Science.gov

Sample records for promoting rural renewables

  1. Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom

    Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

  2. Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.

  3. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  4. School Community Renewal: A Cooperative Revitalization Strategy for Rural Schools, Students, and Communities. Full-Scale Version of Rural Renewal Strategies for Network Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Joyce

    The work of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) in rural education focuses on the intersection between school renewal and rural community development. NWREL's Rural School-Community Renewal Research and Development project aims to develop the capacity of small rural schools enrolling many economically disadvantaged students to…

  5. An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

  6. A Rural Citizens Health Promotion Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Mary; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a health promotion demonstration project which addressed the health problem of hypertension, as related to variables of excercise, weight, blood pressure measurement and reduction, medication compliance, and nutritional practices. Participants (N=18) were senior citizens who were associated with a small, rural, predominantly…

  7. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  8. Joint U.S./Brazilian Renewable Energy Rural Electrification Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Leboeuf, C.; Moszkowicz, M.; Valente, L.G.

    1994-12-31

    The Joint US/Brazilian Renewable Energy Rural Electrification Project was established following the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Installation of the hardware for Phase 1 of the project has been completed; the nearly 800 photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems are now operational, and a 3-year period of monitored operating and maintenance experience has begun. Procurement for equipment in a Phase 2 project expansion into 6 additional states was completed during the summer of 1994. In Phase 2, the project emphasis has expanded into other applications (water pumping by both PV ad wind, stand-aloe home electrification with basic ac power, two 50-kW village-scale hybrid power systems for diesel fuel displacement in the amazon Basin, and additional home, school, and health clinic dc power systems). The objectives of these pilot projects are to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) system to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil.

  9. Acceleration of Rural Industrialization Using Renewable Energy Technolgoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kamaruddin

    2007-10-01

    Solar, wind, biomass and micro-hydro can be found in abundant in almost all rural area throughout the world. Despite of the fact that there are already so many research results showing the potential application of these renewable resources to substitute fossil fuel and to increase added value of local products, however, up to now very view if any result that has been realized in significant way. A concept of Small Provessing Unit using renewable energy sources have been introduced in Indonesia since 1999, in which domestically developed conversion technology, such as the greenhouse effect (GHE) solar drying system has been applied to process agricultural products such as coffee, cocoa, soices, various types of fishes and sea weeds. In addition, hybrid nocturnal cooling method has also beeing developed and used to help the farmer in extending shelf life of tropical fruits and vegetables and therefore, contributed in reducing post harvest losses. The Small Processing Unit concept as well as the developed renewable energy technology are now gradually being appreciated by both the central and local authorities, the private sectors including the NGO. The demand of such system is also gradually increasing each year and the area of applications have been extended not only within the heavtily inhavited Java Island but also to the other island of Indonesia. Our experiences in dealing with the system have also been transferred to fellow ASEAN engineers as well as those coming from the African continent through training and workshops activities. The future direction of the development will be to enhace the role of the Small Processing Unit (SPU) by providing more value added facilities driven by renewable energy technology.

  10. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  11. The Use of Community-Based Support To Effect Curriculum Renewal in Rural Settings. Rural Curriculum Handbook No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Jack W.

    This report examines the use of community-based support to facilitate curriculum renewal efforts in small rural school districts. Interviews with educators from five school districts in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington describe three approaches to curriculum renewal: community-initiated approaches, state-directed reform efforts, and…

  12. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  13. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  14. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  15. Sorting Procedures in Enclosed Rural Communities: Admitting "People like Us" into Renewing Kibbutzim in Northern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charney, Igal; Palgi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the attempts made by the renewing kibbutzim to maintain their way of life as much as possible through the adjustment of their gating mechanisms. In this type of a rural gated community, sorting procedures and admittance criteria of nonmembers are the most notable elements. Background material and interviews with informants at…

  16. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  17. Violence Against Rural Older Women: Promoting Community Awareness and Action

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Karen A.; Brossoie, Nancy; McPherson, Marya C.; Pulsifer, Mary Beth; Brown, Patricia N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify opportunities and challenges in promoting community support for rural older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods Using community-based participatory research principles, we engaged in an academic-community partnership to analyze the research literature, estimate IPV incidence and prevalence, ascertain professional and older IPV victim perspectives through focus groups and interviews, and develop a collaborative community response plan. This study took place from 2008 to 2010 in the U.S. Results IPV in late life is underreported by victims and often unrecognized by the academic and service community. Professionals, while agreeable to collaborating to support older IPV victims, sought coordination and leadership from domestic violence agencies. Older victims stressed the need for improved professional sensitivity to their unique needs and more service options. Conclusions The insights generated during this project produced a framework on which rural communities can build to address the hidden and growing problem of late life IPV. PMID:23521727

  18. Renewable energy-based electricity for rural social and economic development in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.

  19. The Role of Education: Promoting the Economic & Social Vitality of Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Gibbs, Robert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Today's rural leaders are becoming increasingly attuned to the fact that high achieving schools and related human capital investment strategies are key ingredients in the promotion of sustainable development at the local level. Serious challenges often await rural areas that seek to pursue such efforts. As a case in point, if rural schools are…

  20. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan

    2012-01-01

    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  1. Navigating the Rural Terrain: Educators' Visions to Promote Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Saul, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of rural education emphasize the need to examine supports which may promote rural educators given the challenging contexts of which they face. Teacher visioning has been conceptualized as a navigational tool to help sustain and promote teachers given high-challenging contexts. The current study explored 10 public school teachers from…

  2. 75 FR 29993 - Department of Commerce: Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Renewable Energy and Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Department of Commerce: Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Renewable...: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY:...

  3. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  4. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

  5. Promoting STEM to Young Students by Renewable Energy Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecen, Recayi; Humston, Jill L.; Yildiz, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    The Math-Science-Engineering Technology in Iowa on Applied Renewable Energy Areas (MSETI-AREA) projects are aimed at providing area school teachers with an applied mathematics and science curriculum package based on photovoltaic (PV) power, wind power, human power and hydrogen fuel-cell fundamentals. The MSETI-AREA project has established a…

  6. Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification.

    PubMed

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  7. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification

    PubMed Central

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Ohunakin, Olayinka Soledayo; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country's rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. PMID:25879063

  8. An Industrial Promotion Survey: A Guide for Your Rural Community's Development. Extension Circular 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuennen, Daniel S.

    Divided into 2 parts, this publication presents a brief review of facts concerning rural industrial expansion as relative to rural community development and describes the way in which a community should go about researching, compiling, and publishing an attractive promotion portfolio. To aid communities in the initial steps toward industrial…

  9. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  10. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  11. 76 FR 79112 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... and retention of radio service in and to smaller communities and rural areas. DATES: Oppositions to... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment... for evaluating mutually exclusive proposals for radio service, as well as for applications to change...

  12. Delaware's Rural Assistance Council Promotes the Rural Agenda in the First State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    The Delaware Research for Better Schools Rural Assistance Council's (RAC) mission is to develop a rural assistance agenda for the state. The Council stated four objectives: (1) identifying the most pressing needs of Delaware's rural schools and school districts; (2) developing plans, in cooperation with appropriate state organizations, for…

  13. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

    2007-06-01

    The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

  14. Promoting Epistemological Development and Parenting Skills of Rural, Impoverished Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lynne A.; And Others

    The Listening Partners project examined rural mothers' development of a sense of the power of their own minds and voices and the relationship between this sense of power and mothers' parenting strategies and their children's development. Two cohorts of 60 women from a rural, impoverished region of Vermont participated in the program. Half the…

  15. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  16. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Health-Promoting Behaviors of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…

  17. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  18. Renewable Energy in Rural Southeastern Arizona: Decision Factors: A Comparison of the Consumer Profiles of Homeowners Who Purchased Renewable Energy Systems With Those Who Performed Other Home Upgrades or Remodeling Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Wayne Eliot

    Arizona has an abundant solar resource and technologically mature systems are available to capture it, but solar energy systems are still considered to be an innovative technology. Adoption rates for solar and wind energy systems rise and fall with the political tides, and are relatively low in most rural areas in Arizona. This thesis tests the hypothesis that a consumer profile developed to characterize the adopters of renewable energy technology (RET) systems in rural Arizona is the same as the profile of other area residents who performed renovations, upgrades or additions to their homes. Residents of Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties who had obtained building permits to either install a solar or wind energy system or to perform a substantial renovation or upgrade to their home were surveyed to gather demographic, psychographic and behavioristic data. The data from 133 survey responses (76 from RET adopters and 57 from non-adopters) provided insights about their decisions regarding whether or not to adopt a RET system. The results, which are statistically significant at the 99% level of confidence, indicate that RET adopters had smaller households, were older and had higher education levels and greater income levels than the non-adopters. The research also provides answers to three related questions: First, are the energy conservation habits of RET adopters the same as those of non-adopters? Second, what were the sources of information consulted and the most important factors that motivated the decision to purchase a solar or wind energy system? And finally, are any of the factors which influenced the decision to live in a rural area in southeastern Arizona related to the decision to purchase a renewable energy system? The answers are provided, along with a series of recommendations that are designed to inform marketers and other promoters of RETs about how to utilize these results to help achieve their goals.

  19. PROMOTING CANCER SCREENING AMONG RURAL AFRICAN AMERICANS: A SOCIAL NETWORK APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Mieskowski, Lisa M; Oliver, JoAnn S; Eichorst, Morgan K; Allen, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    Obstacles that prevent rural African Americans (AAs) from regularly engaging in cancer screening were explored, and a theoretical approach was formulated utilizing social networks as a culturally sensitive form of health promotion. Disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality continue to exist between AAs and Caucasians in the United States. Often rural dwellers are further disadvantaged because of a potential lack of medical and financial resources and low health literacy. Social networks provide an existing framework where health concerns are discussed and health interventions in cancer screening can strengthen or encourage relevant health behaviors in rural AAs and other disadvantaged populations. PMID:26647487

  20. Adipocytes promote prostate cancer stem cell self-renewal through amplification of the cholecystokinin autocrine loop

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai-Dun; Liu, Ji; Jovanovic, Lidija; An, Jiyuan; Hill, Michelle M.; Vela, Ian; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Ma, Stephanie; Nelson, Colleen; Russell, Pamela J.; Clements, Judith A.; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has long been linked with prostate cancer progression, although the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we report that adipocytes promote the enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) through a vicious cycle of autocrine amplification. In the presence of adipocytes, prostate cancer cells actively secrete the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which not only stimulates prostate CSC self-renewal, but also induces cathepsin B (CTSB) production of the adipocytes. In return, CTSB facilitates further CCK secretion by the cancer cells. More importantly, inactivation of CCK receptor not only suppresses CTSB secretion by the adipocytes, but also synergizes the inhibitory effect of CTSB inhibitor on adipocyte-promoted prostate CSC self-renewal. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the mutual interplay between adipocytes and prostate CSCs, which may help explaining the role of adipocytes in prostate cancer progression and provide opportunities for effective intervention. PMID:26700819

  1. p53 loss promotes acute myeloid leukemia by enabling aberrant self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Zuber, Johannes; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Lintault, Laura; Kogan, Scott C.; Shannon, Kevin; Lowe, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor limits proliferation in response to cellular stress through several mechanisms. Here, we test whether the recently described ability of p53 to limit stem cell self-renewal suppresses tumorigenesis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive cancer in which p53 mutations are associated with drug resistance and adverse outcome. Our approach combined mosaic mouse models, Cre-lox technology, and in vivo RNAi to disable p53 and simultaneously activate endogenous KrasG12D—a common AML lesion that promotes proliferation but not self-renewal. We show that p53 inactivation strongly cooperates with oncogenic KrasG12D to induce aggressive AML, while both lesions on their own induce T-cell malignancies with long latency. This synergy is based on a pivotal role of p53 in limiting aberrant self-renewal of myeloid progenitor cells, such that loss of p53 counters the deleterious effects of oncogenic Kras on these cells and enables them to self-renew indefinitely. Consequently, myeloid progenitor cells expressing oncogenic Kras and lacking p53 become leukemia-initiating cells, resembling cancer stem cells capable of maintaining AML in vivo. Our results establish an efficient new strategy for interrogating oncogene cooperation, and provide strong evidence that the ability of p53 to limit aberrant self-renewal contributes to its tumor suppressor activity. PMID:20595231

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma: thyroid hormone promotes tumorigenicity through inducing cancer stem-like cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Lei; Ma, Sicong; Qi, Xingxing; Li, Qigen; Xia, Yun; Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Wang, Zhi; Chi, Jiachang; Li, Ping; Feng, Yu-xiong; Xia, Qiang; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play a key role in maintaining the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the cell-biological regulation of CSCs is unclear. In the study, we report that thyroid hormone (TH) promotes cell self-renewal in HCC cells. TH also increases the percentage of CD90 + HCC cells and promotes drug resistance of HCC cells. By analyzing primary human HCC samples, we found that TRα transcript level is significantly elevated in primary liver cancer and portal vein metastatic tumor, compared to that of adjacent normal liver tissue. Knocking down TRα not only inhibits HCC self-renewal in vitro but also suppresses HCC tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, treatment of TH leads to activation of NF-κB, which is required for the function of TH on inducing HCC cell self-renewal. We also found TRα and p65 cooperatively drive the expression of BMI1 by co-binding to the promoter region of BMI1 gene. In summary, our study uncovers a novel function of TH signaling in regulating the CSCs of HCC, and these findings might be useful for developing novel therapies by targeting TH function in HCC cells. PMID:27174710

  3. School-Community Partnerships in Rural Schools: Leadership, Renewal, and a Sense of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines family-school connections and sense of place in rural Alabama, observing that rural communities and schools often have many attributes related to strong identification with place (e.g., shared norms and values). However, many other attributes of place closely connected with school-success-related elements of social capital may be present…

  4. Heterochromatin protein 1 promotes self-renewal and triggers regenerative proliferation in adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Li, Yong-Qin; Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Ge; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, Dang-Sheng; Qin, Yong-Wen; Shi, Yufang; Brewer, Gary; Jing, Qing

    2013-04-29

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) capable of self-renewal and differentiation confer the potential of tissues to regenerate damaged parts. Epigenetic regulation is essential for driving cell fate decisions by rapidly and reversibly modulating gene expression programs. However, it remains unclear how epigenetic factors elicit ASC-driven regeneration. In this paper, we report that an RNA interference screen against 205 chromatin regulators identified 12 proteins essential for ASC function and regeneration in planarians. Surprisingly, the HP1-like protein SMED-HP1-1 (HP1-1) specifically marked self-renewing, pluripotent ASCs, and HP1-1 depletion abrogated self-renewal and promoted differentiation. Upon injury, HP1-1 expression increased and elicited increased ASC expression of Mcm5 through functional association with the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, which consequently triggered proliferation of ASCs and initiated blastema formation. Our observations uncover an epigenetic network underlying ASC regulation in planarians and reveal that an HP1 protein is a key chromatin factor controlling stem cell function. These results provide important insights into how epigenetic mechanisms orchestrate stem cell responses during tissue regeneration. PMID:23629965

  5. Differential Radiosensitizing Effect of Valproic Acid in Differentiation Versus Self-Renewal Promoting Culture Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Xu Wei; Mok, Henry; Li Li; Robertson, Fredika; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, Jim; Lucci, Anthony; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that valproic acid (VA) enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and that breast cancer stem/progenitor cells can be resistant to radiation. From these data, we hypothesized that VA would fail to radiosensitize breast cancer stem/progenitor cells grown to three-dimensional (3D) mammospheres. Methods and Materials: We used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line grown under stem cell-promoting culture conditions (3D mammosphere) and standard nonstem cell monolayer culture conditions (two-dimensional) to examine the effect of pretreatment with VA on radiation sensitivity in clonogenic survival assays and on the expression of embryonic stem cell transcription factors. Results: 3D-cultured MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. The 3D passage enriched self-renewal and increased radioresistance in the 3D mammosphere formation assays. VA radiosensitized adherent cells but radioprotected 3D cells in single-fraction clonogenic assays. Moreover, fractionated radiation sensitized VA-treated adherent MCF7 cells but did not have a significant effect on VA-treated single cells grown to mammospheres. Conclusion: We have concluded that VA might preferentially radiosensitize differentiated cells compared with those expressing stem cell surrogates and that stem cell-promoting culture is a useful tool for in vitro evaluation of novel cancer therapeutic agents and radiosensitizers.

  6. Erythropoietin promotes breast tumorigenesis through tumor-initiating cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bing; Damrauer, Jeffrey S.; Bailey, Sean T.; Hadzic, Tanja; Jeong, Youngtae; Clark, Kelly; Fan, Cheng; Murphy, Laura; Lee, Cleo Y.; Troester, Melissa A.; Miller, C. Ryan; Jin, Jian; Darr, David; Perou, Charles M.; Levine, Ross L.; Diehn, Maximilian; Kim, William Y.

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that induces red blood cell production. In its recombinant form, EPO is the one of most prescribed drugs to treat anemia, including that arising in cancer patients. In randomized trials, EPO administration to cancer patients has been associated with decreased survival. Here, we investigated the impact of EPO modulation on tumorigenesis. Using genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer, we found that EPO promoted tumorigenesis by activating JAK/STAT signaling in breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and promoted TIC self renewal. We determined that EPO was induced by hypoxia in breast cancer cell lines, but not in human mammary epithelial cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that high levels of endogenous EPO gene expression correlated with shortened relapse-free survival and that pharmacologic JAK2 inhibition was synergistic with chemotherapy for tumor growth inhibition in vivo. These data define an active role for endogenous EPO in breast cancer progression and breast TIC self-renewal and reveal a potential application of EPO pathway inhibition in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24435044

  7. Erythropoietin promotes breast tumorigenesis through tumor-initiating cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing; Damrauer, Jeffrey S; Bailey, Sean T; Hadzic, Tanja; Jeong, Youngtae; Clark, Kelly; Fan, Cheng; Murphy, Laura; Lee, Cleo Y; Troester, Melissa A; Miller, C Ryan; Jin, Jian; Darr, David; Perou, Charles M; Levine, Ross L; Diehn, Maximilian; Kim, William Y

    2014-02-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that induces red blood cell production. In its recombinant form, EPO is the one of most prescribed drugs to treat anemia, including that arising in cancer patients. In randomized trials, EPO administration to cancer patients has been associated with decreased survival. Here, we investigated the impact of EPO modulation on tumorigenesis. Using genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer, we found that EPO promoted tumorigenesis by activating JAK/STAT signaling in breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and promoted TIC self renewal. We determined that EPO was induced by hypoxia in breast cancer cell lines, but not in human mammary epithelial cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that high levels of endogenous EPO gene expression correlated with shortened relapse-free survival and that pharmacologic JAK2 inhibition was synergistic with chemotherapy for tumor growth inhibition in vivo. These data define an active role for endogenous EPO in breast cancer progression and breast TIC self-renewal and reveal a potential application of EPO pathway inhibition in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24435044

  8. Using VCDs to Promote Rural Educational Development in China: A Case Study in the Tianshui Hilly Areas of Gansu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Lee Chi Kin; Jiayi, Wang

    2005-01-01

    This case study is set in a remote rural area of China--the Tianshui area of Gansu Province. It examines a strategy involving the use of Video Compact Discs (VCDs) to enhance primary education in these areas. Firstly, the challenging context of Tianshui area is described. Secondly, strategies for promoting rural education using VCDs and the…

  9. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  10. Health Promotion Seminar. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with conducting a health promotion seminar. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of a health care promotion seminar in rural health promotional training,…

  11. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  12. Endothelial cell-initiated signaling promotes the survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Sudha; Dong, Zhihong; Vodopyanov, Dmitry; Imai, Atsushi; Helman, Joseph I.; Prince, Mark E.; Wicha, Max S.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells play an important role in the pathobiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). However, little is known about functional interactions between head and neck cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and surrounding stromal cells. Here, we used Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity and CD44 expression to sort putative stem cells from primary human HNSCC. Implantation of 1,000 CSC (ALDH+CD44+Lin−) led to tumors in 13 (out of 15) mice, while 10,000 non-cancer stem cells (NCSC; ALDH−CD44−Lin−) resulted in 2 tumors in 15 mice. These data demonstrated that ALDH and CD44 select a sub-population of cells that are highly tumorigenic. The ability to self-renew was confirmed by the observation that ALDH+CD44+Lin− cells sorted from human HNSCC formed more spheroids (orospheres) in 3-D agarose matrices or ultra-low attachment plates than controls and were serially passaged in vivo. We observed that approximately 80% of the CSC were located in close proximity (within 100-µm radius) of blood vessels in human tumors, suggesting the existence of perivascular niches in HNSCC. In vitro studies demonstrated that endothelial cell-secreted factors promoted self-renewal of CSC, as demonstrated by the upregulation of Bmi-1 expression and the increase in the number of orospheres as compared to controls. Notably, selective ablation of tumor-associated endothelial cells stably transduced with a caspase-based artificial death switch (iCaspase-9) caused a marked reduction in the fraction of CSC in xenograft tumors. Collectively, these findings indicate that endothelial cell-initiated signaling can enhance the survival and self-renewal of head and neck cancer stem cells. PMID:21098716

  13. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  14. PPARα and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R.; Peters, Luanne L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many acute and chronic anemias, including hemolysis, sepsis, and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production 1,2,3–5,6,7,8,9. Treatment of these anemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of the early erythroid progenitor, the burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells 10,11. Here we demonstrate that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by PPARα agonists, GW7647 and fenofibrate, synergizes with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures both of mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and of mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, the latter employing a new and effective culture system that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. While PPARα−/− mice show no hematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPARα agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type mice, but not PPARα−/− mice, from PHZ-induced acute hemolytic anemia. We also showed that PPARα alleviates anemia in a mouse model of chronic anemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells PPARα co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPARα agonists, additional PPARα is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPARα agonists in stimulating self-renewal

  15. The Rural Space in Israel in Search of Renewed Identity: The Case of the "Moshav"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofer, Michael; Applebaum, Levia

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe and explain the changes which have taken place in the rural areas of Israel by focusing on a particular type of community--the "moshav," which is a planned smallholders' settlement, based on family farms and legally organized as a cooperative society. An analysis of the changes that have taken place in the "moshav" in…

  16. Gender and ethnic differences in health-promoting behaviors of rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Horner, Sharon D; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E

    2015-06-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents (47.5% Hispanic; mean age at baseline 14.7 years). Males from all ethnic groups scored significantly higher than all females on physical activity; non-Hispanic Black males and females scored significantly higher than other ethnic groups on safety behaviors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic White females scored higher than males in these ethnic groups on stress management. Nutrition, physical activity, and safety behaviors decreased significantly for most participants from Grade 9 to 12 whereas stress management remained relatively stable. Findings are similar to those from nationally representative samples that analyzed cross-sectional data and have implications for school nursing interventions to improve health-promoting behaviors in rural adolescents. PMID:25037685

  17. Promotion of Youth-Led Enterprises in Off-Grid Renewable Energy. Youth Employment Summit. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this project was to address global climate change and, in the same context, analyze how proposed solutions could simultaneously enhance employment opportunities for youth. The outcomes of the project include: (1) greater awareness and engagement of youth in climate change issues, including the need to promote renewable energy…

  18. International partnerships in renewable energy: Promoting climate challenge partnerships by small U.S. utilities. Fourth project report, October 1997--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) received a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program to promote the participation of NRECA members in the President`s Climate Challenge Action Plan. NRECA had been in discussions with Salt River Project (SRP) and the Arizona Electric Power Cooperative (AEPCO) to pursue the opportunity of supporting a small solar energy rural electrification project in Sonora prior to the signature of this agreement. When the Climate Challenge project was approved, an agreement between NRECA, SRP, and AEPCO was reached to implement the Sonora project with funding from DOE, SRP, and AEPCO. This periodic report will summarize the results of the Sonora solar electrification project. While other Climate Challenge activities were also underway during this reporting period, due to the impact of this project it was decided to provide an in-depth report of this single project. Information directly relevant to the actions taken on this project is provided in Annexes 1 and 2. The goals of the Sonora Solar Electrification project were the following: (1) demonstrate the willingness and ability of US electric utilities to undertake a climate challenge project using renewable energy technologies; (2) select one or more communities distant from the electric grid with sufficient interest and resources to accept and sustain rural electric service using solar photovoltaic energy; (3) organize a payment system that would provide for the long-term technical and institutional viability of the project; (4) train users to operate the solar home systems safely and within proper operating parameters; (5) train local technicians to maintain the solar home systems; (6) procure and install high quality equipment at affordable costs; and (7) ascertain market conditions for expansion of program in the future.

  19. Promoting Rural Education: The Role of the Society of the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the role of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and the challenges it has faced as the primary voice for Australian rural educators. The paper charts the origins of SPERA, and the contributions of key people involved in its foundation. The paper then examines the advocacy and impact of SPERA…

  20. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles

  1. [Active health promotion among the aged in a rural region. Participants, acceptance, and implementation].

    PubMed

    Hofreuter-Gätgens, K; Mnich, E; Thomas, D; Salomon, T; von dem Knesebeck, O

    2011-08-01

    The program "active health promotion in old age" focuses on persons aged 60 years and older who are not in need of care and are living independently without cognitive impairment. The objective of the intervention is to improve physical activity, healthy nutrition, and the integration of older people into network structures. The intervention was successfully conducted in an urban setting and has now been transferred to a rural area in southwestern Germany (Baden-Wuerttemberg). It was offered to statutory health insured people of Baden-Wuerttemberg within an integrated care program and was free of charge. This article reports the results of the process evaluation. For data collection, participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the intervention team and involved general practitioners. In addition, secondary data were used to analyze selection bias between participants and nonparticipants. Although the rural area has a major impact on recruitment, access, and factors of implementation, results demonstrate that the intervention is highly accepted by participants. Moreover, structural conditions (e.g., fitness clubs, exercise classes) are essential for a successful transfer. PMID:21800241

  2. Promoting the Congregate Meal Program to the Next Generation of Rural-Residing Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Kara A; Francis, Sarah L; Margrett, Jennifer A; Peterson, Marc; Franke, Warren D

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing older adult population, Iowa Congregate Meal Program (CMP) participation has declined. Motivators and barriers to congregate mealsite participation and wellness programming preferences of baby boomers and older adults were examined to provide insight to how to revise and better promote the CMP for the next generation of older adults. Four focus group sessions were conducted with 27 primarily White, rural-residing adults, ages 48-88 years. Participation motivators included educational programs, food, and socialization while barriers included negative perceptions and stereotypes associated with congregate mealsites. Desired wellness programs were viewed as interactive and relevant. Healthcare was the leading wellness need with financial management and physical activity cited as the most-wanted topics of wellness programs. These results provide insight on factors, aside from funding, that may be adversely impacting CMP participation and identifies areas for further investigation. PMID:27153251

  3. Factors that promote renewable energy production in U.S. states: A fixed effect estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwokeji, Ekwuniru Chika

    2011-12-01

    The unsustainability of conventional energy sources and its environmental destructions are well-known; the sustainability of renewable energy and its environmental benefits are also well-documented. The United States in common with many other countries is increasingly focused on developing renewable energy. At first, the pursuit of this strategy in U.S. was seen more as a way to reduce dependence on oil importation. With increased awareness of environmental challenges resulting from the consumption and production of conventional energy, an additional strategy for the continued interest in renewable energy development in the United States was as a result of its potential to ameliorate environmental problems. The U.S. government are utilizing policy measures and dedicating funding to encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. Beside government policies, there are contextual factors that also affect renewable energy production. These include, but not limited to population growth, energy demand, economic growth, and public acceptance. Given the pressing need to develop a sustainable energy, this study embarks on an outcome assessment of the nature of relationship of renewable energy policy incentives, and selected contextual factors on renewable energy production in the United States. The policy incentive evaluated in this study is the Renewable Energy Production Incentive program. The contextual factors evaluated in this study are energy consumption, population growth, employment, and poverty. Understanding the contextual factors within which policies are placed is essential to defining the most appropriate policy features. The methodological approach to the study is quantitative, using panel data from 1976 to 2007. The study tested two hypotheses using fixed effect estimation with robust standard error as a statistical model. Statistical analyses reveal several interesting results which lend support that besides policy incentives, contextual factors

  4. An Examination of Resource Allocation Strategies That Promote Student Achievement: Case Studies of Rural Elementary Schools in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acopan-Tuasivi, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents case studies of rural elementary schools in Hawaii that examine resource allocation strategies that promote student achievement. The combined frame work of the Evidence Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) and the 10 Strategies for Doubling Student Performance (Odden, 2009) were utilized to compare actual school resources and…

  5. A Decrease in Suicide Rates in Japanese Rural Towns after Community-Based Intervention by the Health Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hisanaga

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention study for suicide prevention was conducted in six towns (total population 43,964) in Akita Prefecture of Japan according to a quasi-experimental design to reduce suicide rates in rural towns. Public awareness raising activities using a health promotion approach emphasizing the empowerment of residents and civic…

  6. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  7. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Elizabeth A.; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Community Context Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We created a regional partnership to leverage resources and enhance environmental and policy interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity in rural southeast Missouri. Methods Partners were engaged in a participatory action planning process that included prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating promising evidence-based interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. Group interviews were conducted with Healthier MO community partners post intervention to evaluate resource sharing and sustainability efforts of the regional partnership. Outcome Community partners identified the benefits and challenges of resource sharing within the regional partnership as well as the opportunities and threats to long-term partnership sustainability. The partners noted that the regional participatory process was difficult, but the benefits outweighed the challenges. Interpretation Regional rural partnerships may be an effective way to leverage relationships to increase the capacity of rural communities to implement environmental and policy interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. PMID:26068413

  8. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  9. The Influence of Renewable Energy Technology on the Learning of Science at Myeka High School in rural KwaZulu Natal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Deepak

    Past results have indicated that pupils in rural schools fare poorly in the Sciences and Mathematics. Reasons for this range from financial constraints to political and social influences. The introduction of renewable energy resources has the potential to equip pupils with the theoretical forte of being able to at least compete with their urban counterparts. Technology provides the mechanism to develop new and effective ways of bringing modern education facilities and techniques to those who would not have had access to it. The implementation of a Renewable Energy Technology (RET) system at Myeka High School overcame many logistical problems, indicating that education and technology, and all the role-players involved could successfully make a meaningful contribution to rural development. Indications are that the technology and rural environment can form a working combination; in which the technology provides the opportunities for learners and the community to explore the world from a desktop computer. The effect that this technology has had on the learning of Science was analysed, using previous test and examination scores. The influence of the technology could then be appraised.

  10. After-school programs for health promotion in rural communities: Ashe County Middle School 4-H After-School Program.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael B; Miller, Jennifer L; Blackburn, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rural youth have a higher risk for lower health and developmental outcomes, often facing numerous constraints (eg, poor socioeconomic conditions, lower levels of social support, fewer recreational programs and facilities, and inadequate transportation). After-school programs have the potential to effectively deliver health-promoting activities but often face significant challenges in these areas. Ashe County is a rural community in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. Ashe County is economically depressed and its youth population has many poor health and developmental indicators. However, with more than 20 years of sustained activity, one important community resource trying to address disparities in youth health and development is the Ashe County 4-H After-School Program. To successfully overcome inherent challenges, the program has positioned itself as essential to community development, supported and retained qualified personnel, and cultivated a network of key partners to continue its efforts to provide essential youth programs for this rural community. PMID:21464690

  11. Empowerment of women and mental health promotion: a qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Kermode, Michelle; Herrman, Helen; Arole, Rajanikant; White, Joshua; Premkumar, Ramaswamy; Patel, Vikram

    2007-01-01

    Background The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC) programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health Method We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. Conclusion While it is essential that affordable

  12. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  13. Promoting Community Renewal through Civic Literacy and Service Learning. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H., Ed.; Lisman, C. David, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the idea that community colleges have a critical role in enhancing civic literacy through community-based programming and service learning, this volume provides descriptions of theoretical frameworks and practical models for incorporating community renewal into the college mission. The following articles are provided: (1) "Service…

  14. Nucleostemin maintains self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and promotes reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein that was first identified in neural stem cells, the functions of which remain poorly understood. Here, we report that NS is required for mouse embryogenesis to reach blastulation, maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal, and mammary epithelial cell (MEC) reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Ectopic NS also cooperates with OCT4 and SOX2 to reprogram MECs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to iPS cells. NS promotes ESC self-renewal by sustaining rapid transit through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Depletion of NS in ESCs retards transit through G1 and induces gene expression changes and morphological differentiation through a mechanism that involves the MEK/ERK protein kinases and that is active only during a protracted G1. Suppression of cell cycle inhibitors mitigates these effects. Our results implicate NS in the maintenance of ESC self-renewal, demonstrate the importance of rapid transit through G1 for this process, and expand the known classes of reprogramming factors. PMID:22689653

  15. MEK1 signaling promotes self-renewal and tumorigenicity of liver cancer stem cells via maintaining SIRT1 protein stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiamin; Liu, Chungang; Liu, Limei; Chen, Xuejiao; Shan, Juanjuan; Shen, Junjie; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death. This high mortality has been commonly attributed to the presence of residual cancer stem cells (CSCs). Meanwhile, MEK1 signaling is regarded as a key molecular in HCC maintenance and development. However, nobody has figured out the particular mechanisms that how MEK1 signaling regulates liver CSCs self-renewal. In this study, we show that inhibition or depletion of MEK1 can significantly decrease liver CSCs self-renewal and tumor growth both in vitro and vivo conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MEK1 signaling promotes liver CSCs self-renewal and tumorigenicity by maintaining SIRT1 level. Mechanistically, MEK1 signaling keeps SIRT1 protein stabilization through activating SIRT1 ubiquitination, which inhibits proteasomal degradation. Clinical analysis shows that patients co-expression of MEK1 and SIRT1 are associated with poor survival. Our finding indicates that MEK1-SIRT1 can act as a novel diagnostic biomarker and inhibition of MEK1 may be a viable therapeutic option for targeting liver CSCs treatment. PMID:26967560

  16. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  17. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  18. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus

  19. Concurrent BMP7 and FGF9 signalling governs AP-1 function to promote self-renewal of nephron progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishnan, Sree Deepthi; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert; Oxburgh, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Self-renewal of nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) is governed by BMP, FGF and WNT signalling. Mechanisms underlying cross-talk between these pathways at the molecular level are largely unknown. Here we delineate the pathway through which the proliferative BMP7 signal is transduced in NPCs in the mouse. BMP7 activates the MAPKs TAK1 and JNK to phosphorylate the transcription factor JUN, which in turn governs transcription of AP-1-element containing G1-phase cell cycle regulators such as Myc and Ccnd1 to promote NPC proliferation. Conditional inactivation of Tak1 or Jun in cap mesenchyme causes identical phenotypes characterized by premature depletion of NPCs. While JUN is regulated by BMP7, we find that its partner FOS is regulated by FGF9. We demonstrate that BMP7 and FGF9 coordinately regulate AP-1 transcription to promote G1-S cell cycle progression and NPC proliferation. Our findings identify a molecular mechanism explaining the important cooperation between two major NPC self-renewal pathways. PMID:26634297

  20. Yap1 promotes the survival and self-renewal of breast tumor initiating cells via inhibiting Smad3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xie-Wan; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jiang; Diehn, Max

    2016-01-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) serve as the root of tumor growth. After identifying TICs in spontaneous breast tumors of the MMTV-Wnt1 mouse model, we confirmed the specific expression and activation of Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) within TICs. To investigate the role of Yap1 in the self-renewal of breast TICs and the underlying mechanism, we sorted CD49fhighEpCAMlow cells as breast TICs. Active Yap1 with ectopic expression in breast TICs promoted their colony formation in vitro (p< 0.01) and self-renewal in vivo (p< 0.01), and led to a 4-fold increase in TIC frequency (p< 0.05). A conditional knock-out mouse was reconstructed to generate Yap1 knock-out breast tumors. The loss of Yap1 led to a dramatic growth disadvantage of breast TICs in vitro (p< 0.01) and in vivo (p< 0.01), and it also led to an over 200-fold decrease in TIC frequency (p< 0.01). The expression of active Yap1 was negatively correlated with that of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3). Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) served as a strong enhancer of Smad3 and an inhibitor of clonogenesis of TICs. The presence of SIS3, a specific inhibitor of Smad3, could rescue the TGF-β -induced growth inhibition and reverse the Smad3 inhibition by Yap1. Analysis of a database containing 2,072 human breast cancer samples showed that higher expressions of Yap1 correlated with a poorer outcome of a 15-year survival rate and median overall survival (mOS)in patients, especially in those with basal breast tumors without estrogen receptor 1 (ER) expression. The findings indicate that active Yap1 promotes the self-renewal of breast TICs by inhibiting Smad3 signaling. PMID:26695440

  1. Yap1 promotes the survival and self-renewal of breast tumor initiating cells via inhibiting Smad3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Guo; Chen, Xie-Wan; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jiang; Diehn, Max

    2016-03-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) serve as the root of tumor growth. After identifying TICs in spontaneous breast tumors of the MMTV-Wnt1 mouse model, we confirmed the specific expression and activation of Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) within TICs. To investigate the role of Yap1 in the self-renewal of breast TICs and the underlying mechanism, we sorted CD49fhighEpCAMlow cells as breast TICs. Active Yap1 with ectopic expression in breast TICs promoted their colony formation in vitro (p< 0.01) and self-renewal in vivo (p< 0.01), and led to a 4-fold increase in TIC frequency (p< 0.05).A conditional knock-out mouse was reconstructed to generate Yap1 knock-out breast tumors. The loss of Yap1 led to a dramatic growth disadvantage of breast TICs in vitro (p< 0.01) and in vivo (p< 0.01), and it also led to an over 200-fold decrease in TIC frequency (p< 0.01). The expression of active Yap1 was negatively correlated with that of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3).Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) served as a strong enhancer of Smad3 and an inhibitor of clonogenesis of TICs. The presence of SIS3, a specific inhibitor of Smad3, could rescue the TGF-β -induced growth inhibition and reverse the Smad3 inhibition by Yap1. Analysis of a database containing 2,072 human breast cancer samples showed that higher expressions of Yap1 correlated with a poorer outcome of a 15-year survival rate and median overall survival (mOS)in patients, especially in those with basal breast tumors without estrogen receptor 1 (ER) expression. The findings indicate that active Yap1 promotes the self-renewal of breast TICs by inhibiting Smad3 signaling. PMID:26695440

  2. Multiple Points of Contact: Promoting Rural Postsecondary Preparation through School-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2013-01-01

    Formal and informal partnerships between rural schools and their communities can provide a wide range of supports for all students, but particularly those from low-income families. In this analysis of six small rural school districts in Virginia we show how the broad participation of community groups and individuals supports academic achievement…

  3. Promoting Weight Maintenance among Overweight and Obese Hispanic Children in a Rural Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Cynthia; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ouyang, Yongjian; Ramos, Awilda I.; Gomez, Ismaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: US Hispanic children experience a disproportionate burden of overweight and obesity. Comprehensive high-intensity behavioral programs have demonstrated effectiveness in improving weight status among obese children. However, there remains a need to develop more efficient interventions that are feasible in primary care and demonstrate effectiveness in Hispanic children. Methods: The pilot study used a two-group randomized design. Eligible overweight (BMI between the 85th and 94th percentile for age and gender) or obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) Hispanic children and their parents (N=118 child/parent dyads) were recruited from a rural pediatric clinic and randomized to: standard care (SC; n=61 dyads) or behavioral intervention (INT; n=57 dyads). The primary outcomes—weight, waist circumference, and zBMI—were measured at baseline, 2, 6, and 18 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the effect of INT on the likelihood of weight maintenance adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results: Significantly fewer INT children (68.5%) experienced weight gain, compared to SC children (89.7%; p=0.009). The same pattern was observed for waist circumference, where fewer INT children (44%) experienced an increase in waist circumference, compared to SC children (68.6%; p=0.02). Although a trend of improvement in favor of the INT was observed for zBMI, it was not significant. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility of a primary-care–based approach to promoting weight maintenance among a high-risk population. PMID:25950140

  4. The Ife South Breastfeeding Project: training community health extension workers to promote and manage breastfeeding in rural communities.

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Adetugbo, A. A.; Adebawa, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a project to promote exclusive breastfeeding in rural communities through the training of community health extension workers in rural Nigeria. A workshop for the trainers was organized for health workers in the study area; subsequently, these trainers ran district-level training workshops. In the study area perinatal facilities, early initiation of breastfeeding has increased compared with those in the control area (P < 0.001). Also, the trained health workers had significantly better knowledge about breastfeeding than their untrained colleagues in both the study (P < 0.001) and control areas (P < 0.001), and more often recommended timely initiation and exclusive breastfeeding than the controls (P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that the training programme and the study area were the only significant variables that were predictors of breastfeeding knowledge (P < 0.001). Appropriate education of health extension workers can therefore contribute significantly to the promotion of breastfeeding in rural communities. PMID:9342891

  5. To establish a loan program to promote energy conservation in rural areas.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Holden, Tim [D-PA-17

    2010-09-29

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening in Rural, African American Communities: The "Science and Art" of Community Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.

    1998-01-01

    Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)

  7. Promoting safer sexual practices among young adults: a survey of health workers in Moshi Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngomuo, E T; Klepp, K I; Rise, J; Mnyika, K S

    1995-01-01

    As part of the national effort to prevent further spread of HIV/AIDS, rural health workers in Tanzania are asked to promote safer sex practices among the sexually active population. We conducted a survey among health workers in Moshi Rural District, Kilimanjaro, designed to assess their attitudes, perceived norms and self-efficacy with respect to the promotion of safer sexual practices among young adults 15-35 years old. Health workers at all private and governmental health facilities were included (n = 342; participation rate of 68.4%). We observed relatively strong associations between the frequency and quality of reported counselling behaviour and perceived norms, attitudes and self-efficacy (standardized regression coefficients (beta) of 0.329, 0.252 and 0.159 respectively). In addition, exposure to behaviour change strategies during formal training and marital status of the health workers were associated with counselling behaviour (beta of 0.133 and 0.118 respectively). Overall, these factors accounted for 40.8% of the observed variance in reported counselling behaviour. It is recommended that continued education for health workers focus on providing normative support for promoting safer sex, provide information which may help foster positive attitudes and teach practical counselling skills to further increase the self-efficacy regarding counselling young people. PMID:8547364

  8. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Expression Induced by EGFRvIII Promotes Self-renewal and Tumor Progression of Glioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Park, Gunwoo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Hong, Jun Hee; Kim, Youn-Jae; Jin, Xiong; Kang, Sangjo; Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Yub; Yun, Hyeongsun; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Minkyung; Chung, Junho; Kim, Hyunggee; Nakano, Ichiro; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Yoo, Heon; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Jong Heon; Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Jeongwu; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Park, Jong Bae

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby promoting self-renewal and tumor progression of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Mechanistically, PEDF sustained GSC self-renewal by Notch1 cleavage, and the generated intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) induced the expression of Sox2 through interaction with its promoter region. Furthermore, a subpopulation with high levels of PEDF was capable of infiltration along corpus callosum. Inhibition of PEDF diminished GSC self-renewal and increased survival of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Together, these data indicate the novel role of PEDF as a key regulator of GSC and suggest clinical implications. PMID:25992628

  9. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  10. The relationship between blood pressure and the structures of Pender's health promotion model in rural hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Azadbakht, Leila; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mahaki, Behzad; Mohebi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Perception is the most important predictor of behavior and there is a strong relation and correlation between behavior and believes. Thus, to improve self-care behaviors of patients, it is required to fully understand their perceptions about behavior. This paper aimed to assess the prediction power of health promotion model of systolic blood pressure (SBP) as the result of self-care behavior in rural hypertensive. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been carried out through random multistage sampling on 671 rural patients under the coverage of health center of Ardebil city in 2013. Data were collected through reliable and valid questionnaire based on the health promotion model in eight sectors. For data analysis, Pearson correlation statistical tests, multivariate linear regression, ANOVA and independent t-test were used and for confirmatory factor analysis, SPSS 18 and AMOS 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) were used. Results: The results showed significant negative correlation between self-efficacy, perceived benefits, situational influences, affects related to behavior and commitment to action structures with SBP and showed a positive significant correlation between perceived barriers and SBP. Furthermore, age and body mass had direct significant relation with SBP. The age of patients showed inverse significant correlation with self-efficacy, perceived benefits, affects related to behavior, interpersonal influences and commitment and showed a direct significant correlation with perceived barriers, means that by increase of age, the perceived barriers also increased. The structures of health promotion model have in overall the prediction power of 71.4% of SBP changes. Conclusion: The diet perceptions of patients, the same as health promotion model, has good predictive power of SBP, especially the structures of perceived benefits and self-efficacy have inverse meaningful relation with systole blood pressure and predicted a higher

  11. Urban, Suburban, and Rural: Adolescents' Use and Preferences for Fitness Promotion Technologies across Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mikulec, Erika; Goniu, Natalie; Moreno, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An understanding of adolescents' use of technology across ages and communities could allow for future targeted obesity intervention strategies. Methods. Focus groups of adolescents from rural, suburban, and urban cities in three states were conducted. Focus groups were led by a trained facilitator to explore how participants used technologies and whether they applied them for fitness purposes. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Analysis was conducted by three investigators using an iterative process. Results. Five focus groups included adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years (20 females and 8 males.) Three themes were derived from our data. First, we found age differences regarding technology applied to fitness. Younger participants described technology as a complement to fitness; older participants viewed technology as a motivator for fitness. Second, differences in fitness approaches existed between rural and urban adolescents. Adolescents in rural communities reported focusing on the outdoors for fitness, while urban adolescents relied on fitness-oriented video games. Both rural and urban teens related having a lack of fitness-focused resources in their communities. Conclusions. Our findings indicate differences in adolescents' application of technology for fitness. Despite adolescents' differing uses of technology across communities, a common need exists to expand their resources. PMID:24533221

  12. Promoting Interdistrict Relations: The Preferred Policy Option for Improving Education in Rural Small School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    1988-01-01

    Establishes a rationale for increasing use of interorganizational arrangements among small, rural school districts. Compares two basic forms of interorganizational relations: cooperation and coordination. Identifies several core propositions to guide policy planners and decision-makers when designing cooperative agreements. Includes 34 references.…

  13. 77 FR 71713 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... (form changes). DATES: Effective date: The amendment to Sec. 73.3573, published at 77 FR 32034, May 31..., published at 77 FR 2916, January 20, 2012. The OMB Control Number is 3060-0031. The Commission publishes... Rulemaking (``Rural First R&O'') in MB Docket No. 09-52, FCC 10-24, 25 FCC Rcd 1583 (2010). In the...

  14. Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, K.; Thamizoli, P.; Umar, Abdurrahman; Kanwar, Asha

    2010-01-01

    This article is an attempt to study the role of mobile phones in the non-formal and informal context among rural women from resource poor communities. In particular, it focuses on the women's control over the mobile phone as a learning tool through the domestication of technologies. The distance learning, gender dimensions, and use of technologies…

  15. "School for Life" in Ghana: Promoting Literate Opportunities for Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherris, Arieh; Sulemana, Osama Saaka; Alhassan, Andani; Abudu, Grace; Karim, Abdul-Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural and socio-economic conditions (e.g. subsistence family farming needs) as well as the absence of nearby public schools result in Ghanaian youth, primarily from rural areas, not receiving formal schooling. Because of this, children may never learn to read and write. One solution is a complementary education programme (CEP) that…

  16. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  17. Building Partnerships With Rural Arkansas Faith Communities to Promote Veterans’ Mental Health: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Greer; Hunt, Justin; Haynes, Tiffany F.; Bryant, Keneshia; Cheney, Ann M.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Reaves, Christina; Sullivan, Steve; Lewis, Caleb; Barnes, Bonita; Barnes, Michael; Hudson, Cliff; Jegley, Susan; Larkin, Bridgette; Russell, Shane; White, Penny; Gilmore, LaNissa; Claypoole, Sterling; Smith, Rev. Johnny; Richison, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background The Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program established partnerships between institutional (Department of Veterans’ Affairs [VA] chaplains, mental health providers) and community (local clergy, parishioners) groups to develop programs to assist rural veterans with mental health needs. Objectives Describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program in three Arkansas towns between 2009 and 2012. Methods Researchers identified three rural Arkansas sites, established local advisory boards, and obtained quantitative ratings of the extent to which partnerships were participatory. Results Partnerships seemed to become more participatory over time. Each site developed distinctive programs with variation in fidelity to original program goals. Challenges included developing trust and maintaining racial diversity in local program leadership. Conclusions Academics can partner with local faith communities to create unique programs that benefit the mental health of returning veterans. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of community based programs, especially relative to typical “top-down” outreach approaches. PMID:24859098

  18. Upregulated WDR5 promotes proliferation, self-renewal and chemoresistance in bladder cancer via mediating H3K4 trimethylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Xie, Weibin; Gu, Peng; Cai, Qingqing; Wang, Bo; Xie, Yun; Dong, Wen; He, Wang; Zhong, Guangzheng; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5) plays an important role in various biological functions through the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription; however, its role in bladder cancer remains largely unknown. Our study investigated the role of WDR5 in bladder cancer and demonstrated that WDR5 was upregulated in bladder cancer tissues, and elevated WDR5 protein levels positively correlated with advanced tumor stage and poor survival. Through gain or loss of function, we demonstrated that WDR5 promoted proliferation, self-renewal and chemoresistance to cisplatin in bladder cancer cells in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, WDR5 regulated various functions in bladder cancer by mediating the transcription of cyclin B1, cyclin E1, cyclin E2, UHMK1, MCL1, BIRC3 and Nanog by histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation. Therefore, we have discovered that WDR5 plays an important role in bladder cancer suggesting that WDR5 is a potential biomarker and a promising target in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:25656485

  19. Adapting a Community-Based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Rural, Diverse Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Walker, Ashley; Alfonso, Moya

    2014-01-01

    With school-aged youth spending less time in physical education, school-community-university partnerships offer potential to promote physical activity among school-aged youth. The VERB™ Summer Scorecard (VSS) program was designed in Lexington, Kentucky, to promote physical activity among "tweens" (8- to 13-year-olds). VSS since has been…

  20. Promoting Use of Booster Seats in Rural Areas Through Community Sports Programs

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Mary E.; Miller, Beverly K.; Anderson, Byron L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Monroe, Kathy W.; Daniels, Dawn; O'Neil, Joseph; Scherer, L.R."Tres"; Hafner, John; Mullins, Samantha H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Booster seats reduce mortality and morbidity for young children in car crashes, but use is low, particularly in rural areas. This study targeted rural communities in 4 states using a community sports-based approach. Objective The Strike Out Child Passenger Injury (Strike Out) intervention incorporated education about booster seat use in children ages 4–7 years within instructional baseball programs. We tested the effectiveness of Strike Out in increasing correct restraint use among participating children. Methods Twenty communities with similar demographics from 4 states participated in a non-randomized, controlled trial. Surveys of restraint use were conducted before and after baseball season. Intervention communities received tailored education and parents had direct consultation on booster seat use. Control communities received only brochures. Results 1,014 pre-intervention observation surveys for children ages 4–7 years (Intervention Group (I): N = 511, Control (C): N = 503) and 761 post-intervention surveys (I: N = 409, C: N = 352) were obtained. For 3 of 4 states, the intervention resulted in increases in recommended child restraint use (Alabama +15.5%, Arkansas +16.1%, Illinois +11.0%). Communities in one state (Indiana) did not have a positive response (−9.2%). Overall, unadjusted restraint use increased 10.2% in intervention and 1.7% in control communities (P =.02). After adjustment for each state in the study, booster seat use was increased in intervention communities (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.56, 95% CI (1.16–2.10)). Conclusions A tailored intervention using baseball programs increased appropriate restraint use among targeted rural children overall and in 3 of 4 states studied. Such interventions hold promise for expansion into other sports and populations. PMID:23944283

  1. INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS TO PROMOTE GENDER EQUITY AND FAMILY PLANNING IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF GUATEMALA: RESULTS OF A COMMUNITY RANDOMIZED STUDY.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Nanda, Geeta; Ramírez, Luis F; Chen, Mario

    2015-09-01

    In Guatemala, especially in rural areas, gender norms contribute to high fertility and closely spaced births by discouraging contraceptive use and constraining women from making decisions regarding the timing of their pregnancies and the size of their families. Community workshops for men, women and couples were conducted in 30 rural communities in Guatemala to test the hypothesis that the promotion of gender equity in the context of reproductive health will contribute to gender-equitable attitudes and strengthen the practice of family planning. Communities were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Pre/post surveys were conducted. Odds ratios estimated with mixed effect models to account for community-level randomization and repeated measures per participant were compared. The analyses showed statistically significant effects of the intervention on two of the three outcomes examined: gender attitudes and contraceptive knowledge. Findings regarding contraceptive use were suggestive but not significant. The results suggest that it is possible to influence both inequitable gender norms and reproductive health knowledge and, potentially, behaviours in a short span of time using appropriately designed communications interventions that engage communities in re-thinking the inequitable gender norms that act as barriers to health. PMID:25690416

  2. Promotion of breast feeding in the community: impact of health education programme in rural communities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1996-03-01

    Breast feeding has been recognized as a child survival strategy, while breast feeding programmes have been increasingly implemented in many communities. This study assesses the effectiveness of a breast feeding education programme launched through the primary health care programme in the rural communities of Nigeria. Late trimester pregnant women were enrolled into the study and given a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about breast feeding. Women in the study group (n = 126) received breast feeding counselling before and after delivery, while those in control group (n = 130) did not receive any counselling. Both groups were monitored after delivery and followed with the KAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed marked improvements in the intervention group for colostrum feeding (p = 0.0000). Moreover, 31.6% of the mothers in the intervention group practised timely initiation of breast feeding compared to 5.6% of the controls, and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months was 39.8% in the intervention group compared to 13.9% for the controls. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention was a powerful and the only significant predictor of the increase in breast feeding behaviours (p = 0.0000), and that an early initiation of breast feeding is a strong predictor of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months of age. It is concluded that breast feeding promotion in rural communities is feasible and can lead to behavioural changes. PMID:8708336

  3. A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

  4. NGO-promoted microcredit programs and women's empowerment in rural Bangladesh: quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Amin, R; Becker, S; Bayes, A

    1998-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in rural Bangladesh are reaching out to poor women with collateral-free credit programs aimed at both alleviating poverty and increasing women's status. The present study investigated the hypothesis that participation in credit-related activities by NGO credit members leads to greater empowerment of credit members compared to nonmembers. The sample was comprised of 1164 loanees and 1200 nonloanees from the five NGO areas in Bangladesh and of 1200 nonloanees from non-program areas of rural Bangladesh with no significant NGO presence. NGO credit members had significantly higher scores on all three indices of female empowerment: inter-spouse consultation, autonomy, and authority. Moreover, nonmembers within NGO program areas had higher autonomy and authority scores than nonmembers within the comparison areas. Even after background variables were controlled in the multivariate analysis, NGO credit membership and residence in an NGO program area remained significantly and positively associated with both the autonomy and authority indices. Other variables that exerted a significant positive effect on women's empowerment were concrete or corrugated buildings, area of residence outside the southern or eastern regions, nonagricultural occupation, respondent's education, and age. In focus group discussions, NGO credit loanees reported that the program made them more confident, assertive, intelligent, self-reliant, and aware of their rights. NGO credit programs that target poor women are likely to produce substantial improvements in women's social and economic status, without the long delays associated with education or employment opportunities in the formal sector. PMID:12294125

  5. Wnt/β-catenin and LIF–Stat3 signaling pathways converge on Sp5 to promote mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shoudong; Zhang, Dongming; Cheng, Fei; Wilson, Daniel; Mackay, Jeffrey; He, Kan; Ban, Qian; Lv, Feng; Huang, Saifei; Liu, Dahai; Ying, Qi-Long

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF)–Stat3 or Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal. A myriad of downstream targets have been identified in the individual signal pathways, but their common targets remain largely elusive. In this study, we found that the LIF–Stat3 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways converge on Sp5 to promote mESC self-renewal. Forced Sp5 expression can reproduce partial effects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling but mimics most features of LIF–Stat3 signaling to maintain undifferentiated mESCs. Moreover, Sp5 is able to convert mouse epiblast stem cells into a naïve pluripotent state. Thus, Sp5 is an important component of the regulatory network governing mESC naïve pluripotency. PMID:26598557

  6. Factors that Promote and Inhibit the Academic Achievement of Rural Elementary African American Males in a Mississippi School: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Jones, Linda

    This study investigated factors that promote and inhibit the academic success of elementary African American males in grades 3 through 6 in a rural school in Mississippi. The qualitative study analyzed interview data gathered in 6 face-to-face interviews with 16 African American males over a 3-month period in the 2002-2003 academic year. All…

  7. Are Fruits of Free Normal Education Policy Real or Mythical? "A Critical Appraisal of the Free Teacher Education Policy Meant to Promote Rural Education in China"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Zubing; Mkandawire, Matthews Tiwaone

    2015-01-01

    Since September 2007, the Ministry of Education of China has been implementing a policy called "Free Normal Education" (FNE) for college students majoring in education in normal universities. The central goal for FNE is to promote quality of education by providing rural areas with high quality teachers who are bonded through their…

  8. Urban-Rural Differences in the Effect of a Medicare Health Promotion and Disease Self-Management Program on Physical Function and Health Care Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda; Liebel, Diane; Dixon, Denise; Eggert, Gerald; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent health promotion and disease self-management intervention on physical function and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine if these outcomes vary by urban or rural residence. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from a 22-month randomized controlled trial of a health…

  9. "Cuento" Group Work in Emerging Rural Latino Communities: Promoting Personal-Social Development of Latina/o Middle School Students of Mexican Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalba, Jose A.; Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ohlms, Amanda Bartley

    2010-01-01

    The experiences of Latina/o youth in rural emerging Latino communities are largely absent in the literature. This article proposes the benefits of a "Cuento" group work intervention designed to promote Latina/o student personal-social development. An outline of the group intervention offered to middle school students of Mexican Heritage is…

  10. Renewable energy development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  11. 75 FR 9797 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... procedures, designed to promote ownership and programming diversity, especially by Native American tribes... (computer diskette, large print, audio record, and Braille). Persons with disabilities who need documents in... programming. The Commission also noted its historic trust relationship with Tribes, and the federal...

  12. 76 FR 18942 - Policies To Promote Rural Radio Service and To Streamline Allotment and Assignment Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... (FNPRM) that accompanied the First Report and Order in this proceeding (75 FR 9797, March 4, 2010, FCC 10... rules and procedures, designed to promote ownership and programming diversity, especially by Native... is available in alternative formats (computer diskette, large print, audio record, and...

  13. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  14. LncSox4 promotes the self-renewal of liver tumour-initiating cells through Stat3-mediated Sox4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen-zhen; Huang, Lan; Wu, Ya-hong; Zhai, Wen-jie; Zhu, Ping-ping; Gao, Yan-feng

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer has a tendency to develop asymptomatically in patients, so most patients are diagnosed at a later stage. Accumulating evidence implicates that liver tumour-initiating cells (TICs) as being responsible for liver cancer initiation and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanism of liver TIC self-renewal is poorly understood. Here we discover that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) termed LncSox4 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and in liver TICs. We find that LncSox4 is required for liver TIC self-renewal and tumour initiation. LncSox4 interacts with and recruits Stat3 to the Sox4 promoter to initiate the expression of Sox4, which is highly expressed in liver TICs and required for liver TIC self-renewal. The expression level of Sox4 correlates with HCC development, clinical severity and prognosis of patients. Altogether, we find that LncSox4 is highly expressed in liver TICs and is required for their self-renewal. PMID:27553854

  15. The PI3K-Akt pathway inhibits senescence and promotes self-renewal of human skin-derived precursors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shu; Wang, Xinyue; Zhou, Jiaxi; Cao, Yujing; Wang, Fei; Duan, Enkui

    2011-08-01

    Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are embryonic neural crest- or somite-derived multipotent progenitor cells with properties of dermal stem cells. Although a large number of studies deal with their differentiation ability and potential applications in tissue damage repair, only a few studies have concentrated on the regulation of SKP self-renewal. Here, we found that after separation from their physiological microenvironment, human foreskin-derived SKPs (hSKPs) quickly senesced and lost their self-renewal ability. We observed a sharp decrease in Akt activity during this process, suggesting a possible role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in hSKP maintenance in vitro. Blocking this pathway with several inhibitors inhibited hSKP proliferation and sphere formation and increased hSKP senescence. In contrast, activating this pathway with PDGF-AA and a PTEN inhibitor, bpV(pic), promoted proliferation, improved sphere formation, and alleviated senescence of hSKPs, without altering their differentiation potential. Data also implied that this effect was associated with altered actions of FoxO3 and GSK-3β. Our results suggest an important role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the senescence and self-renewal of hSKPs. These findings also provide a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying hSKP self-renewal and stem cell senescence to allow more efficient expansion of hSKPs for regenerative medical applications. PMID:21418510

  16. LncSox4 promotes the self-renewal of liver tumour-initiating cells through Stat3-mediated Sox4 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Lan; Wu, Ya-Hong; Zhai, Wen-Jie; Zhu, Ping-Ping; Gao, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer has a tendency to develop asymptomatically in patients, so most patients are diagnosed at a later stage. Accumulating evidence implicates that liver tumour-initiating cells (TICs) as being responsible for liver cancer initiation and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanism of liver TIC self-renewal is poorly understood. Here we discover that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) termed LncSox4 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and in liver TICs. We find that LncSox4 is required for liver TIC self-renewal and tumour initiation. LncSox4 interacts with and recruits Stat3 to the Sox4 promoter to initiate the expression of Sox4, which is highly expressed in liver TICs and required for liver TIC self-renewal. The expression level of Sox4 correlates with HCC development, clinical severity and prognosis of patients. Altogether, we find that LncSox4 is highly expressed in liver TICs and is required for their self-renewal. PMID:27553854

  17. Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10–19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19 year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11) statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males) was 13.5 years (SD = 1.4). Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural) of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99). Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56), being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19), feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46) and living with a guardian (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling comfortable being

  18. Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and planning.

  19. What works to improve duration of exclusive breastfeeding: lessons from the exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati; Hadi, Hamam; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Soenarto, Yati S; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify determinants of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at the individual, family, community, and organizational level. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a multilevel promotion of EBF program in two rural public health centers (PHCs) in the Demak district, Central Java, Indonesia. The program was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group. A total of 599 participants were enrolled, consisting of 163 mother infant pairs, 163 fathers, 163 grandmothers, 82 community leaders, and 28 midwives. EBF duration and its determinants were measured and analyzed using Cox proportional-hazard model. Mothers with a high level of breastfeeding knowledge had the greatest EBF duration. Mothers who had a knowledge score >80 had a 73 % (HR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.15, 0.48) greater chance of EBF compared to mothers who had a knowledge score of <60. Factors which shortened EBF duration were grandmother's lack of support for EBF (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.33, 3.14), received formula samples at discharge (HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.25, 3.16), and maternal experience of breast engorgement (HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.94). High maternal breastfeeding knowledge was the only factor associated with longer duration of EBF. Barriers to EBF were breast engorgement, receiving formula samples at discharge, and a grandmother's lack of support for EBF. PMID:25487415

  20. The Drosophila BCL6 homolog Ken and Barbie promotes somatic stem cell self-renewal in the testis niche.

    PubMed

    Issigonis, Melanie; Matunis, Erika

    2012-08-15

    Stem cells sustain tissue regeneration by their remarkable ability to replenish the stem cell pool and to generate differentiating progeny. Signals from local microenvironments, or niches, control stem cell behavior. In the Drosophila testis, a group of somatic support cells called the hub creates a stem cell niche by locally activating the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway in two adjacent types of stem cells: germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we find that ken and barbie (ken) is autonomously required for the self-renewal of CySCs but not GSCs. Furthermore, Ken misexpression in the CySC lineage induces the cell-autonomous self-renewal of somatic cells as well as the nonautonomous self-renewal of germ cells outside the niche. Thus, Ken, like Stat92E and its targets ZFH1 (Leatherman and Dinardo, 2008) and Chinmo (Flaherty et al., 2010), is necessary and sufficient for CySC renewal. However, ken is not a JAK-STAT target in the testis, but instead acts in parallel to Stat92E to ensure CySC self-renewal. Ken represses a subset of Stat92E targets in the embryo (Arbouzova et al., 2006) suggesting that Ken maintains CySCs by repressing differentiation factors. In support of this hypothesis, we find that the global JAK-STAT inhibitor Protein tyrosine phosphatase 61F (Ptp61F) is a JAK-STAT target in the testis that is repressed by Ken. Together, our work demonstrates that Ken has an important role in the inhibition of CySC differentiation. Studies of ken may inform our understanding of its vertebrate orthologue B-Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) and how misregulation of this oncogene leads to human lymphomas. PMID:22580161

  1. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  2. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of

  3. Continual removal of H3K9 promoter methylation by Jmjd2 demethylases is vital for ESC self-renewal and early development.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Kooistra, Susanne Marije; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Laugesen, Anne; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Hayward, Daniel Geoffrey; Nilsson, Jakob; Agger, Karl; Helin, Kristian

    2016-07-15

    Chromatin-associated proteins are essential for the specification and maintenance of cell identity. They exert these functions through modulating and maintaining transcriptional patterns. To elucidate the functions of the Jmjd2 family of H3K9/H3K36 histone demethylases, we generated conditional Jmjd2a/Kdm4a, Jmjd2b/Kdm4b and Jmjd2c/Kdm4c/Gasc1 single, double and triple knockout mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We report that while individual Jmjd2 family members are dispensable for ESC maintenance and embryogenesis, combined deficiency for specifically Jmjd2a and Jmjd2c leads to early embryonic lethality and impaired ESC self-renewal, with spontaneous differentiation towards primitive endoderm under permissive culture conditions. We further show that Jmjd2a and Jmjd2c both localize to H3K4me3-positive promoters, where they have widespread and redundant roles in preventing accumulation of H3K9me3 and H3K36me3. Jmjd2 catalytic activity is required for ESC maintenance, and increased H3K9me3 levels in knockout ESCs compromise the expression of several Jmjd2a/c targets, including genes that are important for ESC self-renewal. Thus, continual removal of H3K9 promoter methylation by Jmjd2 demethylases represents a novel mechanism ensuring transcriptional competence and stability of the pluripotent cell identity. PMID:27266524

  4. KDM5B focuses H3K4 methylation near promoters and enhancers during embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells is controlled in part by chromatin-modifying factors that regulate histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation. However, it remains unclear how H3K4 demethylation contributes to ES cell function. Results Here, we show that KDM5B, which demethylates lysine 4 of histone H3, co-localizes with H3K4me3 near promoters and enhancers of active genes in ES cells; its depletion leads to spreading of H3K4 methylation into gene bodies and enhancer shores, indicating that KDM5B functions to focus H3K4 methylation at promoters and enhancers. Spreading of H3K4 methylation to gene bodies and enhancer shores is linked to defects in gene expression programs and enhancer activity, respectively, during self-renewal and differentiation of KDM5B-depleted ES cells. KDM5B critically regulates H3K4 methylation at bivalent genes during differentiation in the absence of LIF or Oct4. We also show that KDM5B and LSD1, another H3K4 demethylase, co-regulate H3K4 methylation at active promoters but they retain distinct roles in demethylating gene body regions and bivalent genes. Conclusions Our results provide global and functional insight into the role of KDM5B in regulating H3K4 methylation marks near promoters, gene bodies, and enhancers in ES cells and during differentiation. PMID:24495580

  5. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yongyan; Ai, Zhiying; Yao, Kezhen; Cao, Lixia; Du, Juan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-10-15

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely in vitro and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. These unique properties make them exceptionally valuable for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the practical application of ESCs is limited because it is difficult to derive and culture ESCs. It has been demonstrated that CHIR99021 (CHIR) promotes self-renewal and enhances the derivation efficiency of mouse (m)ESCs. However, the downstream targets of CHIR are not fully understood. In this study, we identified CHIR-regulated genes in mESCs using microarray analysis. Our microarray data demonstrated that CHIR not only influenced the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by stabilizing β-catenin, but also modulated several other pluripotency-related signaling pathways such as TGF-β, Notch and MAPK signaling pathways. More detailed analysis demonstrated that CHIR inhibited Nodal signaling, while activating bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mESCs. In addition, we found that pluripotency-maintaining transcription factors were up-regulated by CHIR, while several developmental-related genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that CHIR altered the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, suggesting that CHIR alters the expression pattern of protein-encoding genes (especially transcription factors), epigenetic regulatory genes and non-coding RNAs to establish a relatively stable pluripotency-maintaining network. - Highlights: • Combined use of CHIR with LIF promotes self-renewal of J1 mESCs. • CHIR-regulated genes are involved in multiple pathways. • CHIR inhibits Nodal signaling and promotes Bmp4 expression to activate BMP signaling. • Expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and lincRNAs is altered by CHIR.

  6. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  7. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  8. EGFR signaling promotes self-renewal through the establishment of cell polarity in Drosophila follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Castanieto, Angela; Johnston, Michael J; Nystul, Todd G

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells divide asymmetrically, such that one daughter replenishes the stem cell pool and the other differentiates. We found that, in the epithelial follicle stem cell (FSC) lineage of the Drosophila ovary, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling functions specifically in the FSCs to promote the unique partially polarized state of the FSC, establish apical-basal polarity throughout the lineage, and promote FSC maintenance in the niche. In addition, we identified a novel connection between EGFR signaling and the cell-polarity regulator liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which indicates that EGFR signals through both the Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk pathway and through the LKB1-AMPK pathway to suppress apical identity. The development of apical-basal polarity is the earliest visible difference between FSCs and their daughters, and our findings demonstrate that the EGFR-mediated regulation of apical-basal polarity is essential for the segregation of stem cell and daughter cell fates. PMID:25437306

  9. Does China's new cooperative medical scheme promote rural elders' access to healthcare services in relation to chronic conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Baozhen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined use of healthcare services by elderly people with a long-term condition living in rural China and participating in that country's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS). Methods Data were taken from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The study results showed that education level and annual income were low among rural elders (aged ≥65 years); the illiteracy rate was 58.0% (200/345) and 67.6% (92/136) had an annual income of less than 5000 Chinese yuan renminbi. The elders had low rates of treatment and use of preventive healthcare services while the prevalence of chronic disease was highest among them when compared to other age groups. Among the few elders who received preventive healthcare, most received it at village clinics. Conclusions Preventive healthcare services and chronic disease management are urgently needed by rural elders in China. NCMS should initiate payments to township health centers to enable them to undertake community outreach and education campaigns among rural residents, and train village doctors in standard chronic condition management and prevention, with prioritization of the provision of prevention and management of chronic conditions by village clinics. PMID:25091022

  10. Implementation of a 12-month community-based walking program to promote health in a rural, high risk, minority population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a rural walking program led by local community members, who served as walking group leaders. For the study, 39 participants (98% female; 54% elderly; community population 1,395) were recruited. Measurements included height, w...

  11. Designing a culturally sensitive intervention promoting nutrition and physical activity in a selected population in rural Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural African American children are experiencing a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Formative research guided the design of a culturally sensitive intervention that would assist families in the Lower Mississippi Delta in adopting eating and physical activity patterns consistent with the Di...

  12. Planning of a Community-Based Approach to Injury Control and Safety Promotion in a Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Colleen; Oldenburg, Brian; O'Hara, Lily

    2001-01-01

    The planning of a community-based accident prevention program in a rural Queensland (Australia) community is described. The process involved the establishment of a local steering committee, data collection, presentation of findings, determination of priorities, review of the evidence, description of target group, exploration of problem and…

  13. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Referent Specific Social Support in Promoting Rural Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Forlaw, Loretta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of social support (SS) and self-efficacy (SE) for physical activity (PA) in rural high school girls (N = 259, 15.5+1.2yrs). Methods: Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among PA, SS for PA from mother, father, and peers, and SE for overcoming barriers, seeking support, and resisting competing…

  14. EGFR signaling promotes self-renewal through the establishment of cell polarity in Drosophila follicle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Castanieto, Angela; Johnston, Michael J; Nystul, Todd G

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells divide asymmetrically, such that one daughter replenishes the stem cell pool and the other differentiates. We found that, in the epithelial follicle stem cell (FSC) lineage of the Drosophila ovary, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling functions specifically in the FSCs to promote the unique partially polarized state of the FSC, establish apical–basal polarity throughout the lineage, and promote FSC maintenance in the niche. In addition, we identified a novel connection between EGFR signaling and the cell-polarity regulator liver kinase B1 (LKB1), which indicates that EGFR signals through both the Ras–Raf–MEK–Erk pathway and through the LKB1–AMPK pathway to suppress apical identity. The development of apical–basal polarity is the earliest visible difference between FSCs and their daughters, and our findings demonstrate that the EGFR-mediated regulation of apical–basal polarity is essential for the segregation of stem cell and daughter cell fates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04437.001 PMID:25437306

  15. Structure-based discovery of NANOG variant with enhanced properties to promote self-renewal and reprogramming of pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yohei; Caboni, Laura; Das, Debanu; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Nguyen, Phuong; Farr, Carol L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Tomoda, Kiichiro; Conklin, Bruce R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    NANOG (from Irish mythology Tír na nÓg) transcription factor plays a central role in maintaining pluripotency, cooperating with OCT4 (also known as POU5F1 or OCT3/4), SOX2, and other pluripotency factors. Although the physiological roles of the NANOG protein have been extensively explored, biochemical and biophysical properties in relation to its structural analysis are poorly understood. Here we determined the crystal structure of the human NANOG homeodomain (hNANOG HD) bound to an OCT4 promoter DNA, which revealed amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition that are likely to be functionally important. We generated a series of hNANOG HD alanine substitution mutants based on the protein–DNA interaction and evolutionary conservation and determined their biological activities. Some mutant proteins were less stable, resulting in loss or decreased affinity for DNA binding. Overexpression of the orthologous mouse NANOG (mNANOG) mutants failed to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells without leukemia inhibitory factor. These results suggest that these residues are critical for NANOG transcriptional activity. Interestingly, one mutant, hNANOG L122A, conversely enhanced protein stability and DNA-binding affinity. The mNANOG L122A, when overexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, maintained their expression of self-renewal markers even when retinoic acid was added to forcibly drive differentiation. When overexpressed in epiblast stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, the L122A mutants enhanced reprogramming into ground-state pluripotency. These findings demonstrate that structural and biophysical information on key transcriptional factors provides insights into the manipulation of stem cell behaviors and a framework for rational protein engineering. PMID:25825768

  16. Structure-based discovery of NANOG variant with enhanced properties to promote self-renewal and reprogramming of pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yohei; Caboni, Laura; Das, Debanu; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C; Nguyen, Phuong; Farr, Carol L; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Miller, Mitchell D; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Tomoda, Kiichiro; Conklin, Bruce R; Wilson, Ian A; Yamanaka, Shinya; Fletterick, Robert J

    2015-04-14

    NANOG (from Irish mythology Tír na nÓg) transcription factor plays a central role in maintaining pluripotency, cooperating with OCT4 (also known as POU5F1 or OCT3/4), SOX2, and other pluripotency factors. Although the physiological roles of the NANOG protein have been extensively explored, biochemical and biophysical properties in relation to its structural analysis are poorly understood. Here we determined the crystal structure of the human NANOG homeodomain (hNANOG HD) bound to an OCT4 promoter DNA, which revealed amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition that are likely to be functionally important. We generated a series of hNANOG HD alanine substitution mutants based on the protein-DNA interaction and evolutionary conservation and determined their biological activities. Some mutant proteins were less stable, resulting in loss or decreased affinity for DNA binding. Overexpression of the orthologous mouse NANOG (mNANOG) mutants failed to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells without leukemia inhibitory factor. These results suggest that these residues are critical for NANOG transcriptional activity. Interestingly, one mutant, hNANOG L122A, conversely enhanced protein stability and DNA-binding affinity. The mNANOG L122A, when overexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, maintained their expression of self-renewal markers even when retinoic acid was added to forcibly drive differentiation. When overexpressed in epiblast stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, the L122A mutants enhanced reprogramming into ground-state pluripotency. These findings demonstrate that structural and biophysical information on key transcriptional factors provides insights into the manipulation of stem cell behaviors and a framework for rational protein engineering. PMID:25825768

  17. Structure-based discovery of NANOG variant with enhanced properties to promote self-renewal and reprogramming of pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Yohei; Caboni, Laura; Das, Debanu; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Nguyen, Phuong; Farr, Carol L.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc -André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Tomoda, Kiichiro; Conklin, Bruce R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    NANOG (from Irish mythology Tír na nÓg) transcription factor plays a central role in maintaining pluripotency, cooperating with OCT4 (also known as POU5F1 or OCT3/4), SOX2, and other pluripotency factors. Although the physiological roles of the NANOG protein have been extensively explored, biochemical and biophysical properties in relation to its structural analysis are poorly understood. Here we determined the crystal structure of the human NANOG homeodomain (hNANOG HD) bound to an OCT4 promoter DNA, which revealed amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition that are likely to be functionally important. We generated a series of hNANOG HD alanine substitution mutants based on the protein–DNA interaction and evolutionary conservation and determined their biological activities. Some mutant proteins were less stable, resulting in loss or decreased affinity for DNA binding. Overexpression of the orthologous mouse NANOG (mNANOG) mutants failed to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells without leukemia inhibitory factor. These results suggest that these residues are critical for NANOG transcriptional activity. Interestingly, one mutant, hNANOG L122A, conversely enhanced protein stability and DNA-binding affinity. The mNANOG L122A, when overexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, maintained their expression of self-renewal markers even when retinoic acid was added to forcibly drive differentiation. When overexpressed in epiblast stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, the L122A mutants enhanced reprogramming into ground-state pluripotency. These findings indicate that structural and biophysical information on key transcriptional factors provides insights into the manipulation of stem cell behaviors and a framework for rational protein engineering.

  18. Structure-based discovery of NANOG variant with enhanced properties to promote self-renewal and reprogramming of pluripotent stem cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hayashi, Yohei; Caboni, Laura; Das, Debanu; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Nguyen, Phuong; Farr, Carol L.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Miller, Mitchell D.; et al

    2015-03-30

    NANOG (from Irish mythology Tír na nÓg) transcription factor plays a central role in maintaining pluripotency, cooperating with OCT4 (also known as POU5F1 or OCT3/4), SOX2, and other pluripotency factors. Although the physiological roles of the NANOG protein have been extensively explored, biochemical and biophysical properties in relation to its structural analysis are poorly understood. Here we determined the crystal structure of the human NANOG homeodomain (hNANOG HD) bound to an OCT4 promoter DNA, which revealed amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition that are likely to be functionally important. We generated a series of hNANOG HD alanine substitution mutantsmore » based on the protein–DNA interaction and evolutionary conservation and determined their biological activities. Some mutant proteins were less stable, resulting in loss or decreased affinity for DNA binding. Overexpression of the orthologous mouse NANOG (mNANOG) mutants failed to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells without leukemia inhibitory factor. These results suggest that these residues are critical for NANOG transcriptional activity. Interestingly, one mutant, hNANOG L122A, conversely enhanced protein stability and DNA-binding affinity. The mNANOG L122A, when overexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, maintained their expression of self-renewal markers even when retinoic acid was added to forcibly drive differentiation. When overexpressed in epiblast stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, the L122A mutants enhanced reprogramming into ground-state pluripotency. These findings indicate that structural and biophysical information on key transcriptional factors provides insights into the manipulation of stem cell behaviors and a framework for rational protein engineering.« less

  19. Place-Conscious Capacity-Building: A Systemic Model for the Revitalisation and Renewal of Rural Schools and Communities through University-Based Regional Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Thompson, Aaron; Naugle, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets forth a model of regional stewardship developed and implemented at a post-compulsory institution serving rural communities in central Appalachia, a region that is among the most impoverished in the United States. The model, termed place-conscious capacity-building, emphasises culturally-responsive methodologies and the strategic…

  20. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  1. ANXA3/JNK Signaling Promotes Self-Renewal and Tumor Growth, and Its Blockade Provides a Therapeutic Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Man; Fung, Tsun-Ming; Luk, Steve T.; Ng, Kai-Yu; Lee, Terence K.; Lin, Chi-Ho; Yam, Judy W.; Chan, Kwok Wah; Ng, Fai; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Xie, Dan; Lo, Chung-Mau; Man, Kwan; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Ma, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Summary Frequent tumor relapse in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been commonly attributed to the presence of residual cancer stem cells (CSCs) after conventional treatments. We have previously identified and characterized CD133 to mark a specific CSC subset in HCC. In the present study, we found endogenous and secretory annexin A3 (ANXA3) to play pivotal roles in promoting cancer and stem cell-like features in CD133+ liver CSCs through a dysregulated JNK pathway. Blockade of ANXA3 with an anti-ANXA3 monoclonal antibody in vitro as well as in human HCC xenograft models resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth and self-renewal. Clinically, ANXA3 expression in HCC patient sera closely associated with aggressive clinical features. Our results suggest that ANXA3 can serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker and that the inhibition of ANXA3 may be a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of CD133+ liver-CSC-driven HCC. PMID:26095609

  2. Targeted Knockdown of RNA-Binding Protein TIAR for Promoting Self-Renewal and Attenuating Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhe; Li, Ping; Tan, Li; Song, Houyan

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding protein TIAR has been suggested to mediate the translational silencing of ARE-containing mRNAs. To analyze the functions of TIAR, we established RNAi and genetic rescue assays. We evaluated the expression of neuroectoderm markers Pax6 and nestin, mesoderm markers brachyury and Flk1, and hypoblast and definitive endoderm markers Sox17 and Gata6 during EB differentiation and found that knockdown TIAR expression restrained the differentiation of E14 cells. We assessed gene expression levels of Flk-1 and VE-cadherin and observed attenuated differentiation of E14 cells into endothelial cells upon downregulation of TIAR gene expression. As such, we hypothesized an essential role of TIAR related to EB differentiation. As TIAR inhibits the translation of c-myc, we proposed that downregulation of TIAR results in restrained differentiation of E14 cells, due in part to the function of c-myc. We found that TIAR inhibited c-myc expression at the translational level in E14 cells; accordingly, a reduction of TIAR expression promoted self-renewal of pluripotent cells and attenuated differentiation. Additionally, we established that TIAR inhibited TIA-1 expression at the translational level in E14 cells. Taken together, we have contributed to the understanding of the regulatory relationships between TIAR and both c-myc and TIA-1. PMID:25918534

  3. The Western Aspect of Renewed Nonmetropolitan Population Growth in the United States. Special Report for The Western Rural Development Center, Oregon State University, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.

    U.S. Census data (1970-74) comparing population trends in the West were analyzed in reference to the recent urban to rural migration patterns exemplified by a total U.S. metropolitan population growth of 3.4 percent vs a nonmetropolitan growth of 5.6 percent (1970-74). In the West it was found that: (1) population increased 6.9 percent with…

  4. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs for the promotion of health care delivery, education, and health information services through telehealth technologies.   Rural Health Research Programs Learn more about FORHP research ...

  5. Renewable energy opportunities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William L.; Simon Tsuo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid growth in economic development coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of rural China have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and the rural countryside. Electric capacity expansion plans call for increased use of coal-fired steam turbines for electricity production that will contribute to increased concerns over environmental pollution. China is rich in renewable energy resources, strategically located in areas of greatest need and economic viability. China is also already one of the world's largest users of renewables, especially hydro, wind, biomass, and solar thermal, and has significant experience with photovoltaics, geothermal and other technologies. The use of renewable energy is being encouraged in expanded programs at the central and provincial government levels, with growing private sector involvement. These conditions create opportunities for U.S. business participation in renewable energy markets in China.

  6. An evaluation of the role of email in promoting science investigative skills in primary rural schools in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Tina; Hargreaves, Linda; Comber, Chris

    1997-06-01

    This project evaluated the effect of collaboration via email links on the quality of 10-11 year old students’ science investigative skills in six primary rural schools. After a joint planning meeting, sixty children collected, identified and shared information via email about moths in their area, in order to produce a joint booklet. All email traffic was monitored throughout the project. Indepth structured observations and interviews were carried out at the schools. Children completed daily diaries. The children demonstrated a variety of science skills, particularly observation and recording. Their competence and confidence in using computers, handling email and in manipulating a data base developed during the project. The project identified a number of important issues relating to teacher inservice training requirements, the importance of a suitable progression of IT experiences throughout the school, development in cooperative groupwork for children, and software design.

  7. Financing renewable energy for Village Power application

    SciTech Connect

    Santibanez-Yeneza, G.

    1997-12-01

    When one talks of rural development, no doubt, the issue of rural energy is not far behind. As a significant component of any development strategy, rural energy is seen as the engine for growth that can bring about economic upliftment in the countryside. Many approaches to rural energy development have been tried. These approaches differ from country to country. But regardless of structure and approach, the goal remain essentially the same: to provide rural communities access to reliable energy services at affordable prices. In recent years, as global concern for the environment has increased, many governments have turned to renewable energy as a more environment friendly alternative to rural electrification. Technological advances in renewable energy application has helped to encourage this use. System reliability has improved, development costs have, to some extent been brought down and varied application approaches have been tried and tested in many areas. Indeed, there is huge potential for the development of renewable energy in the rural areas of most developing countries. At the rural level, renewable energy resources are almost always abundantly available: woodwaste, agricultural residues, animal waste, small-scale hydro, wind, solar and even sometimes geothermal resources. Since smaller scale systems are usually expected in these areas, renewable energy technologies can very well serve as decentralized energy systems for rural application. And not only for rural applications, new expansion planning paradigms have likewise led to the emergence of decentralized energy systems not only as supply options but also as corrective measures for maintaining end of line voltage levels. On the other hand, where renewable energy resource can provide significant blocks of power, they can be relied upon to provide indigenous power to the grids.

  8. Collinsville Renewable Energy Promotion Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-04-04

    06/23/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-129. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Collinsville Renewable Energy Promotion Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Murphy, Christopher S. [D-CT-5

    2012-05-08

    06/27/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Striving to promote male involvement in maternal health care in rural and urban settings in Malawi - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the strategies that health care providers employ in order to invite men to participate in maternal health care is very vital especially in today's dynamic cultural environment. Effective utilization of such strategies is dependent on uncovering the salient issues that facilitate male participation in maternal health care. This paper examines and describes the strategies that were used by different health care facilities to invite husbands to participate in maternal health care in rural and urban settings of southern Malawi. Methods The data was collected through in-depth interviews from sixteen of the twenty health care providers from five different health facilities in rural and urban settings of Malawi. The health facilities comprised two health centres, one district hospital, one mission hospital, one private hospital and one central hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data from health care providers with the aim of understanding strategies they used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. Results Four main strategies were used to invite men to participate in maternal health care. The strategies were; health care provider initiative, partner notification, couple initiative and community mobilization. The health care provider initiative and partner notification were at health facility level, while the couple initiative was at family level and community mobilization was at village (community) level. The community mobilization had three sub-themes namely; male peer initiative, use of incentives and community sensitization. The sustainability of each strategy to significantly influence behaviour change for male participation in maternal health care is discussed. Conclusion Strategies to invite men to participate in maternal health care were at health facility, family and community levels. The couple strategy was most appropriate but was mostly used by educated and city residents. The male peer

  11. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELF-CARE BEHAVIORS AND SELF-ESTEEM OF RURAL ELDERLIES; NECESSITY OF HEALTH PROMOTION

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Mirani, Hesam; Jouybari, Sina Sabourian; Nasiri, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in the modern medical science caused significant reduction of mortality and every day increase of the elderly in the world. According to prevalence of physical and mental problems in elderly, it is necessary to take some actions. Self care in one of the best way to improve elderly health and life satisfaction that seems have a relation to self-esteem. Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was performed on 180 elderly in rural areas of the Sari city. Elderly selected by multi-stage randomize sampling method. Data were gathered by using standard questionnaires of self-care and Rosenberg self-esteem. Data were analyzed by Spearman and Pearson’s correlation using SPSS software (V16). Findings: The mean±SD of the ages of the elderly were 66.85±7.661. The score of self-care varies between 99 to 155 and most of them (66.7%) had good level of self-care. Also, most of elderly (52.2%) had high level of self-esteem. Also there was a significant relationship, between self-care and self-esteem (P<0.001, r=0.426). Conclusion: According to significant relationship between self-care and self-esteem of elderly, by the planning for improving the self care of elderly, can increase their health and significantly reduce from physical and mental complications. PMID:27047266

  12. Are schools a good setting for adolescent sexual health promotion in rural Africa? A qualitative assessment from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Mary L; Wight, D; Wamoyi, J; Nyalali, K; Ingall, T; Mshana, G; Shigongo, Z S; Obasi, A I N; Ross, D A

    2007-08-01

    African adolescents are at high risk of poor sexual health. School-based interventions could reach many adolescents in a sustainable and replicable way, if enrolment, funding and infrastructure are adequate. This study examined pupils', recent school leavers', parents' and teachers' views and experiences of rural Tanzanian primary schools, focusing on the implications for potential sexual health programmes. From 1999 to 2002, participant observation was conducted in nine villages for 158 person-weeks. Half of Year 7 pupils were 15-17 years old, and few went on to secondary school, suggesting that primary schools may be a good venue for such programmes. However, serious challenges include low enrolment and attendance rates, limited teacher training, little access to teaching resources and official and unofficial practices that may alienate pupils and their parents, e.g. corporal punishment, pupils being made to do unpaid work, forced pregnancy examinations, and some teachers' alcohol or sexual abuse. At a national level, improved teacher training and supervision are critical, as well as policies that better prevent, identify and correct undesired practices. At a programme level, intervention developers need to simplify the subject matter, introduce alternative teaching methods, help improve teacher-pupil and teacher-community relationships, and closely supervise and appropriately respond to undesired practices. PMID:17018766

  13. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  14. Using lay counsellors to promote community-based voluntary counselling and HIV testing in rural northern Ghana: a baseline survey on community acceptance and stigma.

    PubMed

    Baiden, F; Akanlu, G; Hodgson, A; Akweongo, P; Debpuur, C; Binka, F

    2007-09-01

    Access to voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT) remains limited in most parts of Ghana with rural populations being the least served. Services remain facility-based and employ the use of an ever-dwindling number of health workers as counsellors. This study assessed approval for the use of lay counsellors to promote community-based voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and the extent of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the Kassena-Nankana district of rural northern Ghana. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the tendency to stigmatize people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Focus group discussions were held and analytical coding of the data performed. The majority (91.1%) of the 403 respondents indicated a desire to know their HIV status. Most (88.1%) respondents considered locations outside of the health facility as preferred places for VCT. The majority (98.7%) of respondents approved the use of lay counsellors. About a quarter (24%) of respondents believed that it was possible to acquire HIV through sharing a drinking cup with a PLWHA. About half (52.1%) of the respondents considered that a teacher with HIV/AIDS should not be allowed to teach, while 77.2% would not buy vegetables from a PLWHA. Respondents who believed that sharing a drinking cup with a PLWHA could transmit HIV infection (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.52-4.11) and respondents without formal education (OR 2.94, 95%CI 1.38-6.27) were more likely to stigmatize PLWHAs. In contrast, respondents with knowledge of the availability of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs were less likely to do so (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.22-0.73). Findings from the thirteen focus group discussions reinforced approval for community-based VCT and lay counsellors but revealed concerns about stigma and confidentiality. In conclusion, community-based VCT and the use of lay counsellors may be acceptable options for promoting access. Interventional studies are required to assess

  15. WB/GEF Renewable Energy Development Project: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Fact sheet describes China's Renewable Energy Development Project to supply electricity to rural households and institutions with wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). World Bank and Global Environmental Facility fund the project.

  16. Renewables for sustainable village power

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

  17. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  18. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  19. Bolivia renewable energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  20. A College-School Connection to Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Bonnie

    The National Network for Educational Renewal (NNER) consists of higher education institutions and partner K-12 schools promoting simultaneous renewal of teacher education and K-12 schools. The network helps renew teacher education by preparing educators who will: (1) provide all students with equitable opportunities for becoming educated,…

  1. Rural trauma management.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R

    1989-05-01

    Rural trauma is a major problem in the United States. Up to 70 percent of trauma fatalities occur in rural areas, even though 70 percent of the population live in urban areas. Over the past 3 decades, numerous studies have defined the concept of preventable trauma death in both rural and urban populations. With the development of a regional trauma care system in Oregon, preventable trauma mortality should decrease. An effort was made to improve the quality of trauma care in Clatsop County, Oregon, a community of 30,000 people with 2 small rural hospitals. To obtain this goal, four steps were taken: (1) physician and nurse education was improved, (2) trauma protocols promoting prompt resuscitation and stabilization of patients were established, (3) regular trauma case reviews were conducted, and (4) emergency medical technician and prehospital management were coordinated. This study reviews the trail from sporadic, uncoordinated rural trauma care to the designation process. PMID:2712202

  2. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  3. Perfect the System, Increase Input, and Promote a More Equitable Education: Thoughts after the Implementation of the New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingping, Hu

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Chinese government conducted, in the western provinces and a few central provinces, a reform that exempted all rural compulsory education stage students from tuition and miscellaneous fees, in accordance with the measures for implementing the New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education (hereafter "New Mechanism").…

  4. [Institutional Renewal].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The theme of this journal issue is "Institutional Renewal." Projects designed to address the issues of the 1980s at 18 colleges are described, and 15 definitions of institutional renewal are presented. Participating colleges were provided expert advice through the Association of American College's (AAC) Project Lodestar (renamed Consultation and…

  5. Challenges measuring cardiomyocyte renewal

    PubMed Central

    Soonpaa, Mark H.; Rubart, Michael; Field, Loren J.

    2012-01-01

    Interventions to effect therapeutic cardiomyocyte renewal have received considerable interest of late. Such interventions, if successful, could give rise to myocardial regeneration in diseased hearts. Regenerative interventions fall into two broad categories, namely approaches based on promoting renewal of pre-existing cardiomyocytes and approaches based on cardiomyogenic stem cell activity. The latter category can be further subdivided into approaches promoting differentiation of endogenous cardiomyogenic stem cells, approaches wherein cardiomyogenic stem cells are harvested, amplified or enriched ex vivo, and subsequently engrafted into the heart, and approaches wherein an exogenous stem cell is induced to differentiate in vitro, and the resulting cardiomyocytes are engrafted into the heart. There is disagreement in the literature regarding the degree to which cardiomyocyte renewal occurs in the normal and injured heart, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs, and the degree to which therapeutic interventions can enhance regenerative growth. This review discusses several caveats which are encountered when attempting to measure cardiomyocyte renewal in vivo which likely contribute, at least in part, to the disagreement regarding the levels at which this occurs in normal, injured and treated hearts. PMID:23142641

  6. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  7. Harnessing the sun for development: actions for consideration by the international community at the UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy for promoting the use of renewable energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The technical and economic evidence is reviewed for solar industrial process heat, highlighting the fact that financial parameters such as tax credits and depreciation allowance play a very large role in determining the economic competitiveness of solar investments. An analysis of the energy (and oil) consumed in providing industrial process heat in a number of selected developing countries is presented. Solar industrial process heat technology is discussed including the operating experience of several demonstration plants in the US Solar ponds are also described briefly. Financial and economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems under different assumptions on future oil prices and various financial parameters is described. Financial analyses are summarized for a solar industrial process heat retrofit of a brewery in Zimbabwe and a high efficiency system operating in financial conditions typical of the US and a number of other industrialized nations. A set of recommended policy actions for countries wishing to enhance the commercial feasibility of renewable energy technologies in the commercial/industrial sector is presented. Various barriers and remedies to development of solar process heat are discussed including the potential role of international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the regional development banks. The issues of test and certification procedures for solar equipment, establishment of standards, and the training of personnel are analyzed. (LEW)

  8. Harnessing the Sun for development: Actions for consideration by the international community at the UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy for promoting the use of renewable energy in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhirad, D. J.; Mubayi, V.; Weingart, J.

    1981-08-01

    The technical and economic evidence is reviewed for solar industrial process heat, highlighting the fact that financial parameters such as tax credits and depreciation allowance play a very large role in determining the economic competitiveness of solar investments. An analysis of the energy (and oil) consumed in providing industrial process heat in a number of selected developing countries is presented. Solar industrial process heat technology is discussed including the operating experience of several demonstration plants in the US Solar ponds are also described briefly. A financial and economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems under different assumptions on future oil prices and various financial parameters is given. Financial analyses are summarized for a solar industrial process heat retrofit of a brewery in Zimbabwe and a high efficiency system operating in financial conditions typical of the US and a number of other industrialized nations. A set of recommended policy actions for countries wishing to enhance the commercial feasibility of renewable energy technologies in the commercial and industrial sections is presented.

  9. An Agenda for Studying Rural School Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Smith, Charles R.

    Researchers and other persons interested in promoting research about rural school busing met in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1998. Drawing on that meeting and the rural school literature, this report describes why school transportation is an important issue nationwide, explains the lack of research on rural school busing, proposes a research…

  10. Tunisia Renewable Energy Project systems description report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, L. R.; Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979, the Agency for International Development (AID) initiated a renewable energy project with the Government of Tunisia to develop an institutional capability to plan and institute renewable energy technologies in a rural area. The specific objective of the district energy applications subproject was to demonstrate solar and wind energy systems in a rural village setting. The NASA Lewis Research Center was asked by the AID Near East Bureau to manage and implement this subproject. This report describes the project and gives detailed desciptions of the various systems.

  11. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  12. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity. PMID:26223935

  13. Making use of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes renewable energy projects proposed for the rural areas of developing countries. Topics considered include biogas generation in Zimbabwe, biogas technology for water pumping in Botswana, soil fertility and energy problems in rural development in the Zaire rain forest, international scientific collaboration on biogas technologies for rural development, alcohol from biomass, an ethanol project in Zimbabwe, biomass alcohol and the fuel-food issue, solar water heating in Zimbabwe, absorbent box solar cookers, solar crop drying in Zimbabwe, the use of passive solar energy in Botswana buildings, the potential of mini hydro systems, woodfuel as a potential renewable energy source, small-scale afforestation for domestic needs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe, muscle power, the use of human energy in construction, hand-operated water pumps, animal power for water pumping in Botswana, the production of charcoal in Zambia, improving the efficiency of a traditional charcoal-burning Burmese cooking stove, social impacts, non-engineering constraints affecting energy use in a rural area, women and energy, and non-technical factors influencing the establishment of fuels-from-crops industries in developing countries.

  14. Educational Renewal in Rural South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangohr, Mary

    2000-01-01

    At Howard High School (Miner County, South Dakota), educational reform focuses on student understanding of community history, economics, and government; entrepreneurship; sustainability of agriculture, environment, and community; and democratic values. The school aims to nurture community and give students the option of staying in the community.…

  15. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  16. Renewing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1997-01-01

    This publication reviews works on educational reform that represent attempts to do more than merely respond in knee-jerk fashion to political pressure for reform. Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun, in "Learning Experiences in School Renewal: An Exploration of Five Successful Programs" (Eugene, Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management,…

  17. Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  18. Rural Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckley, Betty; Hitchings, Jim

    1971-01-01

    A course in rural studies, as part of the Home Economics curriculum at Worcester College of Education, provides students with the opportunity to grow their own vegetables and flowers, look after livestock, and experience a rural environment. (RY)

  19. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  20. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

  1. [Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on rural education focuses on the unique characteristics and problems of rural schools, and discusses how the "top down" and "one size fits all" nature of the last decade of reforms has not taken these into account. To better address the situation of rural and small schools, various strategies are offered that involve distance…

  2. One Department Serving Rural America: HHS Rural Task Force Report to the Secretary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    In 2001, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) created a rural task force to develop strategies to improve HHS services in rural communities. Fifteen HHS agencies have programs serving rural communities; child- and education-related programs provide child welfare services, Head Start, health promotion and prevention services, training…

  3. AurkA controls self-renewal of breast cancer-initiating cells promoting wnt3a stabilization through suppression of miR-128

    PubMed Central

    Eterno, V.; Zambelli, A.; Villani, L.; Tuscano, A.; Manera, S.; Spitaleri, A.; Pavesi, L.; Amato, A.

    2016-01-01

    AurkA overexpression was previously found in breast cancer and associated to its ability in controlling chromosome segregation during mitosis, however whether it may affect breast cancer cells, endorsed with stem properties (BCICs), is still unclear. Surprisingly, a strong correlation between AurkA expression and β-catenin localization in breast cancer tissues suggested a link between AurkA and Wnt signaling. In our study, AurkA knock-down reduced wnt3a mRNA and suppressed metastatic signature of MDA-MB-231 cells. As a consequence, the amount of BCICs and their migratory capability dramatically decreased. Conversely, wnt3a mRNA stabilization and increased CD44+/CD24low/− subpopulation was found in AurkA-overexpressing MCF7 cells. In vivo, AurkA-overexpressing primary breast cancer cells showed higher tumorigenic properties. Interestingly, we found that AurkA suppressed the expression of miR-128, inhibitor of wnt3a mRNA stabilization. Namely, miR-128 suppression realized after AurkA binding to Snail. Remarkably, a strong correlation between AurkA and miR-128 expression in breast cancer tissues confirmed our findings. This study provides novel insights into an undisclosed role for the kinase AurkA in self-renewal and migration of BCICs affecting response to cancer therapies, metastatic spread and recurrence. In addition, it suggests a new therapeutic strategy taking advantage of miR-128 to suppress AurkA-Wnt3a signaling. PMID:27341528

  4. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  5. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  6. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  7. 7 CFR 4280.192 - Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.192 Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.191 - Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.191 Evaluation of energy audit and renewable...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.196 - Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing energy audit and renewable energy... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.196 Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development...

  10. 7 CFR 4280.191 - Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.191 Evaluation of energy audit and renewable...

  11. 7 CFR 4280.196 - Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing energy audit and renewable energy... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.196 Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.191 - Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of energy audit and renewable energy... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.191 Evaluation of energy audit and renewable...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.188 - Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy... AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.188 Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance....

  14. 7 CFR 4280.196 - Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Servicing energy audit and renewable energy... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.196 Servicing energy audit and renewable energy development...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.188 - Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy... AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.188 Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance....

  16. 7 CFR 4280.188 - Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy... AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.188 Grant funding for energy audit and renewable energy development assistance....

  17. 7 CFR 4280.192 - Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.192 Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.192 - Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.192 Scoring energy audit and renewable energy development...

  19. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.L.; Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  20. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... rural project examples in Rural Health Models and Innovations and proven strategies for strong rural programs with ...

  1. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  2. Rural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for rural adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to rural Americans. The following topics are addressed in the guide: key linkage strategies (community advisory councils,…

  3. Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Ullik, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme topic "Rural Education." The first article, "Science is Everywhere," by Chris Taylor, presents a project which uses local experts as an integral part of the school's science curriculum. "Better Teachers, Better Readers" by Scott Steen describes a system of strategic reading used in rural Wisconsin school…

  4. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  5. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  6. Information and Communication Technologies and Rural Development. Territorial Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer opportunities for renewed development for many rural and remote areas that have long experienced economic decline and outmigration. But there is a risk of a territorial digital divide between urban and rural areas. Investments in telecommunications infrastructure and services tend to be…

  7. Healthy Eyes in Schools: An Evaluation of a School and Community-Based Intervention to Promote Eye Health in Rural Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobday, Karen; Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Pereira, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there was an improvement in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students after the Healthy Eyes in Schools Project intervention and to complete a process evaluation to inform future implementation of health promotion interventions. Design: A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaires and…

  8. From Principle to Practice: Using Children's Literature to Promote Dialogue and Facilitate the "Coming to Voice" in a Rural Latino Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    When viewed through the lens of critical pedagogy, children's literature offers a viable avenue for tapping the "funds of knowledge" abounding in culturally and linguistically diverse communities. It is an effective means for promoting dialogue, arousing critical consciousness, and facilitating the "coming to voice" of oppressed people. In this…

  9. The Effect of Point of Sale Promotions on the Alcohol Purchasing Behaviour of Young People in Metropolitan, Regional and Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Smith, Kylie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study, part of a larger project examining marketing and alcohol, looked specifically at the effects of point of sale (POS) promotions on young people, with a view to providing evidence which could be used to inform policy and regulation in this area. A series of focus groups were conducted in three different locations with young people aged…

  10. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  11. Renewing governance.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  12. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  13. 77 FR 72814 - Information Collection; Secure Rural Schools Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Secure Rural Schools Act AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... announces the intention of the Forest Service to seek approval to renew and revise a currently approved... Forest Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on renewal...

  14. Distance as a Hybrid Actor in Rural Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the notion of distance ought to be re-conceptualized and promoted to the theoretical foreground of sociological analyses of rural economic action. Using research in rural British Columbia, Canada, I argue that current changes in rural political economy (for instance, the restructuring of industrial resource production, the…

  15. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Goduka, Nomalungelo I.

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities. PMID:23202823

  16. Renewable Electricity Promotion Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2010-09-21

    09/22/2010 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 576. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Teaching Core Courses with a Focus on Rural Health. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Donna Foster, Ed.

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching courses that focus on rural health. Discussed in the first section of the guide are the role of core courses in rural health promotional training and the…

  18. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    PubMed

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401

  19. ESSA and Rural Teachers. New Roads Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Inertia created by the 15 years of teacher quality reform leading up to Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), coupled with a renewed focus on innovation and flexibility under ESSA, might provide a recipe for establishing new ways to recruit, develop, and retain teachers in rural schools. Many hope that the development of complex and tailored staffing…

  20. 7 CFR 4280.193 - Selecting energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selecting energy audit and renewable energy..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.193 Selecting energy audit and renewable...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.193 - Selecting energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selecting energy audit and renewable energy..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.193 Selecting energy audit and renewable...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.193 - Selecting energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grant applications for award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selecting energy audit and renewable energy..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.193 Selecting energy audit and renewable...

  3. A Potpourri of Issues Relevant to Rural and Minority Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Focusing on issues and concerns pertaining to teaching and counseling rural women and minority women living in rural environments, the four papers aim to promote a better understanding and more realistic picture of conditions affecting rural/minority women. "Factors Influencing Educational and Occupational Choices of Rural/Minority Women" briefly…

  4. Promoting latrine construction and use in rural villages practicing open defecation: process evaluation in connection with a randomised controlled trial in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our group conducted a cluster-randomised trial in 100 villages of Orissa, India to measure the impact of a rural sanitation intervention implemented under the government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign, on diarrhoea and soil-transmitted helminth infections. This paper reports on a process evaluation conducted in the context of the trial. Methods Process evaluation data were collected through review of key documentation, quantitative surveys, direct observations, and semi-structured interviews with staff from implementing NGOs and community members. Between March 2011 and March 2012, trained enumerators recorded observations on latrine construction status every 6–8 weeks in the 50 intervention villages and noted activities reported to have taken place based on NGO staff interviews and review of NGO records. A survey among 10% of households in intervention and control villages was conducted to compare levels of awareness of key intervention components. In addition, 10% of village water and sanitation committee (VWSC) members were interviewed to measure their level of involvement in the intervention delivery. Results The percentage of households with a latrine (completed or under construction) increased from 8% at baseline to 66% one year after the start of the intervention in March 2012. Almost none of the intervention households recall any form of participatory community-level activities at the start of the programme, although intervention households were generally more aware of the Total Sanitation Campaign (91% versus 49%, p < 0.001), VWSCs (51% versus 9%, p < 0.001), adolescent girls groups (23% versus 8%, p < 0.01), wall paintings (44% versus 7%, p < 0.001) and were more likely to report a household visit on sanitation during the past three months (65% versus 3%, p < 0.001). We found no strong evidence of an association between levels of awareness of or participation in mobilisation activities and levels of latrine coverage

  5. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between 'emerging' and 'established' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  6. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B; Sinclair, K

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between ``emerging`` and ``established`` renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  7. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between emerging'' and established'' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  8. Challenges, Strategies and Lessons Learned from a Participatory Community Intervention Study to Promote Female Condoms among Rural Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer; He, Bin; He, Qiya; Feng, Weiping; Wang, Yanhong

    2010-01-01

    China faces a rapidly emerging HIV epidemic and nation wide resurgence of sexually transmitted infections associated with a growing sex industry. Community empowerment and capacity building through community-based participatory research partnerships show promise for developing, testing, and refining multilevel interventions suited to the local context that are effective and appropriate to address these concerns. However, such efforts are fraught with challenges, both for community collaborators and for researchers. We have built an international team of scientists from Beijing and the U.S. and collaborating health policy makers, health educators and care providers from Hainan and Guangxi Province CDCs and the local counties and towns where we are conducting our study. This team is in the process of testing a community wide, multi-level intervention to promote female condoms and other HIV prevention within sex-work establishments. This article presents lessons learned from our experiences in the first two study sites of this intervention trial. PMID:20528132

  9. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  10. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  11. State Renewable Energy News -- Vol. 7, No. 1, Winter 1998 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter is prepared for the NARUC Subcommittee on Renewable Energy to promote information sharing on state-level renewable electric activities. It is sponsored by the Office of Power Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  13. Application of Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based health promotion pre-pregnancy intervention for adolescent girls in rural South Africa: Project Ntshembo (Hope)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. Methods This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. Conclusions The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA. PMID:25080940

  14. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  16. Renewable energy technology characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations front matter lists the chapters and tables that support this report on the technical and economic status of the major emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  20. School efficiency in rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Kathleen S.; Pollitt, Ernesto

    1992-09-01

    This paper addresses the issues concerning the ability of the educational sector in Guatemala to meet its basic objective of providing primary education to children in rural areas. We report on data collected in seven villages in rural Guatemala on over 2000 children. Measures of school efficiency in these villages indicate that although increasingly large numbers of children are enrolling in school, promotion, repetition, and drop-out rates continue to be high and that girls are at a greater disadvantage than boys in this population. Complex interrelationships among the schooling variables point to the need for policy decisions to incorporate family, community and school level inputs.

  1. 7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.195 Awarding and administering energy audit and...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.195 Awarding and administering energy audit and...

  3. 7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.195 Awarding and administering energy audit and...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.126 - Guarantee/annual renewal fee percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee/annual renewal fee percentages. 4280.126...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.126...

  5. A Habermasian Analysis of Local Renewable Energy Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This study pursues a Habermasian analysis of citizen discussions and of the local public sphere to shed light on renewable energy futures in rural east-central Canada. Using data from group discussions, it pursues an investigation of utterances, validity claims and of discourses. The analysis is supplemented by participant observation of publicly…

  6. Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghandour, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

  7. Promoting acquisition of competences and standardization of curricula in Rural Engineering teaching through common practical cases in Hydrology: CN-match

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Consoli, Simona; Atlaw, Tigist; Nicastro, Roberto; Brígido, Consuelo C.; Lorite, Ángela; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2014-05-01

    The co-operation between Universities located in different countries, promoting similar topics and teaching methodologies, is paramount in the educational training to meet the objectives of the Bologna Process and developing new skills matching the labor market requirements. With this focus, the work herein presented contributes to both these aims, by implementing, in two Universities courses in Spain and Italy, a joint methodology in Hydrology. Both courses present common matters related with hydrological engineering projects. "Water Resources Management in Agriculture" is the course name at the University of Catania, Italy whereas "Software and tools in Engineering projects" is the subject tough for the students of Forest Engineering in the Agronomist and Forest Engineering School of the University of Cordoba. This work presents an experience whose main objective is to involve the students into the technical knowledge and skill acquisition by a competition, following the philosophy of football leagues which are quite appreciated in both countries. Basically, we have prepared a practical case of hydrological design which two-student groups have to solve. The best teams of each country have to play the international final match, which will take place by videoconference. The awards for the winners in each country are merits for their curricula such as the participation in the EGU Assembly 2014 and a certificate of winners. The practical case is based on the Curve Number method developed by the Soil Conservation Service (1972) in order to compute abstractions from storm rainfall and calculate design hydrographs (CN-SCS method). The CN-SCS method is one of the most used methods for implementing hydrological studies of a catchment aimed for example at assessing management practices and hydro-geological risk plans as well as water resources protection measures. In general hydro-geological risk assessment and modeling studies are necessary for a reliable urban planning

  8. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  9. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  10. Rural as Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

    This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as a center of attention, not as…

  11. Rural Sociology in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeski, Boguslaw, Ed.

    Included in this book on rural sociology in Poland are: (1) "Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article detailing the reflections and studies of rural life and agriculture before the discipline of rural sociology was acknowledged); (2) "Half A Century of Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article describing the "golden age" of Polish sociology in the…

  12. Cadres for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iagofarova, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Considers qualities required of rural teachers in the USSR and implications for teacher education. Reports survey results of 430 rural teachers in the Tatar region concerning what a rural teacher must know and problems specific to rural teaching. Concludes that rural teachers must coordinate teaching with social work and face housing and material…

  13. Impact of an energy education software on rural women

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.; Yadla, V.L.; Zohruailiani, M.

    1999-07-01

    Renewable energy cooking technologies (RECTs) like solar cookers, biogas units and improved cookstoves are promoted by Government of India to combat fuel wood scarcity and ensure a cleaner environment. The value of an energy education software (EES) to generate awareness about cooking energy scarcity and to achieve scientific empowerment of potential end users of RECTs, needs no emphasis. An attempt was made to assess the impact of an EES that consisted of flip charts--visuals with minimum text on rural women. The major objective of the research endeavor was to measure the difference in the selected attributes, namely, attitude towards biomass generation and biomass conservation (BG-BC), cooking management practices (CMP) and knowledge level (KL) of rural women due to exposure to EES. A descriptive research design coupled with a before and after experimental design was adopted for the study. A sample of rural women from Nani Sherkhi village were exposed to EES through a series of three training sessions with pre and post sessions for group discussions. Data on the selected attributes were gathered in the pre and post training periods using descriptive rating scales with reliability coefficients of 0.80, 0.81 and 0.74 respectively. The computed t values showed significant differences at 0.01 level in the pre and post exposure mean scores on attitude, cooking management practice and knowledge scale. The t values revealed that the gain in score in each of the attributes due to exposure to EES were significant. Further, utility of EES, policy implications and strategies for popularizing it as an aid to reach sustainable development are also discussed in brief in the paper.

  14. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  15. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  16. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  17. Promoting Students' Problem Solving Skills and Knowledge of STEM Concepts in a Data-Rich Learning Environment: Using Online Data as a Tool for Teaching about Renewable Energy Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related…

  18. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Vigeant, Paul; Miller, John; Howes, Brian; McGowan, Jon G.; Baldwin, Kenneth; Grilli, Annette; Terray, Eugene

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  19. Community perspectives on roles and responsibilities for strengthening primary health care in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Curry, Leslie A; Alpern, Rachelle; Webster, Tashonna R; Byam, Patrick; Zerihun, Abraham; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Cherlin, Emily J; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-01-01

    Government-community partnerships are central to developing effective, sustainable models of primary health care in low-income countries; however, evidence about the nature of partnerships lacks the perspective of community members. Our objective was to characterise community perspectives regarding the respective roles and responsibilities of government and the community in efforts to strengthen primary health care in low-income settings. We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups (n=14 groups in each of seven primary health care units in Amhara and Oromia, Ethiopia, with a total of 140 participants) in the context of the Ethiopian Millennium Rural Initiative. Results indicated that community members defined important roles and responsibilities for both communities and governments. Community roles included promoting recommended health behaviours; influencing social norms regarding health; and contributing resources as feasible. Government roles included implementing oversight of health centres; providing human resources, infrastructure, equipment, medication and supplies; and demonstrating support for community health workers, who are seen as central to the rural health system. Renewed efforts in health system strengthening highlight the importance of community participation in initiatives to improve primary health care in rural settings. Community perspectives provide critical insights to defining, implementing and sustaining partnerships in these settings. PMID:22621744

  20. 75 FR 82416 - Proposed Information Collection Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Information Collection Renewals ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review; comment... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act... promoting global education in the classroom. Estimated annual number of respondents: 300. Estimated...

  1. 76 FR 190 - Proposed Information Collection Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Information Collection Renewals ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review; comment... of Management and Budget (OMB) for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of...: Educators interested in promoting global education in the classroom. Respondents' Obligation To...

  2. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  3. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  4. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... in rural areas. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) – CMMI, also known as the CMS Innovation ...

  5. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  6. Learning and Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal: Summary Report on Research for the Neighbourhood Renewal Unit. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sue

    A study examined how further education (FE) colleges and Local Education Authority adult education services contribute to neighborhood renewal (NR) in deprived areas and how their strategic role might develop. The National Strategy for Neighborhood Renewal was tackling deprivation in 88 of England's poorest communities by promoting the development…

  7. Renewable smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  8. Education for rural practice in rural practice.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger; Couper, Ian; Wynn-Jones, John; Rourke, James; Chater, A Bruce; Reid, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Despite the substantial differences between developing and developed countries, access is the major rural health issue. Studies in many countries have shown that the three factors most strongly associated with entering rural practice are: (1) a rural upbringing; (2) positive clinical and educational experiences in rural settings as part of undergraduate medical education; (3) targeted training for rural practice at the postgraduate level. This paper presents examples of successful rural primary care-based education in different parts of the world, then introduces the Wonca Rural Medical Education Guidebook which was launched at the 2014 Wonca Rural Health World Conference and concludes with a brief report of the 2015 conference held in Dubrovnik Croatia. PMID:26862793

  9. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  10. Renewable energy for productive uses in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a USAID/USDOE sponsored program to implement renewable energy in Mexico for productive uses. The objectives are to expand markets for US and Mexican industries, and to combat global climate change - primarily greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is on off-grid applications, with an emphasis on developing the institution structure to support the development of these industries within the country. Agricultural development is an example of the type of industry approached, where photovoltaic and wind power can be used for water pumping. There are hundreds of projects under review, and this interest has put renewables as a line item in Mexico`s rural development budget. Village power projects are being considered in the form of utility partnerships.

  11. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  12. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  13. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  14. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  15. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  16. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  18. Renewing Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, John

    This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper…

  19. Renewable Energy Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  20. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  1. Renewing the Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2007-01-01

    The core curriculum accompanied the development of the academic discipline with multiple names such as Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science, and Health and Human Performance. It provides commonalties for undergraduate majors. It is timely to renew this curriculum. Renewal involves strategic reappraisals. It may stimulate change or reaffirm the…

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  6. Renewable Energy Annual

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Presents five chapters covering various aspects of the renewable energy marketplace, along with detailed data tables and graphics. Particular focus is given to renewable energy trends in consumption and electricity; manufacturing activities of solar thermal collectors, solar photovoltaic cells/modules, and geothermal heat pumps; and green pricing and net metering programs. The Department of Energy provides detailed offshore

  7. Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report, MA 5-79, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    During 1975, the Rural Manpower Service provided a comprehensive program of service to agricultural workers and employers in both rural and urban areas. This program was accomplished through employer relations and applicant registration programs, placement services, promotion of training programs, counseling and testing programs, collection and…

  8. Louisiana Annual Rural Manpower Report. ES-225, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Employment Security, Baton Rouge

    In 1971, Louisiana's Rural Manpower Service provided the agricultural and rural non-agricultural populations with such services as placement services which included promotion and development of training programs with priority to veterans and other special applicant groups; processing clearance orders and foreign labor importation requests;…

  9. Learning and Leadership: Evaluation of an Australian Rural Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Wendy; O'Mullan, Cathy; Keen-Dyer, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Leadership programs have been extensively promoted in rural communities in Australia. However, few have been evaluated. The results of the evaluation of a rural leadership program provided in this paper highlight the need for adult learning theories to be more overtly identified and utilised as the basis of planning and implementing leadership…

  10. 78 FR 22043 - Rural Energy for America Program-Grants and Guaranteed Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... (RBS) promulgated a rule (70 FR 41264, July 18, 2005) establishing the renewable energy systems and... guarantees and grants. On April 14, 2011, Rural Development published an Interim Rule for REAP (76 FR 21110... 26, 2009 (74 FR 24769) and August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47525). For energy audits and renewable...

  11. Can Regional Colleges Make a Difference in Rural America? The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Sheaff, Katharine

    Some regional two-year and four-year colleges are moving beyond their traditional mission of education to take proactive roles in promoting the economic development of their regions and communities. A study of regional colleges that help rural businesses and labor forces adapt to the challenges of rural economies found five outstanding goals of…

  12. Basic Education Curriculum Reform in Rural China: Achievements, Problems, and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Zhichun

    2011-01-01

    The latest wave of basic education curriculum reform, carried out over the past ten years, has achieved significant results and promoted the development of rural education. There are still some problems in the reform of basic education in rural areas, however, such as a serious shortage of funds for rural school curriculum reform, the continuing…

  13. A Taste of Country: A Pre-Service Teacher Rural Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharplin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve recruitment of teachers to rural schools, preservice teachers need opportunities to become familiar with rural education contexts, overcome anxieties promoted by negative stereotypes and build confidence in their professional and personal abilities. Traditional approaches involve rural practicums which are not feasible for many…

  14. Choosing Self-Employment. A Monograph by the Rural Institute Linkages to Employment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Ellen; Brown, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Institute: Center for Excellence in Disability Education, Research, and Service, is one of sixty-four Centers for Excellence in Disability Education across the nation. It is an inter-disciplinary organization that promotes full participation in rural life for individuals with disabilities. The Rural Institute accomplishes this goal by…

  15. Programs in Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10 percent of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet.

  16. Programs in Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10% of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet. 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. CE/MORE: A Rural Staff Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Russell L.; Dobson, Judith E.

    Practicing teachers, especially those in rural settings, are demanding graduate programs which meet their emerging needs and schedules. Since 1979, the Continuing Education through Multi-Optional Renewal Experiences (CE/MORE) program at Oklahoma State University has enabled 60 teachers to complete their Master of Science in Education degrees. The…

  18. Renewable transportation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    The need for alternative and renewable transportation fuels continues to be high on the nation`s agenda. Substituting these fuels for petroleum can reduce dependence on foreign oil imports, improve air quality, and mitigate greenhouse gases. Renewable fuels offer the same advantages as nonrenewable alternative fuels, and, in addition, provide an inexhaustible supply. The largest potential for significant quantities of liquid renewable fuels is from the production of biofuels from cellulosic biomass such as wastes and energy crops. Advanced vehicles will provide dramatic fuel efficiency improvements and will likely have electric drive systems. An evolution of vehicles is expected to occur, beginning with an electric vehicle that fills niche markets in the near term, to hybrid vehicles by the year 2000, to fuel cell vehicles after the year 2005. With the combination of renewable fuels and high efficiency, advanced vehicles can move the nation toward a sustainable transportation system.

  19. Demographics and the Rural Ethos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the meaning of "rural" and identifies 31 states having a significant rural character. Discusses certain generalizations about rural America. Provides a demographic analysis with school finance implications. Draws implications for rural school finance policy. (Contains 3 tables.)(PKP)

  20. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  1. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  3. Integrating International Education into Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Marilyn B.; Wood, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    A program promoting international education in South Dakota's rural elementary schools has provided staff development opportunities and assistance in curriculum modification based on information about the status of international education in the schools and student knowledge of the world. The program succeeds where key teachers and administrators…

  4. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  5. Rural Radio in Dahomey: September, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.

    Rural Radio (RR) in Dahomey has a radio network that covers most of the national territory with two transmitters plus 4KW short wave. The program themes are suggested by an advisory group from interested ministries such as Education, Youth and Sport, Agriculture, Health, etc., but the primary objective of the project lies in promoting dialogues…

  6. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  7. Development of a Rural Health Framework: Implications for Program Service Planning and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    White, Deanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and application of an evidence-based Rural Health Framework to guide rural health program, policy and service planning. Methods: A literature review of rural health programs, focusing on health promotion, chronic disease prevention and population health, was conducted using several bibliographic databases. Findings: Thirty papers met the criteria for review, describing chronic disease interventions and public health policies in rural settings. Twenty-one papers demonstrated effective intervention programs and highlighted potential good practices for rural health programs, which were used to define key elements of a Rural Health Framework. Conclusions: The Rural Health Framework was applied to an influenza immunization program to demonstrate its utility in assisting public health providers to increase uptake of the vaccine. This Rural Health Framework provides an opportunity for program planners to reflect on the key issues facing rural communities to ensure the development of policies and strategies that will prudently and effectively meet population health needs. PMID:23968625

  8. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    R. Gelman

    2013-02-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  9. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-15

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  10. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  11. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  12. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  13. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  14. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  15. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... hospital closure really means for a community; teaching mental health crisis skills to rural law enforcement; physicians writing about why they choose rural practice ; and more. Share feedback on this magazine and ...

  16. Sino/American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.

    1997-02-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. There is a very large need for new sources of energy for rural electrification in China as represented by 120 million people in remote regions who do not have access to an electric grid and by over 300 coastal islands in China that are unelectrified. In heavily populated regions in China where there is an electric grid, there are still severe shortages of electric power and limited access to the grid by village populations. In order to meet energy demands in rural China, renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, and biomass resources are being utilized as a cost effective alternative to grid extension and use of diesel and gasoline generators. An Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing in February, 1995. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers in a remote rural…

  18. Rural Education: Learning to Be Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper draws on research which began in 2006 with students in a graduate course on rural education. Its purpose was to find out what graduate students saw as current issues of rural education, how that compared to the literature, and what they thought supporting agencies such as government and universities needed to be doing to…

  19. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  20. ANIMATION RURALE: Education for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jeanne Marie

    Information gathered via literature review, interview, and personal observation was used to examine the effectiveness of animation rurale programs in Senegal and Niger, French West Africa. Identifiable animation rurale assumptions tested as applicable to Senegal and Niger were: nationwide development programs at the grass roots level can be…

  1. Rural electric cooperatives IRP survey

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes the integrated resource planning (IRP) practices of US rural electric cooperatives and the IRP policies which influence these practices. It was prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its subcontractor Garrick and Associates to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in satisfying the reporting requirements of Title 1, Subtitle B, Section 111(e)(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), which states: (e) Report--Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary (of the US Department of Energy) shall transmit a report to the President and to the Congress containing--(the findings from several surveys and evaluations, including:); (3) a survey of practices and policies under which electric cooperatives prepare IRPs, submit such plans to REA, and the extent to which such integrated resource planning is reflected in rates charged to customers.

  2. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  3. Uninsured Rural Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

  4. Rural Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judi

    Identifying and describing students in rural schools who are at potential educational risk is the purpose of this study which involved extensive taped interviews with administrators, teachers and students in selected rural schools in Iowa. Various indicators of educational risk in selected rural environments suggest that students are decidedly…

  5. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  6. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  7. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  8. Rural Education and Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamblyn, Lewis R.

    Synthesizing previous research, statements, and special reports calling attention to the unique problems associated with rural education, this paper presents definitions, statistics, and recommendations applicable to rural education and to Montana. Among the topics presented are: a contemporary definition of rurality (nonmetropolitan is posited as…

  9. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education project in…

  10. America's Rural Information Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  11. Integrated renewable energy networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Spencer, L.

    2015-12-01

    This multidisciplinary research is focused on studying implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Our modern economy now depends heavily on large-scale, energy-intensive technologies. A transition to low carbon, renewable sources of energy is needed. We will develop a procedure for designing and analyzing renewable energy systems based on the magnitude, distribution, temporal characteristics, reliability and costs of the various renewable resources (including biomass waste streams) in combination with various measures to control the magnitude and timing of energy demand. The southern Canadian prairies are an ideal location for developing renewable energy networks. The region is blessed with steady, westerly winds and bright sunshine for more hours annually than Houston Texas. Extensive irrigation agriculture provides huge waste streams that can be processed biologically and chemically to create a range of biofuels. The first stage involves mapping existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation, such as ridges, rooftops and valley walls, will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids.

  12. Challenges in evaluating rural health programs.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Joyce; Webb, John

    2002-01-01

    Complex community-based prevention programs are being held to scientific evidence of their effectiveness and rural public health departments that implement such programs often are not equipped to evaluate them. Rural public health departments are fettered by small budgets, small staffs, and less access to evaluation experts and similar resources. Community-based health promotion programs can include complex designs that may work differently in rural areas and evaluation of rural programs can be hampered by lack of control groups and the instability of results from small populations. The University of Kentucky has entered into a contract with the state Department for Public Health to implement an internal, participatory model of evaluation. In this model, the university evaluation expert trains local public health department staff in technical skills for program evaluation and acts as mentor and technical consultant to local public health departments on an ongoing basis. Through training and site visits, this model is one approach to addressing the challenges of evaluating rural health promotion programs. PMID:12135148

  13. Organizational precedents for ownership and management of decentralized renewable-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, R.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1981-03-01

    Three existing organizational types that meet the decentralization criteria of local consumer ownership and control - cooperatives, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and municipal utilities - are examined. These three organizational precedents are analyzed in terms of their histories, structures, legal powers, sources of capital, and social and political aspects. Examples of related experiments with renewable energy technologies are given, and inferences are drawn regarding the organizations' suitability as vehicles for future implementation of decentralized renewable energy systems.

  14. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  15. Small Town Renewal Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Peter

    Over the last 2 decades, the loss of population and businesses in many small, inland, and remote Australian rural communities has intensified, largely because of the stress and uncertainty of volatile world commodity markets. This manual presents a range of survival and revival strategies that some communities have used to build resilient…

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  18. Why doctors choose small towns: a developmental model of rural physician recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Christine; Steinbach, Alan; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Adler, Shelley R; Auerswald, Colette L

    2009-11-01

    Shortages of health care professionals have plagued rural areas of the USA for more than a century. Programs to alleviate them have met with limited success. These programs generally focus on factors that affect recruitment and retention, with the supposition that poor recruitment drives most shortages. The strongest known influence on rural physician recruitment is a "rural upbringing," but little is known about how this childhood experience promotes a return to rural areas, or how non-rural physicians choose rural practice without such an upbringing. Less is known about how rural upbringing affects retention. Through twenty-two in-depth, semi-structured interviews with both rural- and urban-raised physicians in northeastern California and northwestern Nevada, this study investigates practice location choice over the life course, describing a progression of events and experiences important to rural practice choice and retention in both groups. Study results suggest that rural exposure via education, recreation, or upbringing facilitates future rural practice through four major pathways. Desires for familiarity, sense of place, community involvement, and self-actualization were the major motivations for initial and continuing small-town residence choice. A history of strong community or geographic ties, either urban or rural, also encouraged initial rural practice. Finally, prior resilience under adverse circumstances was predictive of continued retention in the face of adversity. Physicians' decisions to stay or leave exhibited a cost-benefit pattern once their basic needs were met. These results support a focus on recruitment of both rural-raised and community-oriented applicants to medical school, residency, and rural practice. Local mentorship and "place-specific education" can support the integration of new rural physicians by promoting self-actualization, community integration, sense of place, and resilience. Health policy efforts to improve the physician

  19. Are rural health professionals also social entrepreneurs?

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2009-12-01

    Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they

  20. "A golden opportunity": Exploring interprofessional learning and practice in rural clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Judy; Woodroffe, Jessica; Cross, Merylin; Allen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about interprofessional practice (IPP) and interprofessional learning (IPL) in rural health services, despite national funding and continuing emphasis on increasing students' clinical placements in rural areas. This short paper outlines a study in Tasmania, Australia, which investigated how and under what contexts and conditions IPP and IPL occur in rural clinical settings, and the enabling factors and strategies that promote this learning and practice. This study employed a mixed method design comprising focus group discussions and a survey involving health professionals from two rural health services. The findings demonstrate that formal and informal arrangements, the collaborative nature of small, close-knit healthcare teams and patient-centred models of care employed in rural practice settings, provide ideal contexts for IPP and IPL. The study has implications for promoting organisational readiness for IPP and IPL and harnessing the potential of rural services to promote and develop students' interprofessional capability. PMID:25300807

  1. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  2. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  3. Renew, Reflect, and Refresh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

  4. Sources of Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1980-01-01

    Given the outside pressures of layoffs, inflation, and public criticism, many teachers are turning to the specifics of teaching for release. Talking with one's students, developing humor in the classroom, experimenting with a slower pace of life, and thinking about self-sufficiency can lead to renewed energy and interest. (Author/SJL)

  5. Biodiesel and renewable diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced from vegetable oil, animal fats or waste oils. The process used in its production is known as transesterification. If vegetable oils or animal fats are subjected to a process similar for making diesel fuel derived from petroleum, a fuel called renew...

  6. Adhesives from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hemingway, R.W.; Conner, A.H. )

    1989-01-01

    This book shows that new alternatives based on renewable resources will be available should supplied of resins derived from petrochemicals become inadequate again. Opportunities for the development of high-value specialty polymers are highlighted by work presented on polymers derived from mollusks.

  7. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  8. Orchestrating Simultaneous Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Rochon, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    Orchestrating simultaneous renewal of schools and teacher education is possible in the presence of appropriate leadership, reformer diversity, program audits, accurate assessments, and a focus on the big picture. Public education is the glue that holds society together, not just a place where job skills are acquired. (MLH)

  9. Renewing Democracy in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    1999-01-01

    Unlike systemic/academic reforms, renewal programs identify democratic education's central purposes and processes, interpret them in contemporary terms, and seek to strengthen them. The uniform standards movement may handicap these efforts by eliminating many student choices and discouraging the rational political discussion underlying liberal…

  10. Information Technologies: Do They Have the Potential To Bring Change to U.S. Rural Areas? Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    Rural communities have long experienced an outmigration of talented people to urban areas for better employment opportunities. The traditional rural economic model, especially prevalent in Appalachia and the rural South, involves outside capital promoting industrial development separated from community needs and culture. This, at worst, is…

  11. 3 CFR 13575 - Executive Order 13575 of June 9, 2011. Establishment of the White House Rural Council

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Policy. Sixteen percent of the American population lives in rural counties. Strong, sustainable rural... to expand access to the capital necessary for economic growth, promote innovation, improve access to... regarding the needs of rural America; (c) coordinate Federal efforts directed toward the growth...

  12. Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study determined the extent to which CHO-midwives skilled delivery program achieved its desired outcomes in UER among birthing women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with women who had ever given birth in the three years prior to the survey. We employed a two stage sampling techniques: In the first stage we proportionally selected enumeration areas, and the second stage involved random selection of households. In each household, where there is more than one woman with a child within the age limit, we interviewed the woman with the youngest child. We collected data on awareness of the program, use of the services and factors that are associated with skilled attendants at birth. Results A total of 407 households/women were interviewed. Eighty three percent of respondents knew that CHO-midwives provided delivery services in CHPS zones. Seventy nine percent of the deliveries were with skilled attendants; and over half of these skilled births (42% of total) were by CHO-midwives. Multivariate analyses showed that women of the Nankana ethnic group and those with uneducated husbands were less likely to access skilled attendants at birth in rural settings. Conclusions The implementation of the CHO-midwife program in UER appeared to have contributed to expanded skilled delivery care access and utilization for rural women. However, women of the Nankana ethnic group and uneducated

  13. The rural restaurant healthy options program: response of rural, local newspapers to a program press release.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Andsager, Julie; Haines, Heidi

    2014-03-01

    Local media should be used to raise awareness of health promotion programs. In rural areas, local newspapers provide an opportunity to reach large numbers of residents. Although there are expert guidelines describing the process for successfully engaging local media, little has been documented regarding the range of responses that local, rural newspapers might have when approached about covering health promotion programs. This study describes the response of rural, local newspapers to a press release about a health promotion program taking place in 28 restaurants in different rural towns. The most common reason for not publishing a story was that it would constitute free advertising for the restaurant. Twenty-two stories were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of the responding newspapers were weeklies, and 16 published the full press release verbatim. Three stories included photos, and five included quotes. Headlines typically included the name of the restaurant and the university partner. The overall response rate is encouraging; however, there is considerable room for improvement in terms of personalizing the story with photos or quotes. Greater efforts may be required to obtain this depth of coverage, including training for local journalists to increase their interest and confidence in covering health promotion issues. PMID:23182860

  14. Commodification of Rural Places: A Narrative of Social Fields, Rural Development, and Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floysand, Arnt; Jakobsen, Stig-Erik

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in rural areas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as…

  15. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  16. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  17. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  18. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  19. Perspectives on renewable energy and Village Power

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the role the Department of Energy has been playing in the area of renewable energy sources and their applications at a village level. Energy demand is rising sharply, and shortages are becoming more acute. Developing countries will present a large demand, and market opportunity over the next 40 years. Environmental concerns are a factor in the choice for what sources to promote and develop. The author touches on the features of renewable sources which makes them attractive to DOE for some applications, and what the goals of the department are in supporting this technology. Examples of applications at the level of village power are presented for both the US and abroad.

  20. Renewable Energy Water Pumping Systems Handbook; Period of Performance: April 1--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2004-07-01

    Water is one of the most basic necessities of rural development. This book provides valuable information on how renewable energy technologies can be used for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic water supplies. This report emphasizes wind and solar energy resources, and hybrid water pumping systems.

  1. Emergency medicine rural rotations: a program director's guide.

    PubMed

    Casaletto, Jennifer J; Wadman, Michael C; Ankel, Felix K; Bourne, Christina L; Ghaemmaghami, Chris A

    2013-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine's 2006 report titled "Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point" called national attention to the lack of specialty-trained emergency care practitioners, particularly in rural America. One suggested strategy for narrowing the gap between the prevalence of residency-trained, board-certified emergency physicians practicing in rural and urban emergency departments is the development of rural clinical experiences for emergency medicine residents during the course of their training. This article addresses promotion of a rural emergency medicine rotation to hospital leadership and resident recruits, examines funding sources, discusses medical liability and disability insurance options, provides suggestions for meeting faculty and planned educational activity residency review committee requirements, and offers guidance about site selection to direct emergency medicine academic leaders considering or planning a new rural emergency medicine rotation. PMID:23083967

  2. What rural doctors want: a qualitative study in Chhattisgarh state.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Kabir; Mondal, Shinjini; Patanwar, Pratibha; Rajkumari, Babita; Sundararaman, T

    2016-01-01

    The importance of addressing concerns of rural health worker welfare in order to improve their performance and retention is widely acknowledged; yet there is little empirical research on the needs of rural health professionals. We report findings from a qualitative research study in rural Chhattisgarh, involving indepth interviews with 37 practitioners and data analysis using the "framework" approach. Participants' expressions of their needs encompassed a range of reforms and improvements, including better salaries and job security, more rational posting and promotion procedures, and facility improvements. Opportunities for need-based skills training and better housing also emerged as key needs, as did better schools, assurance of personal security, and recognition and appreciation of their services by the administration. Increased investment in rural infrastructure and training, graded packages of benefits for rural doctors, and governance reforms to improve the internal accountability of government health services emerge as recommendations from the study. PMID:27474693

  3. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and Crops Research and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming ...

  4. Renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  5. Public opinion and communicative action around renewable energy projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart

    This thesis investigates how rural communities negotiate the development of renewable energy projects. Public and local community acceptance of these new technologies in rural areas around the world is uncertain and spatially uneven and represents an area of emerging public policy interest and one where scholarly theory is rapidly developing. This thesis uses Habermasian concepts of public sphere, communicative action and deliberative democracy, as well as the concept of "wicked problems" from the planning studies literature combined with geographical concepts of place and scale to advance theoretical and empirical understanding of how public opinion on renewable energy technologies is formed in place. It documents energy use patterns, attitudes and socio-political relations at a time when considerable state and business efforts are directed at the construction of solar, wind, biomass and small-hydro technologies in rural regions. These concepts and theories are applied in a case study of rural communities in the Eastern Ontario Highlands, an impoverished area undergoing rapid restructuring driven by centralization of services and amenity migration but with abundant natural resources in form of forests, numerous waterways and open space which have attracted a broad range of new energy developments. Overall high levels of support for alternative energy development particularly for solar power were found, albeit for reasons of local energy security and not for reasons of preventing climate change. There was some evidence that seasonal residents are less supportive of hydro and biomass projects than permanent residents possibly reflecting broader trends in rural economies away from productive uses of land to consumptive appreciation of rural landscapes. The thesis suggests that collective action to advance energy projects in the case study area require agreement along three world-claims (truth, rightness and truthfulness) and that communication leading to discourse

  6. Recruitment of rural healthcare professionals for live continuing education

    PubMed Central

    Holuby, Ronnie Scott; Pellegrin, Karen L; Barbato, Anna; Ciarleglio, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The availability of rural healthcare is a growing concern in the United States as fewer healthcare providers choose to work in rural areas. Accessing quality continuing education (CE) for rural healthcare practitioners (HCPs) remains a challenge and may pose a barrier to quality care. Methods To maximize attendance at a live, in-person, free CE program focusing on geriatric medication and issues specifically targeted to HCPs in rural areas, two methods were implemented sequentially. The first method used formal advertising implemented by a professional marketing service to promote CE events. The second method enlisted local healthcare organizations and physician groups to promote the CE event to their employees. Cost per attendee was calculated for comparison. Results Professional marketing services recruited 31 HCPs (March 2011) and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$428.62. Local healthcare organizations and physician groups’ marketing recruited 48 HCPs (July–August 2011) and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$55.19. Discussion Providing free CE coordinated through local healthcare organizations and physician groups was the most cost-effective method of recruiting rural HCPs for CE. Formal advertising added cost without increasing the number of participants per event. Although this is the first study of the cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods targeting HCPs in rural areas, results are consistent with research on cost-effectiveness of outreach to rural lay community members. PMID:26549047

  7. Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, Jane; Gouchoe, Susan

    2002-11-14

    OAK - B135 Advancement in the use of renewable energy over the past decade is due, in part, to progress in coordinating renewable energy policies, programs and initiatives across all governmental levels and all sectors of business. Through recent efforts by IREC's DSIRE project, information on existing federal, state, local, and utility programs and incentives has been easier for the general public and government agencies to access and, as a result, use of these programs is beginning to increase. Increasing awareness of incentives can directly and positively impact the use of renewable energy. The DSIRE project's primary objective, therefore, is to provide a single resource for all available incentive programs. Information produced by DSIRE is of increasing value to an audience of: · State and local energy offices and regulatory agencies that may be considering new programs or initiatives, or extensions and expansions of past programs; · State regulatory agencies or utility commissions that have approval or influence over the creation of regulatory incentives; · Utility companies who may be considering the creation of new programs and incentives for renewable energy; · Consumers, businesses, and renewable energy industries that need timely information on such incentives for purchasing and business planning; · Schools and youth activity organizations seeking exciting and innovative applications of science and technology; and · Renewable energy, environmental and consumer organizations actively promoting the utilization of renewable energy technologies.

  8. Student Outreach With Renewable Energy Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Eric B. (Technical Monitor); Buffinger, D.; Fuller, C.; Kalu, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology (SORET) program is a joint grant that involves a collaboration between three HBCU's (Central State University, Savannah State University, and Wilberforce University) and NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The overall goal of the grant is to increase the interest of minority students in the technical disciplines, to encourage participating minority students to continue their undergraduate study in these disciplines, and to promote graduate school to these students. As a part of SORET, Central State University has developed an undergraduate research associates program over the past two years. As part of this program, students are required to take special laboratory courses offered at Wilberforce University that involve the application of renewable energy systems. The course requires the students to design, construct, and install a renewable energy project. In addition to the applied renewable energy course, Central State University provided four undergraduate research associates the opportunity to participate in summer internships at Texas Southern University (Renewable Energy Environmental Protection Program) and the Cleveland African-American Museum (Renewable Energy Summer Camp for High School Students) an activity co sponsored by NASA and the Cleveland African-American Museum. Savannah State University held a high school summer program with a theme of the Direct Impact of Science on Our Every Day Lives. The purpose of the institute was to whet the interest of students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) by demonstrating the effectiveness of science to address real world problems. The 2001 institute involved the design and installation of a PV water pumping system at the Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems at Savannah State. Both high school students and undergraduates contributed to this project. Wilberforce University has used NASA support to provide

  9. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  10. Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

  11. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  12. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  13. The Rural Teacher's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slacks, John R.

    This textbook was written in 1938 to acquaint beginning teachers with practices related to teaching in one-room schools and with the values and expectations of rural communities. The book points out the differences between the work of rural teachers and that of teachers in a town school. For example, teachers in one-room schools are required to…

  14. Funding Rural Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kim

    This paper provides first-time grant writers with suggestions on how to approach a private funding source. While intended for rural health care advocates, the remarks are equally applicable for educators and others. The rural crisis has produced many heart-rending stories about medically indigent people, but there is a lack of reliable statistics…

  15. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  16. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  17. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  18. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  19. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  20. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx “…assembles statistics on four broad categories of socioeconomic factors: People: Demographic data from the American Community Survey, ... gov/surveys/ruraled/Definitions.asp Define Rural for Health Programs 1. U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  1. The Rural Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  2. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  3. Profamilia pursues rural program.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, G

    1973-08-01

    Throughout Latin America, there is a need for family planning progra ms in rural areas. Profamilia organized a rural family planning program in the Colombian state of Risaralda with the support of the departmental Coffee Growers Committee. Results have been satisfying. From a low of 49 new acceptors in April 1971, there has been an expansion of the program to handle 341 new acceptors in March 1972. These results were a chieved with a cost lower than that of any urban family planning program . This rural program makes use of local personnel and existing infrastructures. House visits are made and nonclinical contraceptives are used. The follow-up system is simple and effective so that it can be administered by rural volunteers. There are plans to extend this program to the other rural coffee-growing departments. PMID:12258002

  4. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  5. Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

  6. THE EFFECT OF RURALITY ON THE EDUCATION OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARLES, EDGAR B.

    THE PHENONMENON OF RURALITY OCCURS ALONG A RURAL-URBAN CONTINUUM, WITH THE DEGREE OF RURALITY DEPENDING UPON ENVIRONMENTAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS. A HIGH DEGREE OF RURALITY IS LIKELY TO EXIST IN AREAS WHERE POPULATION CENTERS DO NOT EXCEED 2,500 PERSONS, OCCUPATIONS ARE PRIMARILY BASED ON NATURAL RESOURCE AND/OR LAND…

  7. Education in Rural America: Object or Instrumentality of Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl

    Rural schools have had a traditional role as major vehicles of rural economic development. During the rapid economic changes of the 20th century rural schools supplied the literate migrants who flocked to the cities to become the human capital for urban based expansion. Rural schools also provided the literate farmers who stayed at home and…

  8. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  9. Rural America at a Glance. Rural Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the most recent indicators of social and economic conditions in rural areas for use in developing rural policies and programs. The economic expansion of the 1990s greatly benefited rural economies. Rural areas attracted both urban residents and immigrants. Hispanics accounted for over 25 percent of nonmetropolitan population…

  10. Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, E.; Mas, C.

    1998-11-13

    Presently, the US EPA is constructing a new complex at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina to consolidate its research operations in the Raleigh-Durham area. The National Computer Center (NCC) is currently in the design process and is planned for construction as partof this complex. Implementation of the new technologies can be planned as part of the normal construction process, and full credit for elimination of the conventional technologies can be taken. Several renewable technologies are specified in the current plans for the buildings. The objective of this study is to identify measures that are likely to be both technically and economically feasible.

  11. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) HIV/AIDS Community Mobilization (CM) to Promote Mobile HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (MVCT) in Rural Communities in Northern Thailand: Modifications by Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kawichai, Surinda; Celentano, David; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Wichajarn, Monjun; Pancharoen, Kanokporn; Chariyalertsak, Chonlisa; Visrutaratana, Surasing; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2012-01-01

    Project Accept is a RCT designed to test the efficacy of community mobilization (CM), mobile voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT), and post-test support services (PTSS) in reducing HIV incidence in three African countries and Thailand. The intervention started in rural areas, northern Thailand in January 2006. CM initially included door-to-door visits during the daytime, small group discussions and joining organized meetings and followed by MVCT. In February 2007, CM strategy using HIV/AIDS “edutainment” (education and entertainment) during evening hours was introduced. After edutainment was initiated, the number of participants increased substantially. VCT uptake increased from 18 to 28 persons/day on average (t test; t = 7.87 P < 0.0001). Edutainment especially motivated younger people, as the median age of VCT clients decreased from 38 to 35 years old (median test; z = 6.74, P < 0.0001). Providing free MVCT in community settings along with edutainment during evening hours increased VCT uptake and was particularly attractive to younger adults. PMID:22170382

  12. A role for NGOs in international renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholf, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    An NGO is an international term for non-government organizations, often it is used in connection with non-profit, community-based and/or voluntary business activities. To be successful in supporting energy projects, these organizations generally exhibit certain characteristics: they are familiar with the end-use requirements; they are typically neutral to the technology; they emphasize training; they do not carry a large bureacratic structure, at home or in the field; they typically can adapt to do numerous functions; they can often attract other support. The author discusses several examples of such organizations who have been highly successful. The author sees a continuing role for such groups in developing renewable energy sources in the rural setting to include: continued development of new activity in rural areas; development of institutional framework for future market activity; an increased role in managing international development activities; more direct involvement with for-profit technical and financial organizations.

  13. FDAMA Section 114: Why the Renewed Interest?

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Eleanor M; Burke, Laurie; Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Gaballah, Mena

    2015-05-01

    The FDA regulates the use of information by biopharmaceutical companies in their promotional activities. Section 114 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) was specifically designed to allow companies to more readily disseminate health care economic information (HCEI) to those who need it for formulary decision making. However, very little HCEI has been distributed promotionally under this provision over the past 17 years. There are recent discussions by stakeholders regarding the need for updates, revisions, or guidance regarding Section 114.In light of recent renewed interest in Section 114 of the FDAMA, the purpose of this commentary is to equip managed care decision makers with the information they need to understand and respond to industry communications that are governed by Section 114. This commentary reviews and synthesizes the regulatory history and language of the statute and changes to the promotion regulation generated by Section 114. It explores the reasons for the section's limited use to date, for recent renewed interest, and why changes by various stakeholders are suggested at this time. Also discussed is what managed care pharmacists need to know about Section 114, and suggestions are included regarding the active role pharmacists can play in this change process. Renewed interest in FDAMA Section 114 appears to stem largely from the increasingly visible and growing interest in comparative effectiveness research, the emergence of "big data," the expanding range of data sources available for deriving HCEI, and recent court decisions that might indicate a change in the regulatory environment. Various stakeholders are proposing recommendations regarding changes to FDAMA Section 114. Managed care pharmacists should be aware that companies are restricted when communicating HCEI promotional messages; this may mean seeing the use of FDAMA Section 114 as the "competent and reliable" effectiveness standard in promotion. If the

  14. Looking Ahead to the Year 2000: Proceedings of the Issues for Rural Schools Conference (Tempe, Arizona, April 27-28, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRobbie, Joan, Ed.; Berliner, BethAnn, Ed.

    This collection of conference presentations focuses on the twin themes of restructuring and technology in rural schools. Rural America's increasingly polarized demographics, political leadership voids, teacher training, renewal strategies, and ever-shrinking budgets are discussed, along with ongoing media criticism, which is a reality for all…

  15. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D’Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew RM

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products. PMID:25530082

  16. ALS renewal moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, R. W.; Feinberg, B.; Hussain, Z.; Kirz, J.; Krebs, G. F.; Padmore, H. A.; Robin, D. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    2007-11-01

    As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders—management, staff, and users—the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates.

  17. Responses to prospective payment by rural New Mexico hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H L; Piland, N F; Phillipp, A M

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional study is used to determine how rural New Mexico hospitals altered service diversification, inpatient service emphasis, and service promotion during Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) transition and posttransition phases. Results suggest that the hospitals implemented distinct strategies in response to PPS. The posttransition strategies were examined for their association with improved revenue and utilization indicators. Few of the service diversification and promotional strategies were consistent predictors of performance. Emphasis on fine-tuning inpatient services was the most promising predictor of higher utilization and revenue measures. The implications for other rural hospitals are discussed. PMID:1743969

  18. Rural Development Research Under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Fred H.

    Evaluating current rural development research, the paper covers 6 major areas: (1) the nature and purpose of research; (2) circumstances related to rural development that require careful attention; (3) observations on rural development "disorganization" as an "outsider" might view the situation; (4) an opinion about the focus rural development…

  19. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Thomas K.

    Increased Department of Education (ED) interest in rural education has been part of the awakening of federal concern for rural American issues. In response to a 1979 Presidential mandate to define and address the needs of rural America, the ED has identified basic problems of rural education that lend themselves to solution by the federal…

  20. Rural Electric Youth Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials provides information about tours for rural secondary students in Washington, D.C., sponsored jointly by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), state rural electric cooperatives, and statewide associations of rural electric systems. Since 1958 this program has selected high school students to visit…

  1. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  2. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

  3. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…

  4. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  5. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  6. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  7. Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Shelpuk, B; Walker, A

    1994-10-01

    The Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant is a software tool to be used by energy auditors to prioritize future studies of potentially cost-effective renewable energy applications at federal facilities. This paper describes the structure and function of the tool, gives an inventory of renewable energy technologies represented in the tool, and briefly describes the algorithms used to rank opportunities by the savings-to-investment ratio.

  8. Lake County renewable energy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This report documents the preparation of a renewable energy plan for Lake County, Oregon. It is the County's intention to adopt this plan as a supporting document to its Comprehensive Plan and implementing ordinances. The consideration of renewable energy in its land-use planning program is a statutory requirement for Lake County, and under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act such renewable resource planning also fulfills regional energy objectives on a local level.

  9. The Rural Outreach Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

  10. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context. PMID:26163020

  11. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... memorandum in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, February 21, 2012 [FR... Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product Procurement Memorandum for the... procurement of biobased products to promote rural economic development, create new jobs, and provide...

  12. Entrepreneurship Theories and Their Use in Rural Development. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Martha; Long, Celeste A.

    Entrepreneurship has been one of the major issues in rural education. This annotated bibliography is a guide to theoretical material and to more recent empirical work on entrepreneurs in different economic climates. The material was gathered to enable rural development strategists who want to promote local independent business development to build…

  13. The Power of Competing Narratives: A New Interpretation of Rural School-Community Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Often considered harmonious places, rural communities are in reality spaces often fragmented along class lines, with political factions promoting competing values and interests regarding the purpose of schooling. Using an exemplar case, this study affords us a new interpretation of rural school-community relations in times of conflict. It…

  14. Rural and Small-Town Attitudes about Alcohol Use during Pregnancy: A Community and Provider Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert; Nagle, Laura; Lewis, Jimmie; Wiesenhahn, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 3,346 rural and small-town residents of Kentucky and 138 rural prenatal service providers found that neither males nor females were knowledgeable about the harmful effects of alcohol use during pregnancy, with males having significantly less knowledge. Service providers identified barriers to health promotion and prevention efforts and…

  15. Freeing the Hand of the Lord: Securing Constructivist Pedagogy through Professional Development in Kenyan Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngundi, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of constructivist pedagogy promoting learner-centered teaching in Kenya's rural primary schools. It explores both the school-based as well as bureaucratic hurdles to the success of constructivist pedagogy. Teacher ideologies, issues of diverse cultures and traditional beliefs, the rural context characterized by…

  16. Using GIS to Teach Place-Based Mathematics in Rural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Russell, Nicole M.; Hobbs, Robert M.; Buchanan, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to promote the use of GIS and place-based education (PBE) in rural mathematics classrooms. The pedagogy of place is disappearing from rural communities because of declining enrollments, lack of support, and federal mandates to focus more on basic academic skills. However, PBE does not stand in opposition to…

  17. KEMET Academy: A University Outreach Model for Addressing the Wholeness of Learning in a Rural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Davis-Maye, Denise; Thomas, Chippewa M.; Seals, Cheryl; Alfred, Dorienna M.; Tripp, Lucretia Octavia; King-Jupiter, Kimberly L.; Lovett, Garnetta Laverne

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces a model of university outreach in rural communities which promotes increasing post-secondary options for rural dwelling African American youth. KEMET (Knowledge and Excellence in Mathematics, Equilibrium, and Technology) Academy is a comprehensive academic enrichment program targeting African American students enrolled in…

  18. Legacy of the Rural Systemic Initiatives: Innovation, Leadership, Teacher Development, and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Smith, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    This monograph offers an in-depth look at the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI) efforts, an investment of more than $140 million to reform mathematics and science programs in rural K-12 public education and tribal education. The authors seek to promote a foundation of contextual understanding for improving public…

  19. A Work of ARTE: The Newsletter of the Assembly of Rural Teachers of English, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work of ARTE, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the ARTE newsletter published during 1993. This newsletter describes organizational objectives and activities of the Assembly of Rural Teachers of English (ARTE), and presents articles of interest to rural English teachers. Articles discuss: (1) promoting and capitalizing on positive feelings of family…

  20. Building Sense of Community in Rural North Dakota Towns: Opportunities for Community Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flage, Lynette Jo

    2010-01-01

    Many rural North Dakota communities struggle with the loss of services, schools, and population due to a changing landscape, but does a strong sense of community help anchor residents to their town? The purpose of this study was to describe sense of community and its relationship to actions promoting social capital in rural North Dakota towns.…

  1. The Dilemma of Time: Student-Centered Teaching in the Rural Classroom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    China has been promoting student-centered education under the current curriculum reform. However, teachers in rural schools continue to exercise tight control of the classroom, with lecturing taking up most of the class time. Drawing on ethnographic observation and interviews in a rural elementary school, this study analyzes the rationale of rural…

  2. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  3. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Promotion Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Inslee, Jay [D-WA-1

    2011-09-21

    09/19/2012 PERMISSION TO BE ADDED AS A COSPONSOR - Ms. Bonamici asked unanimous consent that she be added as a cosponsor of H.R. 2994 since the original sponsor is no longer a Member of Congress. Agreed to without objection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Rewards of renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Gregory

    2008-09-01

    In 1987 an American-style fridge freezer would use about 950 kWh of electricity and cost about 150 (£80) a year to run. Two decades on, a comparable appliance uses half the electricity and costs less than half as much to run. In 1975 there were about 3780 000 cars on the streets of Los Angeles, whereas today there are more than 5200 000 - yet air-pollution levels have fallen by half and an increasing number of those vehicles are hybrids or rely on renewable fuels like bio-diesel. Last year, half a million homes in Southern California were receiving direct solar power, either from solar electricity plants or from rooftop photovoltaic panels.

  5. Renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. PMID:24679258

  6. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  7. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Rural People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Disabilities in Rural Areas . What are the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act for small ... U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. What are the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act for local ...

  9. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  11. Smarter finance for cleaner energy: open up master limited partnerships (MLPs) and real estate investment trusts (REITs) to renewable energy investment

    SciTech Connect

    Mormann, Feliz; Reicher, Dan

    2012-11-15

    Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)—both well-established investment structures—should be opened up to renewable energy investment. MLPs and, more recently, REITs have a proven track record for promoting oil, gas, and other traditional energy sources. When extended to renewable energy projects these tools will help promote growth, move renewables closer to subsidy independence, and vastly broaden the base of investors in America’s energy economy. The extension of MLPs and REITs to renewables enjoys significant support from the investment and clean energy communities. In addition, MLPs for renewables also enjoy bipartisan political backing in Congress.

  12. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  13. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  14. The Paradox in Institutional Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim

    The renewal of institutions and maintenance of excellence in the uncertain future are discussed, based on research with 335 four-year universities and colleges. In examining the function of paradox in adaptation and renewal, it was found that individuals who can simultaneously focus on opposites, or paradoxes, are tolerant and flexible.…

  15. DSM renewable opportunities in Boston

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J.; Coakley, S.; Schoengold, D.

    1995-11-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

  16. Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

    2010-06-01

    Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate ±5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

  17. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    restraining effect on average fertility. Both traditional and modern sector jobs have a negative association with fertility. Those jobs which take a woman away from the home were the most forceful in their association with lower fertility. Also noticed was what might be an overriding direct effect of the government's family planning program on the compatibility of agricultural occupations with childbearing, through its promotion of birth control. When stratified, the data yield variations in urban and rural fertility behavior which speak of change occurring in the traditional rural society. PMID:12339316

  18. The Conceptualization and Communication of Risk Among Rural Appalachian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    MORELAND, JENNIFER J.; KRIEGER, JANICE L.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.; MILLER-DAY, MICHELLE

    2013-01-01

    This study employs a meta-theoretical perspective for examining risk perceptions and behavior in the rural, Appalachian cultural context, an area that remains largely unexplored. In-depth interviews were conducted with 113 rural adolescents to describe how youth conceptualize risk and how risk is communicated in the rural environment. Analyses revealed adolescents viewed behavior as risky when they had personal or vicarious experiences resulting in a loss of control or physical harm. Elements of the rural Appalachian culture including activities, familism, and community ties can both prevent and promote adolescent risk-taking in various forms. This study demonstrates the conceptualization of risk and messages about risk are culturally-situated and communicatively devised and enacted. The implications of these findings for adolescent risk prevention programs are discussed. PMID:23448190

  19. Understanding the Business Case for Telemental Health in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Lambert, David; Gale, John; Hartley, David; Croll, Zachariah; Hansen, Anush

    2016-07-01

    Telemental health has been promoted to address long-standing access barriers to rural mental health care, including low supply and long travel distances. Examples of rural telemental health programs are common; there is a less clear picture of how widely implemented these programs are, their organization, staffing, and services. There is also a need to understand the business case for these programs and assess whether and how they might realize their promise. To address these gaps, a national study was conducted of rural telemental health programs including an online survey of 53 programs and follow-up interviews with 23 programs. This article describes the current landscape and characteristics of these programs and then examines their business case. Can rural telemental health programs be sustained within current delivery systems and reimbursement structures? This question is explored in four areas: need and demand, infrastructure and workforce, funding and reimbursement, and organizational fit and alignment. PMID:26695645

  20. Thoughts on Beijing's Long-Term Rural Infrastructure Management and Protection Issues from the Perspective of the Government to Effectively Perform Their Duties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    To strengthen rural infrastructure management, give full play to the role of benefit of infrastructure, it has important significance for promoting the development of rural economy and society. Protection-use and facility energy-use issues are outstanding during Beijing rural infrastructure management. The comprehensive and detailed analysis of the cause of the problems put forward the concrete feasible countermeasures from the government to fulfill the effective function to rural infrastructure: A clear property ownership; Implementation of special funds audit system of the rural infrastructure management; Implementation of rural infrastructure maintenance and management assessment methods and so on.

  1. Policy Implications of the Movement of Blacks Out of the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anne S.; Bowles, Gladys K.

    Implicit or explicit national governmental actions designed to perpetuate, change conditions, maintain the status quo, or introduce change (although not designed for that purpose) are known as policy. Some of these actions relate directly to population distribution from early land grants to present urban renewal and rural development activities.…

  2. Community Change and the Farm Sector: Impacts of Rural Development on Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Molnar, Joseph J.

    Findings from current literature form the basis for this examination of five critical elements of change and development within the local community setting which impact on agriculture: population, employment, land, water, and environment. Renewed rural population growth during the 1970's has reversed small farm trends but placed strains on local…

  3. 77 FR 2948 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...This NOFA announces the acceptance of applications under the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) for Fiscal Year 2012 for financial assistance as follows: grants, guaranteed loans, and combined grants and guaranteed loans for the development and construction of renewable energy systems and for energy efficiency improvement projects; grants for conducting energy audits; grants for......

  4. Peace Corps Rural Energy Survey: Senegal. Training for Development Series. Training Manual No. T-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This survey was undertaken by the Peace Corps to assist Senegal in identifying energy needs in rural areas and in implementing alternative, renewable energy projects at the community level. This book describes the sample, energy use, energy needs, and resources. Fifteen villages of fewer than 5,000 people were selected for data collection. The…

  5. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  6. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  7. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  8. Jobs and Renewable Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sterzinger, George

    2006-12-19

    Early in 2002, REPP developed the Jobs Calculator, a tool that calculates the number of direct jobs resulting from renewable energy development under RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) legislation or other programs to accelerate renewable energy development. The calculator is based on a survey of current industry practices to assess the number and type of jobs that will result from the enactment of a RPS. This project built upon and significantly enhanced the initial Jobs Calculator model by (1) expanding the survey to include other renewable technologies (the original model was limited to wind, solar PV and biomass co-firing technologies); (2) more precisely calculating the economic development benefits related to renewable energy development; (3) completing and regularly updating the survey of the commercially active renewable energy firms to determine kinds and number of jobs directly created; and (4) developing and implementing a technology to locate where the economic activity related to each type of renewable technology is likely to occur. REPP worked directly with groups in the State of Nevada to interpret the results and develop policies to capture as much of the economic benefits as possible for the state through technology selection, training program options, and outreach to manufacturing groups.

  9. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  10. Reading Motivation and Engagement at a Rural Georgia High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As college and workplace success becomes increasingly dependent on reading, parents and educators have become more interested in how to engage students in reading. Teachers at a rural Georgia high school have reported that students are reluctant to engage in academic reading. Guided by previous research on the factors that promote or discourage…

  11. Rural Education in 1926-1928. Bulletin, 1929, No. 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katherine M.

    1929-01-01

    The goal toward which rural education appears to be moving at the close of the biennial period 1927-28 is that of equalization of educational opportunity within each of the several states. The most significant and generally accepted means of achieving it is apparently through increasing emphasis on the promotion of centralizing and coordination…

  12. National and Rural Housing Policy. Historical Development and Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, William J.; And Others

    This report traces the historical development of federal housing policy that has promoted a 40% decline in substandard housing and a 20% increase in homeownership over the past 50 years. It presents emerging national and rural housing policy concerns: the proper role of federal, state, and local governments in the mortgage credit and insurance…

  13. From Victrola to Microcomputer: Rural Libraries and New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine

    1984-01-01

    Describes program to promote computer literacy for adults by establishing microcomputer learning centers in 11 libraries of the rural service area of the Southern Adirondack Library System. Hardware and software, project design, volunteer contribution, adult learner response, librarian learners, and state and federal aid are highlighted. Eight…

  14. Focusing on ICT in Rural and Regional Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading, Chris; Fluck, Andrew; Trinidad, Sue; Smith, Howard; Shaw, Greg; Anderson, Neil; McLoughlin, Catherine; White, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    National priorities set by an Australian ministerial taskforce provide clear guidelines to develop pedagogy that integrates ICT. Although these guidelines do not specifically address rural and regional school needs, the two priorities: promoting pedagogic leadership and creating new learning environments, are of particular interest. But how are…

  15. Culture, Community, and the Promise of Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Nachtigal, Paul

    Traditionally, rural schools have been tightly linked to their communities, and the process of schooling has reflected local values, mores, and ways of life. However, during the early 1900s, the beginning of the Progressive era, allegiance to local ways received heavy criticism. An inherent assumption, that bigger is better, was promoted as the…

  16. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  17. Challenges of Literacy & Development in Rural Quebec. Chapter 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionne, Hughes; Horth, Raynald

    Nearly half of Quebec's municipalities have fewer than 800 inhabitants and are struggling with conditions of economic decline, outmigration of youth, and political marginalization. In 1991, a regional coalition called Coalition Urgence Rurale was formed in the Lower Saint Lawrence area to support initiatives that promote community empowerment,…

  18. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  19. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  20. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book is 128 pages of data in tables, figures and charts, and text. It provides a look at resources and usage for wind, solar, geothermal, hydro, hydrogen, and biopower. Developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), it was produced by Rachel Gelman, edited by Mike Meshek, and designed by Stacy Buchanan and Erica Augustine and released in October, 2013. Report number for this data book is DOE/GO-102013-4291.

  1. Rural power quality

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, D.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. ); Leonard, J. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

  2. Education Issues in Rural Schools of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    To have an impact on rural schools and communities, education researchers and reformers must stop approaching rural issues from an urban perspective, adopt a perspective that values rurality, and address issues specific to the rural context. Rural schools have contributed to the depletion of rural communities by focusing on individual mobility and…

  3. Country Roads: Counseling Psychology's Rural Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes number of rural inhabitants to present microcosm of rural America. Describes rising rates of alcoholism, child and spouse abuse, and depression among rural residents. Examines poverty in rural American. Focuses on rural practice, discussing the setting, concerns and dilemmas, and training issues. Looks at the rural context of counseling…

  4. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  5. Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the 10 quarterly issues of "Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News," published from Fall 1997 to Winter 2000 (the final issue). This newsletter focused on projects funded by the Annenberg Rural Challenge, as well as research summaries and opinion pieces on the benefits of small schools, place-based education, and community…

  6. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  7. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  8. Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Sociological Society, Bozeman, MT.

    In this volume, the Rural Sociological Society Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty analyzes the leading explanations of persistent rural poverty and points out new directions in theory that should provide a firmer foundation for antipoverty policies and programs. Written by over 50 leading social scientists, the Task Force report explains that…

  9. Chemistry for the Life Sciences. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, H. Clyde; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching chemistry for the life sciences. Covered in the first section of the volume are the role of chemistry in rural health promotional training, general objectives…

  10. Paraprofessional Skills I and Paraprofessional Skills II. An Instructor Resource Guide. An Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, Barbara C.; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching a course in paraprofessional skills. Covered in the first section of this guide are the role of paraprofessional skills in rural health promotional training,…

  11. Introductory Epidemiology. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Stephen H.; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching a course in introductory epidemiology. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of epidemiology in rural health promotional training, general…

  12. The Function Analysis of Informationization in New Rural Cooperatives Medical Service Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuefeng; Liu, Min

    The establishment of new rural cooperative medical system is an important action for comprehensive affluent society. It is an important measure for Central Party Committee and State Council to solve "three rural" issue effectively and to overall urban and rural, regional, coordinated economic and social development, building a well-off society in the new situation. It has important role to alleviate farmers to see a doctor expensively, see a doctor difficultly, reduce the burden on farmers and improve their level of health protection and quality of life, solve the problem of poor because of illness and the problem of returning poor due to illness, promote the production and rural economic development and stability in the rural areas. This article will analyze the function of informationization in new rural cooperative medical service management selectively.

  13. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  14. Rural Special Education: A Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Harold W.

    1975-01-01

    This article lists and discusses five problems in rural special education: a) low population density, b) financial constraints resulting from lower tax bases, c) rural flight, d) inability to recruit and retain quality personnel, and e) lack of future. (HMD)

  15. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of dental care access? The Rural Health Information Hub provides two useful tools that may be useful when looking for additional strategies to address dental care access. RHIhub’s Rural Health ...

  16. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  17. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences. PMID:12336781

  18. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to advance the fundamental understanding of novel photoelectronic organic device structures integrated with inorganic nanostructures, while also expanding the general field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems.

  19. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  20. FEMP Renewable Energy Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-14

    Fact sheet describing how the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides Federal agencies with information, guidance, and assistance in using renewable energy.

  1. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  2. Gifted Voices from Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.

    This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

  3. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  4. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  5. FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPP, JAMES H.

    FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL…

  6. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  7. Rural Familism: An Interregional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Peter L.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    1977-01-01

    Testing the hypothesis that at least two types of rural familism exist within different geographic regions of the United States, this study indicates that extended kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Southeast and primary kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Far West. (JC)

  8. Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Carson, Ed.; Stern, Joyce D., Ed.

    This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales.…

  9. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  10. Rural Libraries and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of rural public libraries in the information age. Characteristics of rural communities that library planners should consider are conservatism, the lack of professionally trained librarians, library trustee involvement, the need for marketing, and gender balance. Suggestions for recreating rural libraries and providing…

  11. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  12. Rural Schools for Tomorrow. Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Julian E., Ed.

    This 1945 National Education Association yearbook focuses attention on the post-World War II problems of rural schools and encourages national, state, and local leaders to lay plans for strengthening rural education programs. The articles examine social and economic problems faced by rural Americans, the implications of these problems for rural…

  13. OCLC and Rural Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Clarence R.

    This discussion of ways in which OCLC can be used by rural libraries to enhance the library services offered to rural Americans suggests that OCLC is a type of technology that can be used to overcome the insufficiency of funds to finance library services. OCLC products and services that are particularly relevant to small, rural public libraries…

  14. Adult Literacy in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    The rural work force has lower basic skills to supply labor for new jobs with higher literacy demands. At all levels of education the rural population is at a disadvantage compared with the urban population. One out of five rural adults in Pennsylvania has not continued education past the eighth grade. Among the costs to businesses from employee…

  15. National Rural Education Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Stephens, E. Robert

    To develop a list of research priorities for rural education, members of the Rural Education Association's (REA) Research Committee and Executive Board were asked to rank order nine thematic research categories. The ranking process resulted in the following list (starting with the highest priority): (1) rural school effectiveness; (2) staff…

  16. 1997 Australian Rural Education Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Nominees for the 1997 Australia Rural Education Award included a program that allowed rural students to follow a young man sailing around the world; a music, dance, and drama competition for rural students; a music camp; a bandicoot conservation project; an agricultural education program; and student documentation of the history of a local rural…

  17. The Rural School from Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Marion G.

    Written in 1917, this book relates the author's experience as a beginning teacher in rural Kansas. The purpose of the book was to provide preservice teachers an overview of educational practices in rural schools at that time. In addition, educational policies are proposed that specifically aim to improve rural schools. The author was barely 20…

  18. National Conference on Professional and Personal Renewal for Faculty. Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, April 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, William K., Ed.; Chandler, Judith B., Ed.

    Strategies for promoting faculty renewal are discussed in proceedings of the 1986 National Conference on Professional and Personal Renewal for Faculty. Included is an introduction by Ronald D. Simpson, a keynote speech by John W. Gardner and an address on academic culture by Peter Seldin. Summaries of 47 papers are provided, including the…

  19. Conservation and renewable energy programs: Technical and financial assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technical and Financial Assistance (OTFA) promotes the application of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices by working cooperatively with state and local governments and private and nonprofit organizations, providing technical and financial assistance and serving as network for sharing information. This report is an overview of some of the programs designed to aid in solving our national energy problems.

  20. Global energy in transition: environmental aspects of new and renewable sources for development

    SciTech Connect

    Bassan, E.

    1981-07-01

    Technical, development, and environmental aspects of the following alternative sources are assessed: solar energy, wind energy, energy from the oceans, hydropower, geothermal energy, biomass, fuelwood and charcoal, peat, oil shale and tar sands, and draft animal power. Policy issues for energy planning and development are presented for: rural energy, industry and transport, and financing new and renewable sources of energy. Summaries of the following national reports are included: China, Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Jamaica, Korea, Pakistan, Peru, Sudan, and United States. (MHR)