa Fluor-phalloidin-labeled root sections revealed a previously undetected state of actin organization in the columella. Discrete actin structures surrounded the amyloplasts and prominent actin cables radiated from the nuclear surface toward the cell periphery. Furthermore, the cortex of the columella cells contained fine actin bundles (or single filaments) that had a predominant transverse orientation. We also used confocal microscopy of plant roots expressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted green fluorescent protein to demonstrate rapid ER movements within the columella cells, suggesting that the imaged actin network is functional. The successful identification of discrete actin structures in the root columella cells forms the perception and signaling.

  7. Late-onset Lafora disease with prominent parkinsonism due to a rare mutation in EPM2A.

    PubMed

    Lynch, David S; Wood, Nicholas W; Houlden, Henry

    2016-10-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy that is caused by mutations in EPM2A, encoding laforin, and NHLRC1 (EPM2B), encoding malin.(1) LD is classically described with onset in early teenage years. Patients develop myoclonus, epilepsy, visual hallucinations, and psychosis. Dementia is a prominent feature and often occurs in the late teenage years. LD typically progresses quickly, and patients become bedridden and dependent within 10 years of symptom onset, with life expectancy in the early 20s.(2,3) Only a small number of late-onset cases of LD have been described. Even then, these so-called late-onset cases have typically presented in the 20s, with dementia occurring in the early 30s. We describe a patient with extremely late onset and extended survival with prominent parkinsonism due to a novel EPM2A variant. PMID:27574708

  8. Autoimmunity against dopamine receptors in neuropsychiatric and movement disorders: a review of Sydenham chorea and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Cox, C J

    2016-01-01

    Antineuronal autoantibodies are associated with the involuntary movement disorder Sydenham chorea (SC) and paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) which are characterized by the acute onset of tics and/or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In SC and PANDAS, autoantibodies signal human neuronal cells and activate calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Animal models immunized with group A streptococcal antigens demonstrate autoantibodies against dopamine receptors and concomitantly altered behaviours. Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from SC target and signal the dopamine D2L (long) receptor (D2R). Antibodies against D2R were elevated over normal levels in SC and acute-onset PANDAS with small choreiform movements, but were not elevated over normal levels in PANDAS-like chronic tics and OCD. The expression of human SC-derived anti-D2R autoantibody V gene in B cells and serum of transgenic mice demonstrated that the human autoantibody targets dopaminergic neurones in the basal ganglia and other types of neurones in the cortex. Here, we review current evidence supporting the hypothesis that antineuronal antibodies, specifically against dopamine receptors, follow streptococcal exposures and may target dopamine receptors and alter central dopamine pathways leading to movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26454143

  9. Soluble α-klotho is a potential biomarker associated with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ushigusa, Takeshi; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Michitsuji, Toru; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Umeda, Masataka; Fukui, Shoichi; Nishino, Ayako; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Koga, Tomohiro; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Hirai, Yasuko; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    A reduced level of the single-pass transmembrane protein α-Klotho is known to be associated with neuronal damage. We investigated whether α-Klotho in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). We analyzed the laboratory data, symptoms and radiological image findings of 34 NPSLE patients. Patients with SLE without neuropsychiatric manifestations (SLE) (n=25), and patients with viral meningitis (VM) (n=19), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=20) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) (n=20) were included as controls. The multivariable analyses revealed that lower CSF α-Klotho level, lower serum anti-Smith antibodies (U/mL) and higher serum C3 (mg/dL) were significant factors for predicting NPSLE. The CSF α-Klotho levels of the NPSLE patients were inversely correlated with the level of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Our data suggested that the determination of CSF α-Klotho levels will contribute to the diagnosis of NPSLE and help elucidate the mechanisms underlying this disease. PMID:26960950

  10. The Neuropsychiatric Disease-Associated Gene cacna1c Mediates Survival of Young Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anni S; De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Kabir, Zeeba D; Knobbe, Whitney; Orr, Madeline; Burgdorf, Caitlin; Huntington, Paula; McDaniel, Latisha; Britt, Jeremiah K; Hoffmann, Franz; Brat, Daniel J; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; Pieper, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variations in CACNA1C, which encodes the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), are associated with multiple forms of neuropsychiatric disease that manifest high anxiety in patients. In parallel, mice harboring forebrain-specific conditional knockout of cacna1c (forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO) display unusually high anxiety-like behavior. LTCCs in general, including the Cav1.3 subunit, have been shown to mediate differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs). However, it has not previously been determined whether Cav1.2 affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. Here, we show that forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice exhibit enhanced cell death of young hippocampal neurons, with no change in NPC proliferation, hippocampal size, dentate gyrus thickness, or corticosterone levels compared with wild-type littermates. These mice also exhibit deficits in brain levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Cre recombinase-mediated knockdown of adult hippocampal Cav1.2 recapitulates the deficit in young hippocampal neurons survival. Treatment of forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice with the neuroprotective agent P7C3-A20 restored the net magnitude of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis to wild-type levels without ameliorating their deficit in BDNF expression. The role of Cav1.2 in young hippocampal neurons survival may provide new approaches for understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disease associated with aberrations in CACNA1C. Visual Abstract. PMID:27066530

  11. Innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    García Bueno, B; Caso, J R; Madrigal, J L M; Leza, J C

    2016-05-01

    The innate immunity is a stereotyped first line of defense against pathogens and unspecified damage signals. One of main actors of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and one of the better characterized members of this family is TLR-4, that it is mainly activated by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. In brain, TLR-4 organizes innate immune responses against infections or cellular damage, but also possesses other physiological functions. In the last years, some evidences suggest a role of TLR-4 in stress and stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases. Peripheral and brain TLR-4 activation triggers sickness behavior, and its expression is a risk factor of depression. Some elements of the TLR-4 signaling pathway are up-regulated in peripheral samples and brain post-mortem tissue from depressed and suicidal patients. The "leaky gut" hypothesis of neuropsychiatric diseases is based on the existence of an increase of the intestinal permeability which results in bacterial translocation able to activate TLR-4. Enhanced peripheral TLR-4 expression/activity has been described in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in autistic children. A role for TLR-4 in drugs abuse has been also proposed. The therapeutic potential of pharmacological/genetic modulation of TLRs signaling pathways in neuropsychiatry is promising, but a great preclinical/clinical scientific effort is still needed. PMID:26905767

  12. Effects of omega 3 fatty acids supplementation in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ortega, R M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López-Sobaler, A M

    2012-06-01

    This work provides a systematic review of all published randomised, controlled clinical trials (RCT) investigating the effects of n-3 PUFA intake on the prevention and treatment of non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL and The Cochrane Database) were searched for RCT in this area published up to April 2011. The selected studies all involved human participants and included a comparison group. Thirty eight studies were identified, which examined the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the prevention/treatment of depression (non-perinatal) (n 23), perinatal depression (n 6) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n 9). Great heterogeneity was noticed in terms of study design, the doses of n-3 PUFA administered, and study duration. Some benefit was noted with respect to the treatment of hyperactivity and depression in over half the examined studies, although the evidence was not conclusive. For any firm conclusions to be drawn, further studies will be needed that take into account the initial n-3 PUFA status of the subjects. Excessive n-3 PUFA intakes might be associated with a greater risk of peroxidation events and therefore neuropsychiatric deterioration. Indeed, some studies only recorded benefits when lower doses were administered. It is therefore important that the dose required to achieve any potential benefit be determined. PMID:22591900

  13. Neuropsychiatric Side-Effects of Interferon-Alpha Treatment: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    ZAHIU, Carmen Denise Mihaela; RIMBAS, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is the approved standard of care for chronic hepatitis C and B. Unfortunately, it has neuropsychiatric side-effects that have a major impact upon the quality of life and the drug adherence. The mechanism of IFN-α-induced behavioral changes is complex, involving interactions between the immune system, the endocrine system, the monoaminergic systems and the opioid receptors. Recent studies support the neurodegeneration hypothesis as a possible mechanism of IFN-α-induced depressive behavior. Although a meta-analysis showed that antidepressant pretreatment effectively reduces the incidence and severity of depressive symptoms, irrespective of pre-existing psychiatric disorders, it is not approved for prophylactic use. The "on demand" treatment strategy is justified as the majority of patients have only mild depressive symptoms. Patients with risk factors for depression undergoing IFN-α therapy need to be regularly screened and followed-up by a psychiatric specialist. Further studies should be conducted to show which therapy is the most appropriate to reduce the neuropsychiatric symptoms that are related to the use of IFN-α and to investigate the clinical significance of IFN-α-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25705266

  14. The Neuropsychiatric Disease-Associated Gene cacna1c Mediates Survival of Young Hippocampal Neurons123

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anni S.; Kabir, Zeeba D.; Knobbe, Whitney; Orr, Madeline; Burgdorf, Caitlin; Huntington, Paula; McDaniel, Latisha; Britt, Jeremiah K.; Hoffmann, Franz; Brat, Daniel J.; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variations in CACNA1C, which encodes the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), are associated with multiple forms of neuropsychiatric disease that manifest high anxiety in patients. In parallel, mice harboring forebrain-specific conditional knockout of cacna1c (forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO) display unusually high anxiety-like behavior. LTCCs in general, including the Cav1.3 subunit, have been shown to mediate differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs). However, it has not previously been determined whether Cav1.2 affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. Here, we show that forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice exhibit enhanced cell death of young hippocampal neurons, with no change in NPC proliferation, hippocampal size, dentate gyrus thickness, or corticosterone levels compared with wild-type littermates. These mice also exhibit deficits in brain levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Cre recombinase-mediated knockdown of adult hippocampal Cav1.2 recapitulates the deficit in young hippocampal neurons survival. Treatment of forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice with the neuroprotective agent P7C3-A20 restored the net magnitude of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis to wild-type levels without ameliorating their deficit in BDNF expression. The role of Cav1.2 in young hippocampal neurons survival may provide new approaches for understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disease associated with aberrations in CACNA1C. Visual Abstract PMID:27066530

  15. Glucocorticoid mechanisms of functional connectivity changes in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Baila S.; Moda, Rachel N.; Liston, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Stress—especially chronic, uncontrollable stress—is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders. PMID:25729760

  16. Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains the internal homeostasis by continuously interacting with other brain structures. Its failure is commonly observed in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative and vascular brain diseases, spinal cord injury, and peripheral neuropathies. Despite the different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, ANS failure associates with various forms of higher level dysfunctions, and may also negatively impact on patients’ clinical outcome. In this review, we will discuss potential relationships between ANS and higher level dysfunctions in a selection of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, we will focus on the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension and/or autonomic-reflex impairment on cognitive performances. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that cardiovascular autonomic failure may play a negative prognostic role in most neurological disorders. Despite a clear causal relationship between ANS involvement and higher level dysfunctions that is still controversial, this might have implications for neuro-rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:26388831

  17. Neuropsychiatric and Behavioral Profiles of 2 Adults With Williams Syndrome: Response to Antidepressant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Urgeles, Diego; Alonso, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Williams syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, are characterized by specific medical, cognitive, and behavioral phenotypes and often have high anxiety levels as well as phobia. Studies of the psychiatric phenotype in adults affected by Williams syndrome or literature on the management of their mental pathologies are lacking. Method: In this article, we report the neuropsychiatric profile of 2 adult patients with Williams syndrome who also have generalized anxiety disorder and depressive symptoms (DSM-IV-TR criteria), along with their anxiety profiles and the strategies that were adopted for pharmacologic intervention. Results: Neuropsychiatric profiles revealed a prefrontal cortex affliction that includes an alteration in executive functions. The patients had high scores for trait-anxiety and responded to treatment with a low-potency antipsychotic. A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was coadministered with the antipsychotic to alleviate the depressive symptoms. The treatment led to an improvement in self-control, mental concentration, and social skills, as well as decreased irritability and aggressiveness and stabilization of mood. Conclusions: The combination of SSRIs and low doses of low-potency antipsychotics seems to be the most suitable medication to treat generalized anxiety disorder and related disorders in individuals with Williams syndrome. Manic reactions and increase in anxiety must be closely monitored during treatment. Control of anxiety and sleep should be a priority in these patients, even as a preventative measure. PMID:24392262

  18. Proteomic investigation of epigenetics in neuropsychiatric disorders: A missing link between genetics and behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Plazas-Mayorca, Mariana D.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders affect a large segment of the human population and result in large costs to society. The majority of such disorders have unknown underlying causes. Recent evidence suggests an important role for epigenetic regulation in the emergence of neuropsychiatric disease. Epigenetics may provide a link between genetic and environmental factors and behavior. Epigenetic signaling involves changes on the structure of chromatin; such changes are often triggered and maintained by the post-translational modification of chromatin proteins and/or DNA. Recent proteomic technologies have enabled the study of epigenetic mechanisms in a high-throughput manner. This review will provide an overview of the major epigenetic pathways and modern techniques for their study, before focusing on experimental evidence supporting a strong role for epigenetics in selected psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and drug addiction. These results highlight a great need for the inclusion of the proteomic characterization of epigenetic mechanisms in the study of gene/disease associations in psychiatric disorders. PMID:20735116

  19. Activation of sigma-1 receptor chaperone in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and its clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein sigma-1 receptor represents unique chaperone activity in the central nervous system, and it exerts a potent influence on a number of neurotransmitter systems. Several lines of evidence suggest that activation of sigma-1 receptor plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as in the mechanisms of some therapeutic drugs and neurosteroids. Preclinical studies showed that some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, excitalopram), donepezil, and ifenprodil act as sigma-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, sigma-1 receptor agonists could improve the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. A study using positron emission tomography have demonstrated that an oral administration of fluvoxamine or donepezil could bind to sigma-1 receptor in the healthy human brain, suggesting that sigma-1 receptor might be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of these drugs. Moreover, case reports suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists, including fluvoxamine, and ifenprodil, may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, delirium in elderly people, and flashbacks in post-traumatic stress disorder. In this review article, the author would like to discuss the clinical implication of sigma-1 receptor agonists, including endogenous neurosteroids, in the neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:25704012

  20. Does Information About Neuropsychiatric Diagnoses Influence Evaluation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations?

    PubMed

    Lainpelto, Katrin; Isaksson, Johan; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating if attitudes toward children with neuropsychiatric disorders influence evaluations concerning allegations of child sexual abuse. Law students (n = 107) at Stockholm University, Sweden, were presented a transcript of a mock police interview with a girl, 11 years of age. This interview was based on a real case, selected as a "typical" example from these years concerning contributions from the interviewer and the alleged victim. After having read the transcript, the students responded to a questionnaire concerning degree of credibility, if the girl talked about events that had really occurred, richness of details, and if the narrations were considered truthful and age-adequate. Fifty-four of the students were also told that the girl had been given the diagnoses of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Students who were informed about the diagnoses gave significantly lower scores concerning credibility of the interviewee. To a lesser degree they regarded her narrations as expressions of what had really occurred and considered her statements less truthful. Furthermore, they found that the narrations contained fewer details. Finally, they found the girl less competent to tell about abuse. We conclude that a neuropsychiatric disorder may infer risks of unjustified skeptical attitudes concerning trustworthiness and cognitive capacity. PMID:27135382

  1. A Neuropsychiatric Model of Biological and Psychological Processes in the Remission of Delusions and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This selective review combines cognitive models and biological models of psychosis into a tentative integrated neuropsychiatric model. The aim of the model is to understand better, how pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy come forward as partners in the treatment of psychosis and play complementary and mutually reinforcing roles. The article reviews the dominant models in literature. The focus in this review is on one hand on neural circuits that are involved in cognitive models and on the other hand on cognitive processes and experiences involved in biological models. In this way, a 4-component neuropsychiatric model is tentatively constructed: (1) a biological component that leads to aberrant perceptions and salience of stimuli, (2) a cognitive component that attempts to explain the psychic abnormal events, (3) a mediating component with psychological biases which influences the reasoning process in the direction of the formation of (secondary) delusions, and (4) a component of psychological processes that maintains delusions and prevents the falsification of delusional ideas. Remission consists actually of 2 processes. Biological remission consists of the dampening of mesolimbic dopamine releases with antipsychotic medication and decreases the continuous salient experiences. Psychological remission consists of the reappraisal of primary psychotic experiences. Both forms of remission are partially independent. We expect that a full remission including biological and psychological remission could prevent relapse. PMID:16905635

  2. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug's use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies. PMID:26793391

  3. MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.

    2015-01-20

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  4. Weighted current sheets supported in normal and inverse configurations - A model for prominence observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, P.; Forbes, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    A technique which incorporates both photospheric and prominence magnetic field observations is used to analyze the magnetic support of solar prominences in two dimensions. The prominence is modeled by a mass-loaded current sheet which is supported against gravity by magnetic fields from a bipolar source in the photosphere and a massless line current in the corona. It is found that prominence support can be achieved in three different kinds of configurations: an arcade topology with a normal polarity; a helical topology with a normal polarity; and a helical topology with an inverse polarity. In all cases the important parameter is the variation of the horizontal component of the prominence field with height. Adding a line current external to the prominence eliminates the nonsupport problem which plagues virtually all previous prominence models with inverse polarity.

  5. Magnetic field evolution during prominence eruptions and two-ribbon flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.; Forbes, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Simple models for the MHD eruption of a solar prominence are presented in which the prominence is treated as a twisted magnetic flux tube that is being repelled from the solar surface by magnetic pressure forces. Including a background magnetic field allows the prominence to be in equilibrium initially with an inverse polarity and then to erupt due to magnetic nonequilibrium when the background magnetic field is too small or the prominence twist is too great. The electric field at the neutral point below the prominence rapidly increases to a maximum value and then declines. Including the effect of gravity also allows an equilibrium with normal polarity to exist. Finally, an ideal MHD solution is found which incorporates self-consistently a current sheet below the prominence and which implies that a prominence will still erupt and form a current sheet even if no reconnection occurs. When reconnection is allowed it is, therefore, driven by the eruption.

  6. Prominent scapulae mimicking an inherited myopathy expands the phenotype of CHD7-related disease.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Gina L; Ma, Alan; Sival, Deborah; Wong, Monica T Y; Peduto, Tony; Menezes, Manoj P; Young, Helen; Waddell, Leigh; Ghaoui, Roula; Needham, Merrilee; Lek, Monkol; North, Kathryn N; MacArthur, Daniel G; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny Ma; Clarke, Nigel F

    2016-08-01

    CHD7 variants are a well-established cause of CHARGE syndrome, a disabling multi-system malformation disorder that is often associated with deafness, visual impairment and intellectual disability. Less severe forms of CHD7-related disease are known to exist, but the full spectrum of phenotypes remains uncertain. We identified a de novo missense variant in CHD7 in a family presenting with musculoskeletal abnormalities as the main manifestation of CHD7-related disease, representing a new phenotype. The proband presented with prominent scapulae, mild shoulder girdle weakness and only subtle dysmorphic features. Investigation revealed hypoplasia of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles and semicircular canal defects, but he did not fulfill diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome. Although the shoulders are often sloping and anteverted in CHARGE syndrome, the underlying neuromuscular cause has never been investigated. This report expands the phenotypes associated with CHD7 mutations to include a musculoskeletal presentation, with hypoplasia of the shoulder and neck muscles. CHD7 should be considered in patients presenting in childhood with stable scapular winging, particularly if accompanied by dysmorphic features and balance difficulties. PMID:26813943

  7. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  8. Substance Use is a Risk Factor for Neurocognitive Deficits and Neuropsychiatric Distress in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Moore, David J.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naïve adults with median duration of infection of 75 days, relative to sample a of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use. PMID:23250704

  9. Investigations of Solar Prominence Dynamics Using Laboratory Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M Bellan

    2008-05-28

    Laboratory experiments simulating many of the dynamical features of solar coronal loops have been carried out. These experiments manifest collimation, kinking, jet flows, and S-shapes. Diagnostics include high-speed photography and x-ray detectors. Two loops having opposite or the same magnetic helicity polarities have been merged and it is found that counter-helicity merging provides much greater x-ray emission. A non-MHD particle orbit instability has been discovered whereby ions going in the opposite direction of the current flow direction can be ejected from a magnetic flux tube.

  10. Measurement of Residual Flexibility for Substructures Having Prominent Flexible Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    structure in both test and analysis. Measured and predicted residual functions are compared, and regions of poor data in the measured curves are described. It is found that for accurate residual measurements, frequency response functions having prominent stiffness lines in the acceleration/force format are needed. The lack of such stiffness lines increases measurement errors. Interface drive point frequency respose functions for shuttle orbiter payloads exhibit dominant stiffness lines, making the residual test approach a good candidate for payload modal tests when constrained tests are inappropriate. Difficulties in extracting a residual flexibility value from noisy test data are discussed. It is shown that use of a weighted second order least-squares curve fit of the measured residual function allows identification of residual flexibility that compares very well with predictions for the simple structure. This approach also provides an estimate of second order residual mass effects.

  11. Baseline Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Risk of Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Geda, Yonas E.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Sochor, Ondřej; Tangalos, Eric G.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We conducted a prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by baseline neuropsychiatric status, in the setting of the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Method A classification of normal cognitive aging, MCI, and dementia was adjudicated by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using Cox proportional hazards model, with age as a time scale. Baseline Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data were available on 1,587 cognitively normal persons who underwent at least one follow-up visit. Results We followed the cohort (N=1,587) to incident MCI (N=365) or censoring variables (N=179) for a median of 5 years. The following baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms significantly predicted incident MCI, after adjusting for age, sex, education and medical comorbidity: agitation (HR=3.06; 95% CI=1.89–4.93), apathy (HR=2.26; 95% CI=1.49–3.41), anxiety (HR=1.87; 95% CI=1.28–2.73), irritability (HR=1.84; 95% CI=1.31–2.58), and depression (HR=1.63; 95% CI=1.23–2.16). Delusion (HR=0.55; 95% CI=0.08–3.95) and hallucination (HR=1.48; 95% CI=0.37–5.99) did not predict incident MCI. A secondary analysis showed that euphoria (HR=11.3; 95% CI=3.44–37.2), disinhibition (HR=5.18; 95% CI=2.24–12.0) and nighttime behavior (HR=2.04; 95% CI=1.11–3.76) were significant predictors of non-amnestic MCI but not of amnestic MCI. By contrast, depression predicted amnestic MCI (HR=1.74; 95% CI=1.22–2.47) but not non-amnestic MCI (HR=1.18; 95% CI=0.64–2.16). Conclusions Non-psychotic symptoms predicted incident MCI. However, the associations between baseline euphoria, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and the outcome of incident MCI should be considered preliminary since the observations were based on small number of events. PMID:24700290

  12. Advancing drug discovery for neuropsychiatric disorders using patient-specific stem cell models.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, Stephen J; Silva, M Catarina; Cross, Alan; Brandon, Nicholas J; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-06-01

    Compelling clinical, social, and economic reasons exist to innovate in the process of drug discovery for neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) now affords the ability to generate neuronal cell-based models that recapitulate key aspects of human disease. In the context of neuropsychiatric disorders, where access to physiologically active and relevant cell types of the central nervous system for research is extremely limiting, iPSC-derived in vitro culture of human neurons and glial cells is transformative. Potential applications relevant to early stage drug discovery, include support of quantitative biochemistry, functional genomics, proteomics, and perhaps most notably, high-throughput and high-content chemical screening. While many phenotypes in human iPSC-derived culture systems may prove adaptable to screening formats, addressing the question of which in vitro phenotypes are ultimately relevant to disease pathophysiology and therefore more likely to yield effective pharmacological agents that are disease-modifying treatments requires careful consideration. Here, we review recent examples of studies of neuropsychiatric disorders using human stem cell models where cellular phenotypes linked to disease and functional assays have been reported. We also highlight technical advances using genome-editing technologies in iPSCs to support drug discovery efforts, including the interpretation of the functional significance of rare genetic variants of unknown significance and for the purpose of creating cell type- and pathway-selective functional reporter assays. Additionally, we evaluate the potential of in vitro stem cell models to investigate early events of disease pathogenesis, in an effort to understand the underlying molecular mechanism, including the basis of selective cell-type vulnerability, and the potential to create new cell-based diagnostics to aid in the classification of patients and subsequent

  13. Using Prominence Mass Inferences in Different Coronal Lines to Obtain the He/H Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a new technique for deriving prominence mass by observing how much coronal radiation in the Fe XI1 (lambda 195) spectral line is absorbed by prominence material. In the present work we apply this method, which allows us to consider the effects of both foreground and background radiation in our calculations, to a sample of prominences absorbing in a coronal line that ionizes both H and He (h < 504 Angstroms), and a line that ionizes only H (504 Angstroms < lambda < 911 Angstroms). This approach, first suggested by Kucera et al. (1998), permits the determination of the abundance ratio [He I]/[H I] of neutral helium and hydrogen in the prominence. This ratio should depend on how the prominence is formed, on its current thermodynamic state, and on its dynamical evolution. Thus, it may provide useful insights into the formation and evolution of prominences.

  14. Using Prominence Mass Inferences in Different Coronal Lines to Obtain the He/H Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a new technique for deriving prominence mass by observing how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (lambda195) spectral Line is absorbed by prominence material. In the present work we apply this method. which allows us to consider the effects of both foreground and background radiation in our calculations, to a sample of prominences absorbing in a coronal line that ionizes both H and He (lambda < 504 Angstroms), and a line that ionizes only H (504 Angstroms < lambda < 911 Angstroms). This approach, first suggested by Mucera et al. (1998). permits the determination of the abundance ratio [He I]/[H I] of neutral helium and hydrogen in the prominence. This ratio should depend on how the prominence is formed, on its current thermodynamic state, and on its dynamical evolution. Thus, it may provide useful insights into the formation and evolution of prominences.

  15. Quiescent Prominence Structure and Dynamics: a new View From the Hinode/SOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.; Okamoto, J.; Slater, G.; Magara, T.; Tarbell, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Hurlburt, N.

    2008-05-01

    To date the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) has produced over a dozen sub-arcsecond, multi-hour movies of quiescent solar prominences in both the Ca II 396.8~nm H-line and the H-alpha 656.3~nm line. These datasets have revealed new details of the structure and dynamics of quiescent prominences including a new form of mass transport in the form of buoyant plume upflows from the chromosphere. We review the SOT prominence datasets to show that quiescent prominences appear in two major morphological categories: "vertically" and "horizontally" structured. The vertically structured prominences all show ubiquitous downflows in 400--700~km wide "streams" with velocities of approximately 10~km~s-1. Most of the vertically structured prominences also show episodic upflows in the form of dark turbulent plumes with typical velocities of 20~km~s-1. Large-scale oscillations are frequently seen in vertical prominences with periods on the order of 10 min and upward propagation speeds of approximately 10~km~s-1. In addition, "bubble" events in which large voids 10--30~Mm across inflate and then burst are seen in some of the vertical prominences. In contrast, the horizontally structured quiescent prominences exhibit only limited flows along the horizontal filaments. We speculate on the origin of the distinction between the vertically and horizontally structured prominences, taking into account viewing angle and the underlying photospheric magnetic flux density. We also discuss the nature of the mysterious dark plumes and bubble expansions and their implications for prominence mass balance in light of recent models of prominence magnetic structure that find vertical flows along some field lines.

  16. The role of Alfvén wave heating in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis

    2016-07-01

    Observations have shown that magnetohydrodynamic waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in solar prominences. The waves are probably driven by photospheric motions and may transport energy up to prominences suspended in the corona. Dissipation of wave energy can lead to heating of the cool prominence plasma, thereby contributing to the local energy balance within the prominence. Here we discuss the role of Alfvén wave dissipation as a heating mechanism for the prominence plasma. We consider a slab-like quiescent prominence model with a transverse magnetic field embedded in the solar corona. The prominence medium is modeled as a partially ionized plasma composed of a charged ion-electron single fluid and two separate neutral fluids corresponding to neutral hydrogen and neutral helium. Friction between the three fluids acts as a dissipative mechanism for the waves. The heating caused by Alfvén waves incident on the prominence slab is analytically explored. We find that the dense prominence slab acts as a resonant cavity for the waves. The fraction of incident wave energy that is channeled into the slab strongly depends upon the wave period, P. Using typical prominence conditions, we obtain that wave energy trapping and associated heating are negligible when P ≳ 100 s, so that it is unlikely that those waves have a relevant influence on prominence energetics. When 1 s ≲ P ≲ 100 s the energy absorption into the slab shows several sharp and narrow peaks that can reach up to ~100% when the incident wave frequency matches a cavity resonance of the slab. Wave heating is enhanced at those resonant frequencies. Conversely, when P ≲ 1 s cavity resonances are absent, but the waves are heavily damped by the strong dissipation. We estimate that wave heating may compensate for about 10% of radiative losses of the prominence plasma.

  17. Hinode/SOT Measurements of Flows and Waves in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Okamoto, Takenori; Schmieder, Brigitte

    We review Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) measurements of flows and waves in quies-cent and active solar prominences. In quiescent prominences, Hinode/SOT observations have revealed a new mode of buoyant transport in the form of dark upflows that originate at the chromospheric base of the prominence. The upflows can take the form of large-scale (10 Mm) "bubbles" that rise through the entire prominence into the overlying coronal cavity, or they can take the form of numerous small-scale (1 Mm) plumes that generate from an apparent Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the boundary between the prominence and the impinging buoy-ant flow system. The episodic flows directly inject mass, magnetic flux, and helicity into the overlying coronal cavity, moving the system towards destabilization and eruption in the form of CMEs. Hinode/SOT quiescent prominence observations have also verified the existence of ubiquitous downflow streams and vortex flows confirming that prominences are far from magne-tostatic conditions. Tracking and doppler measurements of prominence downflows find speeds of 5-15 km s-1 and imply that the trajectories are not strictly vertical. Active region promi-nence studies find counter-streaming flows along horizontal magnetic field lines with velocities of 20-30 km s-1 ; upflows, downflow streams, and rotational flows have not been observed in these systems. Active Region prominence field lines exhibit transverse oscillations indicative of Alfv`n waves with periods of several minutes, amplitudes of 1 Mm, and wavelengths of 250 Mm or more. These properties are consistent with magnetic field strengths of 50 gauss or more at typical prominence density conditions and carry enough energy to heat the surrounding prominence/corona transition region (PCTR).

  18. The NSW brain tissue resource centre: Banking for alcohol and major neuropsychiatric disorders research.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, G T; Sheedy, D; Stevens, J; McCrossin, T; Smith, C C; van Roijen, M; Kril, J J

    2016-05-01

    The New South Wales Brain Tissue Resource Centre (NSWBTRC) at the University of Sydney (Australia) is an established human brain bank providing tissue to the neuroscience research community for investigations on alcohol-related brain damage and major psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. The NSWBTRC relies on wide community engagement to encourage those with and without neuropsychiatric illness to consent to donation through its allied research programs. The subsequent provision of high-quality samples relies on standardized operational protocols, associated clinical data, quality control measures, integrated information systems, robust infrastructure, and governance. These processes are continually augmented to complement the changes in internal and external governance as well as the complexity and diversity of advanced investigation techniques. This report provides an overview of the dynamic process of brain banking and discusses the challenges of meeting the future needs of researchers, including synchronicity with other disease-focus collections. PMID:27139235

  19. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS): a Controversial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sheila Knupp Feitosa; Pelajo, Christina Feitosa

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of studying pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), it is still not possible to confirm its existence and whether it is a poststreptococcal autoimmune disorder. Many controversies remain: the diagnostic criteria have not been validated, evidence of autoimmunity remains inconclusive, evidence of a genetic predisposition is weak, and streptococcal infections are common in childhood and could represent only a trigger of exacerbations of tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Patients who fit the PANDAS criteria appear to represent a subgroup of children with chronic tic disorder and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder who may experience symptom exacerbations after group A β-hemolytic streptococci infections; however, those infections are not the sole or even the most common antecedent of exacerbations. There is not enough evidence to support PANDAS as a unique clinical entity. PMID:21308506

  20. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime. PMID:12455663

  1. The epigenome, 4D nucleome and next-generation neuropsychiatric pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Gerald A; Allyn-Feuer, Ari; Handelman, Samuel; Sadee, Wolfgang; Athey, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    The 4D nucleome has the potential to render challenges in neuropsychiatric pharmacogenomics more tractable. The epigenome roadmap consortium has demonstrated the critical role that noncoding regions of the human genome play in determination of human phenotype. Chromosome conformation capture methods have revealed the 4D organization of the nucleus, bringing interactions between distant regulatory elements into close spatial proximity in a periodic manner. These functional interactions have the potential to elucidate mechanisms of CNS drug response and side effects that previously have been unrecognized. This perspective assesses recent advances likely to reveal novel pharmacodynamic regulatory pathways in human brain, charting a future new avenue of pharmacogenomics research, using the spatial and temporal architecture of the human epigenome as its foundation. PMID:26338265

  2. Severe neuropsychiatric reaction in a deployed military member after prophylactic mefloquine.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alan L; Seegmiller, Robert A; Schindler, Libby S

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects. PMID:22937403

  3. Current Neurogenic and Neuroprotective Strategies to Prevent and Treat Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, I M; Coelho, P B; Costa, P C; Marques, C S; Oliveira, R S; Ferreira, D C

    2015-12-01

    The adult central nervous system is commonly known to have a very limited regenerative capacity. The presence of functional stem cells in the brain can therefore be seen as a paradox, since in other organs these are known to counterbalance cell loss derived from pathological conditions. This fact has therefore raised the possibility to stimulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation or survival by either stem cell replacement therapy or direct administration of neurotrophic factors or other proneurogenic molecules, which in turn has also originated regenerative medicine for the treatment of otherwise incurable neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders that take a huge toll on society. This may be facilitated by the fact that many of these disorders converge on similar pathophysiological pathways: excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial failure, excessive intracellular calcium and apoptosis. This review will therefore focus on the most promising achievements in promoting neuroprotection and neuroregeneration reported to date. PMID:26374113

  4. Neuropsychiatric symptoms as early manifestations of emergent dementia: Provisional diagnostic criteria for mild behavioral impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Smith, Eric E.; Geda, Yonas; Sultzer, David; Brodaty, Henry; Smith, Gwenn; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Sweet, Rob; Miller, David; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in dementia and in predementia syndromes such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NPS in MCI confer a greater risk for conversion to dementia in comparison to MCI patients without NPS. NPS in older adults with normal cognition also confers a greater risk of cognitive decline in comparison to older adults without NPS. Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) has been proposed as a diagnostic construct aimed to identify patients with an increased risk of developing dementia, but who may or may not have cognitive symptoms. We propose criteria that include MCI in the MBI framework, in contrast to prior definitions of MBI. Although MBI and MCI can co-occur, we suggest that they are different and that both portend a higher risk of dementia. These MBI criteria extend the previous literature in this area and will serve as a template for validation of the MBI construct from epidemiologic, neurobiological, treatment, and prevention perspectives. PMID:26096665

  5. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease: What might be associated brain circuits?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Paul B.; Nowrangi, Milap A.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are very common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), particularly agitation, apathy, depression, and delusions. Brain networks or circuits underlying these symptoms are just starting to be understood, and there is a growing imaging and neurochemical evidence base for understanding potential mechanisms for NPS. We offer a synthetic review of the recent literature and offer hypotheses for potential networks/circuits underlying these NPS, particularly agitation, apathy, and delusions. Agitation in AD appears to be associated with deficits in structure and function of frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and may be associated with mechanisms underlying misinterpretation of threats and affective regulation. Apathy in AD is associated with frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, as well as orbitofrontal cortex, and inferior temporal cortex, and may be associated with mechanisms underlying avoidance behaviors. PMID:26049034

  6. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool. PMID:26216589

  7. Translational neurobiology in Shank mutant mice--model systems for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmeisser, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    The Shank family comprises three core postsynaptic scaffold proteins of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain: Shank1, Shank2 and Shank3. Since mutations in all three human SHANK genes are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, Shank mutant mice serve as corresponding in vivo model systems. Besides intriguing alterations in behavior, dysfunction of glutamatergic synapses has emerged as a pathological hallmark among several Shank mutant lines. However, there is very limited knowledge of the underlying pathomechanisms. Therefore, precise neurobiological evaluation of morphological, molecular and electrophysiological phenotypes in Shank mutants is crucially needed. In this brief review, I will focus on the Shank mutant mouse lines we have generated so far and discuss how they might help us to develop translational treatment studies in the future. PMID:25917711

  8. Histamine H3 receptor as a potential target for cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Sadeq, Adel; Jalal, Fakhreya; Stark, Holger

    2016-10-01

    The potential contributions of the brain histaminergic system in neurodegenerative diseases, and the possiblity of histamine-targeting treatments is attracting considerable interests. The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed mainly in the central nervous system, and is, consequently, an attractive pharmacological target. Although recently described clinical trials have been disappointing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia (SCH), numerous H3R antagonists, including pitolisant, demonstrate potential in the treatment of narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness associated with cognitive impairment, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review focuses on the recent preclinical as well as clinical results that support the relevance of H3R antagonists for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases, namely AD, epilepsy and SCH. The review summarizes the role of histaminergic neurotransmission with focus on these brain disorders, as well as the effects of numerous H3R antagonists on animal models and humans. PMID:27363923

  9. Post-steroid neuropsychiatric manifestations are significantly more frequent in SLE compared with other systemic autoimmune diseases and predict better prognosis compared with de novo neuropsychiatric SLE.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuka; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Kako, Yuki; Nakagawa, Shin; Kanda, Masatoshi; Hisada, Ryo; Ohmura, Kazumasa; Shimamura, Sanae; Shida, Haruki; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Kato, Masaru; Oku, Kenji; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Horita, Tetsuya; Kusumi, Ichiro; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-08-01

    In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms sometimes occur after administration of corticosteroids, making differential diagnosis between NPSLE and steroid-induced psychosis challenging for clinicians. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of post-steroid NP disease (PSNP) in patients with SLE. Clinical courses of 146 patients with SLE and 162 with other systemic autoimmune diseases, all in the absence of NP manifestations on admission, were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-three NPSLE patients on admission (de novo NPSLE) were also investigated. All patients were consecutively recruited and treated with 40mg/day or more of prednisolone in Hokkaido University Hospital between April 2002 and March 2015. The prevalence of PSNP was strikingly higher in SLE patients than other systemic autoimmune diseases (24.7% vs. 7.4%, OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.04-8.22). As independent risk factors to develop PSNP in SLE patients, past history of mental disorder and the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. In patients with PSNP-SLE, mood disorder was significantly more frequent than in de novo NPSLE (47.2% vs. 20.9%, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.26-9.04). Of PSNP-SLE patients, two-thirds were with one or more abnormal findings in cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram, MRI or SPECT. Majority of our PSNP-SLE patients received intensified immunosuppressive treatments and experienced improvement in most cases. PSNP-SLE had better relapse-free survival than de novo NPSLE (p<0.05, log rank test). In conclusion, PSNP frequently occurred in patients with SLE and treated successfully with immunosuppressive therapy, indicating that NPSLE is likely to harbor patients with PSNP-SLE. PMID:27016478

  10. An Investigation of the Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Adults with Undiagnosed and/or Untreated Phenylketonuria in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Artur; Jarochowicz, Sabina; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Gradowska, Wanda; Januszek-Trzciakowska, Aleksandra; O'Malley, Grace; Kwolek, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations in a group of patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in the south-eastern part of Poland. Methods: The study was conducted among 400 adults with severe intellectual disability who were born prior to neonatal screening…

  11. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  12. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  13. Micro spies from the brain to the periphery: new clues from studies on microRNAs in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Tardito, Daniela; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (20–22 nucleotides) playing a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are predicted to regulate more than 50% of all the protein-coding genes. Increasing evidence indicates that they may play key roles in the biological pathways that regulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurotransmitter homeostasis in the adult brain. In this article we review recent studies suggesting that miRNAs may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of psychotropic drugs, in particular by analyzing the contribution of genomic studies in patients' peripheral tissues. Alterations in miRNA expression have been observed in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In particular, intriguing findings concern the identification of disease-associated miRNA signatures in peripheral tissues, or modifications in miRNA profiles induced by drug treatments. Furthermore, genetic variations in miRNA sequences and miRNA-related genes have been described in neuropsychiatric diseases. Overall, though still at a preliminary stage, several lines of evidence indicate an involvement of miRNAs in both the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, the data obtained in peripheral tissues may provide further insights into the etiopathogenesis of several brain diseases and contribute to identify new biomarkers for diagnostic assessment improvement and treatment personalization. PMID:24653674

  14. Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Treatment of Twelve Youths with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Miro; Grant, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is a case series describing 12 youths treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Although it is a clinically based series, the case reports provide new information about the short-term benefits of IVIG therapy, and are the first descriptions of long-term outcome for PANDAS patients. PMID:25658609

  15. Management of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magro-Checa, César; Zirkzee, Elisabeth J; Huizinga, Tom W; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a generic definition referring to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NPSLE includes heterogeneous and rare neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. Due to the lack of a gold standard, the attribution of NP symptoms to SLE represents a clinical challenge that obligates the strict exclusion of any other potential cause. In the acute setting, management of these patients does not differ from other non-SLE subjects presenting with the same NP manifestation. Afterwards, an individualized therapeutic strategy, depending on the presenting manifestation and severity of symptoms, must be started. Clinical trials in NPSLE are scarce and most of the data are extracted from case series and case reports. High-dose glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide remain the cornerstone for patients with severe symptoms that are thought to reflect inflammation or an underlying autoimmune process. Rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis may be used if response is not achieved. When patients present with mild to moderate NP manifestations, or when maintenance therapy is warranted, azathioprine and mycophenolate may be considered. When symptoms are thought to reflect a thrombotic underlying process, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of therapy, especially if antiphospholipid antibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome are present. Recent trials on SLE using new biologicals, based on newly understood SLE mechanisms, have shown promising results. Based on what we currently know about its pathogenesis, it is tempting to speculate how these new therapies may affect the management of NPSLE patients. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of NPSLE. We describe the most

  16. Hepatitis C virus-associated neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders: Advances in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Salvatore; Mariotto, Sara; Ferrari, Sergio; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Gajofatto, Alberto; Sansonno, Domenico; Dammacco, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Since its identification in 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a worldwide health problem with roughly 185 million chronic infections, representing individuals at high risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer. In addition to being a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality due to liver disease, HCV has emerged as an important trigger of lymphoproliferative disorders, owing to its lymphotropism, and of a wide spectrum of extra-hepatic manifestations (HCV-EHMs) affecting different organ systems. The most frequently observed HCV-EHMs include mixed cryoglobulinemia and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, nephropathies, thyreopathies, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and several neurological conditions. In addition, neuropsychiatric disorders and neurocognitive dysfunction are reported in nearly 50% of patients with chronic HCV infection, which are independent of the severity of liver disease or HCV replication rates. Fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression and reduced quality of life are commonly associated with neurocognitive alterations in patients with non-cirrhotic chronic HCV infection, regardless of the stage of liver fibrosis and the infecting genotype. These manifestations, which are the topic of this review, typically occur in the absence of structural brain damage or signal abnormalities on conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although metabolic and microstructural changes can be detected by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, perfusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI, and neurophysiological tests of cognitive processing. Several lines of evidence, including comparative and longitudinal neuropsychological assessments in patients achieving spontaneous or treatment-induced viral clearance, support a major pathogenic role for HCV in neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26576086

  17. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in workers occupationally exposed to jet fuel--a combined epidemiological and casuistic study.

    PubMed

    Struwe, G; Knave, B; Mindus, P

    1983-01-01

    Some aircraft personel and airline industry workers are exposed to jet fuel, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (aromatic hydrocarbons 20%). In order to evaluate the possible neuropsychiatric sequeale of such long-term occupational exposure, we examined 30 workers exposed at about 250 mg/m3 for 4-32 years at a jet motor factory. They were compared with two control groups (2 x 30) of matched non-exposed workers. The medical history was first assessed by standardized interviews and examination of medical records kept by the factory physician. The exposed subjects had, after their employment, much more often sought medical advice because of emotional dysfunctions, such as depression and anxiety, than had the control groups (P less than 0.005). When the prevalent mental symptoms, indicative of brain lesion, later were rated by psychiatrists, the exposed workers scored higher than did the controls (P less than 0.001). 14 subjects showing most symptoms were then selected for a thorough neuropsychiatric clinical investigation comprising psychosocial inquiries, psychological testing, personality assessment and neurological/neurophysiological examination. Seven were judged to suffer from mild organic brain syndrome (i.e. "organic neurasthenia") of which one subject was a severe case. The subjects had all undergone a slow but steady personality change over the years--starting from an ordinary strength without neurotic traits and moving towards an asthenic state with fatigue, anxiety and vegetative hyperreactivity. No other cause for this change could be identified as an alternative to the occupational exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded that personality changes and emotional dysfunctions are the foremost effects of such long-term exposure to petroleum products. PMID:6575584

  18. Cryptic and Complex Chromosomal Aberrations in Early-Onset Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Harrison; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Collins, Ryan L.; Eggert, Stacey; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Braaten, Ellen B.; Stone, Matthew R.; Chambert, Kimberly; Doty, Nathan D.; Hanscom, Carrie; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Ditmars, Hillary; Blais, Jessica; Mills, Ryan; Lee, Charles; Gusella, James F.; McCarroll, Steven; Smoller, Jordan W.; Talkowski, Michael E.; Doyle, Alysa E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural variation (SV) is a significant component of the genetic etiology of both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders; however, routine guidelines for clinical genetic screening have been established only in the former category. Genome-wide chromosomal microarray (CMA) can detect genomic imbalances such as copy-number variants (CNVs), but balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs) still require karyotyping for clinical detection. Moreover, submicroscopic BCAs and subarray threshold CNVs are intractable, or cryptic, to both CMA and karyotyping. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing using large-insert jumping libraries to delineate both cytogenetically visible and cryptic SVs in a single test among 30 clinically referred youth representing a range of severe neuropsychiatric conditions. We detected 96 SVs per person on average that passed filtering criteria above our highest-confidence resolution (6,305 bp) and an additional 111 SVs per genome below this resolution. These SVs rearranged 3.8 Mb of genomic sequence and resulted in 42 putative loss-of-function (LoF) or gain-of-function mutations per person. We estimate that 80% of the LoF variants were cryptic to clinical CMA. We found myriad complex and cryptic rearrangements, including a “paired” duplication (360 kb, 169 kb) that flanks a 5.25 Mb inversion that appears in 7 additional cases from clinical CNV data among 47,562 individuals. Following convergent genomic profiling of these independent clinical CNV data, we interpreted three SVs to be of potential clinical significance. These data indicate that sequence-based delineation of the full SV mutational spectrum warrants exploration in youth referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation and clinical diagnostic SV screening more broadly. PMID:25279985

  19. Undiagnosed Illness and Neuropsychiatric Behaviors In Community-residing Older Adults with Dementia1

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Czekanski, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective analysis was to examine prevalence of undiagnosed acute illness and characteristics including neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with illness in community-residing older adults with Alzheimer’s disease or related disorders. Subjects included 265 community-residing older adults with dementia who participated in one of two interventions being tested in randomized clinical trials. Measures included a brief nursing assessment and lab evaluations including complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry (Chem 7), and thyroid function tests of serum samples and culture and sensitivity tests of urine samples. Undiagnosed illness was identified according to currently published criteria. Neuropsychiatric behaviors were assessed using 21 behaviors derived from standard measures. Thirty-six percent (N= 96) of patients had clinical findings indicative of undetected illness. Conditions most prevalent were bacteriuria (15%), followed by hyperglycemia (6%) and anemia (5%). The behavior most often demonstrated among those with detected illness was resisting or refusing care (66% versus 47% for those without detected illness). Individuals with detected illness had significantly lower functional status scores (3.8 vs. 4.4, t(275) = 7.01, p = .01), lower cognitive status scores (10.5 vs. 14.4, t(275) =12.1, p<.01) and were more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications for behavior (41% vs. 26%, Chi2= 3.67, p<.05) than those without illness. Findings suggest that challenges of diagnosing acute illness with atypical presentation must be addressed to promote quality of care and the specialized needs for this vulnerable population. PMID:20921879

  20. Methamphetamine use and neuropsychiatric factors are associated with antiretroviral non-adherence.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Woods, Steven Paul; Ellis, Ronald J; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The present study assesses the impact of methamphetamine (METH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV+ persons, as well as examines the contribution of neurocognitive impairment and other neuropsychiatric factors [i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and attention deficit disorder (ADHD)] for ART non-adherence. We examined HIV+ persons with DSM-IV-diagnosed lifetime history of METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /METH+ ; n=67) as compared to HIV+ participants with no history of METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /METH - ; n=50). Ancillary analyses compared these groups with a small group of HIV+ /METH+ persons with current METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /CU METH+ ; n=8). Non-adherence was defined as self-report of any skipped ART dose in the last four days. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed with a comprehensive battery, covering seven neuropsychological domains. Lifetime METH diagnosis was associated with higher rates of detectable levels of plasma and CSF HIV RNA. When combing groups (i.e., METH+ and METH- participants), univariate analyses indicated co-occurring ADHD, ASPD, and MDD predicted ART non-adherence (p's < 0.10; not lifetime METH status or neurocognitive impairment). A significant multivariable model including these variables indicated that only MDD uniquely predicted ART non-adherence after controlling for the other variables (p<0.05). Ancillary analyses indicated that current METH users (use within 30 days) were significantly less adherent (50% prevalence of non-adherence) than lifetime METH+ users and HIV+ /METH- participants and that neurocognitive impairment was associated with non-adherence (p's < 0.05). METH use disorders are associated with worse HIV disease outcomes and ART medication non-adherence. Interventions often target substance use behaviors alone to enhance antiretroviral treatment outcomes; however, in addition to targeting substance use behaviors, interventions to improve ART adherence may

  1. From Autism to Eating Disorders and More: The Role of Oxytocin in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Romano, Adele; Tempesta, Bianca; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Gaetani, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (oxy) is a pituitary neuropeptide hormone synthesized from the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei within the hypothalamus. Like other neuropeptides, oxy can modulate a wide range of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator activities. Additionally, through the neurohypophysis, oxy is secreted into the systemic circulation to act as a hormone, thereby influencing several body functions. Oxy plays a pivotal role in parturition, milk let-down and maternal behavior and has been demonstrated to be important in the formation of pair bonding between mother and infants as well as in mating pairs. Furthermore, oxy has been proven to play a key role in the regulation of several behaviors associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including social interactions, social memory response to social stimuli, decision-making in the context of social interactions, feeding behavior, emotional reactivity, etc. An increasing body of evidence suggests that deregulations of the oxytocinergic system might be involved in the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, eating disorders, schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. The potential use of oxy in these mental health disorders is attracting growing interest since numerous beneficial properties are ascribed to this neuropeptide. The present manuscript will review the existing findings on the role played by oxy in a variety of distinct physiological and behavioral functions (Figure 1) and on its role and impact in different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the need of further investigations on this target that might contribute to the development of novel more efficacious therapies. Figure 1Oxytocin regulatory control of different and complex processes. PMID:26793046

  2. “Getting physical”: the management of neuropsychiatric disorders using novel physical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Gin S; Loo, Colleen; Cahill, Catherine M; Lagopoulos, Jim; Mitchell, Philip; Sachdev, Perminder

    2006-01-01

    Objective To summarize and review the utility of physical interventions in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Methods A systematic review of the literature pertaining to novel physical interventions, namely, transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and neurosurgery, was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PSYCHLIT. Bibliographies of papers were scrutinized for further relevant references along with literature known to the authors. Results Currently available physical interventions worldwide are reviewed with respect to efficacy, applications, and putative indications. Physical interventions have experienced a resurgence of interest for both the investigation of brain function and the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The widespread availability of neuroimaging technology has advanced our understanding of brain function and allowed closer examination of the effects of physical treatments. Clinically, transcranial magnetic stimulation seems likely to have a role in the management of depression, and its use in other neuropsychiatric disorders appears promising. Following on from its success in the management of intractable epilepsy, vagus nerve stimulation is undergoing evaluation in the treatment of depression with some success in refractory cases. Deep brain stimulation has improved mood in patients with Parkinson’s disease and may also relieve symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neurosurgery has re-invented itself by way of increased technical sophistication, and although further assessment of its efficacy and clinical utility is still needed, its widespread practice reflects its increasing acceptance as a viable treatment of last resort. Conclusion It is clear that physical treatments are here to stay and “getting physical” offers a useful addition to the neuropsychiatrist’s therapeutic armamentarium. However, like all new treatments these interventions need to remain under rigorous scientific

  3. From Autism to Eating Disorders and More: The Role of Oxytocin in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Adele; Tempesta, Bianca; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Gaetani, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (oxy) is a pituitary neuropeptide hormone synthesized from the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei within the hypothalamus. Like other neuropeptides, oxy can modulate a wide range of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator activities. Additionally, through the neurohypophysis, oxy is secreted into the systemic circulation to act as a hormone, thereby influencing several body functions. Oxy plays a pivotal role in parturition, milk let-down and maternal behavior and has been demonstrated to be important in the formation of pair bonding between mother and infants as well as in mating pairs. Furthermore, oxy has been proven to play a key role in the regulation of several behaviors associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including social interactions, social memory response to social stimuli, decision-making in the context of social interactions, feeding behavior, emotional reactivity, etc. An increasing body of evidence suggests that deregulations of the oxytocinergic system might be involved in the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, eating disorders, schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. The potential use of oxy in these mental health disorders is attracting growing interest since numerous beneficial properties are ascribed to this neuropeptide. The present manuscript will review the existing findings on the role played by oxy in a variety of distinct physiological and behavioral functions (Figure 1) and on its role and impact in different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the need of further investigations on this target that might contribute to the development of novel more efficacious therapies. Figure 1Oxytocin regulatory control of different and complex processes. PMID:26793046

  4. The basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, V T; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate deficiency has been associated with macrocytic anemia and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In some of these, despite normal systemic levels, folate transport to the brain is impaired in the so-called cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes presenting as developmental and psychiatric disorders. These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoimmunity with low CSF N(5)-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) underlies most CFD syndromes, whereas FRα gene abnormalities and mitochondrial gene defects are rarely found. The age at which FRα antibodies of the blocking type emerge, determines the clinical phenotype. Infantile CFD syndrome and autism with neurological deficits tend to be characterized by elevated FRα antibody titers and low CSF MTHF. In contrast, in infantile autism and intractable schizophrenia, abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms may wax and wane with fluctuating FRα antibody titers over time accompanied by cycling changes in CSF folate, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and neurotransmitter metabolites ranging between low and normal levels. We propose a hypothetical model explaining the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on findings from clinical, genetic, spinal fluid and MRI spectroscopic studies, we discuss the neurochemical changes associated with these disorders, metabolic and regulatory pathways, synthesis and catabolism of neurotransmitters, and the impact of oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of these conditions. A diagnostic algorithm and therapeutic regimens using high dose folinic acid

  5. The physical environment influences neuropsychiatric symptoms and other outcomes in assisted living residents

    PubMed Central

    Bicket, Mark C.; Samus, Quincy M.; McNabney, Mathew; Onyike, Chiadi U.; Mayer, Lawrence S.; Brandt, Jason; Rabins, Peter; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rosenblatt, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although the number of elderly residents living in assisted living (AL) facilities is rising, few studies have examined the AL physical environment and its impact on resident well-being. We sought to quantify the relationship of AL physical environment with resident outcomes including neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), quality of life (QOL), and fall risk, and to compare the effects for demented and non-demented residents. Methods Prospective cohort study of a stratified random sample of 326 AL residents living in 21 AL facilities. Measures included the Therapeutic Environmental Screening Scale for Nursing Homes and Residential Care (TESS-NH/RC) to rate facilities and in-person assessment of residents for diagnosis (and assessment of treatment) of dementia, ratings on standardized clinical, cognitive, and QOL measures. Regression models compared environmental measures with outcomes. TESS-NH/RC is modified into a scale for rating the AL physical environment AL-EQS. Results The AL Environmental Quality Score (AL-EQS) was strongly negatively associated with Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score (p <0.001), positively associated with Alzheimer Disease Related Quality of Life (ADRQL) score (p = 0.010), and negatively correlated with fall risk (p = 0.042). Factor analysis revealed an excellent two-factor solution, Dignity and Sensory. Both were strongly associated with NPI and associated with ADRQL. Conclusion The physical environment of AL facilities likely affects NPS and QOL in AL residents, and the effect may be stronger for residents without dementia than for residents with dementia. Environmental manipulations that increase resident privacy, as well as implementing call buttons and telephones, may improve resident well-being. PMID:20077498

  6. The Psychoimmunology of Lyme/Tick-Borne Diseases and its Association with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Disease progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Lyme/tick-borne diseases can be better understood by greater attention to psychoimmunology. Although there are multiple contributors that provoke and weaken the immune system, infections and persistent infections are significant causes of pathological immune reactions. Immune mediated ef-fects are a significant contributor to the pathophysiological processes and disease progression. These immune effects in-clude persistent inflammation with cytokine effects and molecular mimicry and both of these mechanisms may be present at the same time in persistent infections. Sickness syndrome associated with interferon treatment and autoimmune limbic encephalopathies are models to understand inflammatory and molecular mimicry effects upon neuropsychiatric symp-toms. Progressive inflammatory reactions have been proposed as a model to explain disease progression in depression, psychosis, dementia, epilepsy, autism and other mental illnesses and pathophysiological changes have been associated with oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, changes in homocysteine metabolism and altered tryptophan catabolism. Lyme dis-ease has been associated with the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and interferon-gamma, the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13 and increased levels proinflammatory lipoproteins. Borrelia burgdorferi surface gly-colipids and flagella antibodies appear to elicit anti-neuronal antibodies and anti-neuronal antibodies and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins can disseminate from the periphery to inflame the brain. Autism spectrum disorders associated with Lyme/tick-borne diseases may be mediated by a combination of inflammatory and molecular mimicry mechanisms. Greater interaction is needed between infectious disease specialists, immunologists and psychiatrists to benefit from this awareness and to further understand these mechanisms. PMID:23091569

  7. Do reductions in brain N-acetylaspartate levels contribute to the etiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Ariyannur, Prasanth S; Arun, Peethambaran; Barry, Erin S; Andrews-Shigaki, Brian; Bosomtwi, Asamoah; Tang, Haiying; Selwyn, Reed; Grunberg, Neil E; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2013-07-01

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is recognized as a noninvasive diagnostic neuronal marker for a host of neuropsychiatric disorders using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Numerous correlative clinical studies have found significant decreases in NAA levels in specific neuronal systems in an array of neuropsychiatric and substance-abuse disorders. We have recently identified the methamphetamine-induced neuronal protein known as "shati" as the NAA biosynthetic enzyme (aspartate N-acetyltransferase [Asp-NAT]; gene Nat8l). We have generated an Nat8l transgenic knockout mouse line to study the functions of NAA in the nervous system. We were unable to breed homozygous Nat8l knockout mice successfully for study and so used the heterozygous mice (Nat8l(+/-) ) for initial characterization. MRS analysis of the Nat8l(+/-) mice indicated significant reductions in NAA in cortex (-38%) and hypothalamus (-29%) compared with wild-type controls, which was confirmed using HPLC (-29% in forebrain). The level of the neuromodulator N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), which is synthesized from NAA, was decreased by 12% in forebrain as shown by HPLC. Behavioral analyses of the heterozygous animals indicated normal behavior in most respects but reduced vertical activity in open-field tests compared with age- and sex-matched wild-type mice of the same strain. Nat8l(+/-) mice also showed atypical locomotor responses to methamphetamine administration, suggesting that NAA is involved in modulating the hyperactivity effect of methamphetamine. These observations add to accumulating evidence suggesting that NAA has specific regulatory functional roles in mesolimbic and prefrontal neuronal pathways either directly or indirectly through impact on NAAG synthesis PMID:23633398

  8. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a summary of current scientific evidence about the cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) with regards to their relevance to epilepsy and other selected neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods We summarize the presentations from a conference in which invited participants reviewed relevant aspects of the physiology, mechanisms of action, pharmacology and data from studies with animal models and human subjects. Results Cannabis has been used to treat disease since ancient times. Δ9-THC is the major psychoactive ingredient and cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabis and Δ9-THC are anticonvulsant in most animal models but can be proconvulsant in some healthy animals. Psychotropic effects of Δ9-THC limit tolerability. CBD is anticonvulsant in many acute animal models but there is limited data in chronic models. The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of melastatin type 8 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; the α3 and α1 glycine receptors; and the transient receptor potential of ankyrin type 1 channel. CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. CBD appears to be well tolerated in humans but small and methodologically limited studies of CBD in human epilepsy have been inconclusive. More recent anecdotal reports of high-ratio CBD:Δ9-THC medical marijuana have claimed efficacy, but studies were not controlled. Significance CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, we lack data from well-powered double-blind randomized, controlled studies on the efficacy of pure CBD for any disorder. Initial dose-tolerability and double-blind randomized, controlled studies focusing on target intractable epilepsy populations such as patients with

  9. Increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes occurs in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Gerhard; Teschler, Stefanie; Haag, Tanja; Altmüller, Franziska; Tuczek, Frederik; Dammann, Reinhard H

    2011-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disease of increasing importance. Epigenetic alterations are hallmarks for altered gene expression and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. In our study we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of 14 neuropsychiatric genes (COMT, DAT1, GABRA1, GNB3, GRIN2B, HTR1B, HTR2A, 5-HTT, MAOA, MAOB, NOS1, NR3C1, TPH1 and TH). DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite restriction analysis and pyrosequencing in whole blood samples of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in controls. Aberrant methylation was not detectable using bisulfite restriction analysis, but a significantly increased methylation of HTR2A, NR3C1, MAOA, MAOB and soluble COMT (S-COMT) was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For HTR2A the average methylation of four CpG sites was 0.8% higher in BPD patients compared to controls (p = 0.002). The average methylation of NR3C1 was 1.8% increased in BPD patients compared to controls (p = 0.0003) and was higher at 2 out of 8 CpGs (p ≤ 0.04). In females, an increased average methylation (1.5%) of MAOA was observed in BPD patients compared to controls (p = 0.046). A similar trend (1.4% higher methylation) was observed for MAOB in female BPD patients and increased methylation was significant for 1 out of 6 CpG sites. For S-COMT, a higher methylation of 2 out of 4 CpG sites was revealed in BPD patients (p ≤ 0.02). In summary, methylation signatures of several promoter regions were established and a significant increased average methylation (1.7%) occurred in blood samples of BPD patients (p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that aberrant epigenetic regulation of neuropsychiatric genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:22139575

  10. The effects of industry sponsorship on comparator selection in trial registrations for neuropsychiatric conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric populations continue to be understudied in clinical drug trials despite the increasing use of pharmacotherapy in children, particularly with psychotropic drugs. Most pertinent to the clinical selection of drug interventions are trials directly comparing drugs against other drugs. The aim was to measure the prevalence of active drug comparators in neuropsychiatric drug trials in children and identify the effects of funding source on comparator selection. We analyzed the selection of drugs and drug comparisons in clinical trials registered between January 2006 and May 2012. Completed and ongoing interventional trials examining treatments for six neuropsychiatric conditions in children were included. Networks of drug comparisons for each condition were constructed using information about the trial study arms. Of 421 eligible trial registrations, 228 (63,699 participants) were drug trials addressing ADHD (106 trials), autism spectrum disorders (47), unipolar depression (16), seizure disorders (38), migraines and other headaches (15), or schizophrenia (11). Active drug comparators were used in only 11.0% of drug trials while 44.7% used a placebo control and 44.3% no drug or placebo comparator. Even among conditions with well-established pharmacotherapeutic options, almost all drug interventions were compared to a placebo. Active comparisons were more common among trials without industry funding (17% vs. 8%, p=0.04). Trials with industry funding differed from non-industry trials in terms of the drugs studied and the comparators selected. For 73% (61/84) of drugs and 90% (19/21) of unique comparisons, trials were funded exclusively by either industry or non-industry. We found that industry and non-industry differed when choosing comparators and active drug comparators were rare for both groups. This gap in pediatric research activity limits the evidence available to clinicians treating children and suggests a need to reassess the design and funding of pediatric

  11. DETERMINATION OF PROMINENCE PLASMA {beta} FROM THE DYNAMICS OF RISING PLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, Andrew; Hillier, Richard; Tripathi, Durgesh

    2012-12-20

    Observations by the Hinode satellite show in great detail the dynamics of rising plumes, dark in chromospheric lines, in quiescent prominences that propagate from large ({approx}10 Mm) bubbles that form at the base of the prominences. These plumes present a very interesting opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena in quiescent prominences, but obstacles still remain. One of the biggest issues is that of the magnetic field strength, which is not easily measurable in prominences. In this paper we present a method that may be used to determine a prominence's plasma {beta} when rising plumes are observed. Using the classic fluid dynamic solution for flow around a circular cylinder with an MHD correction, the compression of the prominence material can be estimated. This has been successfully confirmed through simulations; application to a prominence gave an estimate of the plasma {beta} as {beta} = 0.47 {+-} 0.079 to 1.13 {+-} 0.080 for the range {gamma} = 1.4-1.7. Using this method it may be possible to estimate the plasma {beta} of observed prominences, therefore helping our understanding of a prominence's dynamics in terms of MHD phenomena.

  12. Tonsillectomies and Adenoidectomies Do Not Prevent the Onset of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Tanya K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Storch, Eric A.; Mutch, P. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background In children presenting with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tics, especially those with a temporal association with streptococcal pharyngitis (e.g., PANDAS; Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus), there is speculation about whether tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy might improve the child’s neuropsychiatric course. Our objective was to examine whether removal of tonsils and/or adenoids impacted streptococcal antibody titers, the timing of onset of OCD and/or tics, and the clinical severity of these symptoms. Methods Study participants (n=112; average age=9.2 ± 2.4; 44 female) were recruited as part of a prospective investigation of neuropsychiatric phenomena with temporal association to streptococcal pharyngitis and examined by family history, diagnostic interview, physical examination, medical record review, psychological testing, and streptococcal antibodies and divided into surgical or non-surgery groups. The surgical group consisted of children having previously had a tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (n=32). The remaining children were categorized as non-surgery (N=76). Measures of OCD and tic severity, streptococcal antibody titers, and PANDAS classification were compared between both groups. Results There were no significant differences as determined by streptococcal antibody titers, PANDAS classification, and OCD or tic severity between the surgical and non-surgery groups. Most participants had surgery before onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms and surgery did not affect symptomology. Conclusions Streptococcal antibodies and neuropsychiatric symptom severity did not differ on the basis of surgical status. From these data we cannot support that tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are likely to impact positively the course of OCD/tics or streptococcal antibody concentrations. PMID:23518825

  13. Spatial Gene-Expression Gradients Underlie Prominent Heterogeneity of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cembrowski, Mark S; Bachman, Julia L; Wang, Lihua; Sugino, Ken; Shields, Brenda C; Spruston, Nelson

    2016-01-20

    Tissue and organ function has been conventionally understood in terms of the interactions among discrete and homogeneous cell types. This approach has proven difficult in neuroscience due to the marked diversity across different neuron classes, but it may be further hampered by prominent within-class variability. Here, we considered a well-defined canonical neuronal population—hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs)—and systematically examined the extent and spatial rules of transcriptional heterogeneity. Using next-generation RNA sequencing, we identified striking variability in CA1 PCs, such that the differences within CA1 along the dorsal-ventral axis rivaled differences across distinct pyramidal neuron classes. This variability emerged from a spectrum of continuous gene-expression gradients, producing a transcriptional profile consistent with a multifarious continuum of cells. This work reveals an unexpected amount of variability within a canonical and narrowly defined neuronal population and suggests that continuous, within-class heterogeneity may be an important feature of neural circuits. PMID:26777276

  14. Motor neuron apoptosis and neuromuscular junction perturbation are prominent features in a Drosophila model of Fus-mediated ALS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgound Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor function. Several ALS genes have been identified as their mutations can lead to familial ALS, including the recently reported RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (Fus). However, it is not clear how mutations of Fus lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. In this study, we present a Drosophila model to examine the toxicity of Fus, its Drosophila orthologue Cabeza (Caz), and the ALS-related Fus mutants. Results Our results show that the expression of wild-type Fus/Caz or FusR521G induced progressive toxicity in multiple tissues of the transgenic flies in a dose- and age-dependent manner. The expression of Fus, Caz, or FusR521G in motor neurons significantly impaired the locomotive ability of fly larvae and adults. The presynaptic structures in neuromuscular junctions were disrupted and motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) were disorganized and underwent apoptosis. Surprisingly, the interruption of Fus nuclear localization by either deleting its nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or adding a nuclear export signal (NES) blocked Fus toxicity. Moreover, we discovered that the loss of caz in Drosophila led to severe growth defects in the eyes and VNCs, caused locomotive disability and NMJ disruption, but did not induce apoptotic cell death. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the overexpression of Fus/Caz causes in vivo toxicity by disrupting neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and inducing apoptosis in motor neurons. In addition, the nuclear localization of Fus is essential for Fus to induce toxicity. Our findings also suggest that Fus overexpression and gene deletion can cause similar degenerative phenotypes but the underlying mechanisms are likely different. PMID:22443542

  15. An isodicentric X chromosome with gonadal dysgenesis in a lady without prominent somatic features of Turner's syndrome. A case report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tse-Ya; Lin, Huan-Sheng; Chen, Pei-Lung; Huang, Tien-Shang

    2015-01-01

    Isodicentric X chromosomes in general have phenotypes characteristic of the resultant X deletions. Gonadotropin levels in Turner's syndrome (TS) girls are high, but have a normal biphasic pattern. Here, we report a 21-year-old lady with primary amenorrhea. Clinical examination revealed a short neck but no other typical stigmata of Turner's syndrome. The levels of gonadotropin were not raised to post-menopausal levels. A chromosome study showed a 45,X/46,X,idic(X)(q22) karyotype. She was diagnosed as having Turner's syndrome. PMID:25618587

  16. Specific Language Impairment as the Prominent Feature in a Patient with a Low-Level Trisomy 21 Mosaicism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; Lemieux, N.; Lemyre, E.; Lespinasse, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent and severity of the disabilities is variable among individuals with Down syndrome, although generally characterized by a range of physical and intellectual conditions, including language impairment. Whether the language deficit is due to the intellectual disability (ID) or associated to the supernumerary or portion of…

  17. Nine-month-old infants are sensitive to the temporal alignment of prosodic and gesture prominences.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gibert, Núria; Prieto, Pilar; Pons, Ferran

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of 9-month-old infants to the alignment between prosodic and gesture prominences in pointing-speech combinations. Results revealed that the perception of prominence is multimodal and that infants are aware of the timing of gesture-speech combinations well before they can produce them. PMID:25656953

  18. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  19. Changes in the Facial Prominence of Women and Men over the Last Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Georgia N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measured facial prominence of women and men in popular images since the 1970s. Examined 1,200 photographs from "Time" and "Newsweek" (Study 1) and 640 photographs from "Good Housekeeping" and "Ms." (Study 2). Found men had received greater facial prominence than women. Results confirm asymmetry in representation of men's and women's faces and…

  20. Phonetic Realization and Perception of Prominence among Lexical Tones in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Mingzhen

    2008-01-01

    Linguistic prominence is defined as words or syllables perceived auditorily as standing out from their environment. It is explored through changes in pitch, duration and loudness. In this study, phonetic realization and perception of prominence among lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese was investigated in two experiments. Experiment 1 explored…