Science.gov

Sample records for promoting safe seafood

  1. 78 FR 20092 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and... collection. Under the authority of the Fish and Seafood Promotion Act of 1986, information collected under this program is used to promote domestically-produced fish products. The information...

  2. Synthetic musk in seafood products from south Europe using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M; Cavalheiro, J; Lanceleur, L; Monperrus, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g(-1) were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL - 100 ng g(-1) with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL - 96.4 ng g(-1) and MDL - 6.85 ng g(-1), respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL - 0.6 ng g(-1) and MDL - 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues. PMID:26830596

  3. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods. PMID:12321357

  4. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  5. Promoting safe hygiene practices in public restrooms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cynthia Kratzke; Short, Margaret; San Filippo, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    The study described in this article examined the impact of hygiene posters in promoting safe hygiene practices for used toilet tissue disposal in public restrooms. Although the long-held hygiene norm in homes for the disposal of used toilet tissue in a container may occur in the rural U.S., it is critical in public environments to promote proper toilet tissue disposal in toilets to reduce potential transmission of bacteria and viruses. A control group time series design was used for observations of used toilet tissue disposal on the floor or in large trash cans in restrooms with and without signage for a two-week period. A significant decrease in observations was reported at intervention sites with posters (p = .025). No significant differences were reported at the control site. Posters were effective in motivating behavior change beyond hand hygiene. Further research may examine the impact of health posters in other environmental settings. PMID:25603617

  6. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  7. Safe Schools for LGBTQI Students: How Do Teachers View Their Role in Promoting Safe Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Stephanie; Crawford, Heather Glynn; Van Pelt, J-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This literature review presents insights from existing research on how teachers view their role in creating safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) students. Analysis of the literature shows that there are concerns for LGBTQI students' safety in schools, that educational settings operate from…

  8. Promoting Safe Schools and Healthy Students in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Janet; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bierman, Karen; Lang, Joann

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative currently underway in the Tyrone Area School District. The goals of the SS/HS Initiative involve reducing risk and building competencies for students and their families through integration of law enforcement and mental health into school-based prevention efforts. Program evaluation is…

  9. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  10. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  11. Seafood intake of US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) for health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet guidelines, particularly population subgroups. Objectives: To describe prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers,...

  12. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  13. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  14. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2011-04-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:21710911

  15. Infections related to the ingestion of seafood. Part II: parasitic infections and food safety.

    PubMed

    Butt, Adeel A; Aldridge, Kenneth E; Sanders, Charles V

    2004-05-01

    Parasites are responsible for a substantial number of seafood-associated infections. The factor most commonly associated with infection is consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. People with underlying disorders, particularly liver disease, are more susceptible to infection. In the first part of this review, published last month, we discussed the viral and bacterial agents associated with consumption of seafood. In part II, we discuss the parasites commonly associated with seafood consumption. Parasites readily identifiable from both consumable seafood and infected human beings include nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, and protozoa. The salient features associated with seafood-related parasite infestations are discussed. To provide a safe product for consumers, the seafood industry and the government in the USA have undertaken specific measures, which include good manufacturing practices and hazards analysis and critical control points implemented by the government and regulatory agencies. Consumers should take common precautions including obtaining seafood from reputable sources especially if the seafood is to be consumed uncooked. Adequate cooking of seafood is the safest way of preventing related infections. PMID:15120346

  16. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  17. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  18. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  19. The impact of child safety promotion on different social strata in a WHO Safe Community

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Kent; Dalal, Koustuv

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The objective of the current study was to evaluate outcomes of a program to prevent severe and less severe unintentional child injuries among the different social strata under WHO Safe Community program. Specifically, the aim was to study effectiveness of Safe Community program for reducing child injury. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used, with pre- and post-implementation registrations covering the children (0 -15 years) in the program implementation area (population 41,000) and in a neighboring control municipality (population 26,000) in Östergötland County, Sweden. Results: Boys from not vocationally active households displayed the highest pre-intervention injury rate in both the control and intervention areas. Also in households in which the vocationally significant member was employed, boys showed higher injury rates than girls. Households in which the vocationally significant member was self-employed, girls exhibited higher injury rates than boys in the intervention area. After 6 years of program activity, the injury rates for boys and girls in employed category and injury rates for girls in self-employed category displayed a decreasing trend in the intervention area. However, in the control area injury rate decreased only for boys of employed families. Conclusions: The study indicated that almost no changes in injury rates in the control area suggested that the reduction of child injuries in the intervention area between 1983 and 1989 was likely to be attributable to the safety promotion program. Therefore, the current study indicates that Safe Community program seems to be successful for reducing child injuries. PMID:21502791

  20. Promoting Safe Nursing Care by Bringing Visibility to the Disciplinary Aspects of Interdisciplinary Care

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Gail; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The provision of safe and effective interdisciplinary care requires making the unique and interdependent aspects of disciplinary care visible and understandable. Ideally, the electronic health record (EHR) should capture both disciplinary and interdisciplinary care. This paper reports on a “real time” pilot of a technology supported method of documenting, communicating, and tracking the nursing component of the patient’s plan of care for eventual integration into an EHR. An intensive care unit tested the intervention that included the adoption and use of the NANDA, NOC, and NIC terminologies. Multiple methods were used to evaluate the impact of the care planning method for a 12 month period. We found that the increased visibility of nursing care promoted greater awareness and understanding (collective mind) of care and in turn enhanced continuity. The results of the pilot were used to further refine our theoretical framework and method for the multi-site study currently underway. PMID:16779067

  1. Arsenic speciation in manufactured seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    1998-09-01

    The literature on the speciation of arsenic (As) in seafoods was critically reviewed. Most research has been directed toward fresh seafood products with few papers dealing with As speciation in manufactured seafoods. Predictions concerning As species made on the basis of fresh seafood products cannot be extrapolated to manufactured seafoods. Therefore, due to the numerous species of As, the scarcity of data concerning their presence in foods, the transformations each species may undergo during industrial processing and cooking, and the lack of legislation on permitted As levels in seafood products, As species in manufactured seafood products need to be determined and quantified. PMID:9766084

  2. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  3. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  4. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article. PMID:27478206

  5. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  6. Emerging Seafood Preservation Techniques to Extend Freshness and Minimize Vibrio Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Lau, Fiona; Banerjee, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the popularity of seafood consumption is increasing exponentially. To meet the demands of a growing market, the seafood industry has increasingly been innovating ways to keep their products fresh and safe while increasing production. Marine environments harbor several species of indigenous microorganisms, some of which, including Vibrio spp., may be harmful to humans, and all of which are part of the natural microbiota of the seafood. After harvest, seafood products are often shipped over large geographic distances, sometimes for prolonged periods, during which the food must stay fresh and pathogen proliferation must be minimized. Upon arrival there is often a strong desire, arising from both culinary and nutritional considerations, to consume seafood products raw, or minimally cooked. This supply chain along with popular preferences have increased challenges for the seafood industry. This has resulted in a desire to develop methodologies that reduce pathogenic and spoilage organisms in seafood items to comply with regulations and result in minimal changes to the taste, texture, and nutritional content of the final product. This mini-review discusses and compares several emerging technologies, such as treatment with plant derived natural compounds, phage lysis, high-pressure processing, and irradiation for their ability to control pathogenic vibrios, limit the growth of spoilage organisms, and keep the desired organoleptic properties of the seafood product intact. PMID:27047466

  7. Mechanisms of behavioural maintenance: Long-term effects of theory-based interventions to promote safe water consumption.

    PubMed

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change. PMID:26304476

  8. Zoonotic disease risks for immunocompromised and other high-risk clients and staff: promoting safe pet ownership and contact.

    PubMed

    Stull, Jason W; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2015-03-01

    Pets can be a source of disease (zoonoses) for humans. The disease risks associated with pet contact are highest among young children, the elderly, pregnant women, and immunocompromised hosts. These individuals and household members display limited knowledge of pet-associated disease, rarely recall receipt of pet-associated disease information, and report pet ownership practices that are often at odds with established disease prevention recommendations. Veterinary staff are in a key position to promote safe pet ownership and contact practices. Encouraging and safeguarding client disclosure of immunocompromising health conditions and promoting veterinarian-physician communications are critical for effectively providing this service. PMID:25534535

  9. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Dickhoff, Walton W; Stein, John E; Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Garrett, E Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L; Mitchell, Karen M; Noble, Brandi T; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B; Benner, Ronald A; Koufopoulos, Peter N; Dickey, Robert W

    2012-12-11

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  10. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  11. Promoting Safe Schools and Academic Success: Moving Your School from Punitive Discipline to Effective Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olley, Rivka I.; Cohn, Andrea; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    Effective discipline is essential to creating safe, supportive learning environments for all students, which is critical to academic achievement. Since the passage of zero tolerance policies in the early 1990s, many school districts have relied on punitive discipline focused on harsh strategies such as using suspension and expulsion as primary…

  12. Seafood Products Course Lecture Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, John Wingo, Ed.; And Others

    This consumer's guide offers practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafoods. It covers both finfish and shellfish, including crabs, lobsters, shrimp, oysters, clams, and scallops. It describes the characteristics, important species, fishing methods, market forms, and consumer inspection tips. It also gives such information as…

  13. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-04-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy. PMID:26252073

  14. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals. PMID:14576894

  15. A Comparison of Community and Clinic Baby Showers to Promote Safe Sleep for Populations at High Risk for Infant Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Schunn, Christy; Lopez, Venessa; Kraus, Stacey; Blackmon, Sheila; Dempsey, Millicent; Sollo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Community baby showers have provided education and free portable cribs to promote safe sleep for high-risk infants. We evaluated knowledge gained at these showers and the effectiveness of holding baby showers at a primary care clinic as an alternative to traditional community venues. Participants at the community venue were more likely to exhibit risk factors associated with unsafe sleep and to report an unsafe sleep location for their infant without the provided portable crib. Following the showers, both groups showed improvement in knowledge and intentions regarding safe sleep. However, to connect with the highest risk groups, showers held at community venues appeared to be preferable to those held at high-risk clinics. PMID:27335991

  16. A Comparison of Community and Clinic Baby Showers to Promote Safe Sleep for Populations at High Risk for Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Schunn, Christy; Lopez, Venessa; Kraus, Stacey; Blackmon, Sheila; Dempsey, Millicent; Sollo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Community baby showers have provided education and free portable cribs to promote safe sleep for high-risk infants. We evaluated knowledge gained at these showers and the effectiveness of holding baby showers at a primary care clinic as an alternative to traditional community venues. Participants at the community venue were more likely to exhibit risk factors associated with unsafe sleep and to report an unsafe sleep location for their infant without the provided portable crib. Following the showers, both groups showed improvement in knowledge and intentions regarding safe sleep. However, to connect with the highest risk groups, showers held at community venues appeared to be preferable to those held at high-risk clinics. PMID:27335991

  17. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  18. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Clinical, information and business process modeling to promote development of safe and flexible software.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Deveny, Elizabeth; Morrison, Iain; Lewis, Bryn

    2006-09-01

    Using a factorial vignette survey and modeling methodology, we developed clinical and information models - incorporating evidence base, key concepts, relevant terms, decision-making and workflow needed to practice safely and effectively - to guide the development of an integrated rule-based knowledge module to support prescribing decisions in asthma. We identified workflows, decision-making factors, factor use, and clinician information requirements. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) and public domain software and knowledge engineering tools (e.g. Protégé) were used, with the Australian GP Data Model as the starting point for expressing information needs. A Web Services service-oriented architecture approach was adopted within which to express functional needs, and clinical processes and workflows were expressed in the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). This formal analysis and modeling methodology to define and capture the process and logic of prescribing best practice in a reference implementation is fundamental to tackling deficiencies in prescribing decision support software. PMID:17023408

  20. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  1. Conducting interdisciplinary research to promote healthy and safe employment in health care: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig; Galizzi, Monica; Melillo, Karen Devereaux; Mawn, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Due to the complexity of human health, emphasis is increasingly being placed on the need for and conduct of multidisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary health research. Yet many academic and research organizations--and the discipline-specific associations and journals--may not yet be prepared to adopt changes necessary to optimally support interdisciplinary work. This article presents an ongoing interdisciplinary research project's efforts to investigate mechanisms and pathways that lead to occupational health disparities among healthcare workers. It describes the promises and pitfalls encountered during the research,and outlines effective strategies that emerged as a result. Lessons learned include: conflict resolution regarding theoretical and methodological differences; establishing a sense of intellectual ownership of the research, as well as guidelines for multiple authorship; and development and utilization of protocols, communication systems, and tools. This experience suggests a need for the establishment of supportive structures and processes to promote successful interdisciplinary research. PMID:15147650

  2. CONDITIONAL INTERLEUKIN (IL)-12 GENE THERAPY PROMOTES SAFE AND EFFECTIVE ANTI-TUMOR IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Komita, Hideo; Zhao, Xi; Katakam, Anand K.; Kumar, Prasanna; Kawabe, Mayumi; Okada, Hideho; Braughler, J. Mark; Storkus, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    We and others have previously demonstrated that (chronic) IL-12 gene therapy delivered intratumorally via ex vivo gene-engineered DC is competent to promote the regression of established murine tumors. In this report, we have developed a conditional expression system (rAd.RheoIL12) in order to determine the temporal requirements of transgenic IL-12p70 production by administered DC on therapeutic outcome in a subcutaneous B16 melanoma model. DC infected with rAd.RheoIL12 (DC.RheoIL12) secreted IL-12p70 in a tightly-regulated fashion in response to a synthetic diacylhydrazine small molecule ligand in vitro, and the treatment benefit of DC.RheolIL12 delivered into B16 lesions was strictly ligand-dependent in vivo. Indeed, DC.RheoIL12-based therapy promoted the regression of established day 7 B16 tumor lesions after intratumoral injection, provided that ligand administration occurred within 24h of DC injection and was sustained for approximately 5 or more days. Treatment efficacy was correlated to the magnitude of systemic anti-B16 CD8+ T cells cross-primed in vivo, which in turn, appeared dependent on the early enhanced in vivo survival of adoptively-transferred DC.RheoIL12 in tumor and tumor-draining lymph nodes. The unique safety feature of DC.RheoIL12 application was emphasized in a combined treatment model with rIL-2, where profound TNF-α-associated toxicity could be ameliorated upon discontinuation of activating ligand administration. PMID:19444303

  3. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  4. School-Based Practices and Programs That Promote Safe and Drug-Free Schools. CASE/CCBD Mini-Library Series on Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Patricia M.

    This monograph focuses on school-based practices and programs that promote safe and drug-free schools. It begins with a description of the key characteristics of schools with effective programs and provides a model for school-wide support. Necessary steps for developing an effective system of universal prevention are listed and include: (1)…

  5. Seafood Manual for School Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carol S.; Webb, Anita H.

    Seafood information pertinent to the needs of school food service personnel is presented. Each of five sections contains information considered important by school food service managers and supervisors as indicated in a national survey (1977). Provided in section one are a narrative section, graph, and chart on seafood nutritive value. The next…

  6. A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. Objectives: We aimed to assess this protocol based on comparisons with previous oil spills, published testing results, and current knowledge regarding chemicals released during the DH oil spill. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning seafood contamination and oil spills and consulted with academic and government experts. Results: Protocols to evaluate seafood safety before reopening fisheries have relied on risk assessment of health impacts from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures, but metal contamination may also be a concern. Assumptions used to determine levels of concern (LOCs) after oil spills have not been consistent across risk assessments performed after oil spills. Chemical testing results after the DH oil spill suggest PAH levels are at or below levels reported after previous oil spills, and well below LOCs, even when more conservative parameters are used to estimate risk. Conclusions: We recommend use of a range of plausible risk parameters to set bounds around LOCs, comparisons of post-spill measurements with baseline levels, and the development and implementation of long-term monitoring strategies for metals as well as PAHs and dispersant components. In addition, the methods, results, and uncertainties associated with estimating seafood safety after oil spills should be communicated in a transparent and timely manner, and stakeholders should be actively involved in developing a long

  7. Fresh and Frozen Seafood: Selecting and Serving It Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower in mercury. These include salmon, shrimp, pollock, tuna (light canned), tilapia, catfish, and cod. Avoid 4 ... fish are highest in mercury. Limit white (albacore) tuna to 6 ounces a week. * From the 2014 ...

  8. Mercury-nutrient signatures in seafood and in the blood of avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-10-15

    Dietary recommendations for seafood are confusing due to the desire to balance both benefits from nutrients and risks from contaminants. The overall health value of different fish and shellfish items depends on concentrations of multiple nutrients (e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) and contaminants (e.g., mercury (Hg)). However, few studies have examined the connections between human exposure to multiple nutrients and contaminants and the consumption of specific types of seafood. Our goals were to compare 1) Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations (Hg-nutrient signatures) among common fish and shellfish items and 2) Hg-nutrient signatures in the blood of avid seafood consumers, based on seafood consumption habits. We compiled nutrient and Hg concentration data for common fish and shellfish items from the literature. We also measured blood concentrations of Hg and seafood nutrients collected from adult, avid seafood consumers on Long Island, NY. Canonical discriminant analyses revealed distinct Hg-nutrient signatures among seafood items, and these signatures were reflected in the blood of consumers based on different consumption habits. For example, consumers with a salmon-dominated seafood diet had relatively high percentage of omega-3 fatty acids in blood, and consumers who tend to eat top predator seafood have higher Hg, but similar blood nutrient concentrations compared to consumers who tend to eat low trophic level seafood. These results provide direct evidence of links between the ecological characteristics of the type of seafood consumed and Hg-nutrient exposure. This approach helps assess the overall human health value of specific seafood types, leads to specific diet recommendations, and can be used to characterize risk:benefit status among seafood consumers. PMID:24846746

  9. The effect of intervention based on Health Action Model to promote workers’ safe behavior in Isfahan Steel Company

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Heidarnia, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The worldwide concern for safety has created the need for new and effective methods to improve safety in the workplace. This study was designed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on Health Action Model on the safe behavior among workers in Isfahan Steel Company. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a quasi-experimental research with experimental and control groups with pre- and post- intervention measurements. The experimental group received intervention based on the Health Action Model. The control group did not receive any intervention except that they participated in the current safety courses of the company. The sample size was 270 workers who were randomly selected and divided into two groups: Experimental (n = 135) and control (n = 135). Data were collected using a questionnaire and a checklist after and before the intervention and were analyzed. Based on the distribution of variables, parametric (t-test, paired t-test) or nonparametric (Chi-square, Wilcoxon) tests were utilized to analyze data. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results indicated that before intervention, the experimental and control groups were similar in model structures. After intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors in relation to safety in the experimental group increased statistically significantly and the observed difference in the control group was not significant. The results also indicated that unsafe behaviors in the experimental group decreased following the educational intervention. This difference also was not statistically significant in the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that application of Health Action Model has an acceptable and positive influence on promoting safe behaviors, knowledge, normative system, and facilitating factors among workers in Isfahan Steel Company. It is, therefore, recommended that Health Action Model based intervention be used for

  10. Assessing an Effort to Promote Safe Parks, Streets and Schools in Washington Heights/Inwood: Assessing Urban Infrastructure Conditions as Determinants of Physical Activity. Program Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Researchers from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University prepared a case study of CODES (Community Outreach and Development Efforts Save). CODES is a coalition of 35 people and organizations in northern Manhattan committed to promoting safe streets, parks and schools. The case study analyzed the factors that prompted CODES'…

  11. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets. PMID:27194017

  12. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  13. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine seafood.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; DeJoseph, Bonnie M; Ray, Liza J; Wagner, Cherie A

    2013-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a series of chemical reactions due to increased CO(2) emissions. The resulting lower pH impairs the senses of reef fishes and reduces their survival, and might similarly impact commercially targeted fishes that produce most of the seafood eaten by humans. Shelled molluscs will also be negatively affected, whereas cephalopods and crustaceans will remain largely unscathed. Habitat changes will reduce seafood production from coral reefs, but increase production from seagrass and seaweed. Overall effects of ocean acidification on primary productivity and, hence, on food webs will result in hard-to-predict winners and losers. Although adaptation, parental effects, and evolution can mitigate some effects of ocean acidification, future seafood platters will look rather different unless CO(2) emissions are curbed. PMID:23122878

  14. Promote Improvement in the Junior High School General Music Course-- A SAFE Approach. Maxi I Report, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourneau, Stella M.

    This document describes one phase of efforts to reorganize music curricula in the K-12 General Music program in Duval County, Florida. Following the Systems Approach for Education (SAFE) curriculum development model, a curriculum for the junior-high General Music course was designed, based on performance objectives. A teacher test booklet was…

  15. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  16. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  17. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent with…

  18. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  19. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A

    2016-01-01

    Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. PMID:27103845

  20. Using mobile technology to promote safe sex and sexual health in adolescents: current practices and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A

    2016-01-01

    Youth and young adults (19-24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. PMID:27103845

  1. Safe using messages may not be enough to promote behaviour change amongst injecting drug users who are ambivalent or indifferent towards death

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Background Health promotion strategies ultimately rely on people perceiving the consequences of their behaviour as negative. If someone is indifferent towards death, it would logically follow that health promotion messages such as safe using messages would have little resonance. This study aimed to investigate attitudes towards death in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and how such attitudes may impact upon the efficacy/relevance of 'safe using' (health promotion) messages. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews in Geelong, Australia with 60 regular heroin users recruited primarily from needle and syringe programs. Results Over half of the interviewees reported having previously overdosed and 35% reported not engaging in any overdose prevention practices. 13% had never been tested for either HIV or hepatitis C. Just under half reported needle sharing of some description and almost all (97%) reported previously sharing other injecting equipment. Many interviewees reported being indifferent towards death. Common themes included; indifference towards life, death as an occupational hazard of drug use and death as a welcome relief. Conclusion Most of the interviewees in this study were indifferent towards heroin-related death. Whilst interviewees were well aware of the possible consequences of their actions, these consequences were not seen as important as achieving their desired state of mind. Safe using messages are an important part of reducing drug-related harm, but people working with IDUs must consider the context in which risk behaviours occur and efforts to reduce said behaviours must include attempts to reduce environmental risk factors at the same time. PMID:19630988

  2. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  3. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  4. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper. PMID:25000341

  5. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas from seafoods in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yaun, S S; Lin, L P

    1993-05-01

    A total of 124 fresh seafoods and 158 processed seafoods collected from the retail markets and supermarkets in Taipei were tested for the contamination with motile Aeromonas spp. Of the fresh seafoods analyzed, 88% displayed the presence of Aeromonas. The isolation rates of various samples were as follows: 100%, freshwater fish; 95%, seawater fish; 78%, fish fillets; 84%, shrimp and crab of the crustacea group; 83%, bivalve shellfish and 84%, non-bivalve shellfish of the mollusca group, and 100%, seaweed. Of the 158 processed seafoods, 11% were contaminated by Aeromonas. The isolation rates were as follows: 0%, canned, dried, or frozen fresh seafood; 18%, salted seafood; 30%, fish cake; 7% vacuum-packaged fish cakes; 14%, frozen seafood dumplings; 8%, cooked seafoods. One hundred and eighty-three Aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and tested for their ability to produce beta-hemolysin. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the A. hydrophila produced beta-hemolysin on 5% blood agar, 94% of the A. sobria and 33% of the A. caviae produced beta-hemolysin. Thus it is likely that fresh seafoods are potentially significant sources of the virulent Aeromonas species and may play an important role in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. PMID:7995079

  6. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy is Safe and Promotes Amputation Free Survival in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.; Rapp, Brian M.; Dalsing, Michael C.; Klein, Janet; Wilson, Michael G.; Hutchins, Gary D.; March, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this phase I open label non-randomized trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (ABMNC) therapy in promoting amputation free survival (AFS) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods Between September 2005 and March 2009 twenty-nine patients (30 limbs), with a median age of 66 (range 23–84) (14 male,15 female) with CLI were enrolled . Twentyone limbs presented with rest pain (RP), six with RP and ulceration, and three with ulcer only. All patients were not candidates for surgical bypass due to absence of a patent artery below the knee and/or endovascular approaches to improving perfusion was not possible as determined by an independent vascular surgeon. Patients were treated with an average dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 × 109 ABMNC injected intramuscularly in the index limb distal to the anterior tibial tuberosity. The primary safety endpoint was accumulation of serious adverse events and the primary efficacy endpoint was AFS at one year. Secondary endpoints at 12 weeks post-treatment were changes in first toe pressure (FTP), toe-brachial index (TBI), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen measurements (TcPO2). Perfusion of the index limb was measured with PET-CT with intra-arterial infusion of H2O15. Rest pain (RP), using a 10-cm visual analog scale, quality of life using the VascuQuol questionnaire, and ulcer healing were assessed at each follow-up interval. Subpopulations of endothelial progenitor cells were quantified prior to ABMNC administration using immunocytochemistry and fluorescent activated cell sorting. Results There were two serious adverse events however there no procedure related deaths. Amputation-free survival at one-year was 86.3%. There was a significant increase in FTP (10.2+ 6.2 mmHg, P=.02) and TBI (0.10± 0.05, P=.02) and a trend in improvement in ABI (0.08±0.04, P=.73). Perfusion Index by PET-CT H2O15 increased by 19.3 ± 3.1 and RP decreased

  7. Microbiological Spoilage of Fish and Seafood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, Lone

    Fish and seafood products are some of the most important protein sources in human nutrition. At the same time, these products are perishable and, if left unpreserved, spoil rapidly. Some fish products are heavily cured (salted, dried) and shelf stable at ambient temperature. An increasing number of fish products are preserved by low levels of salt, cooling, packaging in modified atmosphere, and/or addition of low levels of preservatives. The microflora of these products is often complex; however, spoilage is mostly caused by microbial action.

  8. Impact of processing on the taurine content in processed seafood and their corresponding unprocessed raw materials.

    PubMed

    Dragnes, Bjørn T; Larsen, Rune; Ernstsen, Marita Holm; Mæhre, Hanne; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2009-03-01

    Processing of foods can lead to losses of water-soluble components, and some of these may have beneficial health effects. Taurine has lately attracted attention due to its suggested strong contribution to the health-promoting effects of seafood. The lack of systematic information on the content of conditionally essential nutrients, such as taurine, has led to this study. The taurine concentrations in a variety of common marine dinners and spreads, and their corresponding raw materials, have been determined. Losses of taurine in processed products ranged up to 100% when compared with the taurine content of freshly caught specimens. Products soaked in brines or products subjected to rough processing conditions such as mincing and washing had greater loss compared with products with more intact muscle. Levels of taurine in processed seafood vary according to product type and brand, showing a potential for the industry to take measures in preventing losses of taurine and other water-soluble components. PMID:18608559

  9. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in Water and Seafood, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M.; Jones, Jessica L.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Garrett, Nancy M.; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gómez, Gerardo A.; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M.; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A.; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W.; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples. PMID:22099121

  10. 78 FR 66916 - Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... and Preserved Seafood Processing Point Source Category, 40 CFR Part 408, on June 26, 1974 (39 FR 23134), and December 1, 1975 (40 FR 55770). The seafood processing ELGs created two groups of subcategories... 15, 1980). 45 FR 32675 (May 19, 1980). EPA noted that processing plants in Anchorage, Cordova,...

  11. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites. PMID:25035997

  12. Selenium Content in Seafood in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki; Iida, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans, and seafood is one of the major selenium sources, as well as red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver and garlic. A substantial proportion of the total amount of selenium is present as selenium containing imidazole compound, selenoneine, in the muscles of ocean fish. In order to characterize the selenium content in seafood, the total selenium levels were measured in the edible portions of commercially important fish and shellfish species. Among the tested edible portions, alfonsino muscle had the highest selenium levels (concentration of 1.27 mg/kg tissue). High levels of selenium (1.20–1.07 mg/kg) were also found in the salted ovary products of mullet and Pacific herring. In other fish muscles, the selenium levels ranged between 0.12 and 0.77 mg/kg tissue. The selenium levels were closely correlated with the mercury levels in the white and red muscles in alfonsino. The selenium content in spleen, blood, hepatopancreas, heart, red muscle, white muscle, brain, ovary and testis ranged between 1.10 and 24.8 mg/kg tissue in alfonsino. PMID:23434904

  13. Mercury and selenium content of Taiwanese seafood.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Nam, D H; Basu, N

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is avid in Taiwan (and other Asian nations), but little is known about the mercury and selenium content in local seafood. This paper reports on total mercury, methylmercury and selenium levels from 14 commonly consumed seafood items obtained from Taichung, Taiwan. Mean total mercury concentrations varied nearly 100-fold across species. Fifty per cent of the marlins sampled and 35% of the sharks exceeded the 0.3 µg g(-1) US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline. Methylmercury comprised a majority of the total mercury in all species. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium-mercury molar ratios was red tilapia (166.8) > abura (87.9) > river prawn (82.4) > whiteleg shrimp (64.2) > butterfish (44.6) > milkfish (37.0) > tuna (15.6) > grouper (13.9) > ayu (13.4) > coral hind (13.0) > weever (11.8) > saury (9.0) > shark (7.8) > marlin (4.2). PMID:24786009

  14. Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects.

    PubMed

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    Seafood, such as fish, crustacean and molluscan shellfish, and echinoderms, provides in the edible part (e. g., filet, abdominal muscle) many nutritional components beneficial for the human diet like n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), essential elements such as selenium and iodine, high potassium and low sodium concentrations, and the vitamins D, A, E, and B(12), as well as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) among others. Its protein is highly digestible due to low connective tissue content, and cholesterol content is also low in fish. Lean fish species are extremely low in fat content (<1 %), while fatty species are extremely rich in PUFAs. However, being subject to environmental influences from its habitat, seafood also entails water-borne health risks such as organic pollutants, toxins, parasites, and heavy metals. Nevertheless, the vast majority of experimental and epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks even for vulnerable consumer groups. PMID:23258397

  15. Development of a Florida Seafood Program Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeels, Holly; Fluech, Bryan; Krimsky, Lisa; Saari, Brooke; Shephard, Elizabeth; Zamojski, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The seafood industry in Florida is complex, with more than 80 varieties of Florida seafood commodities and an increasing number of imported products. This variety increases consumer confusion, especially with the growing concern about the origin, sustainability, and safety of seafood products. The objective of the Florida Seafood At Your…

  16. Intervention strategies for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaeomolyticus, a natural inhabitant in estuarine marine water, has been frequently isolated from seafood. It has been recognized as the leading causative agent for seafoodborne illness all over the world. Numerous physical, chemical, and biological intervention methods for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood products have been investigated and practiced. Each intervention method has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on the processing needs and consumer preference. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various intervention strategies for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood with an emphasis on the efficiency of bacterial inactivation treatments and the changes in sensory qualities of seafood. In the meantime, reported researches on alternative technologies which have shown effectiveness to inactivate V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and other food products, but not directly in seafood are also included. The successful applications of appropriate intervention strategies could effectively reduce or eliminate the contamination of V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood, and consequently contribute to the improvement of seafood safety and the reduction of public health risk. PMID:25472618

  17. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  18. Vaccination and consumer perception of seafood quality.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, M

    2005-01-01

    Unlike other segments of international food production, finfish aquaculture has so far not been associated with major food scandals. However, because of increased focus on food safety, the seafood industry and associated businesses have to respond to and document all aspects related to their products and processes. Consumers have a right to know, and need knowledge and information to be able to make qualified choices. In aquaculture good management and environmental attention is essential for both product quality and economic sustainability. One of the main challenges in all farming activities is efficient fish health management, which is crucial for maintaining and further developing the industry. In all biological production, and also in aquaculture, diseases have been, are, and will continue to present a challenge. When dealing with disease incidents, environmental, ethical, biological and economic issues must be taken into account. In animal health management there is a common understanding that prevention is better than treatment, so also in aquaculture. In many segments of industrial fish farming, vaccines have proved a good management tool to control diseases and to reduce both mortality and the use of chemotherapeutics. As seen in a recent Norwegian consumer survey, this might unfortunately look somewhat different from a consumer point of view. The perception of vaccines as foreign substances, visible vaccine lesions or pigment, words about genetically produced vaccines, and a general lack of knowledge may fuel scepticism. Even when experts are giving good and well-documented information, consumers still stick to their original perception of food, including seafood. Given this background, this papers discusses the aquaculture industry's priorities regarding vaccines and vaccination strategies, and its information policy towards the customer. PMID:15962487

  19. Fast and safe fabrication of a free-standing chitosan/alginate nanomembrane to promote stem cell delivery and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Xu, Rui; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Zhong, Wen; Luo, Gaoxing; Xing, Malcolm Mq; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric ultrathin membranes that are compatible with cells offer tremendous advantages for tissue engineering. In this article, we report a free-standing nanomembrane that was developed using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with a safe and sacrificial substrate method. After ionization, two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, alginate and chitosan, were alternately deposited on a substrate of a solidified gelatin block to form an ultrathin nanomembrane. The space between the two adjacent layers was ∼200 nm. The thickness of the nanomembrane was proportional to the number of layers. The temperature-sensitive gelatin gel served as a sacrificial template at 37°C. The free-standing nanomembrane promoted bone marrow stem cell adhesion and proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to analyze green-fluorescent-protein-positive mesenchymal stem cells from the wounds, which showed a significantly high survival and proliferation from the nanomembrane when cells were transplanted to mouse dorsal skin that had a full-thickness burn. The bone-marrow-stem-cell-loaded nanomembrane also accelerated wound contraction and epidermalization. Therefore, this methodology provides a fast and facile approach to construct free-standing ultrathin scaffolds for tissue engineering. The biocompatibility and free-standing nature of the fabricated nanomembrane may be particularly useful for stem cell delivery and wound healing. PMID:27354789

  20. Fast and safe fabrication of a free-standing chitosan/alginate nanomembrane to promote stem cell delivery and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yi; Xu, Rui; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Zhong, Wen; Luo, Gaoxing; Xing, Malcolm MQ; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric ultrathin membranes that are compatible with cells offer tremendous advantages for tissue engineering. In this article, we report a free-standing nanomembrane that was developed using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with a safe and sacrificial substrate method. After ionization, two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, alginate and chitosan, were alternately deposited on a substrate of a solidified gelatin block to form an ultrathin nanomembrane. The space between the two adjacent layers was ∼200 nm. The thickness of the nanomembrane was proportional to the number of layers. The temperature-sensitive gelatin gel served as a sacrificial template at 37°C. The free-standing nanomembrane promoted bone marrow stem cell adhesion and proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to analyze green-fluorescent-protein-positive mesenchymal stem cells from the wounds, which showed a significantly high survival and proliferation from the nanomembrane when cells were transplanted to mouse dorsal skin that had a full-thickness burn. The bone-marrow-stem-cell-loaded nanomembrane also accelerated wound contraction and epidermalization. Therefore, this methodology provides a fast and facile approach to construct free-standing ultrathin scaffolds for tissue engineering. The biocompatibility and free-standing nature of the fabricated nanomembrane may be particularly useful for stem cell delivery and wound healing. PMID:27354789

  1. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  2. How to Determine the Geographical Origin of Seafood?

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Traceability of seafood is a much needed service for the seafood industry. Current ways of tracing seafood are minimal while tracing of shellfish is nearly nonexistent. Tracing fish and shellfish are necessary for indicating where the fish and shellfish were fished from, farmed and packed from. This study reviews history of traceability of aquaculture and analytical approaches to verify the origin of seafood. It then describes the new molecular technique of the traceability by using PCR-DGGE to discriminate the geographical origin of fish (cases studies of Pangasius fish from Viet Nam and Sea bass fish from France) by analysis the DNA fragments of microorganisms (bacteria) on fish. This method is based on the assumption that the microbial communities of food are specific to a geographic area. PMID:24834835

  3. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  4. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid. PMID:22630330

  5. Safe Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Though most art materials are safe for children (and labelled accordingly), parents and teachers should follow recommended safety guidelines, such as those presented in this article, when choosing, using, and storing children's art materials. (SM)

  6. Safe sex

    MedlinePlus

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  7. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  8. Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. Objective: The purposes of ...

  9. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables. PMID:21477481

  10. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths. PMID:8207282

  11. Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus equorum KS1039 isolated from Saeu-jeotgal, Korean high-salt-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Do-Won; Na, Hongjun; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2016-02-10

    Staphylococcus equorum KS1039 was isolated from a form of traditional Korean high-salt-fermented seafood called Saeu-jeotgal, and exhibited growth at a NaCl (w/v) concentration of 25%. Comparative genome analyses with two other strains revealed the presence of two potassium voltage-gated channel genes uniquely in KS1039, which might be involved in salt tolerance. This first complete genome sequence of the species will increase our understanding of the genetic factors allowing it to be safely consumed by humans and to inhabit high-salt environments. PMID:26718562

  12. Developing and testing theory-based and evidence-based interventions to promote switching to arsenic-safe wells in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Millions of people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-contaminated water despite increased awareness of consequences to health. Theory-based and evidence-based interventions are likely to have greater impact on people switching to existing arsenic-safe wells than providing information alone. To test this assumption, we first developed interventions based on an empirical test of the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities and Self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change. In the second part of this study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial revealed that in accordance with our hypotheses, information alone showed smaller increases in switching to arsenic-safe wells than information with reminders or information with reminders and implementation intentions. PMID:23864069

  13. Enzymes from Seafood Processing Waste and Their Applications in Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fishery processing results in discards up to 50% of the raw material, consisting of scales, shells, frames, backbones, viscera, head, liver, skin, belly flaps, dark muscle, roe, etc. Besides, fishing operations targeted at popular fish and shellfish species also result in landing of sizeable quantity of by-catch, which are not of commercial value because of their poor consumer appeal. Sensitivity to rapid putrefaction of fishery waste has serious adverse impact on the environment, which needs remedial measures. Secondary processing of the wastes has potential to generate a number of valuable by-products such as proteins, enzymes, carotenoids, fat, and minerals, besides addressing environmental hazards. Fishery wastes constitute good sources of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, chitinase, alkaline phosphatase, transglutaminase, hyaluronidase, acetyl glycosaminidase, among others. These enzymes can have diverse applications in the seafood industry, which encompass isolation and modification of proteins and marine oils, production of bioactive peptides, acceleration of traditional fermentation, peeling and deveining of shellfish, scaling of finfish, removal of membranes from fish roe, extraction of flavors, shelf life extension, texture modification, removal of off-odors, and for quality control either directly or as components of biosensors. Enzymes from fish and shellfish from cold habitats are particularly useful since they can function comparatively at lower temperatures thereby saving energy and protecting the food products. Potentials of these applications are briefly discussed. PMID:27452165

  14. SEAFOOD MERCHANDISING, A GUIDE FOR TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAUMONT, JOHN A.

    GUIDELINES ARE SUGGESTED FOR THE PROMOTION AND ORGANIZATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS THAT WILL AID IN THE ORDERLY DISTRIBUTION OF FISHERY PRODUCTS TO THE CONSUMER. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED AS A RESULT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT CONDUCTED BY THE EDUCATIONAL SERVICE BUREAU AND THE DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION SERVICE OF TEMPLE UNIVERSITY. CHAPTERS IN THE GUIDE…

  15. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  16. Evaluation of Potential Risk of Botulism from Seafood Cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum E could not be detected in 35 samples of commercial seafood cocktails, ranging in pH from 4.10 to 4.85. At 30 C, toxinogenesis in homogenates acidified with a citric-acetic acid mixture was prevented at pH 4.86 or lower for crabmeat and at 5.03 or lower for shrimp. Measurements of the rate of acid penetration into the centers of large pieces of flesh indicated that the already small risk of botulism from seafood cocktails could be completely eliminated by using a cocktail sauce at a maximum pH of 3.70 and by cooling the final product to at least 10 C for 24 h. PMID:4577180

  17. The safe home project.

    PubMed

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  18. Improved Method for Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Junko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new, effective procedure for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods using enrichment and plating onto a chromogenic agar medium. Samples were cultured in salt Trypticase soy broth, which is a nonselective medium, and then a portion of the culture was cultured with salt polymyxin broth, which is a selective medium for V. parahaemolyticus. This two-step enrichment was more effective than the one-step enrichment in salt polymyxin broth alone. The enrichment cultures were then plated onto a new chromogenic agar containing substrates for beta-galactosidase. The V. parahaemolyticus colonies developed a purple color on this growth medium that distinguished them from other related bacterial strains. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated more frequently from naturally contaminated seafood samples using the chromogenic agar than thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium, which is currently used for the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings suggest that this new enrichment and isolation scheme is more sensitive and accurate for identifying V. parahaemolyticus in seafood samples than previously used methods. PMID:11722939

  19. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    PubMed

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day). PMID:17383179

  20. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  1. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  2. Brominated flame retardants and seafood safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cunha, Sara C; Casal, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), frequently applied to industrial and household products to make them less flammable, are highly persistent in the environment and cause multi-organ toxicity in human and wildlife. Based on the review of BFRs presence in seafood published from 2004 to 2014, it is clear that such pollutants are not ideally controlled as the surveys are too restricted, legislation inexistent for some classes, the analytical methodologies diversified, and several factors as food processing and eating habits are generally overlooked. Indeed, while a seafood rich diet presents plenty of nutritional benefits, it can also represent a potential source of these environmental contaminants. Since recent studies have shown that dietary intake constitutes a main route of human exposure to BFRs, it is of major importance to review and enhance these features, since seafood constitutes a chief pathway for human exposure and biomagnification of priority environmental contaminants. In particular, more objective studies focused on the variability factors behind contamination levels, and subsequent human exposure, are necessary to support the necessity for more restricted legislation worldwide. PMID:25700249

  3. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region. PMID:26052462

  4. A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that presents public health risks through fish consumption. A major source of uncertainty in evaluating harmful exposure is inadequate knowledge of Hg concentrations in commercially important seafood. Objectives: We examined patterns, variability, and knowledge gaps of Hg in common commercial seafood items in the United States and compared seafood Hg concentrations from our database to those used for exposure estimates and consumption advice. Methods: We developed a database of Hg concentrations in fish and shellfish common to the U.S. market by aggregating available data from government monitoring programs and the scientific literature. We calculated a grand mean for individual seafood items, based on reported means from individual studies, weighted by sample size. We also compared database results to those of federal programs and human health criteria [U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hg Monitoring Program (FDA-MP), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Results: Mean Hg concentrations for each seafood item were highly variable among studies, spanning 0.3–2.4 orders of magnitude. Farmed fish generally had lower grand mean Hg concentrations than their wild counterparts, with wild seafood having 2- to12-fold higher concentrations, depending on the seafood item. However, farmed fish are relatively understudied, as are specific seafood items and seafood imports from Asia and South America. Finally, we found large discrepancies between mean Hg concentrations estimated from our database and FDA-MP estimates for most seafood items examined. Conclusions: The high variability in Hg in common seafood items has considerable ramifications for public health and the formulation of consumption guidelines. Exposure and risk analyses derived from smaller data sets do not reflect our collective, available information on seafood Hg concentrations. PMID:22732656

  5. Rapid quantification of Salmonella in seafood by real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative detection method for Salmonella in seafood was developed using a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay. The assay was developed using pure Salmonella DNA at different dilution levels [i.e., 1,000 to 2 genome equivalents (GE)]. The sensitivity of the real-time assay for Salmonella in seeded seafood samples was determined, and the minimum detection level was 20 CFU/g, whereas a detection level of 2 CFU/ml was obtained for pure culture in water with an efficiency of > or =85%. The real-time assay was evaluated in repeated experiments with seeded seafood samples and the regression coefficient (R(2)) values were calculated. The performance of the real-time assay was further assessed with naturally contaminated seafood samples, where 4 out of 9 seafood samples tested positive for Salmonella and harbored cells <100 GE/g, which were not detected by direct plating on Salmonella Chromagar media. Thus, the method developed here will be useful for the rapid quantification of Salmonella in seafood, as the assay can be completed within 2-3 h. In addition, with the ability to detect a low number of Salmonella cells in seafood, this proposed method can be used to generate quantitative data on Salmonella in seafood, facilitating the implementation of control measures for Salmonella contamination in seafood at harvest and post-harvest levels. PMID:20372029

  6. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  7. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE.

    PubMed

    Pfannkoch, Edward A; Stuff, John R; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A; Blevins, John M; Seely, Kathryn A; Moran, Jeffery H

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65-138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  8. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    PubMed Central

    Pfannkoch, Edward A.; Stuff, John R.; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A.; Blevins, John M.; Seely, Kathryn A.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  9. Are You Storing Food Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... which causes botulism. Keeping foods chilled at proper temperatures is one of the best ways to prevent ... for leaving items needing refrigeration out at room temperature. Never allow meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, or produce ...

  10. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease. PMID:27404324

  11. Cancer and Noncancer Mortality Among American Seafood Workers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric S.; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Sall, Macodu; Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated mortality in seafood workers worldwide, and no such study has been conducted in the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate mortality in American seafood workers. Methods The study population was derived from 4 states and consisted of 4116 subjects who worked mainly in seafood processing plants. They were followed up from 1966 to 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were estimated, using the US general population for comparison. Results About 45% of the cohort was born after 1949. A total of 788 deaths were recorded; 53% of the decedents were female, and 88% were white. The SMRs for stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland in the cohort as a whole were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.3–18.0), respectively. The SMRs for breast cancer, and occlusion/stenosis of the pre-cerebral/cerebral arteries in the cohort as a whole were 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–0.8), respectively. The SMR for ischemic heart disease in white females was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6–0.9). Conclusions This cohort had excess deaths from stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland, and deficit of deaths from breast cancer, stroke and ischemic heart disease. The significance of these findings is unknown, especially as less than 20% of the cohort were deceased. Nevertheless, the cohort is unique and important, and further follow-up may shed more light on mortality patterns in this occupational group. PMID:21467730

  12. JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2009-03-30

    Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

  13. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  14. Chemical properties of surimi seafood nutrified with ω-3 rich oils.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, Brittney N; Tahergorabi, Reza; Matak, Kristen E; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Surimi-based seafood products are widely accepted and enjoyed worldwide. The US consumption increased in 1980s; however, it leveled thereafter. Food products nutrified with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are in increasing demand due to demonstrated health benefits. Currently, surimi seafood is not nutrified with ω-3 PUFAs. In the present study, surimi seafood was nutritionally-enhanced with ω-3 PUFAs-rich oils (flaxseed, algae, menhaden, krill, and blend). The objectives were (1) chemical characterization of FA composition and oxidation, and (2) determination of physicochemical properties (colour and texture) of the nutritionally-enhanced surimi seafood. Oil addition resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentration of total ω-3 FAs in surimi seafood; however, the concentration of α-linolenic (ALA, 18:3ω-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω-3) acids depended on which oil was added. Although the ω-3 PUFAs nutrification resulted in increased (P<0.05) susceptibility of surimi seafood to lipid oxidation, it was within ranges acceptable to consumers. Texture analysis (texture profile analysis, Kramer shear and torsion test) showed that ω-3 PUFAs nutrification did not affect texture. Colour properties of ω-3 PUFAs nutrified surimi seafood were generally improved except when krill oil or blend was added. This study demonstrates that nutritional value of surimi seafood can be enhanced with concurrent improvement of colour and without affecting texture. PMID:25212318

  15. 78 FR 66899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Fisheries Seafood Processor Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...; Commercial Fisheries Seafood Processor Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... collection. The objective of the survey is to collect information on seafood plant characteristics, plant... information collected in this survey will be used to provide information on ] potential impacts of...

  16. World Foods. Fish and Seafood - The Present and Future Use in World Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in the study of fish and seafood and their contribution in the present and future to feeding the world's people. The guide's one unit provides an overview of the various uses of fish and seafood in various cuisines, their nutritional qualities, their various classifications and forms, and the…

  17. Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the mid-1990s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit. Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We searched 12 databases (Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OCLC, PAIS International Database, WHO Global Health Library, CINAHL, Science.gov, NYAM Grey Literature Report, and POPLINE) for original research published between January 1995 and April 2009. Both peer-reviewed publications and items of "grey" literature were retrieved; no language restriction was applied. We calculated the median (minimum, maximum) reported rate for each harm considered. Because of limitations and heterogeneity in the data, no formal meta-analysis was performed. Results The search identified 32 articles that reported safety data from 24 cryotherapy and LEEP studies. The combined sample consisted of 6,902 women treated by cryotherapy and 4,524 women treated by LEEP. Most studies were conducted in reference or research settings in Asia and Africa. Short-term harms of cryotherapy and LEEP appeared to be similar to those described in the literature from high-income countries. Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long

  18. Risks of consumption of contaminated seafood: The Quincy Bay case study

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.B.; Doyle, M.E. ); Kipp, K. )

    1991-01-01

    A recent EPA-sponsored study of sediment and seafood contamination in Quincy Bay revealed elevated levels of several complex organic pollutants frequently of concern in human health assessments. A seafood consumption risk assessment was conducted using data from samples collected in Quincy Bay in the methodology developed for EPA's Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection for such assessments. Results showed estimate plausible, upperbound excess cancer risks in the 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}2} range. These results are comparable to those found in other seafood contamination risk assessments for areas where consumption advisories and fishing restrictions were implemented. Regulatory response included consumption advisories for lobster tomalley (hepatopancreas) and other types of locally caught seafood. Uncertainties inherent in seafood risk assessment in general and for the Quincy Bay case are discussed, along with implications for further action.

  19. Levels and distribution of methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plant and soil samples surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Yanwei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) along with hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were found in plant and soil samples collected surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market in China. The profiles of MeO-PBDE congeners were different between seafood processing factory and seafood market. The detection frequency and concentration of 6-OH-BDE-47 were lower than that of MeO-PBDEs. Near seafood processing factory, a decreasing trend of analyte concentrations in plants was found downstream the river where factory wastewater was discharged. Concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs in plant and soil samples showed difference as root > soil > leaf. However, at seafood market, the concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs were much higher in leaves than those in soil. The concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs in leaves showed a remarkable difference between Calystegia soldanella (Linn.) R. Br. and Setaira viridis (L.) Beauv. PMID:23416744

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of pathogens in kwamegi, a traditional Korean semidried seafood.

    PubMed

    Chawla, S P; Kim, D H; Jo, C; Lee, J W; Song, H P; Byun, M W

    2003-11-01

    Kwamegi (semidried raw Pacific saury) is traditional seafood available in Korea. It has water activity in the range of 0.90 to 0.95. Spoilage and the growth of most pathogenic bacteria is retarded because of low water activity, low temperature, and packaging. However, it is contaminated with bacteria of public health significance and poses a hazard to the consumer because it is consumed raw without any cooking. The effectiveness of these hurdles in preventing the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli and the efficacy of irradiation treatment in eliminating these bacteria from kwamegi using inoculated pack studies was examined. Radiation sensitivity of S. aureus, B. cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli in kwamegi was investigated. D10-values of these organisms in kwamegi were 590 +/- 13.6, 640 +/- 14.9, 560 +/- 45.4, and 550 +/- 8.6 Gy, respectively. The growth of all four test organisms inoculated into these foods during 4 weeks of storage at an ambient winter temperature (ranging from -5 degrees C to +5 degrees C) was recorded. All four pathogens (inoculated at 10(6) CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 4 kGy. These studies unequivocally demonstrate that irradiation, with a combination of low water activity and low temperature, results in microbiologically safe kwamegi. PMID:14627288

  1. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    PubMed

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another. PMID:24360462

  2. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  3. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; McLeod, Catherine; Chan, Lily; Miller, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA) to meet various national recommendations. Objective To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24) with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26) to: (1) determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women)], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT), 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF) recommendation and (2) determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat) or higher fat (n=3, ≥10% total fat) seafood. Design Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood. PMID:24179469

  4. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Teneva, Lida T; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, Daniela S; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1) (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  5. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Teneva, Lida T.; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Kittinger, Daniela S.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr-1 (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the “food shed” for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  6. Use of DNA barcoding to reveal species composition of convenience seafood.

    PubMed

    Huxley-Jones, Elizabeth; Shaw, Jennifer L A; Fletcher, Carly; Parnell, Juliette; Watts, Phillip C

    2012-04-01

    Increased education of consumers can be an effective tool for conservation of commercially harvested marine species when product labeling is accurate and allows an informed choice. However, generic labeling (e.g., as white fish or surimi) and mislabeling of seafood prevents this and may erode consumer confidence in seafood product labels in general. We used DNA barcoding to identify the species composition of two types of convenience seafood (i.e., products processed for ease of consumption): fish fingers (long pieces of fish covered with bread crumbs or batter, n = 241) and seafood sticks (long pieces of cooked fish, n = 30). In products labeled as either white fish or surimi, four teleost species were present. Less than 1.5% of fish fingers with species-specific information were mislabeled. Results of other studies show substantially more mislabeling (e.g., >25%) of teleost products, which likely reflects the lower economic gains associated with mislabeling of convenience seafood compared with whole fillets. In addition to species identification, seafood product labels should be required to contain information about, for example, harvesting practices, and our data indicate that consumers can have reasonable confidence in the accuracy of the labels of convenience seafood and thus select brands on the basis of information about current fisheries practice. PMID:22268756

  7. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-05-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl- lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  8. Exposure assessment for methyl and total mercury from seafood consumption in Korea, 2005 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sang-Jo; Park, Hyejin; Jung, Yun Sun; Lee, Suuggyu; Kim, Yun-Hee; Choi, Minkyu

    2011-09-01

    Reports on the occurrence and intake assessment of mercury for Korean seafood are currently not available. This is the first report to estimate the intake of methyl (Me-Hg) and total mercury (T-Hg) from seafood consumption in Korea. The concentrations of Me-Hg and T-Hg in seafood ranged from 1.02 to 780 (mean: 55.6) ng g(-1) wet weight and 4.89 to 1008 (mean: 100) ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. The residue levels of Me-Hg and T-Hg in Korean seafood were moderate compared with those found in other countries. The methylation ratios of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans were similar, but shellfish had lower values compared with other species. The intakes of Me-Hg and T-Hg from seafood consumption for the general population were estimated to be 38.8 and 73.8 ng kg(-1) body weight per day, respectively. Mackerel, tuna and squid made the highest contributions to the total intake of these contaminants. Among eight age groups, 30-49 year and 3-6 year age groups had the highest exposure to Me-Hg and T-Hg. The concentrations and intakes of Me-Hg and T-Hg from Korean seafood were less than the allowable residue levels and threshold intake levels suggested by Korean and international authorities. The present study may be useful for risk management of mercury in Korean seafood. PMID:21847486

  9. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  10. Screening and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods using QuEChERS-based extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Samuel R; Ciolino, Laura A; Mohrhaus, Angela S; Gamble, Bryan M; Gracie, Jill M; Jackson, David S; Roetting, John P; McCauley, Heather A; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Fricke, Fred L; Krol, Walter J; Arsenault, Terri L; White, Jason C; Flottmeyer, Michele M; Johnson, Yoko S

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the screening and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible seafood is described. The method uses quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD). The method was developed and validated in response to the massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Rapid and highly sensitive PAH screening methods are critical tools needed for oil spill response; they help to assess when seafood is safe for harvesting and consumption. Sample preparation involves SPE of edible seafood portions with acetonitrile, followed by the addition of salts to induce water partitioning. After centrifugation, a portion of the acetonitrile layer is filtered prior to analysis via HPLC-FLD. The chromatographic method uses a polymeric C18 stationary phase designed for PAH analysis with gradient elution, and it resolves 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority parent PAHs in fewer than 20 min. The procedure was validated in three laboratories for the parent PAHs using spike recovery experiments at PAH fortification levels ranging from 25 to 10 000 microg/kg in oysters, shrimp, crab, and finfish, with recoveries ranging from 78 to 99%. Additional validation was conducted for a series of alkylated homologs of naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, and phenanthrene, with recoveries ranging from 87 to 128%. Method accuracy was further assessed based on analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1974b. The method provides method detection limits in the sub to low ppb (microg/kg) range, and practical LOQs in the low ppb (microg/kg) range for most of the PAH compounds studied. PMID:22165027

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios isolated from seafood.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, D; Bacchiocchi, I; Masini, L; Leoni, F; Carraturo, A; Giammarioli, M; Sbaraglia, G

    2001-08-01

    Susceptibility patterns to 27 antimicrobial agents and beta-lactamase production were investigated in potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios from seafood. The effect of salinity on the response to the drugs in vitro was also studied. All isolates were uniformly sensitive to choramphenicol, imipenem, meropenem but resistant to lincomycin. All were highly sensitive to oxolinic acid, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline, flumequine, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Some strains of V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus apparently had mechanisms of resistance to several beta-lactam antibiotics other than by the production of beta-lactamases. Sixty-nine strains produced penicillinase but a low correlation between beta-lactamase activity and resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was noted. The salt concentration affected the in vitro susceptibility of halophilic vibrios and the effect of salinity depended on both the individual strains and the antimicrobial tested. PMID:11516936

  12. Recovery of astaxanthin from seafood wastewater utilizing fish scales waste.

    PubMed

    Stepnowski, P; Olafsson, G; Helgason, H; Jastorff, B

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents basic data on astaxanthin adsorption from fisheries wastewater to fish scales. This process has been proposed to be applicable in fisheries and shrimp waste management [Helgason, Recovery of compounds using a natural adsorbent, Patent WO 01/77230, 2001]. The innovative feature of the method is the application of a solid waste (fish scales) as a natural adsorbent for a carotenoid pigment (astaxanthin) from the seafood industry wastewater. The model investigations were performed with pure synthetic carotenoids to exclude the role of matrix in which astaxanthin is present in the wastewater. Under the experimental conditions used, the maximum loading capacity of astaxanthin onto the scales is 360 mg kg(-1) dry wt. Studies of the thus formed value added product indicated that drying causes significant loss of astaxanthin activity. Due to the effective filtration characteristics of the studied sorption material, we suggest the scale/astaxanthin sorption process to be suitable for treatment of wastewater from different industries. PMID:14575754

  13. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  14. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  15. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Take these simple steps to avoid problems with medicines. Follow the directions on the medicine label carefully. ...

  16. Reconnaissance of 47 Antibiotics and Associated Microbial Risks in Seafood Sold in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Done, Hansa Y.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production has nearly tripled in the last two decades, bringing with it a significant increase in the use of antibiotics. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the presence of 47 antibiotics was investigated in U.S. purchased shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, tilapia, and swai originating from 11 different countries. All samples (n= 27) complied with U.S. FDA regulations and five antibiotics were detected above the limits of detection: oxytetracycline (in wild shrimp, 7.7 ng/g of fresh weight; farmed tilapia, 2.7; farmed salmon, 8.6; farmed trout with spinal deformities, 3.9), 4-epioxytetracycline (farmed salmon, 4.1), sulfadimethoxine (farmed shrimp, 0.3), ormetoprim (farmed salmon, 0.5), and virginiamycin (farmed salmon marketed as antibiotic-free, 5.2). A literature review showed that sub-regulatory levels of antibiotics, as found here, can promote resistance development and publications linking aquaculture to this have increased more than 8-fold from 1991–2013. Although this study was limited in size and employed sample pooling, it represents the largest reconnaissance of antibiotics in U.S. seafood to date, providing data on previously unmonitored antibiotics and on farmed trout with spinal deformities. Results indicate low levels of antibiotic residues and general compliance with U.S. regulations. The potential for development of microbial drug resistance was identified as a key concern and research priority. PMID:25449970

  17. Reconnaissance of 47 antibiotics and associated microbial risks in seafood sold in the United States.

    PubMed

    Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-01-23

    Aquaculture production has nearly tripled in the last two decades, bringing with it a significant increase in the use of antibiotics. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the presence of 47 antibiotics was investigated in U.S. purchased shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, tilapia, and swai originating from 11 different countries. All samples (n=27) complied with U.S. FDA regulations and five antibiotics were detected above the limits of detection: oxytetracycline (in wild shrimp, 7.7ng/g of fresh weight; farmed tilapia, 2.7; farmed salmon, 8.6; farmed trout with spinal deformities, 3.9), 4-epioxytetracycline (farmed salmon, 4.1), sulfadimethoxine (farmed shrimp, 0.3), ormetoprim (farmed salmon, 0.5), and virginiamycin (farmed salmon marketed as antibiotic-free, 5.2). A literature review showed that sub-regulatory levels of antibiotics, as found here, can promote resistance development; publications linking aquaculture to this have increased more than 8-fold from 1991 to 2013. Although this study was limited in size and employed sample pooling, it represents the largest reconnaissance of antibiotics in U.S. seafood to date, providing data on previously unmonitored antibiotics and on farmed trout with spinal deformities. Results indicate low levels of antibiotic residues and general compliance with U.S. regulations. The potential for development of microbial drug resistance was identified as a key concern and research priority. PMID:25449970

  18. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese. PMID:23242940

  19. The arsenic content in marketed seafood and associated health risks for the residents of Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Gao, Mi; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yongju; Bi, Ran; Li, Lixia; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-04-01

    Seafood is considered as the main source of arsenic in the human diet. In this study, we quantified the total arsenic content in 200 samples of 22 species collected from eight cities in Shandong, China. Subsequently, we evaluated the health risks associated with seafood consumption for three consumption scenarios based on the quantification of inorganic arsenic in three commonly consumed seafood species. The bivalves had the highest total arsenic concentrations in three categories of seafood (fish, shrimp, and bivalves) and the mean total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.037 μg/g ww in fish to 3.4 μg/g in bivalves. The results suggested that organisms which had a closer relationship with sediments may accumulate more arsenic. Bivalves were the major contributor for the arsenic intakes in the seafood consumers. The margins of exposure (MOEs) estimated in the present work showed that there existed a health risk for the consumers. The carcinogen risks exceeded the acceptable range for life cancer risk. Our results suggested that more attention should be paid to the safety of seafood consumption, especially of benthic economic species and for special consumers. PMID:24530733

  20. Fail-safe mechanism of GCN4 translational control—uORF2 promotes reinitiation by analogous mechanism to uORF1 and thus secures its key role in GCN4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Gunišová, Stanislava; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2014-01-01

    One of the extensively studied mechanisms of gene-specific translational regulation is reinitiation. It takes place on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) where main ORF is preceded by upstream ORF (uORF). Even though uORFs generally down-regulate main ORF expression, specific uORFs exist that allow high level of downstream ORF expression. The key is their ability to retain 40S subunits on mRNA upon termination of their translation to resume scanning for the next AUG. Here, we took advantage of the exemplary model system of reinitiation, the mRNA of yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 containing four short uORFs, and show that contrary to previous reports, not only the first but the first two of its uORFs allow efficient reinitiation. Strikingly, we demonstrate that they utilize a similar molecular mechanism relying on several cis-acting 5′ reinitiation-promoting elements, one of which they share, and the interaction with the a/TIF32 subunit of translation initiation factor eIF3. Since a similar mechanism operates also on YAP1 uORF, our findings strongly suggest that basic principles of reinitiation are conserved. Furthermore, presence of two consecutive reinitiation-permissive uORFs followed by two reinitiation-non-permissive uORFs suggests that tightness of GCN4 translational control is ensured by a fail-safe mechanism that effectively prevents or triggers GCN4 expression under nutrient replete or deplete conditions, respectively. PMID:24623812

  1. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  2. Effects of repeated seafood consumption on urinary excretion of arsenic species by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Sun; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Huang, Mingai; Kim, Na-Young; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Choong-Yong; Lee, Hyo-Min; Yum, Young-Na; Han, Eui-Sik; Kang, Tae-Seok; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a known human carcinogen and widely distributed in the environment. The main route of As exposure in the general population is through food and drinking water. Seafood harvested in Korea contains high-level organoarsenics such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which are much less harmful than inorganic arsenics. However, for those who eat large amounts of seafood it is important to understand whether seafood consumption affects urinary levels of inorganic As metabolites such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In this study we investigated urinary As metabolites (inorganic As, MMA[V], DMA[V]) and some biological indexes such as AST, GSH, GPX, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid in volunteer study subjects (seven males and nine females). Total urinary As metabolites were analyzed by the hydride generation method, followed by arsenic speciation using HPLC with ICP-mass spectrometry. Study subjects refrained from eating seafood for 3 days prior to the first urine collection and then ingested seafood daily for 6 consecutive days. The first voided urine of the morning was collected from each subject the first day of the consecutive 6 days of seafood ingestion but prior to the first seafood meal. The first voided urine of the morning was also collected on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14 after seafood ingestion. The daily mean intake of total As was 6.98 mg, comprised of 4.71 mg of seaweed (67%), 1.74 mg of flat fish (25%), and 0.53 mg of conch (8%). We observed a substantial increase in total urinary As metabolites for subjects consuming seafood from day 1, which recovered to control level at day 10. The increase in total urinary As metabolites was attributed to the increase in DMA, which is a more harmful metabolite than organoarsenics. However, no significant changes in response biological indexes were observed. These results suggest that it is necessary to evaluate As metabolism when

  3. Promoting Road Safety for Preadolescent Boys with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Effect of Cognitive Style and the Role of Attention in the Identification of Safe and Dangerous Road-Crossing Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasia, Alevriadou

    2010-01-01

    An important pedestrian skill that young people with intellectual disabilities (ID) (mental retardation) find difficult is the ability to find a safe place to cross the road. Safe pedestrian behaviour relies on cognitive skills, including the ability to focus attention on the traffic environment and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Individuals with ID…

  4. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712

  5. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  6. Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Jung, Mi-Ja; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-04-01

    A novel actinobacterium, strain P30(T), was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid. Optimal growth occurred at 30-37 degrees C, at pH 8-9 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain P30(T) was phylogenetically closely related to Kocuria carniphila, Kocuria gwangalliensis, Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria marina, Kocuria rosea and K. varians with levels of similarity of 98.6, 98.2, 98.1, 97.4, 97.3 and 97.3 %, respectively, to the type strains of these species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain P30(T) and the type strains of K. carniphila, K. rhizophila, K. marina, K. rosea and K. varians were 37, 43, 37, 25 and 17 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone of strain P30(T) was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain P30(T) was 70.2 mol%. Based on these data, strain P30(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria atrinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P30(T) (=KCTC 19594(T)=JCM 15914(T)). PMID:19661502

  7. Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an acute aquatic toxicity assessment on select effluent samples from Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plants. Raw effluent acute aquatic toxicity for the flatfish and salmon effluents was assessed using the acute lethality test and Microtox test. The effectiveness of dissolved air flotation treatment (DAF) in removing acute toxicity from these effluents was evaluated using the Microtox test. The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of 38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. PMID:19283858

  8. Connecting Mercury Science to Policy: from Sources to Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Mason, Robert P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  9. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  10. Kocuria koreensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid actinobacterium, designated P31(T), was isolated from a traditional, fermented seafood. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells grew in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 5-10 and 15-37 degrees C. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). Strain P31(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain P31(T) was 65.2 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain P31(T) was most closely related to Kocuria kristinae DSM 20032(T), with 96.9 % similarity, and these two strains clustered together in constructed phylogenetic trees. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain P31(T) and K. kristinae DSM 20032(T) was 21.1 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it is suggested that strain P31(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria koreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P31(T) (=KCTC 19595(T)=JCM 15915(T)). PMID:19648328

  11. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6. PMID:26471575

  12. Connecting mercury science to policy: from sources to seafood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Celia Y; Driscoll, Charles T; Lambert, Kathleen F; Mason, Robert P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  13. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ≥6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ≥2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  14. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in seafood products from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Coly, Ignace; Sow, Amy Gassama; Seydi, Malang; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    The detection of pathogenic Vibrio in seafood from Senegal has generated five food alerts in the European Union. To investigate the presence and abundance Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood and coastal and estuarine waters, 123 seafood samples and 52 water samples were collected during 2007-2009 from two large seafood markets in Dakar, and from different oceanic and estuarine areas of the country. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 30.1% of seafood samples, whereas presence of V. cholerae was only found in 1.6%. In water samples, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were detected in 28.8% and 5.7% of the samples, respectively. Abundance of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood from the fishing areas ranged from <0.3 to 7.5 most probable number (MPN) per gram. In samples from markets, densities of V. parahaemolyticus showed higher values ranging from 0.61 to >110 MPN/g. Densities of V. cholerae in the two positive seafood samples reached values of 0.36 and 0.61 MPN/g, repectively. V. parahaemolyticus strains were found to possess tlh, but not tdh and trh by polymerase chain reaction, and all the strains of V. cholerae were non-O1 or non-O139. These results suggest that the prevalence of high salinities in coastal and estuarine environments of Senegal limits the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, despite warmer temperatures prevailing in seawater environments throughout the year. Furthermore, temperature abuse driven by a deficient cold chain over the distribution and retail sales may represent a major risk due to the postharvest multiplication of these Vibrio pathogens. PMID:24147655

  15. Activity concentrations of (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in seafood from fishing regions of New Zealand and the dose assessment for seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine activity concentrations for (134)Caesium, (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in New Zealand seafood, and establish if activity concentrations varied with respect to species/ecological niche and coastal region. Thirty seafood samples were obtained from six fishing regions of New Zealand along with a further six samples of two commercially important species (hoki and arrow squid) with well-defined fisheries. (134)Caesium was not detected in any sample. (137)Caesium was detected in 47% of samples, predominantly in pelagic fish species, with most activities at a trace level. Detections of (137)Caesium were evenly distributed across all regions. Activity concentrations were consistent with those expected from the oceanic inventory representing residual fallout from global nuclear testing. (210)Polonium was detected above the minimum detectable concentration in 33 (92%) of the analysed samples. Molluscs displayed significantly elevated activity concentrations relative to all other species groups. No significant regional variation in activity concentrations were determined. Two dose assessment models for high seafood consumers were undertaken. Dose contribution from (137)Caesium was minimal and far below the dose exemption limit of 1 mSv/year. Exposure to (210)Polonium was significant in high seafood consumers at 0.44-0.77 mSv/year (5th-95th percentile). (137)Caesium is concluded to be a valuable sentinel radionuclide for monitoring anthropogenic releases, such as global fallout and reactor releases, in the marine environment. (210)Polonium is of importance as a natural radionuclide sentinel due to its high contribution to dietary committed dose in seafood consumers. PMID:26272653

  16. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Baby Products KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Baby Products Print A A A Text Size Even though ... nothing small or simple about their accessories! Selecting products for your baby can be confusing, especially with ...

  17. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  18. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. PMID:26123540

  19. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  20. Microplastics in seafood: Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dehaut, Alexandre; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Frère, Laura; Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Himber, Charlotte; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Rivière, Gilles; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud; Duflos, Guillaume; Paul-Pont, Ika

    2016-08-01

    relevance and comparison of environmental and seafood product quality studies. PMID:27209243

  1. Determination of Fluopicolide in Livestock Products and Seafood by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Otani, Harunori; Hayashi, Masaki; Koike, Hiroshi; Baba, Itoko; Sasamoto, Takeo; Nemoto, Satoru; Shindo, Tetsuya; Takano, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of fluopicolide in livestock products and seafood was developed using LC-MS/MS. Sodium chloride was added to livestock products and seafood samples and fluopicolide was extracted twice with acetone after acidification with formic acid. The fat from the crude extract was removed using a macroporous diatomaceous earth column, followed by purification with a combination of mini-columns of GC (graphite carbon) and PSA (ethylenediamine-N-propyl silylation silica gel). The average recovery (n=5) of fluopicolide from 10 types of livestock products and seafood (cattle fat, cattle liver, cattle muscle, chicken, eel, egg, freshwater clam, honey, milk and salmon) spiked at the MRLs or at the uniform limit (0.01 ppm) was 96-100%, with a relative standard deviation of 2.3-6.2%. The limit of quantitation of the developed method was calculated to be 0.01 mg/kg. PMID:27558226

  2. Seafood traceability: current needs, available tools, and biotechnological challenges for origin certification.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Pimentel, Tânia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Market globalization and recurring food safety alerts have resulted in a growing consumer awareness of the need for food traceability. This is particularly relevant for seafood due to its perishable nature and importance as a key protein source for the population of the world. Here, we provide an overview of the current needs for seafood origin traceability, along with the limitations and challenges for its implementation. We focus on geochemical, biochemical, and molecular tools and how they should be optimized to be implemented globally and to address our societal needs. We suggest that seafood traceability is key to enforcing food safety regulations and fisheries control, combat fraud, and fulfill present and future expectations of conscientious producers, consumers, and authorities. PMID:25865857

  3. Identification of shark species in seafood products by forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS).

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Pérez-Martín, R I; Sotelo, C G

    2008-11-12

    The identification of commercial shark species is a relevant issue to ensure the correct labeling of seafood products, to maintain consumer confidence in seafood, and to enhance the knowledge of the species and volumes that are at present being captured, thus improving the management of shark fisheries. The polymerase chain reaction was employed to obtain a 423 bp amplicon from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences from this fragment, belonging to 63 authentic individuals of 23 species, were analyzed using a genetic distance method. Nine different samples of commercial fresh, frozen, and convenience food were obtained in local and international markets to validate the methodology. These samples were analyzed, and sequences were employed for species identification, showing that forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) is a suitable technique for identification of processed seafood containing shark as an ingredient. The results also showed that incorrect labeling practices may occur regarding shark products, probably because of incorrect labeling at the production point. PMID:18831561

  4. Nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies for improving the safety and shelf-life of aquaculture raised seafood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volume of seafood raised by aquaculture has increased in recent years. This seafood can occasionally become contaminated with foodborne pathogens resulting in foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls. In recent years a number of nonthermal and advanced thermal technologies have been devel...

  5. Mercury exposure and a shift toward oxidative stress in avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms of mercury (Hg) toxicity at low doses from seafood consumption, the most common exposure route, are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that seafood Hg exposure is related to a shift in redox status, indicated by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) in blood, or increase in redox potential (Eh). We also examined whether key seafood nutrients (selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) confound or modify this shift. We measured blood concentrations of total Hg, Se, GSH, GSSG, and the Omega-3 Index (% omega-3s of total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes) in seafood consumers in Long Island, NY. We examined relationships between Hg, GSH:GSSG ratio and Eh. Elevated blood Hg (>5.8µgL(-1)) was associated with lower GSH:GSSG (β=-116.73, p=0.01), with no evidence of confounding by Se or Omega-3 Index. However, in models stratified by Omega-3 Index levels, Hg-GSH:GSSG associations were weakened among those with high Omega-3 Index levels (>6% of fatty acids, β=-63.46, p=0.28), and heightened among those with low Omega-3 Index (β=-182.53, p<0.01). We observed comparable patterns for Eh in relation to Hg. These results support the hypothesis that Hg exposure from seafood is linked to a shift in redox status toward oxidative stress, modified by omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Further work should examine the role of different seafood nutrients and Hg-induced shifts in redox status in the diverse health effects associated with elevated Hg exposure. PMID:26745733

  6. Survey of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in seafood purchased in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Viscardi, Viviana; Arnese, Antonio; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were surveyed in fresh catch, farmed and frozen marine fish, cephalopods and mussels marketed in Campania (Italy), and the population's weekly intake from seafood was assessed. A total of 162 specimens of fish and cephalopods and 30 pools of mussels were analyzed. Pb levels in fresh catch species ranged between <20 and 689 ng/g; in farmed from <20 to 438 ng/g and in frozen from <20 to 541 ng/g. Cd values ranged in fresh catch seafood from <0.8 to 19.8 ng/g; in farmed from <0.8 to 42.3 ng/g; in frozen from <0.8 to 93.1. Hg levels ranged 8-339 ng/g in wild seafood; <5-226 ng/g in farmed and <5-313 ng/g in frozen. In fresh catch seafood, As values ranged <10-231 ng/g; in farmed from 12-310 ng/g and in frozen 12-272 ng/g. Cd and Hg concentrations were below the EU limits in all species; two samples of farmed European seabass and two frozen samples exceeded EU limits for Pb. The median weekly dietary intake could affect the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Pb by 2% (range 0.5-16.5%), Cd PTWI by 0.9% (range 0.1-8.0%), Hg PTWI by 9.6% (range 0.6-41.0%) and the As PTWI by 3.6% (range 0.4-12.5%). Considering the upper values in the ranges, seafood represents a non-negligible contribution to Pb weekly intake (16.5%), but mainly to the weekly intake of Hg (41.0%) for high seafood consumers and those consuming the most contaminated species. PMID:24785313

  7. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  8. Stay Safe at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Stay Safe at Work Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Injuries ... need to take steps to prevent injuries at work? All types of jobs – even desk jobs – can ...

  9. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  10. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  11. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why you may Need More Than one Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  12. Creating a Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Examines security issues that planners must address at the programming and schematic design phase in key areas of the school building. They include the front door, safe halls and stairs, positive classrooms, and secure assembly. (EV)

  13. Medicines: Use Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Track of Your Medicines Taking Medicines Safely Saving Money on Medicines, Shopping Online For More Information about ... half doses of a prescription drug to save money. ( Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you ...

  14. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  15. Safe Hazmat Storage Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Provides a list of recommendations for safely managing hazardous waste containers. Encourages training of employees on the hazards of the wastes they handle and the correct procedures for managing containers. (DDR)

  16. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  17. Presence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in waters and seafood from the Tunisian Sea.

    PubMed

    Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Croci, Luciana; Colombo, Mauro M; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the hemolysin genes, tdh and trh, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from environmental samples collected from various exported seafood products comprising of fishes and shellfish (Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas) or seawater, was studied. Eight strains were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by toxR -based polymerase chain reaction and only one strain out of these 8 strains was positive for tdh and trh genes. Toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates are present in Tunisian coastal areas and they may also be present in Tunisian exported seafood products. PMID:23430717

  18. Nutrient and contaminant tradeoffs: exchanging meat, poultry, or seafood for dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Nesheim, Malden C; James, Cara A

    2008-03-01

    When making food choices, consumers are faced with the dilemma of reconciling differences between health benefits and exposure to potential toxins. Analyses to estimate likely intake and exposure outcomes for young children and women of child-bearing age shows that seafood, chicken, and beef, while approximately equivalent in protein, vary in key nutrients of importance as well as in levels of certain contaminants. Increasing the variety of choices among meats, poultry, and seafood and consuming them in amounts consistent with current dietary guidelines and advisories will contribute toward meeting nutritional needs while reducing exposure to any single type of contaminant. PMID:18289176

  19. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth. PMID:19750213

  20. Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maulvault, Ana Luisa; Reuver, Marieke; Fait, Gabriella; Cano-Sancho, German; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments. PMID:25864933

  1. Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from salted, fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jin; Jin, Hyun Mi; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile bacterium, designated strain MJ3(T), was isolated from myeolchi-jeot (anchovy jeotgal), a traditional fermented seafood in South Korea. Cells were non-endospore-forming cocci showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain MJ3(T) was observed at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 1-24% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 10% NaCl). Phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ3(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Salimicrobium. Strain MJ3(T) was related most closely to Salimicrobium salexigens 29CMI(T), Salimicrobium album DSM 20748(T), Salimicrobium flavidum ISL-25(T), Salimicrobium luteum BY-5(T) and Salimicrobium halophilum DSM 4771(T), with similarities of 98.8%, 98.7%, 98.6%, 98.4% and 98.3%, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain MJ3(T) (KF732837) and S. salexigens DSM 22782(T), S. album DSM 20748(T), S. flavidum DSM 23127(T), S. luteum KCTC 3989(T) and S. halophilum JCM 12305(T) were 60 ± 5.4%, 58.5 ± 6.5%, 43.6 ± 5.5%, 37.2 ± 5.8% and 16.7 ± 0.2%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data (sole isoprenoid quinone, MK-7; major cell-wall type, meso-diaminopimelic acid; major cellular fatty acids, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0; major polar lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; DNA G+C content, 46.3 mol%) also supported the affiliation of strain MJ3(T) with the genus Salimicrobium. Therefore, strain MJ3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Salimicrobium, for which the name Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ3(T) ( = KACC 16972(T) = JCM 19758(T)). PMID:25070217

  2. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health. PMID:24618601

  3. 78 FR 21911 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    .... ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: On April 3, 2013, a notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR... Data Section is corrected as follows: Estimated time per response: 106 hours. Estimated total annual burden hours: 318. Estimated total annual cost to the public: $22. All other information in the notice...

  4. A community-based assessment of seafood consumption along the lower James River, Virginia, USA: potential sources of dietary mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2010-04-01

    The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to conduct environmental exposure assessments provides valuable insight about disparities in seafood consumption and contaminant exposure. Ninety-five community-specific seafood consumption surveys were administered to low-income African-American women (ages 16-49) residing in the Southeast community of Newport News, VA, USA, for the purpose of assessing potential dietary mercury exposure. Only the results of the seafood consumption surveys are presented in this manuscript. Approximately 65% of the women surveyed do not fish; however, 83% had consumed seafood within the last 7 days. Whiting, shrimp, and canned tuna were the three items most frequently consumed. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed stated that grocery/seafood markets were the main sources of the seafood items generally consumed. The mean seafood consumption rate for the women surveyed was 147.8 g/day (95% CI: 117.6-185.8), a rate substantially higher than the mean seafood consumption rate reported for US women (1.8 g/day 95% CI: 1.51-2.04). Shrimp, croaker, and blue crab were the top three seafood items with the highest summed amount (g/day) consumed. There was no significant association between demographic variables (age, income, education, and weight) and total number of seafood items listed, ingestion rate (g/meal), exposure frequency (meals/year), and seafood consumption rate (g/day). By using CBPR to assess seafood consumption in this community, we learned that even though women in Southeast Newport News, Virginia are not subsistence fishers, they consume seafood at a subsistence fisher rate. Of the three seafood items most frequently consumed, canned tuna potentially plays a significant role in dietary mercury exposure for women in this community. Future work includes determining mercury concentrations in seafood items consumed and generating community-specific statements of dietary mercury risks. PMID:20129605

  5. Arsenic in the human food chain, biotransformation and toxicology--Review focusing on seafood arsenic.

    PubMed

    Molin, Marianne; Ulven, Stine Marie; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Fish and seafood are main contributors of arsenic (As) in the diet. The dominating arsenical is the organoarsenical arsenobetaine (AB), found particularly in finfish. Algae, blue mussels and other filter feeders contain less AB, but more arsenosugars and relatively more inorganic arsenic (iAs), whereas fatty fish contain more arsenolipids. Other compounds present in smaller amounts in seafood include trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and sulfur-containing arsenicals. The toxic and carcinogenic arsenical iAs is biotransformed in humans and excreted in urine as the carcinogens dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA), producing reactive intermediates in the process. Less is known about the biotransformation of organoarsenicals, but new insight indicates that bioconversion of arsenosugars and arsenolipids in seafood results in urinary excretion of DMA, possibly also producing reactive trivalent arsenic intermediates. Recent findings also indicate that the pre-systematic metabolism by colon microbiota play an important role for human metabolism of arsenicals. Processing of seafood may also result in transformation of arsenicals. PMID:25666158

  6. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Seafood Processing Training Sessions in the Galveston Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Robert F.

    A cost-benefit study was conducted to determine the economic viability of continuing to offer training sessions for seafood processors through the College of the Mainland in Texas. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources, including the college and local company participating in the program, federal and state…

  7. Rapid Determination of Mercury in Seafood in an Introductory Environmental Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeanette K.; Jenkins, J. David; Manley, A. Citabria; Sorel, Eric; Smith, C. Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described which allows easy, rapid determination of mercury levels in commercially seafood samples from a contaminated area. Students gain experience in the preparation of a calibration curve, the determination of unknown concentrations, and risk assessment based on experimentally determined data.

  8. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  9. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  10. Incidence and prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important seafood borne human pathogen worldwide due to it occurrence, prevalence and ability to cause gastrointestinal infections. This current study aim at investigating the incidence and prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood using systematic review-meta-analysis by exploring heterogeneity among primary studies. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2003 and 2015 for the occurrence and prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood was conducted using "isolation", "detection", "prevalence", "incidence", "occurrence" or "enumeration" and V. parahaemolyticus as search algorithms in Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest of electronic bibliographic databases. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with fixed effect meta-analysis model for effect rate to explore heterogeneity between the primary studies. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 10,819 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 48 studies met inclusion criteria. V. parahaemolyticus could only be isolated from 2761 (47.5 %) samples of 5811 seafood investigated. The result of this study shows that incidence of V. parahaemolyticus was more prevalent in oysters with overall prevalence rate of 63.4 % (95 % CI 0.592-0.674) than other seafood. Overall prevalence rate of clams was 52.9 % (95 % CI 0.490-0.568); fish 51.0 % (95 % CI 0.476-0.544); shrimps 48.3 % (95 % CI 0.454-0.512) and mussels, scallop and periwinkle: 28.0 % (95 % CI 0.255-0.307). High heterogeneity (p value <0.001; I (2) = 95.291) was observed mussel compared to oysters (I (2) = 91.024). It could be observed from this study that oysters harbor V. parahaemolyticus based on the prevalence rate than other seafood investigated. The occurrence and prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus is of public health importance, hence, more studies involving seafood such as mussels need to be

  11. Veterinary drug residues in seafood inspected by the European Union, United States, Canada, and Japan from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodman, Sarah; Neff, Roni A; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-09-01

    Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009. Most veterinary drug violations were detected in species that are commonly farm-raised. Asian seafood products, including shrimp and prawns, catfish (or fish sold as catfish), crab, tilapia, eel, and Chilean salmon were most frequently in violation of veterinary drug residue standards. Vietnam had the greatest number of violations among exporting countries. Concentrations of most veterinary drugs in seafood found in violation did not differ between inspecting bodies that reported drug concentrations. Transparency in seafood inspection reporting varied widely among inspecting bodies. Estimation of violations in the untested fraction of seafood was precluded by a lack of information from inspecting bodies regarding the distinction between targeted and random sampling. Increased transparency could facilitate a more rigorous characterization of public health risks from consuming imported seafood. PMID:21797221

  12. Seafood Contamination after the BP Gulf Oil Spill and Risks to Vulnerable Populations: A Critique of the FDA Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Karen K.; Solomon, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The BP oil spill of 2010 resulted in contamination of one of the most productive fisheries in the United States by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs, which can accumulate in seafood, are known carcinogens and developmental toxicants. In response to the oil spill, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed risk criteria and established thresholds for allowable levels [levels of concern (LOCs)] of PAH contaminants in Gulf Coast seafood. Objectives: We evaluated the degree to which the FDA’s risk criteria adequately protect vulnerable Gulf Coast populations from cancer risk associated with PAHs in seafood. Discussion: The FDA LOCs significantly underestimate risk from seafood contaminants among sensitive Gulf Coast populations by failing to a) account for the increased vulnerability of the developing fetus and child; b) use appropriate seafood consumption rates; c) include all relevant health end points; and d) incorporate health-protective estimates of exposure duration and acceptable risk. For benzo[a]pyrene and naphthalene, revised LOCs are between two and four orders of magnitude below the level set by the FDA. Comparison of measured levels of PAHs in Gulf seafood with the revised LOCs revealed that up to 53% of Gulf shrimp samples were above LOCs for pregnant women who are high-end seafood consumers. Conclusions: FDA risk assessment methods should be updated to better reflect current risk assessment practices and to protect vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children. PMID:21990339

  13. Nuclear weapon safety: How safe is safe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The safety criteria that have been specified for modern nuclear weapons are very demanding. The majority of the weapons in the current stockpile will have to be modified to meet them, unless they are retired. Moreover, for some weapons we still lack necessary data to perform credible safety analyses. Although plutonium dispersal is a much less threatening danger than a sizable nuclear yield, it is nevertheless a potentially serious hazard, particularly if the plutonium is aerosolized in a chemical detonation. The panel recommended the following actions: (1) equip all stockpiled weapons with Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety, and build all aircraft-launched bombs and cruise missiles with insensitive high explosive and fire-resistant cores; (2) began an immediate review of the acceptability of retaining missile systems without IHE, fire-resistant cores, or 1.3 class propellant in close proximity to the warheads; (3) continue safety studies and allocate necessary resources to weapons and military laboratories; (4) affirm enhanced safety as the top priority goal of the US nuclear weapons program, and design all future weapons to be as safe as practically achievable, consistent with reasonable military requirements.

  14. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. PMID:26146050

  15. Rhabdomyolysis After Cooked Seafood Consumption (Haff Disease) in the United States vs China

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Haff disease is a syndrome of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis that occurs after eating cooked seafood. Methods For this descriptive analytical article, a literature search identified the scientific articles on Haff disease and/or rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked seafood in the United States and China. Analysis of those articles focused on identifying the seafood vectors of Haff disease, describing the most commonly recurring clinical and laboratory manifestations of Haff disease, and comparing the Haff disease toxidrome with other similar seafood-borne toxidromes. Statistically significant differences were determined using unpaired t tests and Fisher exact tests. Results Twenty-nine confirmed cases of Haff disease were identified in the United States, and 60 cases were identified in China during 1984-2014. Most of the US cases followed consumption of buffalo fish, and most of the Chinese cases followed consumption of freshwater pomfret. However, Haff disease also followed consumption of the same species of boiled crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in the United States (n=9) and China (n=6). US patients with crayfish-transmitted Haff disease reported significantly more nausea with and without vomiting, chest pain, body and back pain, dyspnea, and diaphoresis than the Chinese patients and were more frequently misdiagnosed as having myocardial infarctions. Conclusion The bioaccumulation of a new, heat-stable freshwater and/or brackish/saltwater algal toxin, similar to palytoxin but primarily myotoxic and not neurotoxic, is suspected of causing Haff disease. At present, only the rapid identification of the seafood vectors of Haff disease will limit disease outbreaks and prevent further cases. PMID:26130980

  16. Seafood Consumption and Blood Mercury Concentrations in Jamaican Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A.; Lalor, Gerald C.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2–8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child’s frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P <0.05) geometric means blood mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

  17. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  18. A Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinacci, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Presents four key steps in planning for school security and creating a safe, secure environment for students: deterring the possibility of crime; detecting when something potentially troublesome has occurred; delaying criminals in order to give law enforcement officials the additional time needed to catch them; and recovering and continuing the…

  19. Safe Manual Jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  20. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  1. Validity of surveys to assess safe routes to school programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe Routes to School programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. These programs promote children's physical activity and show promise for obesity prevention. However, there are few validated surveys to measure important outcomes such as student tr...

  2. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  3. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  4. Safe Motherhood Initiative.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, staff of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)/Macro International met with WHO to discuss the prospect of collecting data on maternal health and morbidity so DHS could set up an international database. The database's purpose would be to gauge the progress of Safe Motherhood programs worldwide and to determine their strengths and weaknesses. WHO and Marc wrote a proposal for the development of a core data collection questionnaire and the implementation of Safe Motherhood Surveys in 3 countries. They recommended that these surveys be follow-up surveys to DHS surveys. The Rockefeller Foundation provided Macro funding for the development of the core questionnaire and documentation, for technical assistance to the Philippines, and for a meeting to develop the best possible questionnaire. 20 international specialists attended the December 1992 meeting at the World Bank. The USAID-funded Mothercare Project took care of local costs of the Philippines Safe Motherhood Survey. Between March and June 1993, Macro along with the Philippines Department of Health, the National Statistics Office, and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit of the Philippines General Hospital collected data for the validation study and conducted qualitative research on women's perceptions when informed about obstetric complications. They next pretested the questionnaire. Training of trainers was in September 1993 and interviewer training followed in early October. The actual Safe Motherhood survey began in mid-October, 5-6 months after the Philippines DHS survey ended. Macro expected preliminary results in early 1994. The questionnaire concentrated on prenatal and postnatal care, delivery, and potentially fatal complications (especially their treatment). Other topics included morbidity, sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence, and nutritional status. Macro will use the results of the Philippine survey to revise the questionnaire. PMID:12287321

  5. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults. PMID:22099052

  6. Utilization of a saltwater-marsh ecosystem for the management of seafood-processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    The report presents the results of a cooperative study that examined the potential for using a saltwater wetland to manage seafood-processing wastewater. An irregularly flooded black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh located at Point aux Pins in coastal Alabama was selected for the study. The study determined that the application of seafood-processing wastewater to the marsh affected a number of the marsh's water-quality characteristics in direct relation to the wastewater loading rate. However, monitoring of the marsh flora and fauna showed virtually no impact at any of the experimental loading rates. As a result of the study a number of design and loading criteria are suggested for any future projects involving wastewater discharges to saltwater wetlands.

  7. A content analysis of Internet resources about the risks of seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather C; Hong, Jie; Friedman, Daniela B; Porter, Dwayne E; Halfacre, Angela C; Scott, Geoffrey I; Lead, Jamie R

    2016-08-01

    Seafood consumption is a main source of human exposure to certain environmental contaminants. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the online health risk messages focused on this topic, as people in the US are increasingly accessing the Internet for health-related information. Previous research indicates that online health information tends to be written at a reading level that is more advanced than ability of the general population. The purpose of this research was to examine the content and readability of Internet resources targeted toward consumers in the US regarding the health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood. Sources for analysis were gathered through a targeted search of state and national government websites, as well as through a Google search. The overall mean readability level was Grade 9.21, which is slightly above the average reading level of US adults. Future research should evaluate the accuracy of the health risk messages, as well as consumer perceptions of risk. PMID:26775549

  8. Preliminary exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hashash, H.; Al-Bahloul, M.

    1995-08-01

    Levels of PAHs in seafood from Kuwaiti market were determined. Results showed that most of the samples contained significant amounts of total PAHs. Naphthalene constituted the highest PAH burden of the samples. Nuwaibi had the highest level of total PAHs (472.6 {mu}g/kg, dry wt). Others ranged from 0.86 to 55.96 {mu}g/kg dry wt. The results of exposure assessment for the average consumer indicated a daily intake of 0.231 {mu}g of total PAH from seafood. BaP equivalent intake was calculated to be 0.0167 {mu}g/d. For the above average consumer, total PAH intake was 0.326 {mu}g/d; and BaP equivalents were 0.025 {mu}g/d. These daily intake levels were quite comparable with those reported for the average American consumer. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis. PMID:26920298

  10. The geography of mercury and PCBs in North Carolina's local seafood.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Amy; Sohn, Nari; Hooper, Mark; Rittschof, Dan

    2012-07-01

    Mercury and PCBs are used by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies to inform seafood safety recommendations. Pollution dynamics suggest recommendations on the national scale may be too large to be accurate. We tested softshell and hardshell blue crab, white and pink shrimp, oysters, clams, spot, and mullet from fishers in each of the three North Carolina fishery districts. We measured mercury using EPA method 7473 and PCBs using a commercially available ELISA kit. Over 97% of samples were below the Environmental Protection Agency levels of concern for both mercury and PCBs. Mercury and PCBs have different spatial dynamics, but both differ significantly by water body, suggesting that seafood safety recommendations should occur by water body instead of at the national scale. This finding supports previous research suggesting that differences in water chemistry, terrestrial influence, and flushing time in a particular water body control the contaminant load in locally resident species. PMID:22658912

  11. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  13. Levels and toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens from retail seafood.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, T; Labbe, R

    2008-06-01

    For the period 1990 through 2003, seafood was the most commonly identified food linked to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Fish as a commodity has rarely been examined for the presence of Bacillus cereus in particular. For the present study, 347 fresh and processed retail seafood samples were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, and B. cereus. The presence of C. botulinum was not confirmed in any of the isolates, but C. perfringens was confirmed in 17 samples. One of the C. perfringens isolates possessed the enterotoxin gene, as determined by PCR. In contrast, 62 confirmed B. cereus isolates were obtained from separate samples at levels ranging from 3.6 to > 1,100 CFU/g. Thirty (48%) of 62 isolates produced both the hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic (NHE) enterotoxins, and 58 (94%) and 31 (50%) produced NHE or HBL toxins, respectively. The presence of at least one of the three genes of the NHE complex was detected in 99% of the isolates; 69% of the isolates possessed all three genes. In contrast, 71% of the isolates possessed at least one of the three genes of the HBL complex, and 37% possessed all three HBL gene components. Fifty of the 62 B. cereus isolates were from imported seafood, and 19 (38%) of these samples were at levels > 100 CFU/g. Twelve of the 14 highest enterotoxin assay results were from isolates from imported food. Only one B. cereus isolate possessed the cereulide synthetase gene, ces; this isolate also possessed the genes for the three-component HBL and NHE complexes. A majority of enterotoxin-producing isolates were resistant to 2 of 10 antibiotics tested, ceftriaxone and clindamycin. Our results demonstrate the potential of seafood as a vehicle for foodborne illness caused by B. cereus, in particular the enterotoxin-producing genotype. PMID:18592743

  14. Genome Sequence of Extracellular-Protease-Producing Alishewanella jeotgali Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaejoon; Chun, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Alishewanella jeotgali MS1T (= KCTC 22429T = JCM 15561T) was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood, gajami sikhae (jeotgal), and has been reported as a novel species. A. jeotgali was proven to have extracellular proteolytic activity, which may play an important role in the fermentation environment of food containing fish flesh. Here, we present the genome sequence of Alishewanella jeotgali MS1T as the first sequenced strain in the genus Alishewanella and its taxonomic relatives. PMID:22461542

  15. Genome sequence of extracellular-protease-producing Alishewanella jeotgali isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Chun, Jongsik; Park, Woojun

    2012-04-01

    Alishewanella jeotgali MS1(T) (= KCTC 22429(T) = JCM 15561(T)) was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood, gajami sikhae (jeotgal), and has been reported as a novel species. A. jeotgali was proven to have extracellular proteolytic activity, which may play an important role in the fermentation environment of food containing fish flesh. Here, we present the genome sequence of Alishewanella jeotgali MS1(T) as the first sequenced strain in the genus Alishewanella and its taxonomic relatives. PMID:22461542

  16. Genome Sequence of Lentibacillus jeotgali GrbiT, Isolated from Traditional Korean Salt-Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mi-Ja; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Lentibacillus jeotgali GrbiT, isolated from a traditional Korean salt-fermented seafood, is a strictly aerobic, Gram-positive, nonmotile, endospore-forming, moderately halophilic bacterium belonging to the family Bacillaceae in the phylum Firmicutes. Here, the draft genome sequence of L. jeotgali GrbiT (3,775,822 bp with a G+C content of 42.5%) is reported. This is the first reported genome sequence from a Lentibacillus species. PMID:22038972

  17. Preliminarily comparison of nutritional composition of some fresh and processed seafood.

    PubMed

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Processing made fish less susceptible to spoilage. Fish are rich in protein content but the protein content is reduced with processing gave a better result when long-time preservation was carried out. Aim of this study was comparison of proximate analysis of some fresh and processed seafoods. Raw materials and processed seafoods (canned mackerel tuna, frozen Sea-Bream and Pressed caviar) were obtained from different firms and analyzed. Analysis carried out according AOAC methods. Moisture, protein and fat values of tuna fish were estimated to be 51, 23.9 and 21.4%, respectively. In this study, moisture content of pressed caviar was 36%, protein content was 34.4% and fat content was 16.7%, carbohydrate and energy values were 4.9% and 316 kcal/100 g, respectively. Pressed and smoked seafoods contained lower amount of moisture but higher amounts of the other components than raw materials (p < 0.05). Canned mackerel tuna, frozen sea bream and pressed caviar also contained higher amounts of fat, carbohydrate and energy, respectively (p < 0.05) than raw material. Except canning with water, all processing technologies decreased the moisture content but increased energy values (p < 0.05) of the fish. It is concluded that processed seafoods are rich in chemical components and very nutritive. Canned tuna with salted water may be advised for low-calorie diets. Caviar pressed was one the best sea foods that was produced in Iran. Since fishes are consumed as a major protein source in food, it is very important that the protein content should not be compromised during table preparation. PMID:24159693

  18. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  19. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars associated with tropical seafood of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2009-06-01

    A total of 256 Salmonella strains consisting of 29 Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood of Cochin (India) were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary medicines as therapeutic agents. The 10 most predominant Salmonella serovars in seafood were also characterized for presence of plasmids using the alkaline lysis method. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies highlighted a comparatively high resistance in Salmonella isolates to sulfamethizol and carbenicillin, and moderate resistance to nalidixic acid and oxytetracycline. Nevertheless, antimicrobial resistance was not observed against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and kanamycin in different Salmonella serovars. Fifty percent of the Salmonella isolates, comprising 16 Salmonella serovars, were resistant to sulfamethizol followed by 39% resistant to carbenicillin and 14% resistant to oxytetracycline. Multidrug resistance was detected in 39.4%, 14.4%, 12.1%, and 1.5% of Salmonella isolates towards two drugs (sulfamethizol and carbenicillin), three drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, and oxytetracycline), four drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, and nalidixic acid), and five drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin), respectively. Plasmid profiling highlighted the presence of nine plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars and plasmids that were not detected in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden, Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Bareilly, Salmonella Irumu, Salmonella Ohio, Salmonella Oslo, and Salmonella Typhi isolated from seafood. PMID:19422307

  20. Lead, nickel and vanadium in seafood: an exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers.

    PubMed

    Bu-Olayan, A H; al-Yakoob, S

    1998-11-10

    Human exposure to lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) through the ingestion of six species of fish and two species of shrimp in Kuwait are determined. The study on seafood consumed by the Kuwaiti residents was analyzed by conducting a survey in five districts of the country, namely, Kuwait city (Capital), Farwaniya, Jahra, Hawaly and Ahmedi. Samples consisting of fish and shrimp were purchased from the local fish market during November 1995 and June 1996. Based on the survey, three major factors were investigated: (i) Pb, Ni and V concentration in the fish of locally consumed fish and shrimp; (ii) daily dietary intake of these elements in humans through consumption of seafood; and (iii) characterizing potential health risks associated with the estimated daily intakes. The risk associated with Pb, Ni and V in seafood was estimated based on a Hazard Index (HI). Although the highest HI (using the 95th percentiles of the daily intake of the element as the dose of concern) was observed for zobaidy, hamoor and shrimp, it is always < 1. This indicated that no serious health threats are associated with oil-related elements in fish and shrimp. PMID:9861729

  1. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas Silva; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vasquez, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Ribeiro, Amanda Santos Vaz; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; Oliveira, Sérgio Soares do Prado; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer' seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  2. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood

    PubMed Central

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society. PMID:26097289

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Vibrio, salmonella, and Aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woodring, Joseph; Srijan, Apichai; Puripunyakom, Paksathorn; Oransathid, Wilawan; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Mason, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand, and were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, and Aeromonas species from January to February 2008. From 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. Of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of Vibrio, Salmonella, or Aeromonas, leaving only 6 (5%) samples free of them. All oyster sample (100%) had at least one pathogen, followed by sea bass (97%), blood cockles (97%), and shrimp (90%). Overall, 111 (92%) of all samples had detectable Vibrio spp., 32 (27%) had detectable Aeromonas spp., and 25 (21%) had detectable Salmonella enterica. There was no overall difference between positive samples collected from fresh markets versus supermarkets (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05). Resistance to ampicillin among isolated pathogens was relatively high (56%), while resistance to 12 other antibiotics, including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was relatively low (0, 0, and 3%, respectively). Study results indicate that uncooked seafood in Bangkok, Thailand, commonly harbors enteric pathogens and that consumption of uncooked seafood should be avoided to reduce foodborne illnesses. PMID:22221354

  4. Detection of noroviruses in shellfish and semiprocessed fishery products from a Belgian seafood company.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Stals, Ambroos; Tang, Qing-Juan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Shellfish have been implicated in norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks worldwide. This study presents data obtained from various batches of shellfish and fishery products from a Belgian seafood company over a 6-month period. For the intact shellfish (oysters, mussels, and clams), 21 of 65 samples from 12 of 34 batches were positive for NoVs; 9 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 3,300 to 14,300 genomic copies per g. For the semiprocessed fishery products (scallops and common sole rolls with scallop fragments), 29 of 36 samples from all eight batches were positive for NoVs; 17 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 200 to 1,800 copies per g. This convenience study demonstrated the performance and robustness of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection and interpretation method and the added value of NoV testing in the framework of periodic control of seafood products bought internationally and distributed by a Belgian seafood processing company to Belgian food markets. PMID:25198595

  5. Iron is an essential cause of fishy aftertaste formation in wine and seafood pairing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yumiko; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Takata, Ryoji; Konno, Tomonori

    2009-09-23

    Fishy aftertaste is sometimes perceived in wine with fish and seafood pairing. However, what component of wine clashes with seafood or what compound contributes to the unpleasant fishy aftertaste in the mouth remains an open problem. First, intensities of unpleasant fishy aftertaste of wine and dried scallop pairings were rated by sensory analysis. Second, components of the wines were analyzed. Strong positive correlations were found between the intensity of fishy aftertaste and the concentration of both total iron and ferrous ion. Moreover, the intensity of fishy aftertaste was increased by the addition of ferrous ion in model wine and suppressed by the chelation of ferrous ion in red wine. Third, potent volatile compounds of fishy aftertaste, such as hexanal, heptanal, 1-octen-3-one, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, nonanal, and decanal, were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in dried scallop soaked in red wine. The formations of these compounds depended on the dose of ferrous ion in the model wine. These results suggest that ferrous ion is a key compound of the formation of fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing within the concentration range commonly found in wine. PMID:19708656

  6. Simultaneous detection of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and its antibiotic resistance genes from seafood.

    PubMed

    Deekshit, Vijaya Kumar; Kumar, Ballamoole Krishna; Rai, Praveen; Rohit, Anusha; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2013-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars are virulent pathogens of humans and animals with many strains possessing multiple drug resistance traits. They have been found to carry resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT-resistant). A rapid and sensitive multiplex PCR (mPCR)-based assay was developed for the detection of Salmonella serovars from seafood. Six sets of primers which are one primer pair targeting Salmonella specific gene invA (284 bp), two Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) genes ssaT (780 bp) and sseF (888 bp) and three antibiotic resistance genes floR (198 bp), sul1 (425 bp), tetG (550 bp) were used for the study. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested by spiking shrimp/fish/clam homogenate with viable cells of Salmonella. This assay allows for the cost effective and reliable detection of pathogenic Salmonella enterica from seafood. The mPCR developed in the present study proved to be a potent analytical tool for the rapid identification of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovars from seafood. PMID:23545447

  7. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April–August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40–21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63–38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  8. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April-August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40-21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63-38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  9. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    PubMed

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. PMID:26433295

  10. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  11. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  12. Inserting IUDs safely.

    PubMed

    Burnhill, M S

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of safe insertion of IUDs in the contemporary U.S. setting, when any IUD complication may provoke litigation, includes explanations of complications listed on package inserts, what to look for in the pelvic exam, now to handle the inserter, whether to give prophylactic antibiotics or a cervical block, follow-up management, and advice on safe sex and hygiene. The similarities and differences in listed contraindications for the ParaGard and Progestasert IUDs are analyzed. It is important to know these listed contraindications to avoid being the sole defendant in a court case. Neither explicitly rules out nulliparas, and some women who have completed childbearing may be willing to risk ectopic pregnancy. The physician must be sure to avoid any possible risks of pelvic infection, however. It is important to postpone IUD insertion if there is any suggestion of lower genital tract infection. Similarly, IUD insertion is intended to last for years, so a paracervical block is recommended if access is difficult. Tips for ensuring scrupulous asepsis are suggested. Women for whom prophylactic antibiotics are advised include diabetics, those with heart valve disease or transplants. IUD patients should be clearly identified when they call in with complaints, and seen urgently. Finally, a sexual history should be taken to avoid candidates who engage in anal sex practices. PMID:12284992

  13. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  14. Selenium and mercury in widely consumed seafood from South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Seixas, Tércia G; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Malm, Olaf

    2013-07-01

    The growing ingestion of predatory fish by humans has increased their exposure to toxic chemicals. Mercury (Hg) is an exogenous and harmful trace-element that accumulates in all marine organisms. Selenium (Se) is nutritionally important as a micronutrient, but is potentially harmful at intakes above 1mg per day. Se:Hg molar ratios in excess of 1:1 are thought to counteract the adverse effects of Hg, protecting against Hg toxicity. Evaluation of the health risk posed by Hg exposure from seafood consumption requires concurrent consideration of Se content in the same individuals. This study evaluated the Se and Hg concentrations in the edible tissues of 652 individual samples of commonly consumed varieties of carnivorous and planktivorous fish, squid, mussel, shrimp and crab collected from south-eastern Brazil. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed significant variation among and within tropical seafood. All organisms presented Se concentration in muscle of less than 2.0µgg(-1), the maximum allowed selenium concentrations. Only seven individuals of a carnivorous fish species presented Hg in muscle above the maximum permissible limit of 0.5µgg(-1) established by WHO and Brazilian legislation for human consumption of most aquatic species. These same individuals also showed Se:Hg molar ratio of less than 1:1. Se:Hg molar ratios were found to decline with increasing fish length, potentially reducing Se-dependent protection. As a result of their rich Se, low Hg contents and Se:Hg molar ratios exceeding 1:1, nearly all species included in this study provide benefits for human consumption. Two popular seafoods in the region, the carnivorous fish Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and Micropogonias furnieri (Atlantic croaker), had the most favorable Se:Hg molar ratio values of 33 and 21, respectively. Among the invertebrates, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (seabob shrimp) and Loligo sanpaulensis (squid) had the most favorable Se:Hg molar ratio values, higher than 20. A selenium health

  15. Host range and in vitro lysis of Listeria monocytogenes seafood isolates by bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Arachchi, Geevika J Ganegama; Cruz, Cristina D; Dias-Wanigasekera, Beatrice M; McIntyre, Lynn; Billington, Craig; Hudson, Andrew; Flint, Steve H; Mutukumira, Anthony N

    2014-12-01

    Listeria-infecting bacteriophages (listeriaphages) can be used to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of many of seafood-borne Listeria strains to phages has not been reported. This research investigated the host ranges of three listeriaphages (FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5) by the formation of lytic zones and plaques on host lawns and in vitro lysis kinetics of listeriaphage FWLLm3. The study also predicted the phage titres required to lyse host cells. The host ranges of the phages were determined using 50 L. monocytogenes strains, of which 48 were isolated from the seafood industry and two from clinical cases. Of the 50 strains, 36 were tested at 25 and 30 ℃ and the remainder (14) at 15 and 25 ℃. Based on the formation of either discrete plaques or lytic zones (host kill zones), the host ranges of FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5 were about 87%, 81% and 87%, respectively, at 25 ℃. Six L. monocytogenes strains from the seafood environment were insensitive to all three phages, while the other seafood strains (42) were phage-sensitive. The adsorption rate constant (k value) of listeriaphage FWLLm3 was between 1.2 × 10(-9) and 1.6 × 10(-9 )ml/min across four host strains in tryptic soy broth at 25 ℃. The cultures (at 3-4 log colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) were completely lysed (<1 log CFU/ml) when cultures were infected with FWLLm3 at > 8.7 log phage-forming units (PFU/ml) for 30 min. Re-growth of phage-infected cultures was not detected after 24 h. The effective empirical phage titre was similar to the calculated titre using a kinetic model. Results indicate the potential use of the three phages for controlling L. monocytogenes strains in seafood processing environments. PMID:23908393

  16. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured. PMID:17901607

  17. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality. PMID

  18. Pregnancy is special -- let's make it safe. Special feature -- safe motherhood facts.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes the 10 action messages (and the rationale behind them) that emerged from a technical consultation held in Sri Lanka in 1997 to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. The 10 safe motherhood messages emphasize 1) establishing safe motherhood as a human right, 2) promoting safe motherhood as a vital economic and social investment, 3) empowering women and ensuring choices, 4) delaying marriage and first birth, 5) understanding that every pregnancy involves risks, 6) ensuring skilled attendance at deliveries, 7) improving access to quality maternal health services, 8) addressing unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, 9) measuring progress, and 10) using the power of partnerships. The document describes the extent of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world and notes that provision of quality maternal health care is the single most important intervention. The socioeconomic importance of safe motherhood is considered in the next section, followed by an explanation of the social justice and human rights aspects of safe motherhood. After a look at the importance of delaying childbearing and the fact that every pregnancy involves risks, the document highlights the need to ensure skilled attendance at delivery, to improve access to and quality of maternal health services, to prevent unwanted pregnancy, and to address unsafe abortion. The document ends by reviewing the difficulties involved in measuring maternal mortality and emphasizing the importance of analyzing each maternal death in detail and sharing the important information gleaned with the community. PMID:12293576

  19. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95-100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: (a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and (b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r=-0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  20. On safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1988-05-01

    After a general discussion of the factors contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity, a solution to both of these problems is suggested for India: an initiative at the district level to improve support, supervision, training, essential midwifery and obstetric care. The general causes of the 200 or more times higher maternal morality risks in developing countries act throughout the woman's lifetime: powerlessness, illiteracy, malnutrition, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D and iron, heavy physical labor, unchecked fertility, lack of prenatal and obstetric care and illegal abortion. The most common causes of maternal morality and morbidity, eclampsia, obstructed labor, hemorrhage and sepsis, have been prevented in developed countries and in China. We know how to prevent them, by technical support and management at the district level. 4 elements are required: 1) adequate primary health care, food and universal family planning; 2) prenatal care and nutrition with referral if needed; 3) assistance of a trained person at every childbirth; 4) access to obstetric care for those at high risk. Rather than spend money or urban specialized hospital centers, half to 2/3 of all fatal complications of childbirth can be eliminated by local hospitals with the ability to do basic obstetrics such as caesareans and blood transfusions. There is a need for further health systems research in the given locale, but what we need now is an initiative on making pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women. PMID:3420000

  1. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  2. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  3. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  4. Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: a comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients.

    PubMed

    Petroczi, A; Naughton, D P

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were computed by using Excel and SPSS 15.0. The vast majority of food alerts/recalls owing to metal contamination occur in seafood and during the summer months. Only swordfish and shark containing produce received over 10 recalls which were mainly for mercury contamination. Seafood produce originating from only 3 countries had over 10 recalls owing to metal contamination (Spain 50; France 11 and Indonesia 11). Based upon the food alert/recall system, the application of THQ estimations of risk in cases of metal contamination of seafood is questionable as THQ implies frequent if not daily exposure over a lifetime. Infrequent recalls owing to metal contamination and the absence of patterns make it highly unlikely that an individual would be subject to multiple exposures to significant levels of metal ions in seafood. PMID:19041361

  5. Framing Scientific Analyses for Risk Management of Environmental Hazards by Communities: Case Studies with Seafood Safety Issues

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Nancy L.; Drew, Christina H.; Acharya, Chetana; Mitchell, Todd A.; Donatuto, Jamie L.; Burns, Gary W.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk management provides a context for addressing environmental health hazards. Critical to this approach is the identification of key opportunities for participation. We applied a framework based on the National Research Council’s (NRC) analytic–deliberative risk management dialogue model that illustrates two main iterative processes: informing and framing. The informing process involves conveying information from analyses of risk issues, often scientific, to all parties so they can participate in deliberation. In the framing process, ideas and concerns from stakeholder deliberations help determine what and how scientific analyses will be carried out. There are few activities through which affected parties can convey their ideas from deliberative processes for framing scientific analyses. The absence of participation results in one-way communication. The analytic–deliberative dialogue, as envisioned by the NRC and promoted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), underscores the importance of two-way communication. In this article we present case studies of three groups—an Asian and Pacific Islander community coalition and two Native American Tribes—active in framing scientific analyses of health risks related to contaminated seafood. Contacts with these organizations were established or enhanced through a regional NIEHS town meeting. The reasons for concern, participation, approaches, and funding sources were different for each group. Benefits from their activities include increased community involvement and ownership, better focusing of analytical processes, and improved accuracy and appropriateness of risk management. These examples present a spectrum of options for increasing community involvement in framing analyses and highlight the need for increased support of such activities. PMID:16263503

  6. Eco-label conveys reliable information on fish stock health to seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L; Valencia, Sarah R; Branch, Trevor A; Agnew, David J; Baum, Julia K; Bianchi, Patricia L; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D; Larsen, Ashley E; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D M; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J; Thorson, James T; Williams, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer's point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3-5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers. PMID:22928029

  7. Eco-Label Conveys Reliable Information on Fish Stock Health to Seafood Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L.; Valencia, Sarah R.; Branch, Trevor A.; Agnew, David J.; Baum, Julia K.; Bianchi, Patricia L.; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E.; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D.; Larsen, Ashley E.; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L.; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J.; Thorson, James T.; Williams, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer’s point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3–5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers. PMID:22928029

  8. Evaluation of culture media for selective enrichment and isolation of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, Poothuvallil K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, clam, crab, mussel, oyster, lobster, squid, octopus, and cuttlefish samples, was used to compare the recovery of Salmonella serovars by different selective enrichment and isolation media. The samples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT), followed by selective isolation on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar, bismuth sulfite (BS) agar, and Brilliant Green (BG) agar media. Of 443 seafood samples analyzed, 108 were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The role of selective enrichment in Salmonella spp. recovery with RV medium was distinctly high (70%) compared to TT broth (30%). The selective enrichment in RV broth followed by selective isolation on XLD, HE, BS, and BG agar recovered Salmonella at levels of 56, 41, 28, and 16%, respectively. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, XLD and HE agars recovered 27 and 23% respectively. The recovery of Salmonella with enrichment in TT followed by isolation on BS and BG was abysmally low at 4.6 and 5%, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of XLD and HE media with selective enrichment in RV broth. However, performance difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the recovery when BS and BG with RV, and XLD, HE, BS, and BG agars with TT broth were used. The present study showed that the combination of RV with XLD was the most efficient media for isolation of Salmonella from seafood when compared to other isolation media combinations. PMID:21140659

  9. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  10. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes in Seafood Processing Facilities and Smoked Salmon in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Zaouali, Sarah; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare but life-threatening disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the seafood processing industry in the Republic of Ireland. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was determined by regular sampling of both food samples and processing environment swabs at eight seafood processing facilities over two calendar years. All samples were analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1 standard method, and the isolates were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, serotyping, and the occurrence of some genes related to survival under stress (SSI-1, Tn6188, and bcrABC). A prevalence of 2.5% in 508 samples (433 environmental swabs and 75 food samples) was found. From the isolates obtained, eight different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified, two occurring in more than one facility and one occurring in food and the environment. Five of the eight pulsotypes identified contained at least one of the three stress survival-related genes tested. The tolerance of the isolates to benzalkonium chloride, a representative quaternary ammonium compound, was also examined and ranged from 5.5 ± 0.5 to 8.5 ± 0.5 ppm of benzalkonium chloride. To evaluate the ability of smoked salmon to support the growth of L. monocytogenes, including the T4 widespread pulsotype that was isolated, a challenge test was performed on cold-smoked salmon obtained from two separate producers. The results showed clearly that both types of smoked salmon supported the growth of L. monocytogenes. Although occurrence of L. monocytogenes on seafood was low, this study showed that the smoked salmon used in this study can support the growth of L. monocytogenes; therefore, vigilance is required in the processing facilities to reduce the associated risk. PMID:26613913