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Sample records for prominent spasmodic dysphonia

  1. Research Priorities in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.; Adler, Charles H.; Berke, Gerald S.; Bielamowicz, Steven A.; Blitzer, Andrew; Bressman, Susan B.; Hallett, Mark; Jinnah, H. A.; Juergens, Uwe; Martin, Sandra B.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Sapienza, Christine; Singleton, Andrew; Tanner, Caroline M.; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify research priorities for increasing understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and improved treatment of spasmodic dysphonia. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING A multidisciplinary working group was formed including both scientists and clinicians from multiple disciplines, otolaryngology, neurology, speech pathology, genetics and neuroscience, to review currently available information on spasmodic dysphonia and to identify research priorities. RESULTS Operational definitions for spasmodic dysphonia at different levels of certainty were recommended for diagnosis and recommendations made for a multi-center multidisciplinary validation study. CONCLUSIONS The highest priority is to characterize the disorder and identify risk factors that may contribute to its onset. Future research should compare and contrast spasmodic dysphonia with other forms of focal dystonia. Development of animal models is recommended to explore hypotheses related to pathogenesis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of SD should provide the basis for developing new treatment options and exploratory clinical trials. SIGNIFICANCE This document should foster future research to improve the care of patients with this chronic debilitating voice and speech disorder by otolaryngology, neurology, and speech pathology. PMID:18922334

  2. Disfluency in Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.; Burch, Annette Renee; Watts, Christopher; Rappold, Patrick W.; Hood, Stephen B.; Sherrard, Kyla

    1997-01-01

    This study examined visual analog scaling judgments of disfluency by normal listeners in response to oral reading by 20 adults with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) and nondysphonic controls. Findings suggest that although dysfluency is not a defining feature of SD, it does contribute significantly to the overall clinical impression of severity of the…

  3. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  4. Midline lateralization thyroplasty for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, N; Tsuji, D H; Yamamoto, Y; Iizuka, Y

    2000-02-01

    Midline lateralization thyroplasty was successfully performed on a patient with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The thyroid cartilage was incised at the midline, and a 3 x 2-mm perforation was made at the anterior commissure to widen it. The perforation was closed with a free composite graft taken from the upper edge of the thyroid ala, and the incised thyroid cartilage edges were kept separated 4 mm apart with silicone wedges. A part of the sternohyoid muscle was rotated to seal any leak from the perforation. The postoperative course was uneventful. The voice has been restored to normal, and there is no sign of recurrence of the symptom so far, as of 1 year 5 months postoperative. Although a longer follow-up is needed, this case indicates that midline type II thyroplasty could be a useful treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:10685572

  5. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  6. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Relationships between acoustic indices and perceptual judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannito, Michael P.; Sapienza, Christine M.; Woodson, Gayle; Murry, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated relationships between acoustical indices of spasmodic dysphonia and perceptual scaling judgments of voice attributes made by expert listeners. Audio-recordings of The Rainbow Passage were obtained from thirty one speakers with spasmodic dysphonia before and after a BOTOX injection of the vocal folds. Six temporal acoustic measures were obtained across 15 words excerpted from each reading sample, including both frequency of occurrence and percent time for (1) aperiodic phonation, (2) phonation breaks, and (3) fundamental frequency shifts. Visual analog scaling judgments were also obtained from six voice experts using an interactive computer interface to quantify four voice attributes (i.e., overall quality, roughness, brokenness, breathiness) in a carefully psychoacoustically controlled environment, using the same reading passages as stimuli. Number and percent aperiodicity and phonation breaks correlated significanly with perceived overall voice quality, roughness, and brokenness before and after the BOTOX injection. Breathiness was correlated with aperidocity only prior to injection, while roughness also correlated with frequency shifts following injection. Factor analysis reduced perceived attributes to two principal components: glottal squeezing and breathiness. The acoustic measures demonstrated a strong regression relationship with perceived glottal squeezing, but no regression relationship with breathiness was observed. Implications for an analysis of pathologic voices will be discussed.

  7. Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitations of current approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Although botulinum toxin injection is the gold standard for treatment of spasmodic dysphonia, surgical approaches aimed at providing long-term symptom control have been advancing over recent years. Recent findings When surgical approaches provide greater long-term benefits to symptom control, they also increase the initial period of side effects of breathiness and swallowing difficulties. However, recent analyses of quality-of-life questionnaires in patients undergoing regular injections of botulinum toxin demonstrate that a large proportion of patients have limited relief for relatively short periods due to early breathiness and loss-of-benefit before reinjection. Summary Most medical and surgical approaches to the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia have been aimed at denervation of the laryngeal muscles to block symptom expression in the voice, and have both adverse effects as well as treatment benefits. Research is needed to identify the central neuropathophysiology responsible for the laryngeal muscle spasms in order target treatment towards the central neurological abnormality responsible for producing symptoms. PMID:19337127

  8. Botulinum Toxin in Secondarily Nonresponsive Patients with Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Mor, Niv; Tang, Christopher; Blitzer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been effective and well tolerated for all types of dystonia for >30 years. We reviewed outcomes of our patients treated with BoNT serotype A (BoNT-A) for spasmodic dysphonia (SD) who became secondarily nonresponsive. We found that 8 of 1400 patients became nonresponsive to BoNT-A (0.57%), which is lower than the secondary nonresponse rate in other dystonias. After a cessation period, 4 of our patients resumed BoNT-A injections, and recurrence of immunoresistance was not seen in any of them. When compared with patients with other dystonias, patients with SD receive extremely low doses of BoNT. Small antigen challenge may explain the lower rate of immunoresistance and long-lasting efficacy after BoNT-A is restarted among secondary nonresponsive patients with SD. PMID:27143711

  9. Spasmodic Dysphonia: a Laryngeal Control Disorder Specific to Speech

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief. PMID:21248101

  10. Abnormal Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotransmission during Rest and Task Production in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Brian D.; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [11C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  11. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  12. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  13. Muscle tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia: the role of manual laryngeal tension reduction in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Roy, N; Ford, C N; Bless, D M

    1996-11-01

    Excessive activity of the extralaryngeal muscles affects laryngeal function and contributes to a spectrum of interrelated symptoms and syndromes including muscle tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Recognition of the role of extralaryngeal tension is helpful in ensuring proper diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. This report demonstrates the application of manual laryngeal musculoskeletal tension reduction techniques in the diagnosis and management of laryngeal hyperfunction syndromes. The manual technique consists of focal palpation to determine 1) extent of laryngeal elevation, 2) focal tenderness, 3) voice effect of applying downward pressure over the superior border of the thyroid lamina, and 4) extent of sustained voice improvement following circum-laryngeal massage. The clinical utility of this innovative approach is discussed. PMID:8916858

  14. Anatomic considerations in botulinum toxin type A therapy for spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, P F; Gates, G A; Esselman, G; Song, F; Vannier, M W; Kuo, M

    1994-06-01

    Chemodenervation by injection of botulinum toxin type A into the vocal fold(s) has become the preferred treatment for patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Injection may be done either perorally or transcutaneously; each method has its advocates and advantages. The authors have used the transcutaneous transcricothyroid membrane route exclusively with satisfactory results in more than 50 patients. Temporary breathliness and aspiration are common. The preferred injection site should be as close as possible to the motor end plates of the affected muscle. The thyroarytenoid muscle end plates are distributed throughout the muscle, whereas in the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle they are located in band in the center of the muscle. The transcutaneous injection site is below and posterior to the midpoint of the vibrating vocal fold as visualized by indirect laryngoscopy. The proximity of this site to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle suggests that postinjection breathiness and aspiration may be related to spread of botulinum toxin type A to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. However, it is likely that thyroarytenoid muscle paresis is mainly responsible for this side effect and that the rapid clearing of the breathy dysphonia in the face of prolonged relief of spasmodic dysphonia symptoms suggests the action of an adaptive neural response, such as axonal sprouting. Further research of this subject is warranted. PMID:8196438

  15. Spasmodic dysphonia in an adolescent patient with an autoimmune neurologic disorder.

    PubMed

    Boseley, Mark E; Gherson, Shirley; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) has been primarily described in the neurology and psychiatry literature. The symptoms of this syndrome typically are a range of obsessive compulsive disorders and neuromuscular tics. The otolaryngologist occasionally becomes involved with these children when it is deemed that chronic tonsil infections are the source. We report here on a child diagnosed with PANDAS who presented with severe ventricular hyperfunction and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. She was treated with botulinum toxin, which resulted in a significant improvement in subjective voice as well as reduced jitter and shimmer on objective voice measurements. PMID:17362824

  16. The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed Central

    Whurr, R; Lorch, M; Fontana, H; Brookes, G; Lees, A; Marsden, C D

    1993-01-01

    Botulinum toxin injections have been used to treat 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Injections of 3.00-3.75 units of botulinum toxin were performed bilaterally into the thyroarytenoid muscle. This treatment significantly decreased the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency of the speech sample, indicating a reduction in the variability of pitch amongst patients. A total of 96% of patients' subjective diary reports showed an improvement with a median of 7 days to peak effect and a 5 week duration of peak effect. Images PMID:8505645

  17. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  18. The Consequences of Spasmodic Dysphonia on Communication-Related Quality of Life: A Qualitative Study of the Insider's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, C.R.; Yorkston, K.M.; Eadie, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the biopsychosocial consequences of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) as experienced by people with SD. Qualitative research methods were used to investigate the insider's perspective of living with SD. Six adults with SD participated in face-to-face phenomenological interviews. The results are summarized in a model…

  19. Spasmodic Dysphonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a printed list of organizations, contact: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ... us on Contact ... Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC 2320, Bethesda, MD ...

  20. Chiropractic Care for a Patient with Spasmodic Dysphonia Associated with Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Roger K.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the diagnosis and response to treatment of spasmodic dysphonia in a 25-year-old female vocalist following an auto accident. Clinical Features The voice disorder and neck pain appeared after the traumatic incident. Examination of the cervical spine revealed moderate pain, muscle spasm and restricted joint motion at C-1 and C-5 on the left side. Cervical range of motion was reduced on left rotation. Bilateral manual muscle testing of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, which share innervation with the laryngeal muscles by way of the spinal accessory nerve, were weak on the left side. Pre and post accident voice range profiles (phonetograms) that measure singing voice quality were examined. The pre- and post-accident phonetograms revealed significant reduction in voice intensity and fundamental frequency as measured in decibels and hertz. Intervention and Outcome Low-force chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to C-1 and C-5 was employed. Following a course of care, the patient's singing voice returned to normal, as well as a resolution of her musculo- skeletal complaints. Conclusion It appears that in certain cases, the singing voice can be adversely affected if neck or head trauma is severe enough. This case proposes that trauma with irritation to the cervical spine nerve roots as they communicate with the spinal accessory, and in turn the laryngeal nerves, may be contributory in some functional voice disorders or muscle tension dysphonia. PMID:19674642

  1. Spasmodic dysphonia follow-up with videolaryngoscopy and voice spectrography during treatment with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marcello; Dubbioso, R; Apisa, P; Allocca, R; Santoro, L; Cesari, U

    2015-09-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a focal dystonia of laryngeal muscles seriously impairing quality of voice. Adductor SD (ADSD) is the most common presentation of this disorder that can be identified by specialized phoniatricians and neurologists firstly on a clinical evaluation and then confirmed by videolaryngoscopy (VL). Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection with electromyographic guidance in muscles around vocal cords is the most effective treatment. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire is the main tool to assess dysphonia and response to treatment. Objective of this study is to perform VL and voice spectrography (VS) to confirm the efficacy of BTX injections over time. 13 patients with ADSD were studied with VHI, VL and VS before and after 4 consecutive treatment with onobotulinumtoxin-A. For each treatment vocal improvement was proved by a significant reduction of VHI score and increase of maximum time phonation and harmonic-to-noise ratio while VL showed the absence of spasm in most of patients. No change of the response to BTX was found between injections. This study supports the efficacy of the treatment of SD with BTX with objective measurements and suggests that the efficacy of recurring treatments is stable over time. PMID:25966878

  2. Partial thyroarytenoid myectomy: an animal study investigating a proposed new treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Genack, S H; Woo, P; Colton, R H; Goyette, D

    1993-03-01

    A new surgical procedure with potential application for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia was performed on ten rabbits to assess surgical effects on laryngeal function. Using an external approach, partial unilateral thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle excision was performed through a thyroplasty cartilage window. The contralateral side was left undisturbed as a control. The animals were studied acutely and at 3 months using videolaryngoscopy. Electrophysiologic measurements were recorded at 3 months. The procedure was well tolerated by all animals, with no postoperative infection or aspiration. At 3 months, spontaneous and evoked (recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation) TA muscle electromyographic potentials were measurable bilaterally. TA compound muscle action potential amplitudes were reduced on the side of myectomy. The threshold of recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation needed to produce observable vocal fold adduction was increased on the side operated on. Perioperative and long-term (3 months) videolaryngoscopy demonstrated preservation of laryngeal competence with good true vocal cord adduction. Histologic analysis with whole organ sections showed replacement of excised muscle with loose fibroareolar tissue. No evidence of muscle regeneration was observed. The vocal ligament and vocal fold mucosa were intact and undistorted in all specimens. This procedure is technically simple and appears to effectively result in a functional yet weakened TA muscle. Because myectomy includes motor unit end-plate excision, problems associated with reinnervation may be circumvented. TA myectomy may be applicable in patients with focal laryngeal dystonia to decrease muscle spasm. PMID:8464639

  3. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. PMID:26061279

  4. Focal white matter changes in spasmodic dysphonia: a combined DTI and neuropathological study

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Ostuni, John; Hallett, Mark; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Lewin-Smith, Michael R.; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. Although clinical symptoms of SD are well characterized, the pathophysiology of this voice disorder is unknown. We describe here, for the first time to our knowledge, disorder-specific brain abnormalities in SD patients as determined by a combined approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and postmortem histopathology. We used DTI to identify brain changes in SD and to target those brain regions for neuropathological examination. DTI showed rightsided decrease of fractional anisotropy in the genu of the internal capsule and bilateral increase of overall water diffusivity in the white matter along the corticobulbar/corticospinal tract in 20 SD patients compared to 20 healthy subjects. In addition, water diffusivity was bilaterally increased in the lentiform nucleus, ventral thalamus, and cerebellar white and gray matter in SD patients. These brain changes were substantiated with focal histopathological abnormalities presented as a loss of axonal density and myelin content in the right genu of the internal capsule and clusters of mineral depositions containing calcium, phosphorus and iron in the parenchyma and vessel walls of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, putamen, globus pallidus, and cerebellum in the postmortem brain tissue from one SD patient compared to three controls. The specificity of these brain abnormalities is confirmed by their localization limited only to the corticobulbar/corticospinal tract and its main input/output structures. We also found positive correlation between the diffusivity changes and clinical symptoms of SD (r = 0.509, p = 0.037). These brain abnormalities may alter the central control of voluntary voice production and, therefore, may underlie the pathophysiology of SD. PMID:18083751

  5. The Psychosocial Consequences of BOTOX Injections for Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Qualitative Study of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Maronian, Nicole C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial consequences of BOTOX® (Allergan, Inc. Irvine, CA) treatment for spasmodic dysphonia (SD). This article also explores how patients judge the success of treatment and make decisions about future treatment based on psychosocial issues relevant to them. Study Design This study follows the phenomenological tradition of qualitative inquiry in which the objective is to explore the lived experiences of a group of persons who share a common phenomenon, in this case receiving BOTOX injections for SD. Methods Six adults with SD who had been receiving BOTOX injections on a long-term basis participated in face-to-face interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to phenomenological guidelines to identify consistent themes as well as differences among participants’ experiences. Results The results are summarized in three primary themes that suggest (1) participants’ experiences vary over time based on changes in factors such as lifestyle and personal priorities; (2) BOTOX has multidimensional psychosocial implications in physical, personal, and social domains; and (3) participants individualize their treatment regimens, taking into consideration the burden of treatment, scheduling priorities, and other strategies to maximize the benefits of BOTOX. Conclusions Based on this study, suggestions are provided for future research into a psychosocial outcome measurement, including longitudinal evaluations that accommodate changing patient priorities over time; multidimensional evaluations that incorporate physical, personal, and social issues; evaluations that include a measure of the burden of treatment; and evaluations that support a shared decision-making model with the voice clinicians. PMID:16564675

  6. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O PET Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Omar; Thomassen, Michael; Schulz, Geralyn M.; Hosey, Lara A.; Varga, Mary; Ludlow, Christy L.; Braun, Allen R.

    2006-01-01

    Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders. Scans were acquired at rest…

  7. The consequences of spasmodic dysphonia on communication-related quality of life: A qualitative study of the insider's experiences

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the biopsychosocial consequences of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) as experienced by people with SD. Qualitative research methods were used to investigate the insider's perspective of living with SD. Six adults with SD participated in face-to-face phenomenological interviews. The results are summarized in a model of personal experiences of SD which shows that communication-related quality of life (QOL) is shaped by experiences with multiple physiologic (voice quality, effort, voice dependability); personal (affective responses, changes in self-view, coping strategies) and social (physical environment, other people, participation in social roles) factors. Communication-related QOL is a complex and individualized construct with multidimensional contributors. This study suggests that understanding the nature of communication-related QOL for each individual requires exploration of each component of the model, exploration of the unique relationships among components for each person, and recognition of the multidimensional factors that shape the experience of SD. Learning outcomes As a result of this activity the reader will be able to (1) identify general features of the phenomenological research method; (2) identify the three general categories of psychosocial consequences of SD; (3) identify those psychosocial consequences of SD that are under-represented in the literature; and (4) identify key conclusions of the communication-related quality of life model. PMID:15963338

  8. National Spasmodic Torticollis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone anymore. Welcome to National Spasmodic Torticollis Association web site The mission of the National Spasmodic Torticollis ... Signs and Symptoms Treatment Options Medications Botulinum Toxin Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Selective Denervation Surgery Physical Therapy ...

  9. Spasmodic Torticollis: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join NSTA Today! NSTA Support Groups NSTA Message Forum Spasmodic Torticollis What is Spasmodic Torticollis Signs and ... Patient Support Photo Galleries Contact NSTA NSTA Message Forum Search Internet and Help NSTA Support the NSTA ...

  10. Remission in spasmodic torticollis.

    PubMed Central

    Jayne, D; Lees, A J; Stern, G M

    1984-01-01

    In 26 patients with spasmodic torticollis followed up for a median period of 12 years, the frequency of sustained remission was 23%, the median duration of remission was 8 years and duration of torticollis before remission 3 years. These results are more favourable than stated in the literature and should be taken into consideration before recommending surgical treatment. PMID:6502180

  11. Spasmodic torticollis: the dental connection.

    PubMed

    Sims, Anthony B; Stack, Brendan C; Demerjian, G Gary

    2012-07-01

    Spasmodic torticollis or cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of focal dystonia and is characterized by sustained abnormal muscle contractions in the head and neck area resulting in abnormal positioning or posturing of the head. The dystonic muscle spasms associated with spasmodic torticollis may affect any combination of neck muscles. Three cases are reported of spasmodic torticollis that were treated by a dental appliance with individual varying occlusal heights to open the maxillomandibular vertical dimension. Upon increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion, there was a slowing and/or discontinuance of the symptoms of cervical dystonia. The proposed hypothesis for this reversal is that there may be neuritis of the auriculotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve, which has direct input into the reticular formation (RF), and it may activate the cells of the pontine region of the RF known for the control and deviation of head posture. There is growing clinical evidence that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction may be a factor in this neurological and painful disorder when it coexists. PMID:22916671

  12. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  13. Spasmodic torticollis: a behavioral perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1982-06-01

    The literature on spasmodic torticollis is critically reviewed. The currently most popular etiological hypothesis characterizes torticollis as an extrapyramidal disorder, the symptoms of which are aggravated by stress, but there is no unequivocal evidence available to support this view. Psychological mechanisms have been suggested but not elaborated or tested in any detail. A wide range of treatments has been advocated but controlled studies have not been reported, and the problems of assessing outcome have never been tackled adequately. Behavioral treatments have been evaluated more rigorously than other approaches (particularly EMG feedback training), and the literature suggests that they benefit some patients. It is argued that psychologists have the potential for making a very significant contribution to the understanding and management of torticollis. In discussing outcome measures, the more promising techniques that have been used are summarized and a list is presented of the factors which must be considered when assessing torticollis symptoms. Directions for future research are outlined and priorities suggested.

  14. Current Endoscopic Treatment of Dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Ossoff, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Benign laryngeal disorders result in dysphonia because of effects on glottic closure and the vibratory characteristics of the true vocal fold. Treatment is initially directed at reversing medical conditions and patterns of abuse with surgery reserved for unresolving lesions resulting in troublesome dysphonia. Benign lesions that require surgery are excised as precisely as possible sparing overlying mucosa and the underlying vocal ligament. Vocal fold scarring is currently best treated by augmentation procedures, and atrophy may be compensated for by medialization thyroplasty or by adding bulk to the affected folds. Application of current knowledge of laryngeal histology and physiology is prerequisite to endoscopic surgical intervention. PMID:18493531

  15. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results from a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…

  16. Posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty in the management of refractory abductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gary Y; Sechtem, Phillip R; Rideout, Benji

    2003-04-01

    Of the approximately 100,000 Americans with primary (idiopathic) laryngeal dystonia, 10% to 15% are thought to havethe abductor form. Botulinum A toxin injected into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle and/or cricothyroid muscle has been employed as the "gold standard" for therapeutic management; however, successful results are significantly less frequent than with injections for the adductor form. This report describes a new phonosurgical procedure, posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty, designed for these refractory patients. Posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty has been performed on 3 patients with abductor laryngeal dystonia. All patients had failed at least 5 previous botulinum A injections to the posterior cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. All patients underwent preoperative and 3 postoperative (2 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year) phonatory analyses. Analysis consisted of recording an aloud reading of a standard passage while a blinded trained speech pathologist counted prolonged voiceless consonants. The patients also completed a satisfaction survey at 1 year. The results demonstrated significant, long-lasting, uniform reduction in breathy breaks in all subjects. The participants all judged their symptoms as greatly improved. Bilateral procedures may be necessary, but should be staged to prevent possible airway compromise. When applied appropriately, posterior cricoarytenoid myoplasty with medialization thyroplasty is a viable tool in the management of refractory abductor laryngeal dystonia. PMID:12731624

  17. Prominence Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kucera, Terry; Kawashima, Rei; DeVore, C.; Karpen, Judy; Antiochos, Spiro

    2011-01-01

    Fine structure prominence dynamics are visible in the majority of high-spatial resolution data from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We present the results of a study investigating the nature of these horizontal and vertical flows and discuss them in the context of ion-neutral coupling in a partially ionized prominence plasma. We also discuss how models can help in the interpretation of these observations.

  18. Is perceived dysphonia related to perceived healthiness?

    PubMed

    Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health. PMID:24850269

  19. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma. PMID:27191884

  20. Management of Dysphonia After Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Villari, Craig R; Courey, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Radiation-induced dysphonia can develop after radiation for primary laryngeal cancer or when the larynx is in the radiation field for nonlaryngeal malignancy. The effects are dose dependent and lead to variable degrees of dysphonia in both short- and long-term follow-up. Rehabilitation of the irradiated larynx can prove frustrating but can be facilitated through behavioral, pharmacologic, or surgical interventions. PMID:26092762

  1. Factors Associated with Dysphonia in High School Cheerleaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Shari L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 146 high school cheerleaders indicated that acute, cheering-related dysphonia may be preceded or accompanied by a set of clinical signs that could be incorporated easily into a screening protocol for prospective cheerleaders. (Author/DB)

  2. Coronal and Prominence Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of solar prominences and the solar corona are discussed. The formation of prominences, prominence diagnostics and structure, prominence dissappearance, large scale coronal structure, coronal diagnostics, small scale coronal structure, and non-equilibrium/coronal heating are among the topics covered.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of phonetograms in the case of functional dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Airainer, R; Klingholz, F

    1993-06-01

    According to the laryngeal clinical findings, figures making up a scale were assigned to vocally trained and vocally untrained persons suffering from different types of functional dysphonia. The different types of dysphonia--from the manifested hypofunctional to the extreme hyperfunctional dysphonia--were classified by means of this scale. Besides, the subjects' phonetograms were measured and approximated by three ellipses, what rendered possible the definition of phonetogram parameters. The combining of selected phonetogram parameters to linear combinations served the purpose of a phonetographic evaluation. The linear combinations were to bring phonetographic and clinical evaluations into correspondence as accurately as possible. It was necessary to use different kinds of linear combinations for male and female singers and nonsingers. As a result of the reclassification of 71 and the new classification of 89 patients, it was possible to graduate the types of functional dysphonia by means of computer-aided phonetogram evaluation with a clinically acceptable error rate. This method proved to be an important supplement to the conventional diagnostics of functional dysphonia. PMID:8353627

  4. Muscle tension dysphonia in Vietnamese female teachers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duong Duy; Kenny, Dianna T; Tran, Ninh Duy; Livesey, Jonathan R

    2009-03-01

    There has been no published research on muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) in speakers who use a tonal language. Using a sample of 47 Northern Vietnamese female primary school teachers with MTD, we aimed to discover whether professional voice users of tonal languages presented with the same symptoms of MTD as speakers of nontonal languages and whether they presented with additional symptoms as a result of speaking a tonal language. The vocal characteristics were assessed by use of a questionnaire and expert perceptual evaluation. Laryngeal features were assessed by photolaryngoscopy. The results showed that MTD was associated with a larger number of vocal symptoms than previously reported. However, the participants did not have the same vocal symptoms reported in English speakers, for example, hard glottal attack, pitch breaks, unusual speech rate, and glottal fry. Factor analysis of the vocal symptoms revealed three factors: "vocal fatigue/hyperfunction," "physical discomfort," and "voice quality," all of which demonstrated high reliability. The major laryngeal characteristic was a glottal gap. The glottal shapes observed included: 44.7% had an incomplete closure, 29.8% a posterior gap, 12.8% an hourglass-shaped gap, 8.5% a spindle-shaped gap, and 4.3% had complete glottal closure. The findings implied a potential contribution of linguistic-specific factors and teaching-related factors to the presentation of this voice disorder in this group of teachers. PMID:18207359

  5. Functional dysphonia: strategies to improve patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Behlau, Mara; Madazio, Glaucya; Oliveira, Gisele

    2015-01-01

    Functional dysphonia (FD) refers to a voice problem in the absence of a physical condition. It is a multifaceted voice disorder. There is no consensus with regard to its definition and inclusion criteria for diagnosis. FD has many predisposing and precipitating factors, which may include genetic susceptibility, psychological traits, and the vocal behavior itself. The assessment of voice disorders should be multidimensional. In addition to the clinical examination, auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment analyses are very important. Self-assessment was introduced in the field of voice 25 years ago and has produced a major impact in the clinical and scientific scenario. The choice of treatment for FD is vocal rehabilitation by means of direct therapy; however, compliance has been an issue, except for cases of functional aphonia or when an intensive training is administered. Nevertheless, there are currently no controlled studies that have explored the different options of treatment regimens for these patients. Strategies to improve patient outcome involve proper multidisciplinary diagnosis in order to exclude neurological and psychiatric disorders, careful voice documentation with quantitative measurement and qualitative description of the vocal deviation for comparison after treatment, acoustic evaluation to gather data on the mechanism involved in voice production, self-assessment questionnaires to map the impact of the voice problem on the basis of the patient's perspective, referral to psychological evaluation in cases of suspected clinical anxiety and/or depression, identification of dysfunctional coping strategies, self-regulation data to assist patients with their vocal load, and direct and intensive vocal rehabilitation to reduce psychological resistance and to reassure patient's recovery. An international multicentric effort, involving a large population of voice-disordered patients with no physical pathology, could produce enough data for

  6. Functional dysphonia: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Behlau, Mara; Madazio, Glaucya; Oliveira, Gisele

    2015-01-01

    Functional dysphonia (FD) refers to a voice problem in the absence of a physical condition. It is a multifaceted voice disorder. There is no consensus with regard to its definition and inclusion criteria for diagnosis. FD has many predisposing and precipitating factors, which may include genetic susceptibility, psychological traits, and the vocal behavior itself. The assessment of voice disorders should be multidimensional. In addition to the clinical examination, auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment analyses are very important. Self-assessment was introduced in the field of voice 25 years ago and has produced a major impact in the clinical and scientific scenario. The choice of treatment for FD is vocal rehabilitation by means of direct therapy; however, compliance has been an issue, except for cases of functional aphonia or when an intensive training is administered. Nevertheless, there are currently no controlled studies that have explored the different options of treatment regimens for these patients. Strategies to improve patient outcome involve proper multidisciplinary diagnosis in order to exclude neurological and psychiatric disorders, careful voice documentation with quantitative measurement and qualitative description of the vocal deviation for comparison after treatment, acoustic evaluation to gather data on the mechanism involved in voice production, self-assessment questionnaires to map the impact of the voice problem on the basis of the patient’s perspective, referral to psychological evaluation in cases of suspected clinical anxiety and/or depression, identification of dysfunctional coping strategies, self-regulation data to assist patients with their vocal load, and direct and intensive vocal rehabilitation to reduce psychological resistance and to reassure patient’s recovery. An international multicentric effort, involving a large population of voice-disordered patients with no physical pathology, could produce enough data for

  7. Dynamics of quiescent prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, Petr

    2012-07-01

    We review the state-of-the-art of the observations and modeling of prominence fine structures, with special emphasis on the dynamics. Fine structures of quiescent prominences have been recently observed by Hinode/SOT and these observations revealed a rather complex dynamics of bright threads and blobs and of dark plumes originating from large prominence bubbles. SOHO/SUMER spectra of hydrogen Lyman lines, together with H-alpha observations from MSDP, provide us with constraints on the dynamics of cool fine structures. 2D non-LTE modeling is used for analysis of the line profiles and their asymmetries. On the contrary, the SDO/AIA images, together with RHD modeling of dipped magnetic loops, lead to a better understanding of the dynamics and energetics of hotter prominence plasmas. Finally, some more global dynamics is revealed by the spectroscopic detection of quiescent prominence oscillations. We show recent results of such observations and new radiative-transfer modeling.

  8. [Incidence of dysphonia in teaching staff of schools].

    PubMed

    Bellia, S; Serafino, L; Luca, N; Farruggia, E; Bellia, M

    2007-01-01

    Some categories of workers (actors, teachers, singers) use a particular working tool: their voice. In order to assess the spread of dysphonia and its possible causes across a specific class of workers--the teachers of some schools in the city of Catania--we have set up a ad hoc questionnaire. A special database has been subsequently arranged, aimed at the statistical analysis of the responses obtained. The analysis of the responses shows that the phenomenon is more present in female than male teachers, 48% versus 30%. The dysphonia occurs mainly at the end of the working day, lasts throughout the school year and improves in summer, demonstrating the importance of teaching activity in its pathogenesis. One aspect especially stands out: dysphonia occurs exclusively in those individuals suffering from diseases with possible alterations of the voice, such as allergopathies, tireopathies and gastropathies. Therefore, work activity alone does not seem able to cause a chronic dysphonia, whereas the presence of diseases causing disability of vocal cords appears to play an important role. PMID:18409864

  9. Comprehensive Management of Psychogenic Dysphonia: A Case Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudhir, Paulomi M.; Chandra, Prabha S.; Shivashankar, N.; Yamini, B. K.

    2009-01-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia refers to the loss of voice, in the absence of apparent structural or neurological pathology. It is a disorder seen more often in women and is usually associated with significant life events and emotional difficulties that may lead to conflict over speaking. Therapeutic interventions in voice disorders recommend the adoption…

  10. Exploring Genetic and Environmental Effects in Dysphonia: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Soveri, Anna; Varjonen, Markus; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the existence of genetic effects as well as the interaction between potential genetic effects and a voice-demanding occupation on dysphonia. Method: One thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight Finnish twins (555 male; 1,173 female) born between 1961 and 1989 completed a questionnaire concerning vocal symptoms and occupation.…

  11. Dysphonia Detected by Pattern Recognition of Spectral Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Lea; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzed production of a long vowel sound within Finnish words by normal or dysphonic voices, using the Self-Organizing Map, the artificial neural network algorithm of T. Kohonen which produces two-dimensional representations of speech. The method was found to be both sensitive and specific in the detection of dysphonia. (Author/JDD)

  12. Psychosocial Aspects of Adolescent Dysphonia: An Approach to Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Quinter C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to voice therapy with adolescents, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial and family influences as they relate to vocal behavior. The goals of therapy for the adolescent with dysphonia usually follow an orderly sequence, first dealing with individual behavior and later with family and peer group influences. (JDD)

  13. Aerodynamic Profiles of Women with Muscle Tension Dysphonia/Aphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amanda I.; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Rubinstein, Elaine N.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to (a) determine whether phonatory airflows and estimated subglottal pressures (est-P[subscript sub]) for women with primary muscle tension dysphonia/aphonia (MTD/A) differ from those for healthy speakers; (b) identify different aerodynamic profile patterns within the MTD/A subject group; and (c) determine…

  14. First Light Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    Soon after the instruments opened their doors, the Sun began performing for SDO with this beautiful prominence eruption. This AIA data is from March 30, 2010, showing a wavelength band that is cent...

  15. Arching Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s STEREO (Ahead) spacecraft watched as an eruptive prominence rose up and arched out in a horseshoe shape far above the Sun’s surface (Aug. 25, 2010). The image and movie show the action in a...

  16. Prominence Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  17. Solar Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    The prominence that erupts in a prominence eruption is a magnetic structure in the chromosphere and corona. It is visible in chromospheric images by virtue of chromospheric-temperature plasma suspended in the magnetic field, and belongs to that large class of magnetic structures appropriately called filaments because of their characteristic sinewy sigmoidal form. Hence, the term "filament eruption" is used interchangeably with the term "prominence eruption". The magnetic field holding a filament is prone to undergo explosive changes in configuration. In these upheavals, because the filament material is compelled by its high conductivity to ride with the magnetic field that threads it, this material is a visible tracer of the field motion. The part of the magnetic explosion displayed by the entrained filament material is the phenomenon known as a filament eruption, the topic of this article. This article begins with a description of basic observed characteristics of filament eruptions, with attention to the magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections in which erupting filaments are embedded. The present understanding of these characteristics in terms of the form and action of the magnetic field is then laid out by means of a rudimentary three-dimensional model of the field. The article ends with basic questions that this picture leaves unresolved and with remarks on the observations needed to probe these questions.

  18. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  19. Toward the Development of an Objective Index of Dysphonia Severity: A Four-Factor Acoustic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    During assessment and management of individuals with voice disorders, clinicians routinely attempt to describe or quantify the severity of a patient's dysphonia. This investigation used acoustic measures derived from sustained vowel samples to predict dysphonia severity (as determined by auditory-perceptual ratings), for a diverse set of voice…

  20. Prominence Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonerupting prominences are not dull, static objects. Rather, they are composed of fine-scale blobs and threads that are highly dynamic, often appearing to travel in opposite directions on adjacent tracks (denoted counterstreaming). Because the plasma is largely constrained to travel along the magnetic field, these cool, dense features can serve as tracers of the prominence magnetic structure, a valuable resource in view of the long-standing difficulty of observing the coronal field. Conversely, greater understanding of the fundamental magnetic geometry of filament channels can provide important constraints on the physical processes governing the accumulation, support, motion, and eruption of the cool plasma. Despite over a century of detailed observations, large gaps remain in our knowledge of filament channel/plasma formation and evolution. Resolving these issues will shed light on the physics of coronal heating, helicity transport throughout the solar cycle, and the origins of eruptive activity on the Sun. I will discuss the leading models for the magnetic and plasma structure, and outline how new observations and theory /modeling could solve long-standing uncertainties regarding this majestic solar phenomenon.

  1. Formation and support of prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the concepts discussed by the group on the formation and support of prominences. Only quiescent and long-lived active region prominences were considered, since transient prominence phenomena, such as sprays, surges, H alpha flare-loops, and coronal rain, are dynamically distinct from long-lived, prominences. Stable prominences (which are often referred to as filaments when seen against the disk) can be subdivided into three categories, namely active region prominences, quiescent prominences and polar crown prominences. The third category is closely related to the second since a quiescent prominence will eventually evolve into a polar crown prominence if it lasts long enough. The distinction between the first and second categories is not sharp either since intermediates exist here as well (Martin, 1973).

  2. [Pressure-related dysphonia, recurring pneumonia and supraglottic tumor].

    PubMed

    Jahn, K; Straehler-Pohl, H-J; Fischer, H-P; Schade, G

    2010-09-01

    Urbach-Wiethe syndrome (hyalinosis cutis et mucosae) is an autosomal-recessive inherited disease. It often presents with typical symptoms such as skin lesions (especially in the face and neck area), dyspnea, and maldigestion. Hoarseness is a leading symptom in young children. These manifestations are caused by the assimilation of glycoproteins in mesenchymal tissue. Our case report shows that hoarseness does not necessarily appear only in children, but can also appear later. Furthermore, the assimilation of glycoproteins in the supraglottic area may also cause dysphonia. Due to the varied features of this disease, interdisciplinary check-ups are necessary at regular intervals. PMID:20464358

  3. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. Solar Prominence - Sept 24, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    These movies show the highly dynamic motions in solar prominences. The movie on the right side shows the prominence motions of material at 65,000K. The vertical stripe in the center of the image is...

  5. Differential diagnosis problems in a patient with dysphonia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gavrila, Gabriela-Ariadna; Mihaila, Romeo-Gabriel; Manitiu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Dysphonia is frequently an expression of laryngitis, especially when it comes in the evolution of an immunosuppressed patient, as happens in chronic lymphoproliferation. But other causes of dysphonia should also not be forgotten, including the possibility of new malignancies, especially due to the fact that these patients have genomic instability that predisposes to appearance of a second or even a third cancer. We present the case of a patient who developed dysphonia during chronic lymphocytic leukemia evolution. Its etiology was a mediastinal compression through lymph nodes, not linked to leukemia, but produced by metastases of a bronchopulmonary cancer, appeared recently. Dysphonia condition due to vocal cord dysfunction must include diseases of the mediastinum, the neck and the brain stem. The rapid and correct diagnosis and the prompt start of an appropriate treatment are of paramount importance for clinician who manage their care and for patient survival. PMID:25878649

  6. Investigation of Solar Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yingna; McCauley, Patrick; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan; Ji, Haisheng; Reeves, Katharine; DeLuca, Edward

    2015-08-01

    At first, we will present an investigation of the polar crown prominence that erupted on 2012 March 12. This prominence is observed at the southeast limb by SDO/AIA (end-on view) and displays a quasi vertical-thread structure. Bright U-shape (horn-like) structure is observed surrounding the upper portion of the prominence (171 Angstrom) before the eruption and becomes more prominent during the eruption. When viewed on the disk, STEREO-B shows that this long prominence is composed of a series of vertical threads and displays a half loop-like structure during the eruption. We focus on the magnetic support of the prominence by studying the structure and dynamics of the prominence before and during the eruption using observations from SDO and STEREO. We construct a series of magnetic field models (including sheared arcade model, twisted flux rope model, and model with HFT), then compare with observations. Various observational characteristics appear to support the twisted flux rope model. Our study suggests that the flux rope supporting the prominence enters the regime of torus instability at the onset of the fast rise phase, and signature of reconnection appears about one hour later. In the second part, we will present a statistical study on the kinematics of limb eruptive prominences observed by SDO/AIA. A brief introduction on an online catalog of prominence eruptions observed by SDO/AIA will also be presented.

  7. Prolonged dysphonia as a complication of interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Villar, Tania; Pacreu, Susana; Zalbidea, Maite; Montes, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The interscalene block (ISB) of the brachial plexus is a common technique for anaesthesia and the treatment of postoperative pain in shoulder surgery. Despite the well-known advantages of this technique, it is not without risks that need to be identified and taken into account. The most frequent complications associated with it are of a neurological nature and most are transient. It has been shown that the use of nerve stimulation does not guarantee a safe block. Ultrasound guidance now makes it possible to visualise potentially dangerous structures, thus allowing us to reduce the risk of associated complications. We present the case of a patient with transient dysphonia secondary to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. We also discuss briefly the most common complications associated with the technique. PMID:25817166

  8. New perspectives on solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.

    2012-06-01

    Recent observations of prominences obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution instruments, on board satellites (Hinode, SDO) as well as on the ground (SST) have provided very intriguing movies and open a new area for understanding the nature of prominences. The main topics are still debate: formation, dynamics, and characteristics of the plasma in the core and in the transition zone between the prominence and corona. We will review briefly the recent advances made in these topics, observationally as well as theoretically.

  9. Description and Classification of Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    Solar prominences are bright cloud-like structures when observed beyond the solar limb and they appear as dark filamentary objects which are termed filaments when seen against the solar disk. The aims of prominence classifications were from the start to establish references and frameworks for understanding the physical conditions for their formation and development through interplay with the solar magnetic environment. The multi-thermal nature of solar prominences became fully apparent once observations from space in UV, VUV, EUV and X-rays could be made. The cool prominence plasma is thermally shielded from the much hotter corona and supported in the field of gravity by small- and large-scale magnetic fields of the filament channels. High cadence, subarcsecond observing facilities on ground and in space have firmly proven the highly dynamic nature of solar prominences down to the smallest observed structural sizes of 100 km. The origin of the ubiquitous oscillations and flowing of the plasma over a variety of spatial and temporal scales, whether the cool dense plasma originates from below via levitation, injections by reconnection or results from condensation processes, are central issues in prominence research today. The unveiling of instabilities leading to prominences eruptions and Coronal Mass Ejections is another important challenge. The objective of this chapter is to review the main characteristics of various types of prominences and their associated magnetic environments, which will all be addressed in details in the following chapters of this book.

  10. Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the axial fields in high-latitude quiescent prominences is considered. The fact that almost all quiescent prominences obey the same hemisphere-dependent rule strongly suggests that the solar differential rotation plays an important role in producing the axial fields. However, the observations are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the axial fields are produced by differential rotation acting on an existing coronal magnetic field. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. The possibility that the sign of the axial field depends on the topology of the magnetic field in which the prominence is embedded is examined, as is the possibility that the neutral line is tilted with respect to the east-west direction, so that differential rotation causes the neutral line also to rotate with time. The possibility that the axial fields of quiescent prominences have their origin below the solar surface is also considered.

  11. Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M.

    1994-05-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

  12. The dynamics of funnel prominences

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present numerical simulations in 2.5D settings where large-scale prominences form in situ out of coronal condensation in magnetic dips, in close agreement with early as well as recent reporting of funnel prominences. Our simulation uses full thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parameterized heating as main ingredients to establish a realistic arcade configuration from chromosphere to corona. The chromospheric evaporation, especially from transition region heights, ultimately causes thermal instability, and we witness the growth of a prominence suspended well above the transition region, continuously gaining mass and cross-sectional area. Several hours later, the condensation has grown into a structure connecting the prominence-corona transition region with the underlying transition region, and a continuous downward motion from the accumulated mass represents a drainage that matches observational findings. A more dynamic phase is found as well, with coronal rain, induced wave trains, and even a reconnection event when the core prominence plasma weighs down the field lines until a flux rope is formed. The upper part of the prominence is then trapped in a flux-rope structure, and we argue for its violent kink-unstable eruption as soon as the (ignored) length dimension would allow for ideal kink deformations.

  13. Greenhouse effect in quiescent prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryutova, M.; Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Quiescent prominences, by definition, are huge ``clouds'' of cool, dense plasma overlying rarefied hot corona and supported by a complex magnetic field anchored in the photosphere along the magnetic polarity inversion line. One of the most prominent features in their dynamics is formation, growth and collapse of bubble/cavities filled by coronal plasma and emerging, often repeatedly, under a prominence body. As such, prominence/corona interface itself is subject of fundamental plasma instabilities, which include development of a regular series of plumes and spikes typical to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, often followed by a sudden collimated mass upflow, which, in nonlinear stage having an explosive character may be responsible for CMEs. These were only recently studied in detail with high cadence, high resolution data obtained from the Hinode satellite. Even more surprises are brought by the SDO/AIA instrument showing the Sun's atmosphere in 12 visible and EUV wavelengths. AIA multi-wavelength images in a temperature range from 105 ~K to 2 × 106 ~K combined with the Hinode/SOT data show that plasma inside the prominence cavity, being as expected, at coronal temperatures, in fact exceeds the temperature of the ambient corona. We suggest that an energetically open highly dynamic processes releasing energy at the prominence/cavity interface accompanied by the ``radiative exchange'', may cause additional increase of temperature and/or density inside cavity. Given pervasive character of prominences, future studies will allow us to perform quantitative and statistical analysis, and reveal relations between the size of cavity, its temperature, and magnetic properties.

  14. Voice disorders (dysphonia) in public school female teachers working in Belo Horizonte: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Assunção, Ada Avila

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the prevalence of dysphonia and associated factors in public school female teachers working in Belo Horizonte. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of schools between May 2004 and July 2005. There were 2103 elementary education daytime teachers from 83 schools included in the study. Self-applied questionnaires were used for data collection. These included questions on social and demographic matters, general health and mental health (General Health Questionnaire-12 [GHQ-12]), the environment and organization of work, and voice-related aspects. The variable dysphonia was classified as absent, possible, or probable based on the association between frequency of fatigue when speaking and worsened voice quality during the past 15 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze factors independently associated with dysphonia in each response subgroup and in total. One third of the female teachers did not report voice symptoms during the past 15 days (33%). The prevalence of probable dysphonia was 15%, and the prevalence for possible dysphonia was 52%. Factors associated with probable dysphonia were presence of recent upper airway problems (odds ratio [OR]=5.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]=4.06-8.71), problems at work because of voice (OR=65.30, 95% CI=19.33-220.59), other activities with intense voice use (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.08-2.71), high noise levels (OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.72-3.76), poor ventilation in the classroom (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.24-3.22), current mental disorder (OR=3.20, 95% CI=2.18-4.70), sedentary life style (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.21-3.09), and marriage (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.16-2.47). Associations between probable dysphonia, poor working conditions, health-related aspects, and professional jeopardy indicate the complexity of dysphonia in female teachers and the need for collective intervention strategies. PMID:17981015

  15. The perception of prominence patterns.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Klaus J

    2008-01-01

    The term 'stress' is used to refer to the perceptual salience at certain places in strings of syllables, but it has several different referents: (a) relative syllable salience in an utterance; this is syllable-, not word-oriented; (b) stress in a word; this is part of the lexical phonology; (c) stressing of words in utterances for various aspects of propositional and expressive meaning, often called 'accent(uation)'. Referents b and c are word- and meaning-oriented. In this article, the terms are more stringently defined. 'Stress' is only used to refer to a lexical stress position (referent b), i.e. a syllable in a word that becomes the docking place for various types of 'accent' to weight words in utterances (referent c). 'Stress' has no physical attributes by itself. 'Prominence' refers to the patterns of salience in syllable strings (referent a). The article reports results of an experiment in prominence perception of the logatome baba, in which the physical parameters F0, syllabic duration, and overall acoustic energy were systematically varied across the bisyllable. Sixteen German subjects had to indicate, by pressing buttons of a computerized reaction time device, whether the first or the second syllable was more prominent. F(0) was a more powerful cue than the other two. Equal syllable duration on a monotone resulted in more first-syllable judgements, which could be counteracted by a slightly falling F(0) contour on the second syllable to reach equal response frequencies for the two syllables. This ties in with Lehiste's earlier findings that F(0) movement increases the perception of duration. Extrapolating from the results, a research programme for prominence perception is developed that will eventually shed new light on the investigation into the nature and manifestation of speech rhythm. PMID:19221454

  16. Intensified Voice Therapy: A New Model for the Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Functional Dysphonias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Michael J.; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Ptok, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new intervention for chronic dysphonias, consisting of a 2-week outpatient treatment period using intensified voice therapy combined with elements of physical medicine, including physiotherapy (orthotherapy, detonisation and training of the trunk muscles, respiratory therapy and others), manual therapy…

  17. Articulatory Changes Following Treatment of Muscle Tension Dysphonia: Preliminary Acoustic Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromey, Christopher; Nissen, Shawn L.; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a voice disturbance that occurs in the absence of structural or neurological pathology, may respond to manual circumlaryngeal techniques, which ostensibly alter the posture of the larynx and/or the configuration of the vocal folds without directly targeting supralaryngeal articulatory structures.…

  18. Functional Dysphonia during Mental Imagery: Testing the Trait Theory of Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mersbergen, Miriam; Patrick, Christopher; Glaze, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has proposed that persons with functional dysphonia (FD) present with temperamental traits that predispose them to their voice disorder. We investigated this theory in a controlled experiment and compared them with social anxiety (SA) and healthy control (HC) groups. Method: Twelve participants with FD, 19 participants…

  19. Early Motor Unit Disease Masquerading as Psychogenic Breathy Dysphonia: A Clinical Case Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Arnold E.

    1971-01-01

    Presented is a study of a 20-year-old girl with mild, breathy dysphonia, previously diagnosed as psychogenic. In actuality, her voice change was a sign of early myasthenia gravis. It is pointed out that voice changes can be a first and only sign of early neurologic disease. (Author/KW)

  20. Articulatory Changes in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: Evidence of Vowel Space Expansion Following Manual Circumlaryngeal Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Nissen, Shawn L.; Dromey, Christopher; Sapir, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    In a preliminary study, we documented significant changes in formant transitions associated with successful manual circumlaryngeal treatment (MCT) of muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), suggesting improvement in speech articulation. The present study explores further the effects of MTD on vowel articulation by means of additional vowel acoustic…

  1. Featured Image: Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In these images from the Solar Dynamics Observatorys AIA instrument (click for the full resolution!), two solar prominence eruptions (one from June 2011 and one from August 2012) are shown in pre- and post-eruption states. The images at the top are taken in the Fe XII 193 bandpass and the images at the bottom are taken in the He II 304 bandpass. When a team of scientists searched through seven years of solar images taken by the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) spacecraft, these two eruptions were found to extend all the way out to a distance of 1 AU. They were the only two examples of clear, bright, and compact prominence eruptions found to do so. The scientists, led by Brian Wood (Naval Research Laboratory), used these observations to reconstruct the motion of the eruption and model how prominences expand as they travel away from the Sun. Theimage to the rightshowsa STEREO observation compared to the teams 3D model of theprominences shape and expansion. To learn more about theresults from this study, check out the paper below.CitationBrian E. Wood et al 2016 ApJ 816 67. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/816/2/67

  2. The Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wijn, Alfred; Bethge, Christian; McIntosh, Scott; Tomczyk, Steven; Burkepile, Joan

    2013-04-01

    The Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer (ChroMag) is a synoptic instrument with the goal of quantifying the intertwined dynamics and magnetism of the solar chromosphere and in prominences through imaging spectro-polarimetry of the full solar disk in a synoptic fashion. The picture of chromospheric magnetism and dynamics is rapidly developing, and a pressing need exists for breakthrough observations of chromospheric vector magnetic field measurements at the true lower boundary of the heliospheric system. ChroMag will provide measurements that will enable scientists to study and better understand the energetics of the solar atmosphere, how prominences are formed, how energy is stored in the magnetic field structure of the atmosphere and how it is released during space weather events like flares and coronal mass ejections. An essential part of the ChroMag program is a commitment to develop and provide community access to the `inversion' tools necessary to interpret the measurements and derive the magneto-hydrodynamic parameters of the plasma. Measurements of an instrument like ChroMag provide critical physical context for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) as well as ground-based observatories such as the future Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A prototype is currently under construction at the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO, USA. The heart of the ChroMag instrument is an electro-optically tunable wide-fielded narrow-band birefringent six-stage Lyot filter with a built-in polarimeter. We will present a progress update on the ChroMag design, and present results from the prototype instrument.

  3. Determining Prominent Subdomains in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Powell J.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss an automated method for identifying prominent subdomains in medicine. The motivation is to enhance the results of natural language processing by focusing on sublanguages associated with medical specialties concerned with prevalent disorders. At the core of our approach is a statistical system for topical categorization of medical text. A method based on epidemiological evidence is compared to another that considers frequency of occurrence of Medline citations. We suggest the isolation of UMLS terminology peculiar to individual medical specialties as a way of enhancing natural language processing systems in the biomedical domain. PMID:16778999

  4. Cross-system effects of dysphagia treatment on dysphonia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    LaGorio, Lisa A; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, treatment of dysphagia and dysphonia has followed a specificity approach whereby treatment plans have focused on each dysfunction individually. Recently however, a therapeutic cross-system effect has been proposed between these two dysfunctions. At least one study has demonstrated swallowing improvement in subjects who completed a dysphonia treatment program. However, we are unaware of any evidence demonstrating the converse effect. In this paper, we present a case-report of a 74 year old male who demonstrated improvement in selected vocal parameters after completion of a dysphagia therapy program. Dysphagia therapy resulted in improved laryngeal function in this subject. Results implicate improved vocal fold tension with increased glottal closure. Further investigation into the potential for this cross-system effect is warranted. PMID:18667069

  5. Observations of loops and prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.

    1994-01-01

    We review recent observations by the Yohkoh-SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) in collaboration with other spacecraft and ground-based observatories of coronal loops and prominences. These new results point to problems that SoHO will be able to address. With a unique combination of rapid-cadence digital imaging (greater than or equal to 32 s full-disk and greater than or equal to 2 s partial-frame images), high spatial resolution (greater than or equal to 2.5 arcsec pixels), high sensitivity (EM less than or equal to 10(exp 42) cm(exp -3)), a low-scatter mirror, and large dynamic range, SXT can observe a vast range of targets on the Sun. Over the first 21 months of Yohkoh operations SXT has taken over one million images of the corona and so is building up an invaluable long-term database on the large-scale corona and loop geometry. The most striking thing about the SXT images is the range of loop sizes and shapes. The active regions are a bright tangle of magnetic field lines, surrounded by a network of large-scale quiet-Sun loops stretching over distances in excess of 105 km. The cross-section of most loops seems to be constant. Loops displaying significant Gamma's are the exception, not the rule, implying the presence of widespread currents in the corona. All magnetic structures show changes. Time scales range from seconds to months. The question of how these structures are formed, become filled with hot plasma, and are maintained is still open. While we see the propagation of brightenings along the length of active-region loops and in X-ray jets with velocities of several hundred km/s, much higher velocities are seen in the quiet Sun. In XBP flares, for example, velocities of over 1000 km/s are common. Active-region loops seem to be in constant motion, moving slowly outward, carrying plasma with them. During flares, loops often produce localized brightenings at the base and later at the apex of the loop. Quiescent filaments and prominences have been observed regularly

  6. Laryngeal involvement causing dysphonia in a 29 year old nursing mother with lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Fwoloshi, Sombo; Machona, Sharon Musonda; Mudenda, Victor; Ngalamika, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a granulomatous disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It is caused by infection with mycobacterium leprae or mycobacterium lepromatosus. In most instances, diagnosis of leprosy can easily be made based on the clinical signs and symptoms. However, when patients present with atypical features, clinical diagnosis can be a challenge. We report a case of a nursing mother with lepromatous leprosy who presented with dysphonia and skin lesions initially thought to be a deep cutaneous mycosis. PMID:26327983

  7. Prominent Doublet Ridges on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's satellite Europa was obtained from a range of 7364 miles (11851 km) by the Galileo spacecraft during its fourth orbit around Jupiter and its first close pass of Europa. The image spans 30 miles by 57 miles (48 km x 91 km) and shows features as small as 800 feet (240 meters) across, a resolution more than 150 times better than the best Voyager coverage of this area. The sun illuminates the scene from the right. The large circular feature in the upper left of the image could be the scar of a large meteorite impact. Clusters of small craters seen in the right of the image may mark sites where debris thrown from this impact fell back to the surface. Prominent doublet ridges over a mile (1.6 km) wide cross the plains in the right part of the image; younger ridges overlap older ones, allowing the sequence of formation to be determined. Gaps in ridges indicate areas where emplacement of new surface material has obliterated pre-existing terrain.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  8. Solar Prominence Fine Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review recent observational and theoretical results on the fine structure and dynamics of solar prominences, beginning with an overview of prominence classifications, the proposal of possible new ``funnel prominence'' classification, and a discussion of the recent ``solar tornado'' findings. We then focus on quiescent prominences to review formation, down-flow dynamics, and the ``prominence bubble'' phenomena. We show new observations of the prominence bubble Rayleigh-Taylor instability triggered by a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear flow instability occurring along the bubble boundary. Finally we review recent studies on plasma composition of bubbles, emphasizing that differential emission measure (DEM) analysis offers a more quantitative analysis than photometric comparisons. In conclusion, we discuss the relation of prominences to coronal magnetic flux ropes, proposing that prominences can be understood as partially ionized condensations of plasma forming the return flow of a general magneto-thermal convection in the corona.

  9. Some crucial corona and prominence observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    A number of theories and hypotheses are currently being developed to explain the often complex behavior of corona and prominence plasmas. In order to test the theories and hypotheses certain crucial observations are necessary. Some of these observations are examined and a few conclusions are drawn. Corona mass balance, corona and prominence classifications, prominence formation and stability, and coronal mass ejection are dicussed.

  10. Re-interpreting Prominences Classified as Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Some papers in the recent literature identify tornado prominences with barbs of quiescent prominences while papers in the much older historic literature include a second category of tornado prominence that does not correspond to a barb of a quiescent prominence. The latter are described as prominence mass rotating around a nearly vertical axis prior to its eruption and the rotation was verified by spectral measurements. From H alpha Doppler-shifted mass motions recorded at Helio Research or the Dutch Open Telescope, we illustrate how the apparent tornado-like motions, identified with barbs, are illusions in our mind’s eye resulting from poorly resolved counterstreaming threads of mass in the barbs of quiescent prominences. In contrast, we confirm the second category of rotational motion in prominences shortly before and during eruption. In addition, we identify this second category as part of the late phase of a phenomenon called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of the prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption continues, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and its rotational motion also continues. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in some historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence. However, when we now observe entire eruptions in time-lapse sequences, the similarity to terrestrial tornadoes is lost. We conclude that neither prominence barbs, that give the illusion of rotation, nor the cases of true rotational motion, in the legs of erupting prominences, are usefully described as tornado prominences when the complete prominence structure or complete erupting event is observed.

  11. Simulations of Buoyant Plumes in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, N.; Berger, T.

    2012-08-01

    Observations of solar prominences reveal a complex, dynamic flow field within them. The flow field within quiescent prominences is characterized by long "threads" and dark "bubbles" that fall and rise (respectively) in a thin sheet. The flow field in active prominences display more helical motions that travel along the axis of the prominence. We explore the possible dynamics of both of these with the aid of 2.5D MHD simulations. Our model, compressible plasma possesses density and temperature gradients and resides in magnetic field configurations that mimc those of a solar prominence. We present results of various configurations and discuss the nonlinear behavior of the resulting dynamics.

  12. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in a case of 'Manto syndrome', or spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M; Pavani, M

    1982-12-01

    A case of spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome observed for over 18 months is presented and discussed. Maximal head rotation (determining backward gaze) was associated with compression of the brachial plexus between the scaleni muscles and motor, sensory and trophic troubles in the hand. This new syndrome is called after the diviner Manto, quoted by Dante Alighieri in his 'Divina Commedia' (Inferno, XX, 52-56). The etiology was ascribed to subacute toxic effects of methylparathion. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) demonstrated severe brainstem involvement, maximal in the mesencephalic structures. Clinical and neurophysiological data improved on treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Finally, BAEPs returned to normal. PMID:6984700

  13. Spasmolytic and Anti-Spasmodic Action of Trachyspermum ammi Essence on Rat's Ileum Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Hejazian, Seyed Hassan; Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Safari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trachyspermum ammi is a plant of umbelliferae family and has been traditionally used in the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders such as indigestion, colic, and diarrhea. Our previous study demonstrated that aqueous extract of Trachyspermum ammi reduced the contractile activity of rat's ileum. Aims: This study was designed to examine the effect of Trachyspermum ammi essence on acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated rat's ileum. Materials and Methods: In this experimental procedure, the tissue samples were suspended from the transducer lever and mounted on the organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. Isotonic responses were recorded by using an isotonic transducer and the amplitude of contractions. This process was induced by cumulative logarithmic concentrations of acetylcholine before and after exposing tissue by saline and different concentrations of essence. Results: The chemical constituents of the essence from distillate extract of Trachyspermum ammi seeds were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the chemical analysis showed many components in which thymol was the main constituent. Our findings showed that the essence derived from the extract in all concentrations used in this study (0.002, 0.005, and 0.01% V/V) significantly reduced acetylcholine-induced contractions (47.34, 60.46, and 86%, respectively, P < 0.05). The same concentrations of the essence also exhibit a significant anti-spasmodic action on acetylcholine-induced contractions (0.1,88.3, and 90.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Since thymol was the major constituent of our samples of Trachyspermum ammi, the relaxant effect observed in this study is probably due to this agent which can exert an anti-cholinergic property. PMID:25599053

  14. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  15. Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, G.; Grabe, E.; Coleman, J.; Rosner, B.

    2005-08-01

    We explored a database covering seven dialects of British and Irish English and three different styles of speech to find acoustic correlates of prominence. We built classifiers, trained the classifiers on human prominence/nonprominence judgments, and then evaluated how well they behaved. The classifiers operate on 452 ms windows centered on syllables, using different acoustic measures. By comparing the performance of classifiers based on different measures, we can learn how prominence is expressed in speech. Contrary to textbooks and common assumption, fundamental frequency (f0) played a minor role in distinguishing prominent syllables from the rest of the utterance. Instead, speakers primarily marked prominence with patterns of loudness and duration. Two other acoustic measures that we examined also played a minor role, comparable to f0. All dialects and speaking styles studied here share a common definition of prominence. The result is robust to differences in labeling practice and the dialect of the labeler.

  16. Prominence mass supply and the cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, Donald J.; Innes, D.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.

    2013-12-20

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system: the cavity is under-dense because it is evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolution of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model with diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prominence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å bandpass near the prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of our one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  17. Formation and Plasma Circulation of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous downflows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret because plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward, dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The circulation of prominence plasma is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromosphere and the formation of prominence plasma via continuous condensation. Plasma evaporates from the chromosphere, condenses into the prominence in the corona, and drains back to the chromosphere, establishing a stable chromosphere–corona plasma cycle. Synthetic images of the modeled prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly closely resemble actual observations, with many dynamical threads underlying an elliptical coronal cavity.

  18. Tornados and Transverse Oscillations during Prominence Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dipankar; Chandrashekhar, K.; Morton, Richard; Pant, Vaibhav; Datta, Ajanta

    2016-07-01

    We report and analyse different phases of a prominence eruption. The winding-unwinding of two footpoints and a tornado like swirling motion is studied. The prominence eruption is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This prominence eruption is associated with a CME at a central principal angle of 340 degree, according to the SOHO/LASCO CME catalogue. We can observe the prominence threads and the time distance maps reveal that the loop threads are entangled. We also study the transverse oscillations in the threads. Swirling motions after the eruptions are also quantified and its possible link with the CME kinematics is also studied

  19. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  20. MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudik, J.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Zapior, M.; Heinzel, P.

    2012-12-10

    We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outside of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.

  1. Species and tissue-specificity of prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of Fumaria parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fumaria parviflora Linn. (Fumariaceae), is a small branched annual herb found in many parts of the world including Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. This study was designed to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders. Methods The in-vivo prokinetic and laxative assays were conducted in mice. Isolated intestinal preparations (ileum and jejunum) from different animal species (mouse, guinea-pig and rabbit) were separately suspended in tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution bubbled with carbogen and maintained at 37°C. The spasmogenic responses were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system. Results The aqueous-methanol extract of Fumaria parviflora (Fp.Cr), which tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones showed partially atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative activities in the in-vivo in mice at 30 and 100 mg/kg. In the in-vitro studies, Fp.Cr (0.01-1 mg/ml) caused a concentration-dependent atropine-sensitive stimulatory effect both in mouse tissues (jejunum and ileum), and rabbit jejunum but had no effect in rabbit ileum. In guinea-pig tissues (ileum and jejunum), the crude extract showed a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect with higher efficacy in ileum and the effect was partially blocked by atropine, indicating the involvement of more than one types of gut-stimulant components (atropine-sensitive and insensitive). This could be a plausible reason for the greater efficacy of Fp.Cr in gut preparations of guinea-pig than in rabbit or mouse. Conclusions This study shows the prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of the plant extract partially mediated through cholinergic pathways with species and tissue-selectivity, and provides a sound rationale for the medicinal use of Fumaria parviflora in gut motility disorders such as, indigestion and constipation. This study also suggests using different species to

  2. Formation of Prominences and Dynamics Before Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Solar prominences have fascinated to astronomers since the first scientific observations of eclipses. Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. These are cool and dense structures suspended in the very hot solar corona. The continuous improvements in spatial and temporal resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have revealed a rich structure and dynamics of prominences. Despite over one century of observations, the magnetic structure of a solar prominence, the origin of its mass, and their dynamics remain vigorously debated issues with profound implications for space weather. In this talk I will address the question of the origin of the cool mass of prominences by reviewing past and recent advances in theoretical modelling.

  3. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  4. Basic properties and models of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Prominences are relatively cool (10,000 K) and dense plasma clouds which may persist for 100 days or more in the midst of the much hotter (1 million K) and more tenuous (10 exp 9/cu cm) corona. Many observations imply that the magnetic field in and around prominences is responsible both for isolating prominences from the corona and for supporting them against gravity. It is not at all obvious how the magnetic field can do both these tasks, but the limited theoretical models that are available suggest that a magnetic-flux rope is involved. Using a new analytical model, it is argued that the flux rope could also play a key role in the eruption of a prominence by supplying the magnetic energy necessary to drive the prominence outwards.

  5. Investigation on Eruptive Prominences Observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yingna; McCauley, Patrick; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan; Ji, Haisheng; Reeves, Katharine; DeLuca, Edward

    2015-04-01

    We will present an investigation of the polar crown prominence that erupted on 2012 March 12. This prominence is observed at the southeast limb by SDO/AIA (end-on view) and displays a quasi vertical-thread structure. Bright U-shape (horn-like) structure is observed surrounding the upper portion of the prominence (171 Angstrom) before the eruption and becomes more prominent during the eruption. When viewed on the disk, STEREO-B shows that this long prominence is composed of a series of vertical threads and displays a half loop-like structure during the eruption. We focus on the magnetic support of the prominence by studying the structure and dynamics of the prominence before and during the eruption using observations from SDO and STEREO. During the eruption, AIA observes dark ribbons seen in absorption at 171 Angstrom in corresponding to the bright ribbons at 304 Angstrom. We construct a series of magnetic field models (including sheared arcade model, twisted flux rope model, and model with HFT), then compare with observations. Various observational characteristics appear to support the twisted flux rope model. Our study suggests that the flux rope supporting the prominence enters the regime of torus instability at the onset of the fast rise phase, and evidence of reconnection (post-eruption arcade, new U-shape Structure, rising blobs) appears about one hour later. We will also present a statistical study on the kinematics of limb eruptive prominences observed by SDO/AIA. A brief introduction on an online catalog of prominence eruptions observed by SDO/AIA will also be presented.

  6. Prominences: The Key to Understanding Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2011-01-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process also remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for

  7. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  8. [Computer-assisted phonetography as a diagnostic aid in functional dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Airainer, R; Klingholz, F

    1991-07-01

    A total of 160 voice-trained and untrained subjects with functional dysphonia were given a "clinical rating" according to their clinical findings. This was a certain value on a scale that recorded the degree of functional voice disorder ranging from a marked hypofunction to an extreme hyperfunction. The phonetograms of these patients were approximated by ellipses, whereby the definition and quantitative recording of several phonetogram parameters were rendered possible. By means of a linear combination of phonetogram parameters, a "calculated assessment" was obtained for each patient that was expected to tally with the "clinical rating". This paper demonstrates that a graduation of the dysphonic clinical picture with regard to the presence of hypofunctional or hyperfunctional components is possible via computerised phonetogram evaluation. In this case, the "calculated assessments" for both male and female singers and non-singers must be computed using different linear combinations. The method can be introduced as a supplementary diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of functional dysphonia. PMID:1910366

  9. Effects of Omeprazole Over Voice Quality in Muscle Tension Dysphonia Patients With Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gökce; Dalgic, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Backround Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is the backflow of stomach contents above upper esophageal sphincter, into the pharynx, larynx, and upper aerodigestive system. Objectives In this study, effects of omeprazole over voice quality in muscle tension dysphonia with laryngopharyngeal reflux was ınvestigated. Patients and Methods Nine patients, 7 males and 2 females, aged between 27-43 (mean age:31) were included to this study. The diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia with LPR was established by video laryngoscopy, rigid scope 70º. The laryngeal changes related with LPR were evaluated according to Reflux Finding Score. The patients received omeprazole 20 mg twice a day for a period of 6 months. None of the patients received voice therapy. Vocal hygiene guidelines were also explained to the patients. Objective and subjective voice parameters (Jitter, shimmer, NHR, Voice Handicap Index, and Auditive analysis; Roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness) were evaluated in this study. Results After treatment with omeprazol, all the parameters showed an improvement in voice quality, but only VHI (P = 0) and shimmer (P = 0,018) are statistically significant. Conclusions For FD patients with LPR condition, we highly recommend that LPR treatment should be part of the treatment plan. PMID:23483094

  10. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  11. Topological Analyses of Symmetric Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, O.; Martin, S. F.

    Erupting prominences (filaments) that we have analyzed from Hα Doppler data at Helio Research and from SOHO/EIT 304 Å, show strong coherency between their chirality, the direction of the vertical and lateral motions of the top of the prominences, and the directions of twisting of their legs. These coherent properties in erupting prominences occur in two patterns of opposite helicity; they constitute a form of dynamic chirality called the ``roll effect." Viewed from the positive network side as they erupt, many symmetrically-erupting dextral prominences develop rolling motion toward the observer along with right-hand helicity in the left leg and left-hand helicity in the right leg. Many symmetricaly-erupting sinistral prominences, also viewed from the positive network field side, have the opposite pattern: rolling motion at the top away from the observer, left-hand helical twist in the left leg, and right-hand twist in the right leg. We have analysed the motions seen in the famous movie of the ``Grand Daddy" erupting prominence and found that it has all the motions that define the roll effect. From our analyses of this and other symmetric erupting prominences, we show that the roll effect is an alternative to the popular hypothetical configuration of an eruptive prominence as a twisted flux rope or flux tube. Instead we find that a simple flat ribbon can be bent such that it reproduces nearly all of the observed forms. The flat ribbon is the most logical beginning topology because observed prominence spines already have this topology prior to eruption and an initial long magnetic ribbon with parallel, non-twisted threads, as a basic form, can be bent into many more and different geometrical forms than a flux rope.

  12. The initial trajectories of eruptive solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B. P.

    2016-03-01

    Trajectories of eruptive prominences are compared with the shapes of coronal neutral surfaces calculated in a potential approximation using photospheric measurements. Space-based Solar Dymamics Observatory and STEREO observations carried out at different viewing angles enable a precise determination of a prominence's position at successive times during its eruption. In the initial segments of their trajectories, eruptive prominences move along neutral surfaces ( B r = 0) of the potential coronal magnetic field. This can be used to predict the directions of subsequent coronal mass ejections and to estimate their geoefficiency.

  13. Helical flux ropes in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present numerical method for the computation of force-free, cancelling magnetic structures shows that flux cancellation at the neutral line in a sheared magnetic arcade generates helical field lines that can support a prominence's plasma. With increasing flux cancellation, the axis of the helical fields moves to greater heights; this is suggestive of a prominence eruption. Two alternative scenarios are proposed for the formation of polar crown prominences which yield the correct axial magnetic field sign. Both models are noted to retain the formation of helical flux tubes through flux cancellation as their key feature.

  14. Dysphonia: medical treatment and a medical voice hygiene advice approach. A prospective randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M; Beranova, A; Møller, S

    2004-07-01

    For many years all patients with dysphonia referred to in the literature as resulting from non-organic (functional) voice disorders were sent to speech therapy. Medical diagnoses were not taken into account. In our earlier Cochrane review on vocal cord nodules we discovered that evidence-based research in the area of benign voice disorders with dysphonia, and with or without slight benign swellings including nodules on the vocal cords, was lacking at that time. Therefore, a prospective randomised pilot study based on our Cochrane review has been made on dysphonic patients with non-organic (function provoked?) voice disorders as the basis for further evidence-based studies. Medical treatment was based on the scientific approach that once a micro-organic disorder caused by reflux, infection, allergy or environmental irritatants (e.g., dust or noise in the workplace) was discovered by very careful anamnesis and systematic objective routine analyses and was treated effectively, with documentation, the non-organic voice disorder disappeared, as, e.g., in the case of a diagnosis and treatment of helicobakter pylori. The reason is that the mucosal swelling/dysfunction of the vocal cords is secondary. In order to try to understand why the recommendation to all these patients for many years was only voice therapy, which the speech therapists "felt to be effective", updated voice-hygiene advice (for posture, accents of the diaphragm, intonation pattern and resonance) was given by experienced laryngologists, randomised with the updated medical diagnosis/therapy in order to elucidate what effect the training might have. No evidence-based studies in the literature document any effect. The crucial point seemed to be that doctors mostly did not examine any other diagnoses other than the "dysphonia" and did not dig down to any of the medical reasons when the vocal fold diagnosis of "non- organic disorders" was made. This should be changed in the future. This pilot study was based

  15. NASA's SDO Sees Unraveling Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    An elongated solar prominence rose up above the sun’s surface and slowly unraveled on Feb. 3, 2016, as seen in this video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO. The sun appears to move in th...

  16. EUV observations of quiescent prominences from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, O. K.; Cook, J. W.; Mango, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of line intensities and line widths for three quiescent prominences observed with Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on ATM/Skylab are reported. The wavelengths of the observed lines cover the range 1175 A to 1960 A. The measured intensities have been calibrated to within approximately a factor 2 and are average intensities over a 2 arcsec by 60 arcsec slit. Nonthermal velocities from the measured line widths are derived. The nonthermal velocity is found to increase with temperature in the prominence transition zone. Electron densities and pressures are derived from density sensitive line ratios. Electron pressures for two of the prominences are found to lie in the range 0.04-0.08 dyn/sq cm, while values for the third and most intense and active of the three prominences are in the range 0.07-0.22 dyn/sq cm.

  17. Ring-shaped Prominence Erupts from Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) on Jan. 31, 2013 was accompanied by a large prominence eruption best visible in light with a wavelength of 304 angstroms. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured ...

  18. Formation and eruption of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    A model for the magnetic field associated with solar prominences is considered. It is shown that flux cancellation at the neutral line of a sheared magnetic arcade leads to the formation of helical field lines which are capable, in principle, of supporting prominence plasma. A numerical method for the computation of force-free, canceling magnetic structures is presented. Starting from an initial potential field we prescribe the motions of magnetic footpoints at the photosphere, with reconnection occurring only at the neutral line. As more and more flux cancels, magnetic flux is transferred from the arcade field to the helical field. Results for a particular model of the photospheric motions are presented. The magnetic structure is found to be stable: the arcade field keeps the helical field tied down at the photosphere. The axis of the helical field moves to larger and larger height, suggestive of prominence eruption. These results suggest that prominence eruptions may be trigered by flux cancellation.

  19. Hefty Prominence Eruption Observed by SDO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A mass of solar material gathered itself into a twisting mass, spun around for a bit, then rose up and broke apart over a 10-hour period on Oct. 13, 2015. Prominences are unstable clouds of gas tet...

  20. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  1. A DROPLET MODEL OF QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DOWNFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Haerendel, G.; Berger, T.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of quiescent prominences with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite have revealed the ubiquitous existence of downflows forming coherent thin and highly structured vertically oriented threads with velocities between 10 and 20 km s{sup -1}. Their widths range between 300 and 500 km. They are often initiated at the top of the visible prominence, but sometimes also at intermediate level. We propose that the downflows are made of plasma packets that squeeze themselves through the dominantly horizontal field under the action of gravity. Their origin is assumed to be hot plasma supplied from either inside or the immediate vicinity of the prominence and condensing at its top. Under compression and further cooling, the matter overflows to the flanks of the prominence dragging its magnetic field with it. Under the increasing action of gravity, vertical structures are forming which eventually disconnect from the field of the inflow channel thus forming finite plasma packets. This process is reminiscent of water flowing over a mountain ridge and breaking up into a multitude of droplets. Like water droplets being subject to air drag, the falling plasma droplets experience a drag force by the horizontal prominence field and assume a steady vertical velocity. This happens via the excitation of Alfven waves. Lateral confinement by the prominence field determines their spatial extent. The small scales of the droplets and the directional balance of their internal tangled magnetic fields can explain the absence of appreciable vertical components in magnetic field measurements. On the basis of the observed width and vertical speed of the downflows and by adopting a prominence field of about 8 G, we derive central density and temperature of the droplets, which turn out to be quite consistent with known prominence characteristics. In the formulation of the drag force a dimensionless 'magnetic drag coefficient' has been introduced with a value well below unity.

  2. An arcade-like eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shu-Hua; Zhan, La-Sheng

    2004-12-01

    An eruptive prominence happened on the east-northern limb of the Sun on March 7, 1991. It appeared in a relatively quiet region where any activity phenomena such as flare, filament and sunspot etc. was not found. The maximum height reachable of the prominence was 6.97×104km and its maximum length reached as 11.6×104km. The eruptive prominence might belong to the one of the middle-smaller scale according to its size in morphology. The course of the eruption exhibited some properties: ascending rapidly and descending slowly just like the process of the flare eruption. After the eruption, the most material in the prominence basically moved along a parabola under the action of magnetic force lines forming the arcade-like shape and keeping it till to the disappearance of the prominence. Before and after descending, a little matter came from the top part was ejected and divorced from the main body of the prominence and diffused into the interplanetary space.

  3. DIAGNOSING THE PROMINENCE-CAVITY CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, Sarah

    2013-06-10

    Prominences and cavities are ubiquitously observed together, but the physical link between these disparate structures has not been established. We address this issue by using dynamic emission in the extreme ultraviolet to probe the connections of these structures. The SDO/AIA observations show that the cavity exhibits excessive emission variability compared to the surrounding quiet-Sun streamer, particularly in the 171 A bandpass. We find that this dynamic emission takes the form of coherent loop-like brightening structures which emanate from the prominence into the central cavity. The geometry of these structures, dubbed prominence horns, generally mimics the curvature of the cavity boundary. We use a space-time statistical analysis of two cavities in multiple AIA bandpasses to constrain the energetic properties of 45 horns. In general, we find there is a positive correlation between the light curves of the horns in the 171 A and 193 A bandpasses; however, the 193 A emission is a factor of five weaker. There is also a strong correlation between structural changes to the prominence as viewed in the He II 304 A bandpass and the enhanced 171 A emission. In that bandpass, the prominence appears to extend several megameters along the 171 A horn where we observe co-spatial, co-temporal 304 A and 171 A emission dynamics. We present these observations as evidence of the magnetic and energetic connection between the prominence and the cavity. Further modeling work is necessary to explain the physical source and consequences of these events, particularly in the context of the traditional paradigm: the cavity is underdense because it supplies mass to the overdense prominence.

  4. Magnetic Reconnection Models of Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that prominences form by magnetic reconnection between initially distinct flux systems in the solar corona, we simulate coronal magnetic field evolution when two flux systems are driven together by boundary motions. In particular, we focus on configurations similar to those in the quiescent prominence formation model of Martens & Zwaan. We find that reconnection proceeds very weakly, if at all, in configurations driven with global shear flows (i.e., differential rotation); reconnection proceeds much more efficiently in similar configurations that are driven to collide directly, with converging motions along the neutral line that lead to flux cancellation; reconnected fields from this process can exhibit sheared, dipped field lines along the neutral line, consistent with prominence observations. Our field configurations do not possess the ``breakout'' topology, and eruptions are not observed, even though a substantial amount of flux is canceled in some runs.

  5. Inharmonicity Analysis: A Novel Physical Method for Acoustic Screening of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, Sam; Lu, Fang-Ling

    2008-10-01

    In the United States 6.8% of men, women, and children report current voice problems and approximately 29% will report some problems during their lifetime. Often this dysphonia is due to pathologies of the vocal folds. The authors (a physicist and a speech pathologist) describe an interdisciplinary approach that shows promise of detecting physiological abnormalities of the vocal folds from an analysis of the Fourier spectrum of spoken ``tokens.'' The underlying principle maintains that the normal human vocal fold is a linear oscillator that emits overtones that are very nearly precise integral values of the fundamental. Physiological problems of the vocal folds, however, introduce mechanical non-linearities that manifest themselves as frequency deviations from the ideal harmonic (that is, integral) values. The authors quantify this inharmonicity, describing and illustrating how one can obtain and analyze such data. They outline, as well, a proposed program to assess the clinical sensitivity and significance of the analysis discussed in this work.

  6. De novo FUS P525L mutation in Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dysphonia and diplopia.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Claire S; Webber, Alina; Gan-Or, Ziv; Moore, Fraser; Dagher, Alain; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (jALS) is characterized by progressive upper and lower motor neuron degeneration leading to facial muscle spasticity, spastic dysarthria, and spastic gait with an early onset (before 25 years old). Unlike adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), patients with jALS tend to have slower progression of motor neuron disease and prolonged survival to a normal life expectancy. Mutations in FUS gene have been reported in jALS,(1) including p.P525L mutation that has been consistently associated with early onset and aggressive presentation.(2) Here, we report a patient carrying p.P525L FUS mutation and experiencing an aggressive course of ALS presenting with dysphonia and diplopia. PMID:27123482

  7. Non-organic dysphonia. II. A comparison of subglottal pressures in normal and pathological voices.

    PubMed

    Gramming, P

    1989-01-01

    In previous investigations, typical phonetogram differences have been revealed between healthy and pathological voices: the average maximum and minimum sound pressure levels that a patient suffering from non-organic dysphonia can produce at different fundamental frequencies deviate significantly from the corresponding values for a healthy voice. The subglottal pressure, being the primary tool for regulating the sound pressure level of voice, was estimated from the oral pressure during the voiceless stop/p/in 10 female and 10 male subjects with normal voices and in 10 female and 10 male non-organic dysphonic patients. In loud phonation, the female patients had significantly lower values than the female healthy subjects, while no corresponding significant difference was seen between the male subjects. In soft phonation, the male patients had significantly higher values than the normal healthy subjects, while the females showed no significant difference. PMID:2929314

  8. THE THERMAL INSTABILITY OF SOLAR PROMINENCE THREADS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Goossens, M.; Ballester, J. L.

    2011-04-10

    The fine structure of solar prominences and filaments appears as thin and long threads in high-resolution images. In H{alpha} observations of filaments, some threads can be observed for only 5-20 minutes before they seem to fade and eventually disappear, suggesting that these threads may have very short lifetimes. The presence of an instability might be the cause of this quick disappearance. Here, we study the thermal instability of prominence threads as an explanation of their sudden disappearance from H{alpha} observations. We model a prominence thread as a magnetic tube with prominence conditions embedded in a coronal environment. We assume a variation of the physical properties in the transverse direction so that the temperature and density continuously change from internal to external values in an inhomogeneous transitional layer representing the particular prominence-corona transition region (PCTR) of the thread. We use the nonadiabatic and resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations, which include terms due to thermal conduction parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, radiative losses, heating, and magnetic diffusion. We combine both analytical and numerical methods to study linear perturbations from the equilibrium state, focusing on unstable thermal solutions. We find that thermal modes are unstable in the PCTR for temperatures higher than 80,000 K, approximately. These modes are related to temperature disturbances that can lead to changes in the equilibrium due to rapid plasma heating or cooling. For typical prominence parameters, the instability timescale is of the order of a few minutes and is independent of the form of the temperature profile within the PCTR of the thread. This result indicates that thermal instability may play an important role for the short lifetimes of threads in the observations.

  9. Automated image based prominent nucleoli detection

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon K.; Kalaw, Emarene M.; Singh, Malay; Chong, Kian T.; Giron, Danilo M.; Huang, Chao-Hui; Cheng, Li; Law, Yan N.; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nucleolar changes in cancer cells are one of the cytologic features important to the tumor pathologist in cancer assessments of tissue biopsies. However, inter-observer variability and the manual approach to this work hamper the accuracy of the assessment by pathologists. In this paper, we propose a computational method for prominent nucleoli pattern detection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five hematoxylin and eosin stained images were acquired from prostate cancer, breast cancer, renal clear cell cancer and renal papillary cell cancer tissues. Prostate cancer images were used for the development of a computer-based automated prominent nucleoli pattern detector built on a cascade farm. An ensemble of approximately 1000 cascades was constructed by permuting different combinations of classifiers such as support vector machines, eXclusive component analysis, boosting, and logistic regression. The output of cascades was then combined using the RankBoost algorithm. The output of our prominent nucleoli pattern detector is a ranked set of detected image patches of patterns of prominent nucleoli. Results: The mean number of detected prominent nucleoli patterns in the top 100 ranked detected objects was 58 in the prostate cancer dataset, 68 in the breast cancer dataset, 86 in the renal clear cell cancer dataset, and 76 in the renal papillary cell cancer dataset. The proposed cascade farm performs twice as good as the use of a single cascade proposed in the seminal paper by Viola and Jones. For comparison, a naive algorithm that randomly chooses a pixel as a nucleoli pattern would detect five correct patterns in the first 100 ranked objects. Conclusions: Detection of sparse nucleoli patterns in a large background of highly variable tissue patterns is a difficult challenge our method has overcome. This study developed an accurate prominent nucleoli pattern detector with the potential to be used in the clinical settings. PMID:26167383

  10. Objective Dysphonia Quantification in Vocal Fold Paralysis: Comparing Nonlinear with Classical Measures

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Costello, Declan A. E.; Harries, Meredydd L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Clinical acoustic voice-recording analysis is usually performed using classical perturbation measures, including jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratios (NHRs). However, restrictive mathematical limitations of these measures prevent analysis for severely dysphonic voices. Previous studies of alternative nonlinear random measures addressed wide varieties of vocal pathologies. Here, we analyze a single vocal pathology cohort, testing the performance of these alternative measures alongside classical measures. We present voice analysis pre- and postoperatively in 17 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). The patients underwent standard medialization thyroplasty surgery, and the voices were analyzed using jitter, shimmer, NHR, nonlinear recurrence period density entropy (RPDE), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and correlation dimension. In addition, we similarly analyzed 11 healthy controls. Systematizing the preanalysis editing of the recordings, we found that the novel measures were more stable and, hence, reliable than the classical measures on healthy controls. RPDE and jitter are sensitive to improvements pre- to postoperation. Shimmer, NHR, and DFA showed no significant change (P > 0.05). All measures detect statistically significant and clinically important differences between controls and patients, both treated and untreated (P < 0.001, area under curve [AUC] > 0.7). Pre- to postoperation grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) ratings show statistically significant and clinically important improvement in overall dysphonia grade (G) (AUC = 0.946, P < 0.001). Recalculating AUCs from other study data, we compare these results in terms of clinical importance. We conclude that, when preanalysis editing is systematized, nonlinear random measures may be useful for monitoring UVFP-treatment effectiveness, and there may be applications to other forms of dysphonia. PMID:19900790

  11. Measurements of magnetic fields in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deglinnocenti, Egidio Landi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be measured, in solar prominences, by means of two different basic mechanisms that are responsible for the introduction (or the reduction) of a given amount of polarization in spectral lines: these are the Zeeman effect and the Hanle effect. Through the splitting of the magnetic components of a spectral line, the Zeeman effect is capable of introducing a certain amount of circular polarization across the line profile. The Hanle effect consist of a modification of the linear polarization that is induced in spectral lines by the anisotropic illumination of the prominence plasma by the photospheric radiation field. These two effects are briefly discussed.

  12. Exploring the properties of Solar Prominence Tornados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, E.; Panesar, N. K.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar prominences consist of relatively cool and dense plasma embedded in the hotter solar corona above the solar limb. They form along magnetic polarity inversion lines, and are magnetically supported against gravity at heights of up to ~100 Mm above the chromosphere. Often, parts of prominences visually resemble Earth-based tornados, with inverted-cone-shaped structures and internal motions suggestive of rotation. These "prominence tornados" clearly possess complex magnetic structure, but it is still not certain whether they actually rotate around a ''rotation'' axis, or instead just appear to do so because of composite internal material motions such as counter-streaming flows or lateral (i.e. transverse to the field) oscillations. Here we study the structure and dynamics of five randomly selected prominences, using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) 171 Å images obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. All of the prominences resided in non-active-region locations, and displayed what appeared to be tornado-like rotational motions. Our set includes examples oriented both broadside and end-on to our line-of-sight. We created time-distance plots of horizontal slices at several different heights of each prominence, to study the horizontal plasma motions. We observed patterns of oscillations at various heights in each prominence, and we measured parameters of these oscillations. We find the oscillation time periods to range over ~50 - 90 min, with average amplitudes of ~6,000 km, and with average velocities of ~7 kms-1. We found similar values for prominences viewed either broadside or end-on; this observed isotropy of the lateral oscillatory motion suggests that the apparent oscillations result from actual rotational plasma motions and/or lateral oscillations of the magnetic field, rather than to counter-streaming flows. This research was supported by the National

  13. Dynamic Features in and nearby a Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We will discuss the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 million K. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and by the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: a prominence activation and repeated motions in a loop nearby the prominence. We were able to calculate three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the average density, kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx.10(exp 5) K) loops.

  14. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  15. Intonational Prominence on Negatives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaeger-Dror, Malcah L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study done to determine which intonational parameters are most important to the meaning being conveyed within different social settings. Defines the factors that appear to influence the use of pitch and/or intensity prominence on negative words. Found that, in many situations, interactional rules take precedence over linguistic rules.…

  16. Damped kink oscillations of flowing prominence threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, R.; Ruderman, M. S.; Goossens, M.

    2012-10-01

    Transverse oscillations of thin threads in solar prominences are frequently reported in high-resolution observations. Two typical features of the observations are that the oscillations are damped in time and that simultaneous mass flows along the threads are detected. Flows cause the dense threads to move along the prominence magnetic structure while the threads are oscillating. The oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves of the magnetic flux tubes, which support the threads. The damping is most likely due to resonant absorption caused by plasma inhomogeneity. The technique of seismology uses the observations combined with MHD wave theory to estimate prominence physical parameters. This paper presents a theoretical study of the joint effect of flow and resonant absorption on the amplitude of standing kink waves in prominence threads. We find that flow and resonant absorption can either be competing effects on the amplitude or both can contribute to damp the oscillations depending on the instantaneous position of the thread within the prominence magnetic structure. The amplitude profile deviates from the classic exponential profile of resonantly damped kink waves in static flux tubes. Flow also introduces a progressive shift of the oscillation period compared to the static case, although this effect is in general of minor importance. We test the robustness of seismological estimates by using synthetic data aiming to mimic real observations. The effect of the thread flow can significantly affect the estimation of the transverse inhomogeneity length scale. The presence of random background noise adds uncertainty to this estimation. Caution needs to be paid to the seismological estimates that do not take the influence of flow into account.

  17. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  18. Prominence material identified in magnetic cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuo; Marsch, E.; Tu, C.-Y.

    2010-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often appear in coronagraph images as three-part structures composed of a leading bright front, a dark cavity and a bright core, which are believed to be associated with the sheath of compressed solar wind, the erupting magnetic flux rope and the cool and dense prominence plasma, respectively. However, a convincing identification of this three-part structure in the in-situ solar wind is extremely rare. Therefore, there still remains an open question as to what kind of signatures these three CME parts will reveal in the in situ data ([5]). Our work presents a clear identification of prominence material from in situ observations of the solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters. The Helios 2 solar probe detected a magnetic cloud at 0.5 AU on 30 March 1976. In this event, we found a region with lower proton temperature and higher proton number density than outside, which is consistent with key features of a prominence as cold and dense solar material. During the same time we also found the occurrence of what possibly is He+, which is a special ion expected to occur only in prominence ejecta. Furthermore, the above observations were all made at a location related to the turning point of a bipolar structure of the interplanetary magnetic field, which is coincident with the notion that a solar prominence lies under the magnetic field lines of a bipolar region and is oriented along the neutral line. Furthermore, from our analysis of solar wind velocity distribution functions (VDFs) we can confirm by kinetic evidence that the plasma inside this special region is colder and more isotropic than outside. Above all, our observations circumstantially confirm the 3-part CME model as described in references [10] and [7].

  19. Tracking prominent points in image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael

    1994-03-01

    Measuring image motion and inferring scene geometry and camera motion are main aspects of image sequence analysis. The determination of image motion and the structure-from-motion problem are tasks that can be addressed independently or in cooperative processes. In this paper we focus on tracking prominent points. High stability, reliability, and accuracy are criteria for the extraction of prominent points. This implies that tracking should work quite well with those features; unfortunately, the reality looks quite different. In the experimental investigations we processed a long sequence of 128 images. This mono sequence is taken in an outdoor environment at the experimental field of Mercedes Benz in Rastatt. Different tracking schemes are explored and the results with respect to stability and quality are reported.

  20. Models of Filament-Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian T.

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  1. 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Modeling. II. Prominence Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2015-10-01

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  2. On the thermal durability of solar prominences, or how to evaporate a prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malherbe, J. M.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal disappearance of solar prominences under strong perturbations due to wave heating, Ohmic heating, viscous heating or conduction was investigated. Specifically, how large a thermal perturbation is needed to destroy a stable thermal equilibrium was calculated. It was found that the prominence plasma appears to be thermally very rugged. Its cold equilibrium may most likely be destroyed by either strong magnetic heating or conduction in a range of parameters which is relevant to flares.

  3. A Solar Prominence, Elbow-Prominence, Image From Skylab-3 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Some of the prominences that float like lazy clouds above the solar surface suddenly erupt and break away from the Sun in cataclysmic action. The trigger of this coronal transient, like many others seen by Skylab's coronagraph, was an eruptive prominence that surged outward from the limb of the Sun, ejecting matter that disturbed the outer corona. This image is of the surge in action in ultraviolet light of ionized helium. Simultaneous observations like this made possible an almost immediate understanding of the new-found cosmic phenomenon. The elbow prominence was accidentally photographed by Astronaut Garriott (Skylab-3) while observing a small flare near the limb of the Sun beneath the mighty arch on August 9, 1973.

  4. Explosive Instability of Prominence Flux Ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O; Fong, R H L; Cowley, S C

    2002-09-04

    The rapid, Alfvenic, time scale of erupting solar-prominences has been an enigma ever since they where first identified. Investigators have proposed a variety of different mechanisms in an effort to account for the abrupt reconfiguration observed. No one mechanism clearly stands out as the single cause of these explosive events. Recent analysis has demonstrated that field lines in the solar atmosphere are metastable to ballooning type instabilities. It has been found previously that in ideal MHD plasmas marginally unstable ballooning modes inevitably become ''explosive'' evolving towards a finite time singularity via a nonlinear 3D instability called ''Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Detonation.'' Thus, this mechanism is a good candidate to explain explosive events observed in the solar atmosphere of our star or in others.

  5. Observational Constraints on Stellar Flares and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Multi-wavelength surveys have catalogued a wealth of stellar flare data for stars representing a broad range of masses and ages. Young solar analogs inform our understanding of the Sun's evolution and the influence of its activity on early solar system formation, while field star observations allow us to place its current activity into context within a statistical ensemble of main-sequence G-type stars. At the same time, stellar observations probe a variety of interior and coronal conditions, providing constraints on models of equilibrium (and loss thereof!) for magnetic structures. In this review, I will focus on our current understanding of stellar flares, prominences, and coronal mass ejections as a function of stellar parameters. As our interpretation of stellar data relies heavily on solar-stellar analogy, I will explore how far into extreme stellar parameter spaces this comparison can be invoked.

  6. Can prominences form in current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malherbe, J. M.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the formation of cold condensations in a vertical current sheet have been performed using the radiative, resistive MHD equations with line-tied boundary conditions at one end of the sheet. Prominence-like condensations are observed to appear above and below an X-line produced by the onset of the tearing-mode instability. Cooling in the sheet is initiated by Ohmic decay, with the densest condensations occurring in the region downstream of a fast-mode shock. This shock, which is due to the line-tied boundary conditions, terminates one of the two supermagnetosonic reconnection jets that develop when the tearing is fully developed. The condensation properties of shock waves, which may trigger or considerably enhance the conditions for thermal condensation are emphasized.

  7. Reliability of speaking and maximum voice range measures in screening for dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Estella; Robertson, Jennie; Radford, Claire; Vagne, Sarah; El-Halabi, Ruba; Yiu, Edwin

    2007-07-01

    Speech range profile (SRP) is a graphical display of frequency-intensity occurring interactions during functional speech activity. Few studies have suggested the potential clinical applications of SRP. However, these studies are limited to qualitative case comparisons and vocally healthy participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of voice disorders on speaking and maximum voice ranges in a group of vocally untrained women. It also aimed to examine whether voice limit measures derived from SRP were as sensitive as those derived from voice range profile (VRP) in distinguishing dysphonic from healthy voices. Ninety dysphonic women with laryngeal pathologies and 35 women with normal voices, who served as controls, participated in this study. Each subject recorded a VRP for her physiological vocal limits. In addition, each subject read aloud the "North Wind and the Sun" passage to record SRP. All the recordings were captured and analyzed by Soundswell's computerized real-time phonetogram Phog 1.0 (Hitech Development AB, Täby, Sweden). The SRPs and the VRPs were compared between the two groups of subjects. Univariate analysis results demonstrated that individual SRP measures were less sensitive than the corresponding VRP measures in discriminating dysphonic from normal voices. However, stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed that the combination of only two SRP measures was almost as effective as a combination of three VRP measures in predicting the presence of dysphonia (overall prediction accuracy: 93.6% for SRP vs 96.0% for VRP). These results suggest that in a busy clinic where quick voice screening results are desirable, SRP can be an acceptable alternate procedure to VRP. PMID:16678387

  8. Manual Therapy and Exercise to Improve Outcomes in Patients With Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Kristin R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a common voice disorder that is not commonly referred for physical therapy intervention, is characterized by excessive muscle recruitment, resulting in incorrect vibratory patterns of vocal folds and an alteration in voice production. This case series was conducted to determine whether physical therapy including manual therapy, exercise, and stress management education would be beneficial to this population by reducing excess muscle tension. Case Description Nine patients with MTD completed a minimum of 9 sessions of the intervention. Patient-reported outcomes of pain, function, and quality of life were assessed at baseline and the conclusion of treatment. The outcome measures were the numeric rating scale (NRS), Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Cervical and jaw range of motion also were assessed at baseline and postintervention using standard goniometric measurements. Outcomes Eight of the patients had no pain after treatment. All 9 of the patients demonstrated an improvement in PSFS score, with 7 patients exceeding a clinically meaningful improvement at the conclusion of the intervention. Three of the patients also had a clinically meaningful change in VHI scores. All 9 of the patients demonstrated improvement in cervical flexion and lateral flexion and jaw opening, whereas 8 patients improved in cervical extension and rotation postintervention. Discussion The findings suggest that physical therapists can feasibly implement an intervention to improve outcomes in patients with MTD. However, a randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the results of this case series and the efficacy of the intervention. A clinical implication is the expansion of physical therapy to include referrals from voice centers for the treatment of MTD. PMID:25256740

  9. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  10. A Study of quiescent prominences using SDO and STEREO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep Kaur

    2014-05-01

    In this dissertation, we have studied the structure, dynamics and evolution of two quiescent prominences. Quiescent prominences are large structures and mainly associated with the quiet Sun region. For the analysis, we have used the high spatial and temporal cadence data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). We combined the observations from two different directions and studied the prominence in 3D. In the study of polar crown prominence, we mainly investigated the prominence flows on limb and found its association with on-disk brightenings. The merging of diffused active region flux in the already formed chain of prominence caused the several brightenings in the filament channel and also injected the plasma upward with an average velocity of 15 km/s. In another study, we investigated the triggering mechanism of a quiescent tornado-like prominence. Flares from the neighboring active region triggered the tornado-like motions of the top of the prominence. Active region field contracts after the flare which results in the expansion of prominence cavity. The prominence helical magnetic field expands and plasma moves along the field lines which appear as a tornado-like activity. In addition, the thermal structure of the tornado-like prominence and neighbouring active region was investigated by analysing emission in six of the seven EUV channels from the SDO. These observational investigations led to our understanding of structure and dynamics of quiescent prominences, which could be useful for theoretical prominence models.

  11. Stability Study of Coronal Cavities and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Toma, Giuliana; Gibson, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Cavity/prominence systems are large-scale coronal structures that can live for many weeks and even months and often end their life in the form of large coronal eruptions. To determine the role of the surrounding ambient coronal field in stabilizing thesesystems against eruption, we examined the extent to which the decline with height of the external coronal magnetic field influences their evolution and likelihood to erupt. We selected coronal cavities observed with SDO/AIA during the rising phase of cycle 24 and divided them in two groups, eruptive and non-eruptive. The height of the cavity, both at the cavity center and top, was directly measured from the SDO/AIA images. The ambient coronal field was derived from a PFSS extrapolation of SDO/HMI magnetograms. We find that the decay index of the potential field above the coronal cavity varies significantly in value for both eruptive and non-eruptive cases but stable cavity systems have, on average, a lower decay index and less complex topology than the eruptive ones.

  12. Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Dysphonia Accompanied by Dysphagia in Post-stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of laryngopharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on dysphonia in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Eighteen patients participated in this study. The subjects were divided into NMES (n=12) and conventional swallowing training only (CST, n=6) groups. The NMES group received NMES combined with CST for 2 weeks, followed by CST without NMES for the next 2 weeks. The CST group received only CST for 4 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated before and at 2 and 4 weeks into the study. The outcome measurements included perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses. The correlation between dysphonia and swallowing function was also investigated. Results There were significant differences in the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale) total score and sound pressure level (SPL) between the two groups over time. The NMES relative to the CST group showed significant improvements in total GRBAS score and SPL at 2 weeks, though no inter-group differences were evident at 4 weeks. The improvement of the total GRBAS scores at 2 weeks was positively correlated with the improved pharyngeal phase scores on the functional dysphagia scale at 2 weeks. Conclusion The results demonstrate that laryngopharyngeal NMES in post-stroke or TBI patients with dysphonia can have promising effects on phonation. Therefore, laryngopharyngeal NMES may be considered as an additional treatment option for dysphonia accompanied by dysphagia after stroke or TBI. PMID:27606266

  13. Quantifying Dysphonia Severity Using a Spectralcepstral-Based Acoustic Index: Comparisons with Auditory-Perceptual Judgements from the CAPE-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson; JettE, Marie E.; Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustic spectral/cepstral measures and listener severity ratings in normal and disordered voice samples. CAPE-V sentence samples and the vowel /[script]/were elicited from eight normal speakers and 24 patients with varying degrees of dysphonia severity. Samples were analysed for measures of the…

  14. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. SIMULATING THE IN SITU CONDENSATION PROCESS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-10

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 10{sup 13} up to 10{sup 15} g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  16. Simulating the in Situ Condensation Process of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-01

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 1013 up to 1015 g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  17. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer’s disease is highly heritable

    PubMed Central

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W.; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S.; Naj, Adam C.; Beecham, Gary W.; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%–7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself. PMID:27103524

  18. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer's disease is highly heritable.

    PubMed

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S; Naj, Adam C; Beecham, Gary W; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Crane, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%-7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself. PMID:27103524

  19. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  20. Formation of active region and quiescent prominence magnetic field configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.; Bao, J. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the formation of prominences, researchers studied chromospheric mass injection into an overlying coronal dipole magnetic field using a 2-D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. Researchers propose that active region prominences are formed by chromospheric plasmas injected directly into the overlying coronal magnetic field and that quiescent prominences are formed by plasmas evaporated at the interface between spicules and corona. Hence, for the simulation of an active region prominence magnetic field we inject the mass from one side, but use a symmetric mass injection to form a quiescent prominence field configuration. Researchers try to find optimum conditions for the formation of Kippenhahn-Schuluter(K-S)type field configuration for stable support of the injection plasmas. They find that the formation of K-S type field configuration by mass injection requires a delicate balance between injection velocity, density, and overlying magnetic fields. These results may explain why a prominence does not form on every neutral line.

  1. Prominence Energetics Measured with SOHO/SUMER and TRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms by which solar prominences are filled with plasma are still undetermined. In this study we perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of moving features in prominences in order to put constraints on models of prominence formation and dynamics. In order to make such measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the W we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us to analyze the thermal and kinetic energy of the moving prominence sources as functions of time.

  2. Coronal transient--eruptive prominence of 1980 August 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.J.; Seagraves, P.

    1981-06-15

    A coronal transient was observed in association with an eruptive prominence event using the Mauna Loa experiment system. The transient, a rarefaction, formed before the acceleration of the eruptive prominence. Upward velocities of various features, as seen in the plane of the sky, show a marked difference as a function of time between the transient and the eruptive prominence. A region of enhanced electron density formed slowly in front of the rarefaction.

  3. The variations of prominence activities during solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Masumi

    The prominence activities (prominence eruption/disappearance) in the solar atmosphere closely relate with the CMEs that cause great influences on heliosphere and magnetosphere. Gopal-swarmy et al. (2003) reported that 72 The Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) is observing Sun in microwave (17 GHz) since 1992. At a flare, the main component of the microwave from Sun is emitted from non-thermal electrons that are accelerated by flare. On the other hand, the main component of the microwave is thermal emission when Sun is quiet, and a prominence is clearly observed in microwave because there is the prominence on the limb. We developed the automatic prominence activity detection program based on 17 GHz images observed by NoRH, and investigated the variation of the properties of the prominence activities that oc-curred from 1992 to the end of 2009. We found the following results. 1. The variation in the number of prominence activities is similar to that of sunspots during one solar cycle but there are differences between the peak times of prominence activities and sunspots. 2. The frequency distribution as a function of the magnitude of the prominence activities the size of activated prominences at each phase shows a power-law distribution. The power-law index of the distribution does not change except around the solar minimum. 3. The number of promi-nence activities has a dependence on the latitude On the other hand the average magnitude is independent of the latitude. In the paper, we will also discuss the relationship the other properties of prominence eruptions, solar cycle and the photospheric magnetic field.

  4. Old and New Aspects of Prominence Physics from Coronal Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, S.; Filippov, B.; Lamy, P.

    2007-05-01

    Classical W-L eclipse observations at typical spatial resolution of 10 arcsec show dark cavities surrounding prominences. Images at higher spatial resolution processed with a spatial filter reveal small dynamical cool clouds moving inside the inner corona around prominences. More recently EIT/SoHO observations taken using the 304 Å channel showed He+ prominences sometimes not seen in cooler lines. TRACE movies of the Fe IX and XI emissions where prominences are seen in absorption also bring appreciable informations on the dynamical surrounding of prominences, without showing obvious correlations between prominence and coronal structures. Accordingly, we re-examine the significance of the cavity and propose a possible interpretation as magnetic interlaced 3-D flux ropes and loops evacuating the corona, in addition to twisted flux ropes where the prominence plasma is condensing. Future space missions like ASPIICS should pay more attention to cavities and emptiness, to coronal dynamics around prominences, in order to resolve the long-standing problem of the origin of prominences and perhaps, perform a new diagnostic of the erupting process responsible for many CMEs.

  5. Internal Dynamics of a Twin-layer Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    Modern observations revealed rich dynamics within solar prominences. The globally stable quiescent prominences, characterized by the presence of thin vertical threads and falling knobs, are frequently invaded by small rising dark plumes. These dynamic phenomena are related to magnetic Rayleigh–Taylor instability, since prominence matter, 100 times denser than surrounding coronal plasma, is lifted against gravity by weak magnetic field. To get a deeper understanding of the physics behind these phenomena, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the nonlinear magnetoconvective motions in a twin-layer prominence in a macroscopic model from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. The properties of simulated falling “fingers” and uprising bubbles are consistent with those in observed vertical threads and rising plumes in quiescent prominences. Both sheets of the twin-layer prominence show a strongly coherent evolution due to their magnetic connectivity, and demonstrate collective kink deformation. Our model suggests that the vertical threads of the prominence as seen in an edge-on view, and the apparent horizontal threads of the filament when seen top-down are different appearances of the same structures. Synthetic images of the modeled twin-layer prominence reflect the strong degree of mixing established over the entire prominence structure, in agreement with the observations.

  6. Prominence in triconstituent compounds: pitch contours and linguistic theory.

    PubMed

    Kösling, Kristina; Kunter, Gero; Baayen, Harald; Plag, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    According to the widely accepted Lexical Category Prominence Rule (LCPR), prominence assignment to triconstituent compounds depends on the branching direction. Left-branching compounds, that is, compounds with a left-hand complex constituent, are held to have highest prominence on the left-most constituent, whereas right-branching compounds have highest prominence on the second of the three constituents. The LCPR is, however, only poorly empirically supported. The present paper tests a new hypothesis concerning the prominence of triconstituent compounds and suggests a new methodology for the empirical investigation of compound prominence. According to this hypothesis, the prominence pattern of the embedded compound has a decisive influence on the prominence of the whole compound. Using a mixed-effects generalized additive model for the analysis of the pitch movements, it is shown that all triconstituent compounds have an accent on the first constituent irrespective of branching, and that the placement of a second, or even a third, accent is dependent on the prominence pattern of the embedded compound. The LCPR is wrong. PMID:24597276

  7. Nonlinear dynamic-based analysis of severe dysphonia in patients with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Hee; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.; Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a nonlinear dynamic approach to the acoustic analysis of dysphonia associated with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis. Study Design Case-control study. Methods Acoustic voice samples from scar/sulcus patients and age/sex-matched controls were analyzed using correlation dimension (D2) and phase plots, time-domain based perturbation indices (jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]), and an auditory-perceptual rating scheme. Signal typing was performed to identify samples with bifurcations and aperiodicity. Results Type 2 and 3 acoustic signals were highly represented in the scar/sulcus patient group. When data were analyzed irrespective of signal type, all perceptual and acoustic indices successfully distinguished scar/sulcus patients from controls. Removal of type 2 and 3 signals eliminated the previously identified differences between experimental groups for all acoustic indices except D2. The strongest perceptual-acoustic correlation in our dataset was observed for SNR; the weakest correlation was observed for D2. Conclusions These findings suggest that D2 is inferior to time-domain based perturbation measures for the analysis of dysphonia associated with scar/sulcus; however, time-domain based algorithms are inherently susceptible to inflation under highly aperiodic (i.e., type 2 and 3) signal conditions. Auditory-perceptual analysis, unhindered by signal aperiodicity, is therefore a robust strategy for distinguishing scar/sulcus patient voices from normal voices. Future acoustic analysis research in this area should consider alternative (e.g., frequency- and quefrency-domain based) measures alongside additional nonlinear approaches. PMID:22516315

  8. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of required statements. (a) A word, statement,...

  9. Prominent Feature Analysis: What It Means for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Sherry Seale; Graves, Richard L.; Morse, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of a prominent feature analysis is to describe the stylistic flexibility that a young writer, or a group of young writers, exhibits on a given day, with a given prompt. In prominent feature analysis, there are no guidebooks, no rubrics--just student papers and the expertise of teachers. Teachers come to the papers individually and yet…

  10. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  11. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  12. A prominence eruption driven by flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Kai; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, S.

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a prominence eruption originating from a quadrupolar field configuration, in which the prominence was embedded in a side arcade. Within the two-day period prior to its eruption on 2012 October 22, the prominence was perturbed three times by chromospheric fibrils underneath, which rose upward, became brightened, and merged into the prominence, resulting in horizontal flows along the prominence axis, suggesting that the fluxes carried by the fibrils were incorporated into the magnetic field of the prominence. These perturbations caused the prominence to oscillate and to rise faster than before. The absence of intense heating within the first two hours after the onset of the prominence eruption, which followed an exponential increase in height, indicates that ideal instability played a crucial role. The eruption involved interactions with the other side arcade, leading up to a twin coronal mass ejection, which was accompanied by transient surface brightenings in the central arcade, followed by transient dimmings and brightenings in the two side arcades. We suggest that flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils might be an important mechanism to trigger coronal eruptions.

  13. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  14. [Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

    1982-01-01

    A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.). PMID:6985243

  15. Thermal Properties of Prominence Motions as Observed in the UV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms by which solar prominences are filled with plasma are still undetermined. In this study we perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of moving features in prominences in order to put constraints on models of prominence formation and dynamics. In order to make such measurements of quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO instruments SUMER and CDS to take a time series of exposures at a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The resulting observations in spectral lines in a range of 'transition region' temperatures allow us to analyze the thermal properties of the moving prominence sources as a function of time.

  16. Magnetic Field in Atypical Prominence Structures: Bubble, Tornado, and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Dalmasse, K.; Gelly, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  17. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  18. Topic-Prominence and Subject-Prominence in L2 Acquisition: Evidence of English-to-Chinese Typological Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hong Gang

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether topic-prominence transfer is a universal developmental stage or a transferable typology by analyzing the behavior of 46 native speakers of English learning Chinese, a subject-prominence (SP) language, as a second language. Results found that the learners displayed a process of systematically transferring English SP features to…

  19. Mass composition and dynamics in quiet sun prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Gary K.

    2009-06-01

    Solar prominences are transient phenomena in the solar atmosphere that display highly dynamic activity and can result in dramatic eruptions, ejecting a large amount of material into the heliosphere. The dynamics of the prominence plasma reveal information about its interaction with the magnetic field of the prominence, while the eruptions are associated with coronal mass ejections, which greatly affect space weather near Earth and throughout the solar system. My research on these topics was conducted via observational analyses of the partially-ionized prominence material, its composition, and the dynamics over time in prominences that range in activity from quiescent to highly active. The main results are evidence that (1) in quiescent prominences, neutral He is located more in the lower part of the structure, (2) a higher level of activity in prominences is related to a mixing of the material, and (3) an extended period of high activity and mixing occurs prior to eruptions, possibly due to mass loading. In addition, innovative modifications to analytical techniques led to measurements of the material's mass, composition, and small-scale dynamics.

  20. Synthetic differential emission measure curves of prominence fine structures. II. The SoHO/SUMER prominence of 8 June 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Parenti, S.; Anzer, U.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: This study is the first attempt to combine the prominence observations in Lyman, UV, and EUV lines with the determination of the prominence differential emission measure derived using two different techniques, one based on the inversion of the observed UV and EUV lines and the other employing 2D non-LTE prominence fine-structure modeling of the Lyman spectra. Methods: We use a trial-and-error method to derive the 2D multi-thread prominence fine-structure model producing synthetic Lyman spectra in good agreement with the observations. We then employ a numerical method to perform the forward determination of the DEM from 2D multi-thread models and compare the synthetic DEM curves with those derived from observations using inversion techniques. Results: A set of available observations of the June 8, 2004 prominence allows us to determine the range of input parameters, which contains models producing synthetic Lyman spectra in good agreement with the observations. We select three models, which represent this parametric-space area well and compute the synthetic DEM curves for multi-thread realizations of these models. The synthetic DEM curves of selected models are in good agreement with the DEM curves derived from the observations. Conclusions: We show that the evaluation of the prominence fine-structure DEM complements the analysis of the prominence hydrogen Lyman spectra and that its combination with the detailed radiative-transfer modeling of prominence fine structures provides a useful tool for investigating the prominence temperature structure from the cool core to the prominence-corona transition region.

  1. Prominence and Control: The Weighted Rich-Club Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opsahl, Tore; Colizza, Vittoria; Panzarasa, Pietro; Ramasco, José J.

    2008-10-01

    Complex systems are often characterized by large-scale hierarchical organizations. Whether the prominent elements, at the top of the hierarchy, share and control resources or avoid one another lies at the heart of a system’s global organization and functioning. Inspired by network perspectives, we propose a new general framework for studying the tendency of prominent elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the majority of a system’s resources. We explore associations between prominence and control in the fields of transportation, scientific collaboration, and online communication.

  2. Prominence condensation and magnetic levitation in a coronal loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Hoven, G.; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a model dynamic simulation of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of the confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of the normal-polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter-type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex. The simplicity of this 1.5-dimensional model, with its accompanying diagnostics, elucidates the various contributions to the nonlinear dynamics of prominence condensation and levitation.

  3. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup –1}cm{sup –2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  4. Prominent dysautonomia in a patient with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Sharda; Issa, Naoum P; Barboi, Alexandru C; Lee, John M

    2016-06-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare, multisystem disorder characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and/or skin changes. Here we present an unusual case of a patient with POEMS syndrome who exhibited a prominent autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27165541

  5. Obscuration of Flare Emission by an Eruptive Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    We report on the eclipsing of microwave flare emission by an eruptive prominence from a neighboring region as observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The obscuration of the flare emission appears as a dimming feature in the microwave flare light curve. We use the dimming feature to derive the temperature of the prominence and the distribution of heating along the length of the filament. We find that the prominence is heated to a temperature above the quiet Sun temperature at 17 GHz. The duration of the dimming is the time taken by the eruptive prominence in passing over the flaring region. We also find evidence for the obscuration in EUV images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission.

  6. Solar Prominence Eruption Marks 1 Million on Helioviewer

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a prominence eruption on April 20, 2013, was the millionth movie made on Helioviewer.org. The wispy eruption seen here eventually blossomed into a much larger cloud of solar material,...

  7. Repetition is easy: Why repeated referents have reduced prominence

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    The repetition and predictability of a word in a conversation are two factors that are believed to affect whether or not it is emphasized: predictable, repeated words are less acoustically prominent than unpredictable, new words. However, because predictability and repetition are correlated, it is unclear whether speakers lengthen unpredictable words to facilitate comprehension or whether this lengthening is the result of difficulties in accessing a new (non-repeated) lexical item. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between acoustic prominence, repetition, and predictability in a description task. In Experiment 1, we find that repeated referents are produced with reduced prominence, even when these referents are unexpected. In Experiment 2, we find that predictability and repetition both have independent effects on duration and intensity. However, word duration was primarily determined by repetition, and intensity was primarily determined by predictability. The data are most consistent with an account in which multiple cognitive factors influence the acoustic prominence of a word. PMID:21156876

  8. Observation of Low Level Heating in an Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.

    2007-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of low level heating in an erupting prominence observed in the UV and EUV over a wide range of temperatures and wavelengths by SOHO's SUMER instrument, TRACE and also in H-alpha by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The eruption occurred on 2004 April 30. The heating is relatively mild, leading only to the ionization of neutral hydrogen and probably helium. It is also localized, occurring along the bottom edge of the erupting prominence and in a kink-like feature in the prominence. The heating is revealed as a decrease in the Lyman absorption. This decrease results in an apparent increase in emission in all the lines observed by SUMER, especially those formed at temperatures -1 0A5. However, this is due to the disappearance of cooler absorbing material in the prominence rather than an increase in these higher temperature species.

  9. Observation of Low Level Heating in an Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Theresa; Landi, E.

    2007-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of low level heating in an erupting prominence observed in the UV and EUV over a wide range of temperatures and wavelengths by SOHO's SUMER instrument, TRACE and also in H-alpha by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The eruption occurred on 2004 April 30. The heating is relatively mild, leading only to the ionization of neutral hydrogen and probably helium. It is also localized, occurring along the bottom edge of the erupting prominence and in a kink-like feature in the prominence. The heating is revealed as a decrease in the Lyman absorption. This decrease results in an apparent increase in emission in all the lines observed by SUMER, especially those formed at temperatures approx. 10(exp 5). However, this is due to the disappearance of cooler absorbing material in the prominence rather than an increase in these higher temperature species.

  10. Hinode and IRIS Observations of a Prominence-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2016-05-01

    Long-lived solar prominences often have a coronal cavity enclosing the prominence. Within the cavity, hot X-ray emission can persist above the prominence and in the central regions of the cavity. We present the results of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264) study of a prominence-cavity system. The X-ray Telescope (XRT) observes an inflow of bright X-ray emission that strikes and envelops the prominence-cavity system causing an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, an increase in X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observe strong blue shifts in both chromosphere and coronal lines during the eruption. The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission along the eruption path with complex turbulent plasma motions. The IRIS Si IV 1394 Angstrom spectra along the on-disk portion of the prominence show a region of decreased emission near the base of the prominence, suggesting a magnetic field bald-patch topology along the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). Combined, these observations imply a cylindrical flux rope best represents the prominence-cavity system. A model of the magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.Patricia Jibben and Kathy Reeves are supported by under contract 80111112705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO, grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO, and contract Z15-12504 from HAO to SAO under a grant from AFOSR. Yingna Su is supported by the Youth Fund of

  11. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  12. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature

    PubMed Central

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers’ ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  13. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-12-20

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.

  14. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature.

    PubMed

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers' ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  15. Spectral Analysis of Velocities in Quiescent Prominences Observed with Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, David; Freed, Michael

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution observations of solar prominences, especially with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode, reveal the presence of upward and downward flows consistent with convection, at length scales that were not accessible with previous telescopes. Since prominences are magnetic structures, the strength and arrangement of their magnetic fields are crucial for determining whether a given prominence will erupt into a coronal mass ejection. Convective flows can twist and tangle those magnetic fields. However, the magnetic fields within the prominences are extremely difficult to measure; therefore measurements of the dynamics of the magnetized plasma in prominences, and the balance between magnetic and gas-pressure forces, are valuable for understanding how these apparently stable structures can evolve to become suddenly eruptive. We will show our findings from analysis of the dynamics in a few solar prominences using local correlation tracking, and make estimates of the kinetic energy, diffusivity, and vorticity.This work is supported by NASA under contract NNM07AB07C with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  16. On the Asymmetric Longitudinal Oscillations of a Pikelner's Model Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraśkiewicz, J.; Murawski, K.; Solov'ev, A.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    We present analytical and numerical models of a normal-polarity quiescent prominence that are based on the model of Pikelner (Solar Phys. 17, 44, 1971). We derive the general analytical expressions for the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium plasma quantities such as the mass density and gas pressure, and we specify magnetic-field components for the prominence, which corresponds to a dense and cold plasma residing in the dip of curved magnetic-field lines. Adapting of these expressions, we numerically solve the 2D, nonlinear, ideal MHD equations for the Pikelner model of a prominence that is initially perturbed by reducing the gas pressure at the dip of magnetic-field lines. Our findings reveal that as a result of pressure perturbations, the prominence plasma starts evolving in time. This leads to antisymmetric magnetoacoustic-gravity oscillations and to the mass-density growth at the magnetic dip, and the magnetic-field lines subside there. This growth depends on the depth of the magnetic dip. For a shallower dip, less plasma is condensed, and vice versa. We conjecture that the observed long-period magnetoacoustic-gravity oscillations in various prominence systems are in general the consequence of the internal-pressure perturbations of the plasma residing in equilibrium at the prominence dip.

  17. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  18. Use of Botulinum Neurotoxin for the Treatment of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spasmodic dysphonia, or ABSD). Does BoNT control motor tics? Tics associated with Tourette syndrome are relatively brief, intermittent movements (also known as motor tics) or sounds (also known as vocal or phonic ...

  19. Two Categories of Apparent Tornado-like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2014-06-01

    Two categories of solar prominences have been described in the literature as having a pattern of mass motions and/or a shape similar to terrestrial tornados. We first identify the two categories associated with prominences in the historic literature and then show that counterparts do exist for both in recent literature but one has not been called a tornado prominence. One category described as being similar to tornados is associated with the barbs of quiescent filaments but barbs appear to have rotational motion only under special conditions. H alpha Doppler observations from Helio Research confirm that this category is an illusion in our mind’s eye resulting from counterstreaming in the large barbs of quiescent filaments. The second category is a special case of rotational motion occurring during the early stages of some erupting prominences, in recent years called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of an erupting prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption proceeds, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and has true rotational motion. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in the historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence and spectra recorded in these cases provide proof of the rotational motion. When one observes an entire eruption which exhibits the rolling motion, as accomplished at Helio Research, the similarity to a tornado is lost because the event as a whole has quite a different nature and the analogy to a terrestrial tornado not longer appears suitable or helpful in understanding the observed and deduced physical processes. Our conclusion is that there are no solar prominences with motions that are usefully described as tornado or tornado-like events aside from the fun of observing

  20. SEISMOLOGY OF STANDING KINK OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Arregui, I.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2010-10-20

    We investigate standing kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a prominence fine structure modeled as a straight and cylindrical magnetic tube only partially filled with the prominence material and with its ends fixed at two rigid walls representing the solar photosphere. The prominence plasma is partially ionized and a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer is included between the prominence thread and the coronal medium. Thus, ion-neutral collisions and resonant absorption are the damping mechanisms considered. Approximate analytical expressions of the period, the damping time, and their ratio are derived for the fundamental mode in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. We find that the dominant damping mechanism is resonant absorption, which provides damping ratios in agreement with the observations, whereas ion-neutral collisions are irrelevant for damping. The values of the damping ratio are independent of both the prominence thread length and its position within the magnetic tube, and coincide with the values for a tube fully filled with the prominence plasma. The implications of our results in the context of the MHD seismology technique are discussed, pointing out that the reported short-period (2-10 minutes) and short-wavelength (700-8000 km) thread oscillations may not be consistent with a standing mode interpretation and could be related to propagating waves. Finally, we show that the inversion of some prominence physical parameters, e.g., Alfven speed, magnetic field strength, transverse inhomogeneity length scale, etc., is possible using observationally determined values of the period and damping time of the oscillations along with the analytical approximations of these quantities.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of some anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic drugs through ion-pair complex formation with thiocyanate and cobalt(II) or molybdenum(V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shiekh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; El-Fetouh Gouda, Ayman Abou

    2007-04-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of anti-tussive drugs, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and pipazethate hydrochloride (PiCl) and anti-spasmodic drugs, e.g., drotaverine hydrochloride (DvCl) and trimebutine maleate (TM) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. The blue and orange red color complexes are determined either colorimetrically at λmax 625 nm (using method A) and 467 or 470 nm for (DEX and PiCl) or (DvCl and TM), respectively (using method B). The concentration range is 20-400 and 2.5-50 μg mL -1 for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations applying the standard additions technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of some anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic drugs through ion-pair complex formation with thiocyanate and cobalt(II) or molybdenum(V).

    PubMed

    El-Shiekh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; El-Fetouh Gouda, Ayman Abou

    2007-04-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of anti-tussive drugs, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and pipazethate hydrochloride (PiCl) and anti-spasmodic drugs, e.g., drotaverine hydrochloride (DvCl) and trimebutine maleate (TM) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. The blue and orange red color complexes are determined either colorimetrically at lambdamax 625 nm (using method A) and 467 or 470 nm for (DEX and PiCl) or (DvCl and TM), respectively (using method B). The concentration range is 20-400 and 2.5-50 microg mL-1 for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations applying the standard additions technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method. PMID:17142094

  3. SDO/AIA observations of a partially erupting prominence

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Reeves, Katharine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Joshi, Navin C.

    2013-12-01

    We report an observation of a partially erupting prominence and its associated dynamical plasma processes based on observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The prominence first went through a slow rise (SR) phase followed by a fast rise (FR) phase. The SR phase began after a couple of small brightenings were seen toward the footpoints. When the prominence had transitioned from SR to FR, it had already become kinked. The prominence shows strong brightening at the central kink location during the start of FR. We interpret this as an internal magnetic reconnection occurring at a vertical current sheet forming between the two legs of the erupting prominence (flux rope). The brightening at the central kink location is seen in all EUV channels of AIA. The contributions of differential emission at higher temperatures are larger compared to that for typical coronal temperatures supporting a reconnection scenario at the central kink location. The plasma above the brightening location is ejected as a hot plasmoid-like structure embedded in a coronal mass ejection, and those below the brightening move down in the form of blobs moving toward the Sun's surface. The unique time resolution of the AIA has allowed these eruptive aspects, including SR-to-FR, kinking, central current sheet formation, plasmoid-like eruption, and filament 'splitting', to be observed in a single event, providing strong and comprehensive evidence in favor of the model of partially erupting flux ropes.

  4. Can bubbles in quiescent prominences be purely magnetic phenomena?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Zapior, Maciej; Heinzel, Petr

    2012-07-01

    We present a model of the magnetic field constituting quiescent prominences. The model assumes a linear force-free field with a weakly twisted flux-tube in an OX/OF topology perturbed by presence of parasitic polarities within the filament channel. The parasitic polarities locally create the cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles exactly as those observed by the SDO/AIA and Bialkow Observatory. We find that the observations are best reproduced if the parasitic bipoles are sheared with respect to the main inversion line. We show that the bubbles are in fact constituted by the arcade-like field lines, as opposed to that of the prominence, which is created by magnetic dips. A pair of null points is always associated with the parasitic bipole. These null points are connected by a separator passing through the prominence bubble. We show how the presence of an additional parasitic bipole moves the separator to the boundary between the bubble and the rest of the prominence, producing a topology favorable for reconnection and possibly for the formation of plumes.

  5. On the Magnetism and Dynamics of Prominence Legs Hosting Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  6. Magnetic Field and Plasma Diagnostics from Coordinated Prominence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Levens, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-04-01

    We study the magnetic field in prominences from a statistical point of view, by using THEMIS in the MTR mode, performing spectropolarimetry of the He I D3 line. Combining these measurements with spectroscopic data from IRIS, Hinode/EIS as well as ground-based telescopes, such as the Meudon Solar Tower, we infer the temperature, density, and flow velocities of the plasma. There are a number of open questions that we aim to answer: - What is the general direction of the magnetic field in prominences? Is the model using a single orientation of magnetic field always valid for atypical prominences? %- Does this depend on the location of the filament on the disk (visible in Hα, in He II 304 Å) over an inversion line between weak or strong network ? - Are prominences in a weak environment field dominated by gas pressure? - Measuring the Doppler shifts in Mg II lines (with IRIS) and in Hα can tell us if there are substantial velocities to maintain vertical rotating structures, as has been suggested for tornado-like prominences. We present here some results obtained with different ground-based and space-based instruments in this framework.

  7. Interpretation of the prominence differential emissions measure for 3 geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers have used prominence extreme ultraviolet line intensities observed from Skylab to derive the differential emission measure Q(T) in the prominence-corona (PC) interface from 3 x 10,000 to 3 times 1 million K, including the effects of Lyman Continuum absorption. Using lines both shortward and longward of the Lyman limit, researchers have estimated the importance of absorption as function of temperature. The magnitude of the absorption, as well as its rate of increase as a function of temperature, place limits on the thread scales and the character of the interfilar medium. Researchers have calculated models based on three assumed geometries: (1) threads with hot sheaths and cool cores; (2) isothermal threads; and (3) threads with longitudinal temperature gradients along the magnetic field. Comparison of the absorption computed from these models with the observed absorption in prominences shows that none of the geometries is totally satisfactory.

  8. THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF SOLAR QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Following the two-stage catastrophic flux rope model presented by Zhang et al., we investigate how magnetic flux emergence affects the formation and evolution of solar quiescent prominences. The magnetic properties of the flux rope are described with its toroidal magnetic flux per radian Φ{sub p} and poloidal flux Φ{sub ψ}, and Φ{sub p} is defined as the emerging strength (ES) of the magnetic flux. After the first catastrophe, the quiescent prominences are supported by the vertical current sheet and located in cavities below the curved transverse current sheet in the inner corona, for which both ES and Φ{sub ψ} are in the certain ranges. We calculate the strength range as 0.25 < ES < 0.50 for the quadrupolar field, and obtain the equation Φ{sub p}Φ{sub ψ} = const., that is, the relationship between Φ{sub p} and Φ{sub ψ} of the emerging flux for which the quiescent prominences are formed in the inner corona. After the second catastrophe, the quiescent prominences would either fall down onto the solar surface or erupt as an important part of coronal mass ejections. During the eruption of the quiescent prominences, most of the magnetic energy in the flux rope is lost, and less than half of the energy loss of the rope is released in the form of Alfvèn waves. We argue that there would be two important conditions required for the formation and eruption of solar quiescent prominences, a complicated source region and emerging toroidal magnetic flux that exceeds a critical strength.

  9. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  10. Morphology and evolution of a h-alpha eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okten, A.; Dermendjiev, V. N.; Petrov, N. I.; Ozisik, T.; Esenoglu, H. H.

    An eruptive prominence has been observed in H-alpha on 18 June 1989 at western solar limb (N10 degree;W90degree) in time interval 08:39-09:22 UT. The eruption started as expansion of the upper part of a filament channel crossing the equator. Several arches of erupting prominence material have been registered in more than 31 frames. All the frames have been processed and analyzed by means of microdensitometer and image processing technique for study the morphology of the eruptive event.

  11. Diagnosing the Prominence-Cavity Connection in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.

    The energetic equilibrium of the corona is described by a balance of heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. Prominences can be described by the thermal instability of coronal energy balance which leads to the formation of cool condensations. Observationally, the prominence is surrounded by a density depleted elliptical structure known as a cavity. In this dissertation, we use extreme ultraviolet remote sensing observations of the prominence-cavity system to diagnose the static and dynamic properties of these structures. The observations are compared with numerical models for the time-dependent coronal condensation process and the time-independent corona-prominence magnetic field. To diagnose the density of the cavity, we construct a three-dimensional structural model of the corona. This structural model allows us to synthesize extreme ultraviolet emission in the corona in a way that incorporates the projection effects which arise from the optically thin plasma. This forward model technique is used to constrain a radial density profile simultaneously in the cavity and the streamer. We use a χ2 minimization to find the density model which best matches a density sensitive line ratio (observed with Hinode/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) and the white light scattered intensity (observed with Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MK4 coronagraph). We use extreme ultraviolet spectra and spectral images to diagnose the dynamics of the prominence and the surrounding corona. Based on the doppler shift of extreme ultraviolet coronal emission lines, we find that there are large regions of flowing plasma which appear to occur within cavities. These line of sight flows have speeds of 10 km/s-1 and projected spatial scales of 100 Mm. Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) dataset, we observe dynamic emission from the prominence-cavity system. The SDO/AIA dataset observes multiple spectral bandpasses with different temperature

  12. Controlling the Dynamics of Laboratory Simulations of Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, P. M.; Hansen, J. F.

    2000-05-01

    Solar prominence eruptions have been simulated in the laboratory using a magnetized plasma gun. Still photographs obtained from two high-speed cameras in a stereographic configuration have been combined to make three-dimensional movies of the evolution of the plasma. The plasmas resemble actual solar prominences, and evolve in a reproducible sequence through three stages. First, initial breakdown forms a main current channel consisting of several filaments. Second, the filaments twist around each other. Third, the entire plasma takes on a helical structure and expands outward. The three-dimensional structure of the plasma has a chirality consistent with the sign of the injected helicity. Plasma behavior has been investigated using various boundary conditions. Most recently, coils generating a vacuum magnetic field straddling the plasma loop have been constructed. Experiments in this configuration show that the vacuum magnetic field delays the eruption of the prominence, as well as limiting the lateral bulging of the plasma loop. The arched flux tube has a minor radius of 5-15 mm and spans 12 cm between footpoints. The major radius is initially 6 cm and then increases to several times this value as the simulated prominence erupts. Typical maximum plasma currents are 60 kA and typical magnetic fields are 1-5 kG. The duration of the experiment is about 7 microseconds. The experiment takes place in a 1.4 m diameter, 2 m long vacuum chamber and uses hydrogen gas.

  13. Polarimetric measurements in prominences and "tornadoe" observed by THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; López Ariste, Arturo; Levens, Peter; Labrosse, Nicolas; Dalmasse, Kévin

    2015-10-01

    Since 2013, coordinated campaigns with the THEMIS spectropolarimeter in Tenerife and other instruments (space based: Hinode/SOT, IRIS or ground based: Sac Peak, Meudon) are organized to observe prominences. THEMIS records spectropolarimetry at the He I D3 and we use the PCA inversion technique to derive their field strength, inclination and azimuth.

  14. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  15. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  16. Further Validation of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, J. Paige; Hall, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine select psychometric properties of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale (CIPS), including the reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. Coaches (N = 338) who averaged 37 (SD = 12.27) years of age, had a mean of 13 (SD = 9.90) years of coaching experience,…

  17. Thermal Properties of Moving UV Features in Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-thermal features with speeds of 5-70 kilometers per second perpendicular to the line of sight are common in the prominences which showed traceable motions. These speeds are noticeably higher than the typical speeds of 5-20 kilometers per second observed in H-alpha data from "quiet" prominences and are more typical of "activated" prominences in which H-alpha blob speeds of up to 40 kilometers per second have been reported. In order to make a more quantitative determination of the thermal properties of the moving features seen in the UV, we use the SOHO instruments SUMER and CDS to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The resulting observations in lines spectral lines in a range of "transition region" temperatures allow us to analyze the thermal properties of the moving prominence sources as a function of time.

  18. UV Observations of Prominence Activation and Cool Loop Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 MK. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: an activated prominence and repeated motions in a loop near the prominence. We calculated three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the mass, pressure, average density, and kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx. 10(exp 5) K)loops, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding the mechanism(s) leading to energy and mass flow in these solar features.

  19. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  20. Patterns of Flows in an Intermediate Prominence Observed by Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-09-01

    The investigation of plasma flows in filaments/prominences gives us clues to understanding their magnetic structures. We studied the patterns of flows in an intermediate prominence observed by Hinode/SOT. By examining a time series of Hα images and Ca II H images, we have found horizontal flows in the spine and vertical flows in the barb. Both of these flows have a characteristic speed of 10-20 km s-1. The horizontal flows displayed counterstreaming. Our detailed investigation revealed that most of the moving fragments in fact reversed direction at the end point of the spine near a footpoint close to the associated active region. These returning flows may be one possible explanation of the well-known counterstreaming flows in prominences. In contrast, we have found vertical flows—downward and upward—in the barb. Most of the horizontal flows in the spine seem to switch into vertical flows when they approach the barb, and vice versa. We propose that the net force resulting from a small deviation from magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where magnetic fields are predominantly horizontal, may drive these patterns of flow. In the prominence studied here, the supposed magnetohydrostatic configuration is characterized by magnetic field lines sagging with angles of 13° and 39° in the spine and the barb, respectively.

  1. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  2. BENZODIAZEPINES FOR PROMINENT AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS: A REPORT AND HYPOTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    1995-01-01

    A case is reported of diazepam - induced amelioration of prominent auditory hallucinations experienced by a female paranoid schizophrenic. With the assumption that subvocal speech may be primary to such hallucinations, it is proposed that diazepam may have acted by exerting a relaxant effect on speech musculature. This is a hypothesis testable in future research. PMID:21743715

  3. The Effects of Partial Ionization on Prominence Mass Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Olson, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Martinez Gomez, D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the prominence mass has been an open question since this cool plasma suspended in the hot corona was first discovered. We have known for a long time that the mass must come from the chromosphere, but it is unclear whether this mass is lifted bodily through magnetic levitation, injected by reconnection-driven upflows, or driven from the chromosphere by evaporation and then condensed. One evaporation-condensation scenario, the thermal nonequilibrium (TNE) model, is the most fully developed, quantitative model for the prominence plasma to date. In the TNE scenario, localized heating concentrated at the coronal loop footpoints produces chromospheric evaporation, filling the flux tube with hot, dense plasma that subsequently collapses radiatively to form cool condensations. Thus far this model has been successful in explaining the key properties of the long, persistent threads and small, highly dynamic, transient blobs in prominences, the damping of large-amplitude field-aligned prominence oscillations, the appearance of horn-shaped features above the cool prominence in EUV images of coronal cavities, and coronal rain in the ambient corona. To date, all studies of TNE have assumed that the plasma is fully ionized, which is appropriate for the hot coronal gas but unrealistic for the cool plasma below ~30,000 K. The energetics, dynamics, and evolutionary time scales of the TNE process are expected to be altered when the effects of ionization and recombination are considered. We have modified ARGOS, our 1D hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, to include an equation of state that accounts for the effects of partial ionization of the plasma over a wide range of temperatures and densities. We will discuss the results of these simulations and their comparison with our previous studies of TNE in typical filament-supporting flux tubes. This work was partially supported by NASA's LWS Strategic Capability program.

  4. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, CENTER LEFT; STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF THE STEEL ORE BIN; AND THE BAKER COOLER, LOWER RIGHT. THESE MACHINES AND OTHERS IN THE AREA WERE PART OF THE UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT. THE ROASTER IS OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT (EAST). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Prominence oscillations: Effect of a time-dependent background temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Small amplitude oscillations in prominences have been known about for a long time, and from a theoretical point of view, these oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing or propagating linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In general, these oscillations were studied by producing small perturbations in a background equilibrium with stationary physical properties. Aims: Taking into account that prominences are dynamic plasma structures, the assumption of a stationary equilibrium is not realistic. Therefore, our main aim is to study the effects produced by a non-stationary background on slow MHD waves, which could be responsible for prominence oscillations. Methods: Assuming that the radiation term is proportional to temperature and constant external heating, we have derived an expression for the temporal variation of the background temperature, which depends on the imbalance between heating and cooling processes. Furthermore, radiative losses, together with parallel thermal conduction, have also been included as damping mechanisms for the waves. Results: As temperature increases with time, the period of slow waves decreases and the amplitude of the velocity perturbations is damped. The inclusion of radiative losses enhances the damping. As temperature decreases with time, the period of slow waves increases and the amplitude of velocity perturbations grows while, as expected, the inclusion of radiative losses contributes to the damping of oscillations. Conclusions: There is observational evidence that, in different locations of the same prominence, oscillations are damped or amplified with time. This temporal damping or amplification can be obtained by a proper combination of a variable background temperature, together with radiative damping. Furthermore, decayless oscillations can also be obtained with an appropriate choice of the characteristic radiation time.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Torok, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight as it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 Angstrom line in EUVI and in the H alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR1 by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed towards the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equals 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg. from the original filament orientation inferred from H alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation is reached within approximately equals 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  7. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight a it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 A line in EUVI and in the H-alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR I by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three-dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed toward the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equal to 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg from the original filament orientation inferred from H-alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation are reached within approximately equal to 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  8. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s‑1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  9. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  10. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.

  11. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  12. Twisting, Rolling Motions, and Helicity in Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas A.; McCauley, Patrick; Su, Yingna

    2015-04-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. Mass motions in prominence eruptions tend to be complicated and characterizing these motions is a challenge. We use the AIA filament eruption catalog [3] as a source for finding events. If rolling motions are detected then we will investigate the handedness prediction. We use magnetograms from HMI to determine the strength and asymmetric properties of the photospheric magnetic field in the regions of interest and will use AIA observations to determine the handedness of the rolling motions. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness to determine if there is a relationship between the two. We also determine the chirality of the prominences to see if there is any interesting relationship to the twist, rolling motion and/or handedness of the roll.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)[3] http://aia.cfa.harvard.edu/filament/

  13. The Hα and Hβ emissions in solar prominence structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, G.; Wiehr, E.

    1994-10-01

    High precision photometry of the Halpha_ and Hbeta_ emissions is performed from spectra of four spatially high resolved quiescent prominences. The data are compared with recent observations and calculations. It is found that for faint emissions the observed Balmer decrement D=E_tot_(Halpha_)/E_tot_(Hbeta_) significantly exceeds the limiting value D=10.0 calculated for slab models. In contrast to former observations, the spatially and spectrally high resolved emission profiles do not require a hot and a cool component for an optimal fit. The deduced source functions do not yield a common value for different prominences, but show an individual mean for each prominence with a tendency for an increase with the optical thickness of Halpha_. Optically thick Halpha_ emissions with central absorptions are spatially related with narrow Hbeta_ emissions and hence with small kinetic temperatures. The narrow Hbeta_ emissions exist over a large range of optical thickness and show equal macroscopic shifts for individual emission features favouring a picture of closely tied bundles of threads.

  14. Formation and Evolution of a Multi-Threaded Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, M.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the process of formation and subsequent evolution of prominence plasma in a filament channel and its overlying arcade. We construct a three-dimensional time-dependent model of a filament-channel prominence suitable to be compared with observations. We combine this magnetic field structure with one-dimensional independent simulations of many flux tubes. The magnetic structure is a three-dimensional sheared double arcade, and the thermal non-equilibrium process governs the plasma evolution. We have found that the condensations in the corona can be divided into two populations: threads and blobs. Threads are massive condensations that linger in the field line dips. Blobs are ubiquitous small condensations that are produced throughout the filament and overlying arcade magnetic structure, and rapidly fall to the chromosphere. The total prominence mass is in agreement with observations. The threads are the principal contributors to the total mass, whereas the blob contribution is small. The motion of the threads is basically horizontal, while blobs move in all directions along the field. The peak velocities for both populations are comparable, but there is a weak tendency for the velocity to increase with the inclination, and the blobs with motion near vertical have the largest values of the velocity. We have generated synthetic images of the whole structure in an H proxy and in two EUV channels of the AIA instrument aboard SDO. These images show the plasma at cool, warm and hot temperatures. The theoretical differential emission measure of our system agrees very well with observations in the temperature range log T = 4.6-5.7. We conclude that the sheared-arcade magnetic structure and plasma dynamics fit well the abundant observational evidence.

  15. Are Giant Tornadoes the Legs of Solar Prominences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Observations in the 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional Hα observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  16. ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-10

    Observations in the 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional H{alpha} observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  17. Model comparison for the density structure along solar prominence threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, I.; Soler, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Quiescent solar prominence fine structures are typically modelled as density enhancements, called threads, which occupy a fraction of a longer magnetic flux tube. This is justified from the spatial distribution of the imaged plasma emission or absorption of prominences at small spatial scales. The profile of the mass density along the magnetic field is unknown, however, and several arbitrary alternatives are employed in prominence wave studies. The identification and measurement of period ratios from multiple harmonics in standing transverse thread oscillations offer a remote diagnostics method to probe the density variation of these structures. Aims: We present a comparison of theoretical models for the field-aligned density along prominence fine structures. They aim to imitate density distributions in which the plasma is more or less concentrated around the centre of the magnetic flux tube. We consider Lorentzian, Gaussian, and parabolic profiles. We compare theoretical predictions based on these profiles for the period ratio between the fundamental transverse kink mode and the first overtone to obtain estimates for the density ratios between the central part of the tube and its foot-points and to assess which one would better explain observed period ratio data. Methods: Bayesian parameter inference and model comparison techniques were developed and applied. To infer the parameters, we computed the posterior distribution for the density gradient parameter that depends on the observable period ratio. The model comparison involved computing the marginal likelihood as a function of the period ratio to obtain the plausibility of each density model as a function of the observable. We also computed the Bayes factors to quantify the relative evidence for each model, given a period ratio observation. Results: A Lorentzian density profile, with plasma density concentrated around the centre of the tube, seems to offer the most plausible inversion result. A

  18. Prominent follicular mucinosis with diffuse scalp alopecia resembling alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Missall, Tricia A; Hurley, M Yadira; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2013-10-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of alopecia. On examination, she had diffuse hair loss of her scalp with some discrete patches of nonscarring alopecia. Histopathology revealed an inflammatory nonscarring alopecia with prominent follicular mucinosis and findings suggestive of alopecia areata. The patient's alopecia completely resolved with oral prednisone. The histopathologic findings and clinical presentation are most consistent with a diagnosis of alopecia areata with follicular mucinosis, although the differential diagnosis is broad. As follicular mucinosis may be associated with both benign and malignant conditions, it is important to be cautious regarding the clinical diagnosis when this reaction pattern is observed histopathologically. PMID:23962142

  19. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  20. Prominent Eustachian Valve in Newborns: A Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ashraf; Mannan, Javed; Chhabra, Manoj; Zhang, Xi Xiao Yang; Narula, Pramod; Hoang, Danthanh

    2015-01-01

    The Eustachian valve (EV) is an embryological remnant of the inferior vena cava that during fetal life helps divert oxygenated blood from the IVC toward the foramen ovale to escape the pulmonary circulation. This remnant usually regresses after birth and is considered a benign finding in the majority of cases. However, EV can lead to complications in the neonatal period or later in life. In this short case series, we present four newborn infants with prominent EV who were symptomatic after birth and required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26929867

  1. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  2. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  3. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OBSERVATIONS OF HOT PROMINENCE SHROUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Scholl, I.; Druckmueller, M.; Rusin, V.; Daw, A.; Johnson, J.; Arndt, M.

    2010-08-20

    Using observations of the corona taken during the total solar eclipses of 2006 March 29 and 2008 August 1 in broadband white light and in narrow bandpass filters centered at Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, and Fe XIV 530.3 nm, we show that prominences observed off the solar limb are enshrouded in hot plasmas within twisted magnetic structures. These shrouds, which are commonly referred to as cavities in the literature, are clearly distinct from the overlying arch-like structures that form the base of streamers. The existence of these hot shrouds had been predicted by model studies dating back to the early 1970s, with more recent studies implying their association with twisted magnetic flux ropes. The eclipse observations presented here, which cover a temperature range of 0.9 to 2 x10{sup 6} K, are the first to resolve the long-standing ambiguity associated with the temperature and magnetic structure of prominence cavities.

  4. Hinode SOT Observations of Solar Quiescent Prominence Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Slater, Gregory L.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Tsuneta, Saku; Lites, Bruce W.; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2008-03-01

    We report findings from multihour 0.2'' resolution movies of solar quiescent prominences (QPs) observed with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Hinode satellite. The observations verify previous findings of filamentary downflows and vortices in QPs. SOT observations also verify large-scale transverse oscillations in QPs, with periods of 20-40 minutes and amplitudes of 2-5 Mm. The upward propagation speed of several waves is found to be ~10 km s-1, comparable to the sound speed of a 10,000 K plasma, implying that the waves are magnetoacoustic in origin. Most significantly, Hinode SOT observations reveal that dark, episodic upflows are common in QPs. The upflows are 170-700 km in width, exhibit turbulent flow, and rise with approximately constant speeds of ~20 km s-1 from the base of the prominence to heights of ~10-20 Mm. The upflows are visible in both the Ca II H-line and Hα bandpasses of SOT. The new flows are seen in about half of the QPs observed by SOT to date. The dark upflows resemble buoyant starting plumes in both their velocity profile and flow structure. We discuss thermal and magnetic mechanisms as possible causes of the plumes.

  5. Rolling Motions During Solar Prominence Eruptions in Asymmetric Magnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold; McCauley, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. We will present initial results of our work to investigate this prediction. To determine the strength and any asymmetric properties of the magnetic field in the regions of interest in the photosphere, we use magnetograms from HMI. We use AIA observations to determine if there is any rolling motion and, if so, what handedness the rolling motions have. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness information to determine if there is any relationship between the two. Finally, we will discuss prospects for diagnosing rolling motions of erupting prominence using off-limb IRIS observations.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)

  6. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  7. Solar corona/prominence seen through the White Light Coronograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The solar corona and a solar prominence as seen through the White Light Coronograph, Skylab Experiment S052, on January 17, 1974. This view was reproduced from a television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The bright spot is a burn in the vidicon. The solar corona is the halo around the Sun which is normally visible only at the time of solar eclipse by the Moon. The Skylab coronography uses an externally-mounted disk system which occults the brilliant solar surface while allowing the fainter radiation of the corona to enter an annulus and be photographed. A mirror system allows either TV viewing of the corona or photographic recording of the image.

  8. Modelling of solar magnetic field and prominence structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shi Tsan

    1988-01-01

    Using plasma theory, the interaction is studied between high frequency and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from which a set of coupling equations resulted. On the basis of this formalism, the modulation instabilities of an electromagnetic soliton in a current sheet are examined, and it is shown that there is a resistive instability at the onset of the magnetic field reconnection. This mechanism could be used to explain the onset of solar flares and prominences. To improve the resolution of vector magnetic fields at the sun's surface, state-of-the-art optics is examined to improve the design and fabrication of a new spaceborne solar vector magnetograph as part of the SAMEX (Solar Active Measurements Experiment) program.

  9. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  10. The production effect in memory: a prominent mnemonic in children.

    PubMed

    Icht, Michal; Mama, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    The 'Production Effect' (PE) refers to a memory advantage for items studied aloud over items studied silently. Thus, vocalizing may serve as a mnemonic that can be used to assist learners in improving their memory for new concepts. Although many other types of mnemonic have been suggested in the literature, the PE seems especially appropriate for young children, as it does not involve literacy skills. The present study is a first investigation of the PE in children. In two experiments we tested five-year-olds in a PE paradigm using pictures of objects as stimuli. In Experiment 1, pictures of familiar objects were presented to be remembered, and in Experiment 2 we used pictures of unfamiliar objects (evaluating new vocabulary acquisition). In both experiments we showed a memory advantage for vocally produced words ('look and say') over other types of learning ('look', 'look and listen'), suggesting the PE as a prominent memory and learning tool. PMID:25404488