Science.gov

Sample records for prong energy distributions

  1. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  2. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  3. A Three Pronged Approach to Community Scale Renewable Energy: Education, Incremental Capital Investment and Smart Grid Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demeo, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    The reality of global climate change, due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases, is upon us. A significant source of emissions comes from the burning of fossil fuels to produce energy that is consumed in every aspect of daily life. As such, the human ecological link between how we live and our impact on the planet is at the…

  4. Geology of the reading prong

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, D.

    1987-03-01

    For over a billion years the geological terrain now called New Jersey has been the site of unusually high uranium concentrations. Although the highest of these concentrations occurs in the Reading Prong, the area is itself only part of a larger geologic province extending to the northeast and southwest. The rocks in the Reading Prong are not uniformly radioactive. High uranium concentrations tend to be associated with magnetite deposits - metamorphic equivalents of iron-rich formations - and with pegmatites - rocks formed by precipitation from mineralizing solutions in the late phases of granite emplacement. Because of the way they were formed, the uranium-bearing magnetite and pegmatite bodies tend to be long and narrow, and the resulting patterns of radon occurrence can be expected to be the same. This may explain why, in some places, adjacent houses have very different radon concentrations.

  5. Study of High-multiplicity 3-prong and 5-prong Tau Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P

    2012-06-01

    We present measurements of the branching fractions of 3-prong and 5-prong {tau} decay modes using a sample of 430 million {tau} lepton pairs, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 468 fb{sup -1}, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. The {tau}{sup -} {yields} (3{pi}){sup -} {eta}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {tau}{sup -} {yields} (3{pi}){sup -} {yields} {omega}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -} f{sub 1}(1285){nu}{sub {tau}} branching fractions are presented as well as a new limit on the branching fraction of the isospin-forbidden, second-class current {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -} {eta}{prime}(958){nu}{sub {tau}} decay. We find no evidence for charged kaons in these decay modes and place the first upper limits on their branching fractions.

  6. Machining Three Prongs on a Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Simple tool reduces set-up and machining time by more than 70 percent. Unorthodox tooling arrangement used to machine three prongs on end of specialpurpose wrench. Modified carbide-tipped spot-facing tool rotated at 1,400 to 1,600 revolutions per minute in small milling machine and applied to work piece, held with its corners in spaces of three-cornered collect.

  7. A Four-Prong Model for Intellectual-Skills Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Davidson, Janet E.

    1989-01-01

    A four-prong instructional model for intellectual-skills development is described. The four prongs are: familiarization, intra-group problem solving, inter-group problem solving, and individual problem solving. A psychological model of what is to be taught, the triarchic theory of human intelligence, provides the underpinning of the instructional…

  8. Two-Pronged Chemo Helps Some with Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Two-Pronged Chemo Helps Some With Advanced Ovarian Cancer Study found using both abdomen drip and ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some women with advanced ovarian cancer may fare better if chemotherapy is dripped ...

  9. Columella erosion secondary to nasal prongs in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ewan; Pacifico, Marc D

    2016-01-01

    There is limited awareness of the risks of pressure necrosis to the columella when using nasal prongs in the neonate. Previous studies have found that signs of skin damage can occur rapidly-within days. This case report aims to illustrate a simple technique of prophylactically lowering the risk of septal injury (if prolonged use of nasal prongs is envisaged), as well as a way of conservatively treating already damaged skin areas. Routine daily skin inspections are also recommended. PMID:27317758

  10. NASA's Three Pronged Approach to Hurricane Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakar, R. K.

    2006-12-01

    The direct question: How can weather forecast duration and reliability be improved and guide research within NASA's Weather Focus Area? A mandate of the Weather Focus Area is to investigate high impact weather events, such as severe tropical storms, through a combination of new and improved space-based observations, high-altitude research aircraft and sophisticated numerical models. The field experiments involving the NASA research aircraft are vital components of this three-pronged approach. The Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) - 3 studied inner core dynamics, synoptic flow environment, land falling intensity change and the genesis environment for several hurricanes in a field experiment carried out during the 1998 season. CAMEX-4 studied rapid intensification, storm structure and dynamics, scale interactions and intercomparison of remote sensing techniques during the 2001 hurricane season. Several state of the art remote sensing instruments were used in these studies from the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft. During July 2005, NASA conducted its Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment from San Jose, Costa Rica. The purpose of TCSP was to investigate the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclones primarily in the eastern North Pacific. This ocean basin was chosen because climatologically it represents the most concentrated region of cyclone formation on the planet and is within range of research aircraft deploying from Costa Rica. In 2005, however, the Caribbean was particularly active instead. We were greeted by two of the strongest July hurricanes on record for the Caribbean. The NASA ER-2 high altitude research aircraft flew twelve separate missions, carrying a payload of several remote sensing instruments. Many of these missions were flown in coordination with the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD) P-3 Orion research aircraft as part of NOAA's 2005 Intensity Forecast Experiment. TCSP's successor program, the NAMMA-06 (NASA African

  11. [Mensurement of airflow resistance in neonatal prongs of nasal CPAP

    PubMed

    Sampietro, V I; Azevedo, M P; Resende, J G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure airflow resistance in prongs of nasal CPAP, making use of different gas admission flow (GAF) in the ventilation circuit, in different internal diameters of the nasal prongs, besides verifying whether a GAF responding only to the demand of three times the minute-volume(MV) is enough to the circuit not to be cause of CO(2) retention. METHODOLOGY: Nasal prongs, assembled in the original circuits, were used, having their prongs kept open to the atmosphere. Pressure was read at a pressure monitor, in water centimeters, connected to the appropriate entrance of the circuit. A flowmeter balanced to the pressure was used, gauged at 50 psi, installed to the oxygen net of the Hospital, connected to the assessing set of the CPAP circuit. Initially, making use of the 8 l/min flow and keeping the exhaling set of the circuit closed, it was possible to eliminate the nasal prongs larger than two once the measured resistance was equal to zero. Having nasal parts number zero, 1 and 2 selected for this study, the system was then assembled as for the neonate: the inhaling set to the gas source and the exhaling set sunk into different depths in the water seal (2, 4, 6 and 8 centimeters). At the level of patient analysis, in order to assess the CO(2) retention, a mechanical pulmonary ventilation device was used as gas source and a nasal CPAP circuit was assembled to the device in adequate places. GAF values and FiO(2) were determined in the commands of the mechanical ventilation device. The assessment of gas concentration in the ventilation circuit was made while assisting two newborns. Gas samples were obtained within the ventilation circuit in the system assessing set (samples A), and right after the distal prong to the gas entrance (samples B). To determine MV the Tidal Volume (considered 10ml/kg) was multiplied by the respiratory frequency of the patient; GAF was three times MV. RESULTS: To a maximum GAF of 8 litres/min, only prongs sized zero, 1 and 2 showed

  12. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, John; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Seifert, Gary

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  13. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  14. One-prong τ decays into charged kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Ortue, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Widenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Park, H.-J.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martin, E. B.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quasi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    Form a sample of about 75000 τ decays measured in the ALEPH detector, 1-prong charged kaon decays are identified by the dE/ dx measurement in the central detector. The resulting branching ratios for the inclusive and exclusive modes are: B( τ → ντK- ≥ 0 π0 ≥ 0 K0) = (1.60±0.07±0.12)%, B( τ → ντK- = (0.64±0.05±0.05)%, B( τ → ντ-π0 = (0.53±0.05±0.07)% and B( τ → ντK-π0π0) = (0.04±0.03±0.02)%. Exclusive modes are corrected for measured KL0 production. The rate for τ → ντK- agrees well with the prediction based on τ - μ universality.

  15. A novel inhaled multi-pronged attack against respiratory bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Zhao, Yanli; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Li Teng; Tan, Reginald B H

    2015-04-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a common clinical feature of many severe respiratory diseases, and when complicated by a recalcitrant bacterial infection, the whole treatment regimen thereby becomes more challenging and protracted. The accumulation of thickened mucus secretions in the lower airways provides a nutrient-rich breeding ground for bacteria that promotes their growth and limits the ease of effective eradication. Unfortunately, no direct-inhaled dry powder formulation to treat these respiratory mucoid infections more effectively is available commercially. This work therefore seeks to develop a highly-efficacious ternary dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP), gatifloxacin hydrochloride (GAT) and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB)) capable of delivering a novel multi-pronged attack (synergy, quorum quenching and mucociliary clearance) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common respiratory bacteria found in mucoid infections. The powders were prepared via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance via a multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI) and tested for their efficacies in bacteria-spiked artificial sputum medium (ASM). The optimized particles were of respirable-size (d50 of ∼1.61±0.03μm) and slightly corrugated. When dispersed via an Aerolizer® inhaler at 60L/min, the powder showed concomitant in vitro deposition, minimal capsule, device and throat retention, and highly promising and uniform fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of ∼64-69%, which was a vast improvement over the singly-delivered actives. Favourably, when tested on bacteria-spiked ASM, the optimized ternary formulation (with AMB) was more effective at killing bacteria (i.e. faster rate of killing) than just the synergistic antibiotics alone (binary formulation; without AMB). In conclusion, a ternary antibiotic-(non-antibiotic) DPI formulation involving a unique multi-pronged attack mechanism was successfully pioneered and optimized for mucoid

  16. Tectonics and metallogenesis of Proterozoic rocks of the Reading Prong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, L.C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping, petrography, and major and trace-element analyses of Proterozoic rocks from the Greenwood Lake Quadrangle, New York are compared with chemical analyses and stratigraphic information compiled for the entire Reading Prong. A persistent regional stratigraphy is evident in the mapped area whose geochemistry indicates protoliths consistent with a back-arc marginal basin sequence. The proposed marginal basin may have been floored by an older sialic basement and overlain by a basin-fill sequence consisting of a basal tholeiitic basalt, basic to intermediate volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks and carbonate sediments, a bimodal calc-alkaline volcanic sequence, and finally volcaniclastic, marine, and continental sediments. The presence of high-chlorine biotite and scapolite may indicate circulation of brine fluids or the presence of evaporite layers in the sequence. Abundant, stratabound magnetite deposits with a geologic setting very unlike that of cratonic, Proterozoic banded-iron formations are found throughout the proposed basin sequence. Associated with many of the magnetite deposits is unusual uranium and rare-earth element mineralization. It is proposed here that these deposits formed in an exhalative, volcanogenic, depositional environment within an extensional back-arc marginal basin. Such a tectonic setting is consistent with interpretations of protoliths in other portions of the Reading Prong, the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Canadian Grenville Province, and recent interpretation of the origin of the Franklin lead-zinc deposits, suggesting a more cohesive evolving arc/back-arc tectonic model for the entire Proterozoic margin of the north-eastern portion of the North American craton. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Probability distributions of turbulent energy.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mahdi; Müller, Wolf-Christian

    2008-05-01

    Probability density functions (PDFs) of scale-dependent energy fluctuations, P[deltaE(l)] , are studied in high-resolution direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes and incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. MHD flows with and without a strong mean magnetic field are considered. For all three systems it is found that the PDFs of inertial range energy fluctuations exhibit self-similarity and monoscaling in agreement with recent solar-wind measurements [Hnat, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 86 (2002)]. Furthermore, the energy PDFs exhibit similarity over all scales of the turbulent system showing no substantial qualitative change of shape as the scale of the fluctuations varies. This is in contrast to the well-known behavior of PDFs of turbulent velocity fluctuations. In all three cases under consideration the P[deltaE(l)] resemble Lévy-type gamma distributions approximately Delta;{-1} exp(-|deltaE|/Delta)|deltaE|;{-gamma} The observed gamma distributions exhibit a scale-dependent width Delta(l) and a system-dependent gamma . The monoscaling property reflects the inertial-range scaling of the Elsässer-field fluctuations due to lacking Galilei invariance of deltaE . The appearance of Lévy distributions is made plausible by a simple model of energy transfer. PMID:18643170

  18. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  19. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chong-Jin

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal`s knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution.

  20. K0 production in one-prong τ decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Have, I. Ten; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Park, H.-J.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martin, E. B.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhler, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    From a sample of about 75000 τ decays identified with the ALEPH detector, K0 production in 1-prong hadronic decays is investigated by tagging the KL0 component in a hadronic calorimeter. Results are given for the final states ντh-K0 and ντh-π0K0 where the h- is separated into π and K contributions by means of the dE/ dx measurement in in the central detector. The resulting branching ratios are: ( Bτ → ντπ-K0) = (0.88±0.14±0.09)%, ( Bτ → ντK-K0) = (0.29±0.12±0.03)%, ( Bτ → ντπ-π0K0) = (0.33±0.14±0.07)% aand ( Bτ → ντK-π0K0) = (0.05±0.05±0.01)%. The K ∗ decay rate in the K0π channel agrees with that in the Kπ0 mode: the combined value for the branching ratio is (Bτ → ν τK ∗-) = (1.45±0.13±0.11)% .

  1. Geology of the Trenton Prong, west-central New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Volkert, R.A. ); Drake, A.A.Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    The Trenton Prong in New Jersey is underlain by a heterogeneous sequence of rocks that is divisible into northern and southern belts separated by the steeply southeast-dipping Huntingdon Valley fault (HVF). The northern belt contains metagabbro, charnockite, and dacite/tonalite, upon which biotite-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss, calc-silicate gneiss, and minor marble may rest unconformably. The mineralogy and geochemistry of these rocks are remarkably similar to those of Middle Proterozoic rocks in the New Jersey Highlands, and the authors interpret them to be correlative. Northern belt rocks are unconformably overlain by the Cambrian Chickies Quartzite, which is cut off to the northeast by the HVF. The southern belt contains felsic to intermediate quartzofeldspathic gneiss and schist and minor amounts of metavolcanic rocks, all of which may be at slightly lower metamorphic grade than those in the northern belt. High TiO[sub 2] metabasalt is chemically identical to diabase dikes that intrude Middle Proterozoic rocks in the New Jersey Highlands; it is interpreted to be Late Proterozoic in age. Rocks in the southern belt have been thrust northwestward over the Chickies and Middle Proterozoic rocks along the HVF. South of the southern belt, biotite schist and gneiss of the Wissahickon Formation are thrust onto both belts of basement rocks on the HVF and a splay from the HVF, the Morrisville thrust fault. Both faults are marked by augen gneiss that shows evidence of dextral shear.

  2. Atlas of quasar energy distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Green, Richard F.; Bechtold, Jill; Willner, S. P.; Oey, M. S.; Polomski, Elisha; Cutri, Roc

    1994-01-01

    We present an atlas of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of normal, nonblazar, quasars over the whole available range (radio to 10 keV X-rays) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The primary (UVSX) sample includes 47 quasars for which the spectral energy distributions include X-ray spectral indices and UV data. Of these, 29 are radio quiet, and 18 are radio loud. The SEDs are presented both in figures and in tabular form, with additional tabular material published on CD-ROM. Previously unpublished observational data for a second set of quasars excluded from the primary sample are also tabulated. The effects of host galaxy starlight contamination and foreground extinction on the UVSX sample are considered and the sample is used to investigate the range of SED properties. Of course, the properties we derive are influenced strongly by the selection effects induced by quasar discovery techniques. We derive the mean energy distribution (MED) for radio-loud and radio-quiet objects and present the bolometric corrections derived from it. We note, however, that the dispersion about this mean is large (approximately one decade for both the infrared and ultraviolet components when the MED is normalized at the near-infrared inflection). At least part of the dispersion in the ultraviolet may be due to time variability, but this is unlikely to be important in the infrared. The existence of such a large dispersion indicates that the MED reflects only some of the properties of quasars and so should be used only with caution.

  3. A direct correlation among indoor Rn, soil gas Rn and geology in the Reading Prong near Boyertown, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

    1989-01-01

    We feel that this study suggests a relationship among geology, soil gas Rn and the potential for indoor Rn accumulation in this portion of the Reading Prong. There are deviations from a perfect correlation but these are related to inhomogeneities in the geologic environment and perhaps variations in construction techniques of homes in the area. This study also demonstrates that several analyses in a small area may be necessary to adequately determine the Rn distribution for a particular geologic unit. That scale would be determined by the complexity of the local geology. Where no discrete source of elevated Rn supply is found for dwellings having a significant Rn accumulation, the implication is that overall gross permeability may be sufficient to supply Rn from a larger volume of soil and rock.

  4. Production of four-prong final states in photon-photon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Avery, R. E.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barker, A. R.; Barnes, A. V.; Barnett, B. A.; Bauer, D. A.; Bengtsson, H.-U.; Bintinger, D. L.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bolognese, T. S.; Bross, A. D.; Buchanan, C. D.; Buijs, A.; Caldwell, D. O.; Clark, A. R.; Cowan, G. D.; Crane, D. A.; Dahl, O. I.; Derby, K. A.; Eastman, J. J.; Eberhard, P. H.; Edberg, T. K.; Eisner, A. M.; Enomoto, R.; Erné, F. C.; Fujii, T.; Gary, J. W.; Gorn, W.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hofmann, W.; Huth, J. E.; Hylen, J.; Kamae, T.; Kaye, H. S.; Kees, K. H.; Kenney, R. W.; Kerth, L. T.; Ko, Winston; Koda, R. I.; Kofler, R. R.; Kwong, K. K.; Lander, R. L.; Langeveld, W. G.; Layter, J. G.; Linde, F. L.; Lindsey, C. S.; Loken, S. C.; Lu, A.; Lu, X.-Q.; Lynch, G. R.; Madaras, R. J.; Maeshima, K.; Magnuson, B. D.; Marx, J. N.; Masek, G. E.; Mathis, L. G.; Matthews, J. A.; Maxfield, S. J.; Melnikoff, S. O.; Miller, E. S.; Moses, W.; McNeil, R. R.; Nemethy, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Oddone, P. J.; Paar, H. P.; Park, D. A.; Park, S. K.; Pellett, D. E.; Pripstein, M.; Ronan, M. T.; Ross, R. R.; Rouse, F. R.; Schwitkis, K. A.; Sens, J. C.; Shapiro, G.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shen, B. C.; Slater, W. E.; Smith, J. R.; Steinman, J. S.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stork, D. H.; Strauss, M. G.; Sullivan, M. K.; Takahashi, T.; Thompson, J. R.; Toge, N.; Toutounchi, S.; van Tyen, R.; van Uitert, B.; Vandalen, G. J.; van Daalen Wetters, R. F.; Vernon, W.; Wagner, W.; Wang, E. M.; Wang, Y. X.; Wayne, M. R.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, J. T.; Williams, M. C.; Wolf, Z. R.; Wolf, Z. R.; Yamamoto, H.; Yellin, S. J.; Zeitlin, C.; Zhangj, W.-M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented on the exclusive production of four-prong final states in photon-photon collisions from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at the SLAC e+e- storage ring PEP. Measurement of dE/dx and momentum in the time-projection chamber (TPC) provides identification of the final states 2π+2π-, K+K-π+π-, and 2K+2K-. For two quasireal incident photons, both the 2π+2π- and K+K-π+π- cross sections show a steep rise from threshold to a peak value, followed by a decrease at higher mass. Cross sections for the production of the final states ρ0ρ0, ρ0π+π-, and φπ+π- are presented, together with upper limits for φρ0, φφ, and K*0K¯ *0. The ρ0ρ0 contribution dominates the four-pion cross section at low masses, but falls to nearly zero above 2 GeV. Such behavior is inconsistent with expectations from vector dominance but can be accommodated by four-quark resonance models or by t-channel factorization. Angular distributions for the part of the data dominated by ρ0ρ0 final states are consistent with the production of JP=2+ or 0+ resonances but also with isotropic (nonresonant) production. When one of the virtual photons has mass (m2γ=-Q2≠0), the four-pion cross section is still dominated by ρ0ρ0 at low final-state masses Wγγ and by 2π+2π- at higher mass. Further, the dependence of the cross section on Q2 becomes increasingly flat as Wγγ increases.

  5. A protocol for quantum energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    In this Letter, a protocol called quantum energy distribution (QED) is proposed in which multi-parties can simultaneously extract positive energy on average from spin chains by use of common secret keys shared by an energy supplier. QED is robust against impersonation. An adversary, who does not have common secret keys and attempts to get energy, cannot obtain but give energy to spin chains. Total amount of energy transfer gives a lower bound of residual energy of a local cooling process by the energy supplier.

  6. Basic Training: A Two-Pronged Approach to Term Paper Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Barbara; Littlejohn, Nancy

    Academic libraries have traditionally provided some kind of term paper assistance to patrons. Central Missouri State University's Ward Edwards Library designed a two-pronged approach to a term paper clinic (TPC), using traditional group instruction and one-on-one walk-in assistance. The primary goals of the TPC are to teach the student to: (1)…

  7. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  8. Resilient Core Networks for Energy Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntze, Nicolai; Rudolph, Carsten; Leivesley, Sally; Manz, David O.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2014-07-28

    Abstract—Substations and their control are crucial for the availability of electricity in today’s energy distribution. Ad- vanced energy grids with Distributed Energy Resources require higher complexity in substations, distributed functionality and communication between devices inside substations and between substations. Also, substations include more and more intelligent devices and ICT based systems. All these devices are connected to other systems by different types of communication links or are situated in uncontrolled environments. Therefore, the risk of ICT based attacks on energy grids is growing. Consequently, security measures to counter these risks need to be an intrinsic part of energy grids. This paper introduces the concept of a Resilient Core Network to interconnected substations. This core network provides essen- tial security features, enables fast detection of attacks and allows for a distributed and autonomous mitigation of ICT based risks.

  9. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  11. Energy optimization of water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy costs associated with pumping treated water into the distribution system and boosting water pressures where necessary is one of the largest expenditures in the operating budget of a municipality. Due to the size and complexity of Detroit`s water transmission system, an energy optimization project has been developed to better manage the flow of water in the distribution system in an attempt to reduce these costs.

  12. Extent of areal inundation of riverine wetlands along Cypress Creek and the Peace, Alafia, North Prong Alafia, and South Prong Alafia Rivers, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Riverine and palustrine system wetlands are a major ecological component of river basins in west-central Florida. Healthy wetlands are dependent upon the frequency and duration of periodic flooding or inundation. This report assesses the extent, area, depth, frequency, and duration of periodic flooding and the effects of potential surface-water withdrawals on the wetlands along Cypress Creek and the Peace, Alafia, North Prong Alafia, and South Prong Alafia Rivers. Results of the study were derived from step-backwater analysis performed at each of the rivers using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) one-dimensional model. The step-backwater analysis was performed using selected daily mean discharges at the 10th, 50th, 70th, 80th, 90th, 98th, 99.5th, and 99.9th percentiles to compute extent of areal inundation, area of inundation, and hydraulic depth to assess the net reduction of areal inundation if 10 percent of the total river flow were diverted for potential withdrawals. The extent of areal inundation is determined by cross-sectional topography and the degree to which the channel is incised. Areal inundation occurs along the broad, low relief of the Cypress Creek floodplain during all selected discharge percentiles. However, areal inundation of the Peace and Alafia Rivers floodplains, which generally have deeply incised channels, occurs at or above discharges at the 80th percentile. The greatest area of inundation along the three rivers generally occurs between the 90th and 98th percentile discharges. The decrease in inundated area resulting from a potential 10-percent withdrawal in discharge ranged as follows: Cypress Creek, 22 to 395 acres (1.7 to 8.4 percent); Peace River, 17 to 1,900 acres (2.1 to 13.6 percent); Alafia River, 1 to 90 acres (1 to 19.6 percent); North Prong Alafia River, 1 to 46 acres (0.7 to 23.4 percent); and South Prong Alafia River, 1 to 75 acres (1.5 to 13.4 percent).

  13. Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Economou, Demetre J.

    2013-09-15

    As microelectronic device features continue to shrink approaching atomic dimensions, control of the ion energy distribution on the substrate during plasma etching and deposition becomes increasingly critical. The ion energy should be high enough to drive ion-assisted etching, but not too high to cause substrate damage or loss of selectivity. In many cases, a nearly monoenergetic ion energy distribution (IED) is desired to achieve highly selective etching. In this work, the author briefly reviews: (1) the fundamentals of development of the ion energy distribution in the sheath and (2) methods to control the IED on plasma electrodes. Such methods include the application of “tailored” voltage waveforms on an electrode in continuous wave plasmas, or the application of synchronous bias on a “boundary electrode” during a specified time window in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas.

  14. Analysis of τ 1-prong exclusive branching ratios using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. M.; Matorras, F.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-02-01

    A FFNN has been used to identify six different 1-prong τ decays among the τ+τ- events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The method operates with better efficiency-purity than the classical methods for the previously studied channels and allows the possibility of analysing a new one. It has been applied to 1993 and 1994 data to obtain the branching fractions of these channels. A first estimation of the systematic errors has been performed.

  15. Energy distribution in the quantum spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen

    2015-11-01

    At first this paper summarizes the current situation and historical development of the spectrum research, the difficulties and demand background. Then it introduces the research status of quantum spectrum and research ideas of energy distribution in quantum spectrum. We explain the concept of quantum spectrum, the difference between quantum spectrum and spectrum. We elaborate energy distribution in quantum spectrum from three aspects, which are representation, feature and mechanism of quantum spectrum energy distribution. Finally we describe the application of monochrome quantum spectrum about imaging and detection aspects and give an overview of the quantum spectrum. Based on above research results we continue to study and achieve the detection of multi-spectral imaging, which provide the technical basis for the application. We try access to an advanced stage of quantum spectrum study as soon as possible.

  16. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-07-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes.

  17. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Hurst, Marc

    2016-01-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes. PMID:27466230

  18. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-01-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes. PMID:27466230

  19. Electron energy-distribution functions in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchford, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculation of the electron energy distribution functions in the regime of drift tube experiments is discussed. The discussion is limited to constant applied fields and values of E/N (ratio of electric field strength to neutral density) low enough that electron growth due to ionization can be neglected. (GHT)

  20. The energy distribution of Sirius B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of the X-ray emission observed from the DA white dwarf Sirius B is investigated on the basis of low-resolution short wavelength IUE spectrum. Following a correction for the influence of scattered light from Sirius A, the intensity distribution of Sirius B is obtained as a function of wavelength. Comparison of the continuous energy distribution with model atmosphere energy distributions indicates an effective temperature of 25,500 K, which is not high enough to explain the observed X rays as normal photospheric radiation. In addition, with the exception of an unusual feature in the neighborhood of the C I 1657 line, no clear evidence is found of emission lines indicative of a corona, chromosphere or disk, and the origin of the X rays remains unknown.

  1. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  2. Stepwise assembling of polypeptide chain energy distributions.

    PubMed

    Jacchieri, S G

    2001-03-01

    The principles and application of conformational analysis software that makes use of a new algorithm are described. It is known that the existence of a local energy minimum in the energy landscape is in general related to the clustering of polypeptide chain conformations near that energy value or, in other words, to a high density of states. A criterion based on this principle is part of an algorithm employed to select subsets of polypeptide chain conformations in broad energy ranges. Chain fragments belonging to these subsets are then combined to build larger polypeptide chains and the corresponding energy distributions. The functionality of the various operations employed in the process is described and the FORTRAN 77 source code that defines the algorithm is listed. The methodology is illustrated with a calculation involving three chain fragments belonging to the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). PMID:11219430

  3. Energy distribution in disordered elastic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Gustavo R.

    2010-09-01

    Disordered networks are found in many natural and artificial materials, from gels or cytoskeletal structures to metallic foams or bones. Here, the energy distribution in this type of networks is modeled, taking into account the orientation of the struts. A correlation between the orientation and the energy per unit volume is found and described as a function of the connectivity in the network and the relative bending stiffness of the struts. If one or both parameters have relatively large values, the struts aligned in the loading direction present the highest values of energy. On the contrary, if these have relatively small values, the highest values of energy can be reached in the struts oriented transversally. This result allows explaining in a simple way remodeling processes in biological materials, for example, the remodeling of trabecular bone and the reorganization in the cytoskeleton. Additionally, the correlation between the orientation, the affinity, and the bending-stretching ratio in the network is discussed.

  4. Distributed energy store railgun; The limiting case

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated.

  5. Non multa, sed multum: Future lessons from two-prong, two-body decays of beauty

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.; Stech, B.

    1987-12-01

    There are four two-body, two-prong decays modes of B mesons and two for beauty baryons and they are quite rare, i.e., their branching ratios are not expected to exceed the script O(10/sup -4/) level. Yet a detailed study of their relative rates with a sensitivity level of 10/sup -5/ can yield unique and important information on strong interactions. If the evolution of these reactions in proper time can be traced then, under favorable conditions, one can analyze B/sup 0/ - anti B/sup 0/ mixing and CP invariance in a detailed way. 4 refs.

  6. The spectral energy distribution of NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, G. A.; Oke, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of absolute spectral energy distributions of interstellar gas for a galaxy (NGC 1275) is presented. Infrared spectra data shows heavy reddening. It is proposed that the interstellar gas may be ionized by shock waves or by nonthermal or stellar radiation. It is suggested, that high velocity, emission-line knots are H2 regions in a Perseus cluster galaxy or intergalactic gas cloud seen in projection against NGC 1275.

  7. Kaon content of three-prong decays of the tau lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J.J.

    1990-12-01

    We present a series of measurements involving the production of charged kaons in three-prong hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton. The data sample was obtained with the TPC/Two-Gamma detector facility at PEP. We set a limit on the branching fraction BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup 0}) < 0.26% at the 95% confidence level. The process {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup 0} is related via SU(3) to the second-class current decay {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}{pi}{sup {minus}}{eta}. We also present new measurements of the three-prong branching fractions BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} + neutrals) = 0.70 (+0.20/{minus}0.17)% and BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} + neutrals) = 0.16 (+0.10/{minus}0.07)%. 68 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  9. Dynamic Voltage Regulation Using Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D

    2007-01-01

    Many distributed energy resources (DE) are near load centres and equipped with power electronics converters to interface with the grid, therefore it is feasible for DE to provide ancillary services such as voltage regulation, nonactive power compensation, and power factor correction. A synchronous condenser and a microturbine with an inverter interface are implemented in parallel in a distribution system to regulate the local voltage. Voltage control schemes of the inverter and the synchronous condenser are developed. The experimental results show that both the inverter and the synchronous condenser can regulate the local voltage instantaneously, while the dynamic response of the inverter is faster than the synchronous condenser; and that integrated voltage regulation (multiple DE perform voltage regulation) can increase the voltage regulation capability, increase the lifetime of the equipment, and reduce the capital and operation costs.

  10. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. A.; Bendo, G. J.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Regan, M. W.; Armus, L.; Cannon, J. M.; Calzetti, D.; Draine, B. T.; Helou, G.; Joseph, R. D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Li, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Roussel, H.; Walter, F.; Hanson, H. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kewley, L. J.; Lamanna, C. A.; Leitherer, C.; Meyer, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Rieke, M. J.; Sheth, K.; Smith, J. D. T.; Thornley, M. D.

    2005-05-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out a comprehensive multi-wavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. The 1-850 \\micron\\ spectral energy distributions are presented for the first portion of the SINGS sample using broadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. The infrared colors derived from the globally-integrated Spitzer data are generally consistent with the previous generation of models that were developed based on global data for normal star-forming galaxies, though significant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity and resolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared spectral energy distributions for various locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031 (M 81), NGC 5194 (M 51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapes are found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of the three targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scales can be explored. The local star formation rate, as gauged by Hα emission, is shown to strongly correlate with local infrared fluxes and colors. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in spectral energy distributions seen in our sample are representative of the range present at high redshift then extrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation rates from the observed 24 \\micron\\ flux will be uncertain at the factor-of-five level. The corresponding uncertainties in the redshifted 8.0 \\micron\\ flux (e.g. observed 24 \\micron\\ flux for a z = 2 source) are factors of 5--10. Considerable caution should be used when interpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities. Support for this work, part of the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Science Program, was provided by NASA through Contract Number 1224769 issued by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  11. On the energy distribution in Sirius B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.; Dettmann, T.; Kapranidis, S.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrum of Sirius B in the wavelength region 1100-1900 A taken with the IUE satellite shows an absolute flux and spectral energy distribution in the continuum in agreement with theoretical white-dwarf models with T(eff) of 26,000 K plus or minus 1000 K for log g equals 8.65 and R equals 5.08 x 10 to the 8th cm. The Lyman-alpha profile is also in agreement with these parameters. No obvious emission lines in the spectrum of Sirius B or A which could indicate the presence of a chromosphere or corona in either of the stars are observed.

  12. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  13. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  14. Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Frank; Burnett, Daniel J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2007-11-01

    Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution. PMID:18058321

  15. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abdollahy, Shahin; Lavrova, Olga; Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building.more » Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.« less

  16. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ollis, T Ben; King, Daniel J; Irminger, Philip; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  17. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  18. Characterizing the energy distribution around GPR antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Nectaria; Annan, A. Peter

    2013-12-01

    Antenna height, orientation, shielding and subsurface properties all impact GPR responses. Although the basic concepts are generally understood, clarifying the key relationships can aid interpretation. Our long term goal is to develop easily parameterized models of transmitting and receiving components of GPR systems that will provide for quantitative interpretation of data acquired with real systems. Our first step was to develop modeling capacity and response presentation tools to help with development; the initial results have been both informative and forced a better understanding of near and far field. We are using three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. Model results can be presented in a variety of forms. In this paper, we focus on presenting the emitted energy characteristics and use radiation pattern display format for infinitesimal dipoles, resistively loaded dipoles and shielded dipoles. Patterns are computed for a range of environments such as free-space and over loss-less half-spaces with various properties. The energy distribution patterns are presented to investigate the behavior with distance away from the transmitter feed point, and as a function of height above the ground surface. The numerical simulations provide expected insights plus demonstrate the benefit of ground-coupling and the impact of shielding on GPR responses. Further, using the total radiated energy parameter is a novel method for displaying directivity, for GPR transient emissions.

  19. Nanofacilitated synergistic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: A 'three-pronged' approach.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shweta; Rai, Nishant; Rawat, Purnima; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unidentified etiology that affects the joints and causes pain, swelling, stiffness and redness in the joints. The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis has not yet been discovered and, consequently, treatment methods have not been optimally effective. It has long been treated with anti-inflammatory and immunosupressants including modern biologics either alone or in combination but all of the drugs have severe life threatening consequences with impaired immune function due to nonspecific targeting. Therefore, a three-pronged approach of local, active and synergistic targeting can be used to optimize delivery of therapeutic agents to reduce toxicity and patient outcome without compromising patient's immunity. PMID:27241253

  20. Classical trajectory study of internal energy distributions in unimolecular processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. D.; Marcus, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Energy flow in a molecular system such as CD3Cl or CD3H representing a chemical activation experiment is studied by the method of classical trajectories. A correlation function method is used to obtain energy distributions before and after the breakup of the activated molecule. The energy distribution in the final product is found to be randomly distributed for a surface with no exit channel barrier or strong intermode couplings. Nonrandom energy distributions result when these special forces are present. Product channel barriers result in an excess of translational energy and exit channel intermode couplings result in nonrandom vibrational distributions.

  1. Distributed activation energy model parameters of some Turkish coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gunes, M.; Gunes, S.K.

    2008-07-01

    A multi-reaction model based on distributed activation energy has been applied to some Turkish coals. The kinetic parameters of distributed activation energy model were calculated via computer program developed for this purpose. It was observed that the values of mean of activation energy distribution vary between 218 and 248 kJ/mol, and the values of standard deviation of activation energy distribution vary between 32 and 70 kJ/mol. The correlations between kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model and certain properties of coal have been investigated.

  2. Advanced Energy Efficiency and Distributed Renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovins, Amory

    2007-04-01

    The US now wrings twice the GDP from each unit of energy that it did in 1975. Reduced energy intensity since then now provides more than twice as much service as burning oil does. Yet still more efficient end-use of energy -- explained more fully in a companion workshop offered at 1245 -- is the largest, fastest, cheapest, most benign, least understood, and least harnessed energy resource available. For example, existing technologies could save half of 2000 US oil and gas and three-fourths of US electricity, at lower cost than producing and delivering that energy from existing facilities. Saving half the oil through efficiency and replacing the other half with saved natural gas and advanced biofuels would cost an average of only 15/barrel and could eliminate US oil use by the 2040s, led by business for profit. Efficiency techniques and ways to combine and apply them continue to improve faster than they're applied, so the ``efficiency resource'' is becoming ever larger and cheaper. As for electricity, ``micropower'' (distributed renewables plus low-carbon cogeneration) is growing so quickly that by 2005 it provided a sixth of the world's electricity and a third of its new electricity, and was adding annually 4x the capacity and 11x the capacity added by nuclear power, which it surpassed in capacity in 2002 and in output in 2006. Together, micropower and ``negawatts'' (saved electricity) now provide upwards half the world's new electrical services, due to their far lower cost and lower financial risk than the central thermal power stations that still dominate policy discussions. For oil and electricity, each of which adds about two-fifths of the world's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, efficiency plus competitive alternative supplies can stabilize the earth's climate at a profit, as well as solving the oil and (largely) the nuclear proliferation problems. Conversely, costlier and slower options, notably nuclear power, would displace less carbon emission per

  3. If it quacks like a duck: reviewing health care providers' speech restrictions under the first prong of Central Hudson.

    PubMed

    Fultz, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    The First Amendment protects the speech of health care providers. This protection can limit states' abilities to protect patients from harmful therapies involving speech, such as sexual orientation change efforts. Because providers' speech is more similar to commercial speech than traditional political discourse, it is possible to create a First Amendment review analysis that better balances states' police powers with providers' First Amendment rights. Under a "single-prong" approach, the first prong of Central Hudson can be used to identify quackery, which is analogous to false or misleading commercial speech and would therefore be outside the protection of the First Amendment. Because health care must be tailored to individual patients, restrictions on speech that survive the first prong of Central Hudson would be subject to strict scrutiny in order to leave the therapeutic decision to the provider and her patient, and maintain consistency with current jurisprudence. This Comment examines litigation from California's attempted ban on sexual orientation change therapy to illustrate the conflicts created by the current approach to First Amendment review of health care provider speech. This Comment then demonstrates the benefit of the proposed single-prong approach, including how it simultaneously protects patients from harm while protecting health care providers' speech. PMID:25335201

  4. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Jason, Andrew J.; Blind, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  5. Small Deflection Energy Analyzer for Energy and Angular Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the Small Deflection Energy Analyzer (SDEA) charged-particle spectrometer for energy and angle distributions responds to a longstanding need to measure the wind velocity vector in Earth s thermosphere, and to obtain the ion-drift vector in the ionosphere. The air and ions above 120 km are endowed with bulk velocities and temperatures just like air near the ground, but with separate spatial and temporal variations. It is important to understand these not only for study of the physics and chemistry of the Sun-Earth connection, but also for spacecraft orbit predictions, and communications through the ionosphere. The SDEA consists of a pair of parallel conducting plates separated by a small distance, with an entrance slit on one end, and an exit slit on the other. A voltage applied to these plates develops an electric field between the plates, and this field deflects ions passing through it. If an ion has too little energy, it will strike one of the plates. If it has too much, it will strike the back wall. An ion with the amount of energy being searched for will have its trajectory bent just enough to exit the back slit. The SDEA units are compact, rectangular, and operate with low voltages. The units can be built up into small arrays. These arrays could be used either to widen the field of view or to sharpen an existing one. This approach can also be used to obtain angular distributions in two planes simultaneously, thus cutting down the ion source power requirements in half. This geometry has enabled a new mass-spectrometer concept that can provide miniaturized mass spectrometers for use in industrial plants, air-pollution monitoring, and noxious-gas detection.

  6. The spectral energy distribution of NGC 1275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, G. A.; Oke, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of absolute spectral energy distributions for NGC 1275 (Per A) covering the wavelength interval from 3300 A to 10,800 A is presented. The data are consistent with the heavy reddening discovered by Wampler (1971). The H-alpha intensity varied by less than 10% between the times of Wampler's earlier measurements and the two occasions of the present observations. The line-emitting region has a characteristic density of about 10 to the 4.5 power per cu cm, a mass of about 10 to the 5.5 power solar masses, and a volume filling factor of about 10 to the -6th power. The gas may be ionized by shock waves or by nonthermal or stellar radiation. It is suggested, in the vein of Minkowski's (1957) original proposal, that the high-velocity emission-line knots described by Minkowski are H II regions in a Perseus-cluster galaxy or intergalactic gas cloud seen in projection against NGC 1275.

  7. Evolution of Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Amanda; Kennefick, J.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-05-01

    A common practice when formulating quasar luminosity functions (QLF) has been to adopt an average spectral index, $\\alpha$, for the sample even though it is well known that quasars exhibit a broad range of spectral energy distributions (SED.) We have investigated the possible evolution of $\\alpha$ as a function of redshift, as any evolution in this parameter would introduce or mask evolution in the QLF. We imaged 103 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars in the optical and near-infrared bands, near in time to mitigate the effects of variability, in three redshift bins centered at $z\\approx 1.9$, $2.7$, and $4.0$, corresponding to look-back times of 10-12 billion years. We present restframe UV-optical SED’s and spectral indices and discuss possible evolution in our sample. We also use single epoch spectra of the quasars to estimate the mass of the central black hole and discuss possible correlations of quasar properties such as mass, luminosity, and spectral shape.

  8. Controlling electron energy distributions for plasma technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The basic function of low temperature plasmas in society benefiting technologies is to channel power into specific modes of atoms and molecules to excite desired states or produce specified radicals. This functionality ultimately depends on the ability to craft an electron energy distribution (EED) to match cross sections. Given electric fields, frequencies, gas mixtures and pressures, predicting EEDs and excitation rates can in large part be reliably done. The inverse problem, specifying the conditions that produce a given EED, is less well understood. Early strategies to craft EEDs include adjusting gas mixtures, such as the rare gas-Hg mixtures in fluorescent lamps, and externally sustained discharges, such as electron-beam sustained plasmas for molecular lasers. More recent strategies include spiker-sustainer circuitry which produces desired EEDs in non-self-sustained plasmas; and adjusting frequency in capacitively coupled plasmas. In this talk, past strategies for customizing EEDs in low pressure plasmas will be reviewed and prospects for improved control of plasma kinetics will be discussed using results from 2-dimensional computer models.

  9. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  10. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  11. The ultraviolet energy distributions of late A stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Observed late A star energy distributions for the wavelength range 1400-2500 A are compared. No difference is found between energy distributions of Am stars and those of normal slowly rotating A stars. The fluxes of rapidly rotating stars, however, appear to be increased for wavelengths smaller than 1530 A; this cannot be understood as an effect of pole heating or reduced gravity. In addition, the comparison of the UV energy distributions with model atmosphere energy distributions of Kurucz indicates some problems with the theoretical Si I absorption edges at 1530 A.

  12. Species identification in cell culture: a two-pronged molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason K; Sykes, Greg; King, Steve; Cottrill, Karin; Ivanova, Natalia V; Hanner, Robert; Ikonomi, Pranvera

    2007-01-01

    Species identification of cell lines and detection of cross-contamination are crucial for scientific research accuracy and reproducibility. Whereas short tandem repeat profiling offers a solution for a limited number of species, primarily human and mouse, the standard method for species identification of cell lines is enzyme polymorphism. Isoezymology, however, has its own drawbacks; it is cumbersome and the data interpretation is often difficult. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity for cross-contamination is low; it requires large amounts of the contaminant present and cross-contamination within closely related species may go undetected. In this paper, we describe a two-pronged molecular approach that addresses these issues by targeting the mitochondrial genome. First, we developed a multiplex PCR-based assay to rapidly identify the most common cell culture species and quickly detect cross-contaminations among these species. Second, for speciation and identification of a wider variety of cell lines, we amplified and sequenced a 648-bp region, often described as the "barcode region" by using a universal primer mix targeted at conserved sequences of the cytochrome C oxidase I gene (COI). This method was challenged with a panel of 67 cell lines from 45 diverse species. Implementation of these assays will accurately determine the species of cell lines and will reduce the problems of misidentification and cross-contamination that plague research efforts. PMID:17934781

  13. Electro-optic measurement of terahertz pulse energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. H.; Gallacher, J. G.; Brussaard, G. J. H.; Lemos, N.; Issac, R.; Huang, Z. X.; Dias, J. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    An accurate and direct measurement of the energy distribution of a low repetition rate terahertz electromagnetic pulse is challenging because of the lack of sensitive detectors in this spectral range. In this paper, we show how the total energy and energy density distribution of a terahertz electromagnetic pulse can be determined by directly measuring the absolute electric field amplitude and beam energy density distribution using electro-optic detection. This method has potential use as a routine method of measuring the energy density of terahertz pulses that could be applied to evaluating future high power terahertz sources, terahertz imaging, and spatially and temporarily resolved pump-probe experiments.

  14. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Heng

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are essential to understand the physics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. This thesis present a detailed study of AGN SED shapes in the optical-near infrared bands (0.3--3microm) for 413 X-ray selected Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS Survey. We define a useful near-IR/optical index-index ('color-color') diagram to investigate the mixture of AGN continuum, host galaxy and reddening contributions. We found that ˜90% of the AGNs lie on mixing curves between the Elvis et al. (1994) mean AGN SED (E94) and a host galaxy, with only the modest reddening [E(B-V)=0.1--0.2] expected in type 1 AGNs. Lower luminosity and Eddington ratio objects have more host galaxy, as expected. The E94 template is remarkably good in describing the SED shape in the 0.3--3microrn decade of the spectrum over a range of 3.2 dex in LOPT, 2.7 dex in L/LEdd, and for redshifts up to 3. The AGN phenomenon is thus insensitive to absolute or relative accretion rate and to cosmic time. However, 10% of the AGNs are inconsistent with any AGN+host+reddening mix. These AGNs have weak or non-existent near-IR bumps, suggesting a lack of the hot dust characteristic of AGNs. The fraction of these hot-dust-poor AGNs evolves with redshift from 6% at low redshift (z < 2) to 20% at moderately high redshift (2 < z < 3.5). A similar fraction of HDP quasars are found in the Elvis et al. 1994 (BQS) and Richards et al. 2006 (SDSS) samples. The 1--3microm emission of the HDP quasars is a factor 2--4 smaller than the typical E94 AGN SED. The implied torus covering factor is 2%--29%, well below the 75% required by unified models. The weak hot dust emission seems to expose an extension of the accretion disk continuum in some of AGNs. For these, we estimate the outer edge of their accretion disks to lie at ˜104 Schwarzschild radii, more than ten times the gravitational stability radii. Either the host-dust is destroyed

  15. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. A.; Bendo, G. J.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Regan, M. W.; Armus, L.; Cannon, J. M.; Calzetti, D.; Draine, B. T.; Helou, G.; Joseph, R. D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Li, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Roussel, H.; Walter, F.; Hanson, H. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kewley, L. J.; Lamanna, C. A.; Leitherer, C.; Meyer, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Rieke, M. J.; Sheth, K.; Smith, J. D. T.; Thornley, M. D.

    2005-11-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out a comprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented using broadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. The infrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data are generally consistent with the previous generation of models that were developed using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, although significant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity and resolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs for various locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031 (M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapes is found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of the three targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scales can be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local star formation rate and the infrared colors fν(70 μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24 μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μm emission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level. Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission, and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0 μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, and NGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sample are representative of the range present at high redshift, then extrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation rates from the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5 level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using the redshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2 source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used when interpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities.

  16. Two jet energy and rapidity distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Blazey, G.C.; For the D {O} Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    The D0 detector has been recording data at the Tevatron {bar p}p Collider since May 1992. Because the D0 calorimeter is hermetic and has large acceptance it is well suited for semi-exclusive final state jet studies. We present a primary measurement of the distribution d{sup 3}N/dE{sub t1}/d{eta}{sub 1}/d{eta}{sub 2} at {radical}s TeV over a large range of {eta}. The sensitivity of this cross-section to parton momentum distributions and the ability of D0 to discriminate between possible parton distributions is discussed.

  17. Energy distribution among reaction products. VII - H + F2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Sloan, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'arrested relaxation' variant of the IR chemiluminescence technique is used in a study of the distribution of vibrational, rotational and translational energies between the products of the reaction by which H + F2 yields HF + F. Diagrams are plotted and numerical values are obtained for the energy distribution rate constants.

  18. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  19. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  20. Taking a Multi-pronged Approach to Expand the Reach of Climate Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, R.; Unger, M.; Eastburn, T.; Rockwell, A.; Laursen, K. K.; National CenterAtmospheric Research

    2011-12-01

    Recognizing the importance of tailoring content to a variety of audiences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) takes a multi-pronged approach to expand the reach of climate research results. The center's communications and education and outreach teams leverage Web 1.0 and 2.0 functionality - Google searches, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube - as well as face-to-face interactions and traditional media outlets to ensure climate change messages effectively connect with multiple audiences. Key to these efforts, NCAR seeks to frame messages that emphasize cultural cognition, that is, in a manner that recognizes and resonates with different audiences' values and thus their identities. Among the basic communications approaches NCAR uses to engage the public are one-on-one interactions with the visiting public, which ranges from school children and tourists, to dignitaries and journalists. As an example, the NCAR Journalism Fellowship brings a competitively selected group of internatoinal journalists to NCAR. During a week-long visit and ongoing contact, journalists are provided with a close-up, nuanced view of the science and individuals working on the bigger-picture research that drives climate-related sound bites reported by the press. NCAR provides media training for its scientists, giving them tools and practice in effectively handling interviews for print, Web and radio outlets. The institution hosts public events like "Super Science Saturday," and NCAR staff participate in external activities such as school science fairs, community events and continuing education sessions. In addition to interactive displays that allow the public to "experience" science directly and informally, NCAR develops educational programs and curricula targeted to specific age groups and levels of expertise. We will explore the importance of analogies, images and anecdotes in explaining complicated subjects to such a varied set of audiences, and identify key concepts in simplifying

  1. Distribution of energy in corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenced by recent events in fossil fuel prices, both economic and environmental, as well as increased concerns about both climate change and energy independence, there is a growing interest in the development of renewable energy biomass feedstocks. These feedstocks include perennial grasses, timb...

  2. Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.

  3. Energy distribution in parallel plate plasma accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicapua, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    A parallel plate accelerator operated in the quasi-steady regime of argon mass flow discharges permits, on account of its geometry, the appraisal of the initial ratio of energy disposition into the kinetic and thermal modes of the plasma while retaining the essential features of coaxial high power self-field MPD accelerators. The energy disposition ratio, calculated as the ratio of kinetic energy to enthalpy in the exhaust flow, shows reasonable agreement with the ratio of the induced emf in the accelerator to resistive voltage drop. Both these ratios indicate that the discharge imparts more energy to the flow by resistive heating than by direct body force acceleration. This is turn suggests that other acceleration mechanisms must be responsible for the high performance of conventional MPD arcs.

  4. Energy Distributions in Small Populations: Pascal versus Boltzmann

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugel, Roger W.; Weiner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical distributions of a limited amount of energy among small numbers of particles with discrete, evenly-spaced quantum levels are examined systematically. The average populations of energy states reveal the pattern of Pascal's triangle. An exact formula for the probability that a particle will be in any given energy state is derived.…

  5. Kappa distribution in the presence of a potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2015-02-01

    The present paper develops the theory and formulations of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems characterized by a nonzero potential energy. As yet, kappa distributions were used for the statistical description of the velocity or kinetic energy of particles but not of the potential energy. With the results provided here, it is straightforward to use the developed kappa distributions to describe any particle population of space plasmas subject to a nonnegligible potential energy. Starting from the kappa distribution of the Hamiltonian function, we develop the distributions that describe either the complete phase space or the marginal spaces of positions and velocities. The study shows, among others: (a) The kappa distributions of velocities that describe space plasmas can be vastly different from the standard formulation of the kappa distribution, because of the presence of a potential energy; the correct formulation should be given by the marginal kappa distribution of velocities by integrating the distribution of the Hamiltonian over the potential energy. (b) The long-standing problem of the divergence of the Boltzmannian exponential distribution for bounded radial potentials is solved using kappa distributions of negative kappa index. (c) Anisotropic distributions of velocities can exist in the presence of a velocity-dependent potential. (d) A variety of applications, including derivations/verifications of the following: (i) the Jeans', the most frequent, and the maximum radii in spherical/linear gravitational potentials; (ii) the Virial theorem for power law potentials; (iii) the generalized barometric formula, (iv) the plasma density profiles in Saturnian magnetosphere, and (v) the average electron magnetic moment in Earth's magnetotail.

  6. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  7. Subtleties in obtaining the electrostatic energy of continuous distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, M.; Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Farina, C.

    2014-11-01

    The mathematical steps that generalize the expression for the electrostatic energy of a set of point charges to the corresponding expression for a continuous charge distribution involve a few subtleties that are not usually discussed in standard introductory or advanced electromagnetic textbooks. In this paper, we point out such subtleties and discuss how to deal with them in cases of volume and surface charge distributions. We also show explicitly that it is not possible to define electrostatic energy for a linear charge distribution, since this energy would be divergent. Finally, we use dimensional analysis to recover our results in a simpler and more elegant form.

  8. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  9. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is occurring in part because modern air-conditioner and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than three cycles (0.05 s) when a fault, for example, on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage on the distribution system to sag to 70% or less of nominal. We completed a new test system for A/C compressor motor stall testing at the DECC Lab. The A/C Stall test system is being used to characterize when and how compressor motors stall under low voltage and high compressor pressure conditions. However, instead of using air conditioners, we are using high efficiency heat pumps. We have gathered A/C stall characterization data for both sustained and momentary voltage sags of the test heat pump. At low enough voltage, the heat pump stalls (compressor motor stops and draws 5-6 times normal current in trying to restart) due to low inertia and low torque of the motor. For the momentary sag, we are using a fast acting contactor/switch to quickly switch from nominal to the sagged voltage in cycles.

  10. IBP's Four-Prong Approach for Broadening Participation in the STEM Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardi, L.; Fauver, A.; Johnson, A.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Thomas, S.; Valaitis, S.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) is to increase diversity in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) workforce. As a freestanding non-profit dedicated to this work IBP is uniquely positioned to provide resources to faculty and students that individual institutions and disciplinary based programs cannot. Through its initial work with the NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) programs, IBP developed a four-pronged approach open to all members of the STEM community nationally for addressing the problem of underrepresentation: Synthesizing information - compiling and translating best practices into materials and resources accessible and useful to a broad national audience; Creating and maintaining strategic web resources - making information on programs, best practices, and references easily available to a wide audience including students, faculty, and administrators; Extensive face-to-face and virtual outreach - drawing constituents to the resources available via IBP that support students and faculty through the entire STEM pathway; and Catalyzing partnerships - cultivating a community of practice and culture of diversity, to reduce isolation among diversity practitioners, and to increase information sharing. IBP is also home to several successful initiatives that use both virtual and face-to-face components to bring together underrepresented students with established underrepresented and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide underrepresented students with supportive mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an overall improved retention rate of underrepresented students majoring in STEM degrees. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean

  11. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  12. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  13. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  14. General theory for apparent energy distribution of sea waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke-Jian; Sun, Fu

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a general theory for the apparent energy distribution of sea waves. Using the joint distribution of wave periods and heights proposed earlier by the second author, the authors define the generalized apparent energy distribution and derive the analytical form of the so called generalized outer frequency spectrum or nth-order frequency spectrum. Some possible relationships between it and the Fourier frequency spectrum are discussed. It is shown that the widely used Bretschneider spectrum can be easily obtained from the above definition and that generalized outer frequency spectrum has equilibrium range with exponent -( n+3) whose upper limit is -3.

  15. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tower, M.M.; Haight, C.H.

    1984-03-01

    Vought Corporation in cooperation with the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas (CEM-UT) has developed under sponsorship by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) a high-energy distributed energy source (DES) electromagnetic (EM) railgun accelerator. This paper discusses the development and current status of the DES railgun which has the design capability to launch projectile masses up to 60 grams to the 3-4 km/sec velocity regime with energy conversion efficiencies above 35 percent. These goals are being accomplished through utilization of scaled-energy CEM-UT railgun experiments for sequenced timing/staging and a full energy (575 kJ) design at Vought for high efficiency capability. The operational Vought single-pulse railgun forms the baseline for the full energy testing.

  16. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing

  17. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  18. Recent Ion Energy Distribution Observations on MST RFP Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A., III; Almagri, A. F.; Andeson, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Ion energy distribution and temperature measurements have been made on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) using the Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The CNPA is a low energy (0.34-5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer, with a radial view on MST. Recently, a retarding potential system was built to allow CNPA measurements to ensemble a complete ion energy distribution with high-energy resolution, providing insight into the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations. Recent work has also been done to improve the analysis techniques used to infer the ion temperature measurements, allowing us to understand temperature dynamics better during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported in part by grants to FAMU and to UW from NSF and from Fusion Energy Sciences at DOE.

  19. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  20. Calculation of energy deposition distributions for simple geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    When high-energy charged particles pass through a thin detector, the ionization energy loss in that detector is subject to fluctuations or straggling which must be considered in interpreting the data. Under many conditions, which depend upon the charge and energy of the incident particle and the detector geometry, the ionization energy lost by the particle is significantly different from the energy deposited in the detector. This problem divides naturally into a calculation of the energy loss that results in excitation and low-energy secondary electrons which do not travel far from their production points, and a calculation of energy loss that results in high-energy secondary electrons which can escape from the detector. The first calculation is performed using a modification of the Vavilov energy loss distribution. A cutoff energy is introduced above which all electrons are ignored and energy transferred to low energy particles is assumed to be equivalent to the energy deposited by them. For the second calculation, the trajectory of the primary particle is considered as a source of secondary high-energy electrons. The electrons from this source are transported using Monte Carlo techniques and multiple scattering theory, and the energy deposited by them in the detector is calculated. The results of the two calculations are then combined to predict the energy deposition distribution. The results of these calculations are used to predict the charge resolution of parallel-plate pulse ionization chambers that are being designed to measure the charge spectrum of heavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic-ray flux.

  1. Multiple thermal events in the Grenvillian orogenic cycle: geochronologic evidence from the northern Reading Prong, New York-New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The Grenville terrane of the northern Reading Prong, New York-New Jersey, has a far more complex thermal history than previously recognized. U-Pb zircon ages record at least five discrete thermal events between about 1300 and 900 Ma: (1) 1230 +/- 20 Ma--metamorphism of paragneiss; (2) 1150 +/- 30 Ma--crystallization of Storm King-type granite, protoliths of a leucogneiss, and a member of the Fordham Gneiss; (3) 1090 +/- 10 Ma--crystallization of a hornblende gneiss and the Canopus pluton; (4) 1015 +/- Ma--regional metamorphism, crystallization of the Canada Hill granite and pegmatitic alaskites; (5) 965 +/- 10 Ma--crystallization of pegmatites, formation of a monazite-xenotime rock, and closure of the U-Pb whole-rock system. Another problem that arises from these results is the past correlation throughout the Reading Prong of lithologic sequences whose zircon ages apparently do not agree. This complex sequence of Middle Proterozoic thermal events in the central Appalachians correlates fairly well with events recorded in the Grenville terrane of eastern Ontario, where at least two major orogenic events between 1300 and 900 Ma have been identified. The fit with identified events in the Adirondacks of northern New York and with Precambrian events of the southern Appalachians is not as good, but the early approx. = 1230 Ma and the late approx. = 960 Ma events seem to be present in both regions.

  2. Laser energy distribution on detector under the different incident angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Chen, Q.; Hao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ren, G.; Zhu, R.

    2015-11-01

    Laser active suppressing jamming is one of the most important technologies in the domain of electro-optical countermeasures. The propagation direction of laser is not always in the same line with the principal axis of electro-optical imaging system, so it is necessary to investigate laser energy distribution on detector under the different incident angle. This paper toke optical system with wide field of view for example. We firstly analyzed the system's structure based on the inverting prism and evaluated image quality. Laser energy distribution caused by diffraction effect of optical system was secondly simulated based on Kirchhoff 's diffraction theory. Thirdly, we built the system's analysis model of stray light, traced a large number of light propagation, and obtained laser energy distribution on detector caused by scattering effect. At last, combine the above two kinds of energy distribution into total laser energy distribution on detector. According to the detector's saturated threshold, we can count up the saturated number and evaluate laser disturbing effect. The research results can provide theoretical reference and technical support for evaluating laser disturbing effect of electro-optical imaging system.

  3. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Kingston, Tim

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site. This

  4. Intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence using the energy loss distribution of electrons.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Inami, Wataru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present an intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) excited with a focused electron beam in a luminescent thin film. The energy loss distribution is applied to the developed analysis method in order to determine the arrangement of the dipole locations along the path of the electron traveling in the film. Propagating light emitted from each dipole is analyzed with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. CL distribution near the film surface is evaluated as a nanometric light source. It is found that a light source with 30 nm widths is generated in the film by the focused electron beam. We also discuss the accuracy of the developed analysis method by comparison with experimental results. The analysis results are brought into good agreement with the experimental results by introducing the energy loss distribution. PMID:26550930

  5. High-energy tail distributions and resonant wave particle interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leubner, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    High-energy tail distributions (k distributions) are used as an alternative to a bi-Lorentzian distribution to study the influence of energetic protons on the right- and left-hand cyclotron modes in a hot two-temperature plasma. Although the parameters are chosen to be in a range appropriate to solar wind or magnetospheric configurations, the results apply not only to specific space plasmas. The presence of energetic particles significantly alters the behavior of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes, leading to a wide range of unstable frequencies and increased growth rates. From the strongly enhanced growth rates it can be concluded that high-energy tail distributions should not show major temperature anisotropies, which is consistent with observations.

  6. Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-Energy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an ion. We present calculations of these spectra for ions of identical linear energy transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these ions. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for ions. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-energy ions in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.

  7. Energy distributions of sputtered copper neutrals and ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Direct quantitative analysis of surfaces by secondary ion mass spectrometry will depend on an understanding of the yield ratio of ions to neutrals. This ratio as a function of the energy of the sputtered particles has been obtained for a clean polycrystalline copper surface sputtered by 1000-3000 eV Ar(+). The energy distributions of both neutral and ionized copper were measured with a retarding potential analyzer using potential modulation differentiation and signal averaging. The maximum for both distributions is identical and occurs near 2.5 eV. The energy distributions of neutrals is more sharply peaked than that of the ions, presumably as a consequence of more efficient nutralization of slow escaping ions by the mobile electrons of copper. The ion-neutral ratio is compared with results from various ionization models.

  8. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  9. Velocity and energy distributions in microcanonical ensembles of hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalas, Enrico; Gabriel, Adrian T.; Martin, Edgar; Germano, Guido

    2015-08-01

    In a microcanonical ensemble (constant N V E , hard reflecting walls) and in a molecular dynamics ensemble (constant N V E PG , periodic boundary conditions) with a number N of smooth elastic hard spheres in a d -dimensional volume V having a total energy E , a total momentum P , and an overall center of mass position G , the individual velocity components, velocity moduli, and energies have transformed beta distributions with different arguments and shape parameters depending on d , N , E , the boundary conditions, and possible symmetries in the initial conditions. This can be shown marginalizing the joint distribution of individual energies, which is a symmetric Dirichlet distribution. In the thermodynamic limit the beta distributions converge to gamma distributions with different arguments and shape or scale parameters, corresponding respectively to the Gaussian, i.e., Maxwell-Boltzmann, Maxwell, and Boltzmann or Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. These analytical results agree with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations with different numbers of hard disks or spheres and hard reflecting walls or periodic boundary conditions. The agreement is perfect with our Monte Carlo algorithm, which acts only on velocities independently of positions with the collision versor sampled uniformly on a unit half sphere in d dimensions, while slight deviations appear with our molecular dynamics simulations for the smallest values of N .

  10. Velocity and energy distributions in microcanonical ensembles of hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Scalas, Enrico; Gabriel, Adrian T; Martin, Edgar; Germano, Guido

    2015-08-01

    In a microcanonical ensemble (constant NVE, hard reflecting walls) and in a molecular dynamics ensemble (constant NVEPG, periodic boundary conditions) with a number N of smooth elastic hard spheres in a d-dimensional volume V having a total energy E, a total momentum P, and an overall center of mass position G, the individual velocity components, velocity moduli, and energies have transformed beta distributions with different arguments and shape parameters depending on d, N, E, the boundary conditions, and possible symmetries in the initial conditions. This can be shown marginalizing the joint distribution of individual energies, which is a symmetric Dirichlet distribution. In the thermodynamic limit the beta distributions converge to gamma distributions with different arguments and shape or scale parameters, corresponding respectively to the Gaussian, i.e., Maxwell-Boltzmann, Maxwell, and Boltzmann or Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. These analytical results agree with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations with different numbers of hard disks or spheres and hard reflecting walls or periodic boundary conditions. The agreement is perfect with our Monte Carlo algorithm, which acts only on velocities independently of positions with the collision versor sampled uniformly on a unit half sphere in d dimensions, while slight deviations appear with our molecular dynamics simulations for the smallest values of N. PMID:26382376

  11. Energy distribution of nanoflares in the quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Artyom

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of flare-like events in low layer of solar corona detected with TESIS instrument onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite in 171 {Å} during high-cadence (5 sec) time-series. The estimated thermal energies of these small events amount to 10^{23} - 10^{26} erg. According to modern classification flare-like events with such energies are usually referred to as nanoflares. The big number of registered events (above 2000) allowed us to obtain precise distributions of geometric and physical parameters of nanoflares, the most intriguing being energy distribution. Following Aschwanden et al. (2000) and other authors we approximated the calculated energy distribution with a single power law slope: N(E)dE ˜ N^{-α}dE. The power law index was derived to be α = 2.4 ± 0.2, which is very close to the value reported by Krucker & Benz (1998): α ≈ 2.3 - 2.4. The total energy input from registered events constitute about 10^4 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}, which is well beyond net losses in quiet corona (3 \\cdot 10^5 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}). However, the value of α > 2 indicates that nanoflares with lower energies dominate over nanoflares with bigger energies and could contribute considerably to quiet corona heating.

  12. Energy Distributions and spectra of Orion B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R. E.; Chaffee, F.

    1972-01-01

    New MK spectral types and energy distributions are presented for B stars in Orion for which far ultraviolet flux excesses have recently been discovered. Significant differences between HD spectral energy distributions show the Orion late B stars to have smaller Balmer discontinuities than do field stars of the same spectral types. For the late B stars, these effects cause the 1500 A fluxes to be under-estimated by approximately 0.5 mag. No comparable systematic effects were found for the early B stars.

  13. Comparison of Measured Leakage Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Ladbury, R.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; Howe, C.; Weller, B.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Jordan, T. M.; Fodness, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distribution were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [I]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Car10 code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. The nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) has a negligible effect on the shape of the damage distribution. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3,4], a Geant4 [4,5] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  14. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  15. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-31

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  16. Thermal electron energy distribution measurements in the ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    A recoverable payload instrumented for twilight airglow studies was launched by an Aerobee 150 from the White Sands Test Range on Feb. 8, 1971 at 13.56 UT. The payload included a low energy electron spectrometer (HARP) and a cylindrical Langmuir probe. The HARP electron spectrometer is a new device designed to make high resolution differential electron flux measurements. Measurements of ionospheric electron energy distribution in the range from about 0.2 to 4.0 eV are presented.

  17. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  18. How to buy energy-efficient distribution transformer

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The efficiency levels in this Recommendation are the same as those in NEMA`s TP-1 standard. Additionally, the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program identifies efficient low-voltage distribution transformers with the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label. Complying models meet the same efficiency criteria specified in this Recommendation (and TP-1).

  19. Review of Test Facilities for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    AKHIL,ABBAS ALI; MARNAY,CHRIS; KIPMAN,TIMOTHY

    2003-05-01

    Since initiating research on integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in 1999, the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) has been actively assessing and reviewing existing DER test facilities for possible demonstrations of advanced DER system integration concepts. This report is a compendium of information collected by the CERTS team on DER test facilities during this period.

  20. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  1. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  2. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  3. Energy loss analysis of an integrated space power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Ribeiro, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies related to conceptual topologies of an integrated utility-like space power system are described. The system topologies are comparatively analyzed by considering their transmission energy losses as functions of mainly distribution voltage level and load composition. The analysis is expedited by use of a Distribution System Analysis and Simulation (DSAS) software. This recently developed computer program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) uses improved load models to solve the power flow within the system. However, present shortcomings of the software with regard to space applications, and incompletely defined characteristics of a space power system make the results applicable to only the fundamental trends of energy losses of the topologies studied. Accountability, such as included, for the effects of the various parameters on the system performance can constitute part of a planning tool for a space power distribution system.

  4. Distributed Frequency Control of Prosumer-Based Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nazari, MH; Costello, Z; Feizollahi, MJ; Grijalva, S; Egerstedt, M

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed frequency regulation framework for prosumer-based electric energy systems, where a prosumer (producer-consumer) is defined as an intelligent agentwhich can produce, consume, and/or store electricity. Despite the frequency regulators being distributed, stability can be ensured while avoiding inter-area oscillations using a limited control effort. To achieve this, a fully distributed one-step model-predictive control protocol is proposed and analyzed, whereby each prosumer communicates solely with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of the proposed frequency regulation framework is shown through simulations on two real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. We show that prosumers can indeed bring frequency and power deviations to their desired values after small perturbations.

  5. Transient electron energy distribution in supported Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merschdorf, M.; Kennerknecht, C.; Willig, K.; Pfeiffer, W.

    2002-11-01

    The electron relaxation in Ag nanoparticles supported on graphite is investigated by time-resolved multiphoton photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission spectra map the transient electron energy distribution in the nanoparticles and reveal the internal thermalization and cooling of the electron gas. The excess energy stored in the electron gas is calculated using the free-electron model. In contrast to the behaviour of isolated nanoparticles the energy loss rate from the electron gas increases with the pump fluence. This indicates that the electron gas equilibration in Ag nanoparticles on graphite is modified by excited electron transport.

  6. Electron energy distribution in a dusty plasma: analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Denysenko, I B; Kersten, H; Azarenkov, N A

    2015-09-01

    Analytical expressions describing the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a dusty plasma are obtained from the homogeneous Boltzmann equation for electrons. The expressions are derived neglecting electron-electron collisions, as well as transformation of high-energy electrons into low-energy electrons at inelastic electron-atom collisions. At large electron energies, the quasiclassical approach for calculation of the EEDF is applied. For the moderate energies, we account for inelastic electron-atom collisions in the dust-free case and both inelastic electron-atom and electron-dust collisions in the dusty plasma case. Using these analytical expressions and the balance equation for dust charging, the electron energy distribution function, the effective electron temperature, the dust charge, and the dust surface potential are obtained for different dust radii and densities, as well as for different electron densities and radio-frequency (rf) field amplitudes and frequencies. The dusty plasma parameters are compared with those calculated numerically by a finite-difference method taking into account electron-electron collisions and the transformation of high-energy electrons at inelastic electron-neutral collisions. It is shown that the analytical expressions can be used for calculation of the EEDF and dusty plasma parameters at typical experimental conditions, in particular, in the positive column of a direct-current glow discharge and in the case of an rf plasma maintained by an electric field with frequency f=13.56MHz. PMID:26465570

  7. Optimal Voltage Regulation for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Considering Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output in a three phase unbalanced distribution system is developed. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DERs). To avoid the oscillation of solution when it is close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size. Numerical simulations on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders show the efficiency of the proposed model. Compared to the results solved by heuristic search (harmony algorithm), the proposed model converges quickly to the global optimum.

  8. Strain energy release rate distributions for double cantilever beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1991-01-01

    A 24-ply composite double cantilever-beam specimen under mode I (opening) loading has been analyzed by a 3D FEM code that calculated along a straight delamination starter for several different specimen materials. An isotropic specimen was found to have a strain-energy release rate distribution which varied along its delamination front due to the boundary-layer effect and another effect associated with the anticlastic curvature of the bent specimen arms. A 0-deg graphite-reinforced epoxy specimen had a nearly-uniform strain-energy release rate distribution which dropped only near the edge, due to the boundary-layer effect, and a +/- 45-deg graphite/epoxy specimen exhibited a pronounced strain-energy release rate variation across the specimen width.

  9. Benefits of Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; DeBlasio, R.; Thomas, H.; Simoes, M.; Sen, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of overall electrical system performance is important for the long-term economic viability of distributed energy (DE) systems. With the increasing use of DE systems in industry and its technological advancement, it is becoming more important to understand the integration of these systems with the electric power systems. New markets and benefits for distributed energy applications include the ability to provide ancillary services, improve energy efficiency, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice. Advanced power electronic (PE) interfaces will allow DE systems to provide increased functionality through improved power quality and voltage/VAR support, increase electrical system compatibility by reducing the fault contributions, and flexibility in operations with various other DE sources, while reducing overall interconnection costs. This paper examines the system integration and optimization issues associated with DE systems and show the benefits of using PE interfaces for such applications.

  10. Determination of energy distribution for photon and neutron microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, A. S.

    This work was undertaken to provide basic physical data for use in both microdosimetry and dosimetry of high energy photons and also in the neutron radiation field. Described is the formalism to determine the initial electron energy spectra in water irradiated by photons with energies up to 1 GeV. Calculations were performed with a Monte Carlo computer code, PHOEL-3, which is also described. The code treats explicitly the production of electron-positron pairs, Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, and the emission of Auger electrons following the occurrence of K-shell vacancies in oxygen. The tables give directly the information needed to specify the absolute single-collision kerma in water, which approximates tissue, at each photon energy. Results for continuous photon energy spectra can be obtained by using linear interpolation with the tables. The conditions under which first-collision kerma approximate absorbed dose are discussed. A formula is given for estimating bremsstrahlung energy loss, one of the principal differences between kerma and absorbed dose in practical cases. A study has been carried out, on the use of cylindrical, energy-proportional pulse-height detector for determining microdosimetric quantities, as neutron fractional dose spectra, D (L), in the function of linear energy transfer (LET). In the present study the Hurst detector was used; this device satisfies the requirement of the Bragg-Gray principle. A Monte Carlo Method was developed to obtain the D(L) spectrum from a measured pulse-height spectrum H(h), and the knowledge of the distribution of recoil-particle track lenght, P(T) in the sensitive volume of the detector. These developed programs to find P(T) and D(L) are presented. The distribution of D(L) in LET were obtained using a known distribution of P(T) and the measured H(h) spectrum fromthe Cf-2 52 neutron source. All the results are discussed and the conclusions are presented.

  11. 78 FR 23335 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including distribution transformers. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would......

  12. Multi-pronged assessment of land degradation in West Africa to assess the importance of atmospheric fertilization in masking the processes involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang Bao; Tamene, Lulseged; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2012-07-01

    Separating human-induced land degradation from that caused by natural processes in the world of global climate and atmospheric change is a challenging task, but important for developing mitigation strategies. Current remote-sensing data and spatio-temporal analyses allow the distinction of climate and human-induced land degradation on a sub-continental scale, but the underlying processes cannot be discerned at this scale. This study is conducted at a river-basin scale to (1) identify land degradation hotspots in a basin or sub-basin, and (2) assess the correspondence and divergence of land degradation assessed by NDVI shifts with and without accounting for atmospheric fertilization with that based on soil erosion assessment at a sub-basin scale. Long-term remote sensing (NDVI) and rainfall data were used to identify human-induced land degradation hotspot areas in the Volta basin. The results were compared with the critical zone of soil loss in the White Volta sub-basin derived from a spatially distributed soil erosion model, validated by field-measured data. A spatial comparison of the above studies revealed that the biomass productivity (NDVI)-based land degradation assessment grossly underestimated the extent to which soil is being lost, unless a correction was included to account for atmospheric fertilization. Based on inter-annual NDVI signals land degradation was evident in about 8% of the Volta basin's landmass, but when accounting for atmospheric fertilization, as much as 65% of the land is losing some of its vital attributes such as soil quality or vegetation productivity. The study demonstrates the need for using a multi-pronged assessment strategy in land degradation assessment that offers an insight of the processes involved in land degradation.

  13. The spectral energy distribution of Zeta Puppis and HD 50896

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, A. V.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectral energy distribution of the O5f star Zeta Pup and the WN5 star HD 50896 are derived from OAO-2 observations with the calibration of Bless, Code, and Fairchild (1976). An estimate of the interstellar reddening (0.12 magnitude) of the Wolf-Rayet star is determined from the size of the characteristic interstellar extinction bump at 4.6 inverse microns. After correction for extinction, both stars show a flat energy distribution in the ultraviolet. The distribution of HD 50896 from 1100 A to 2 microns is in good agreement with results of extended model atmospheres, but some uncertainty remains because of the interstellar-extinction correction. The absolute energy distribution of Zeta Pup is fitted by a 42,000-K plane-parallel model if the model's flux is adjusted for the effects of electron scattering in the stellar wind and for UV line blanketing that was determined empirically from high-resolution Copernicus satellite observations. To achieve this fit, it is necessary to push both the spectroscopically determined temperature and the ultraviolet calibration to the limits of their probable errors.

  14. Healthcare decision-tools a growing Web trend: three-pronged public relations campaign heightens presence, recognition for online healthcare information provider.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Schwartz Communications, LLC, executes a successful PR campaign to position Subimo, a provider of online healthcare decision tools, as a leader in the industry that touts names such as WebMD.com and HealthGrades.com. Through a three-pronged media relations strategy, Schwartz and Subimo together branded the company as an industry thought-leader. PMID:16509388

  15. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year.

  16. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Teja P.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Djouadi, Seddik M.; Lake, Joe E.

    2011-05-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  17. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Djouadi, Seddik M; Lake, Joe E

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  18. Initial energy and perihelion distributions of Oort-cloud comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model of stellar perturbations of the Oort cloud is used to study the distributions in energy and perihelion of comets entering the planetary region for the first time. The model is run for a variety of initial states and a range of velocity perturbations. In all cases the resulting orbits are uniformly distributed in perihelion distance in the planetary region, q less than 20 AU. Most orbits are confined to a fairly narrow range in 1/a and hyperbolic orbits are rare.

  19. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  20. On Measuring Cosmic Ray Energy Spectra with the Rapidity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Adams, J.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    An important goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays up to 10(exp 16) eV. This goal cannot be achieved with an ionization calorimeter because the required instrument is too massive for space flight. An alternate method will be presented. This method is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11) -10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a conceptual design for a new instrument (KLEM) will be presented. Due to its light weight, this instrument can have a large aperture enabling the direct measurement of cosmic rays to 1016 eV.

  1. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks using asymmetric distributed source coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area to perform a specific task. WSNs pose many design challenges. Energy conservation is one such design issue. In literature a wide range of solutions addressing this issue have been proposed. Generally WSNs are densely deployed. Thus the nodes with the close proximity are more likely to have the same data. Transmission of such non-aggregated data may lead to an inefficient energy management. Hence the data fusion has to be performed at the nodes so as to combine the edundant information into a single data unit. Distributed Source Coding is an efficient approach in achieving this task. In this paper an attempt has been made in modeling such a system. Various energy efficient codes were considered for the analysis. System performance in terms of energy efficiency has been made.

  2. A bolometer array for the spectral energy distribution (SPEED) camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Ali, S.; Bier, A.; Campano, B.; Chen, T. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Crawford, T. M.; Downes, T.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Logan, D.; Meyer, S. S.; O'dell, C.; Perera, T.; Sharp, E. H.; Timbie, P. T.; Wilson, G. W.

    2004-03-01

    The Spectral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera is being developed to study the spectral energy distributions of high redshift galaxies. Its initial use will be on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope and eventually on the Large Millimeter Telescope. SPEED requires a small cryogenic detector array of 2×2 pixels with each pixel having four frequency bands in the 150-375GHz range. Here we describe the development of the detector array of these high-efficiency Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSB). The FSB design provides the multi-pixel, multi-spectral band capability required for SPEED in a compact stackable array. The SPEED bolometers will use proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensors as their temperature-sensing element, allowing for higher levels of electronic multiplexing in future applications.

  3. Detecting energy dependent neutron capture distributions in a liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2015-03-01

    A novel technique is being developed to estimate the effective dose of a neutron field based on the distribution of neutron captures in a scintillator. Using Monte Carlo techniques, a number of monoenergetic neutron source energies and locations were modelled and their neutron capture response was recorded. Using back propagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) the energy and incident direction of the neutron field was predicted from the distribution of neutron captures within a 6Li-loaded liquid scintillator. Using this proposed technique, the effective dose of 252Cf, 241AmBe and 241AmLi neutron fields was estimated to within 30% for four perpendicular angles in the horizontal plane. Initial theoretical investigations show that this technique holds some promise for real-time estimation of the effective dose of a neutron field.

  4. Consistent energy barrier distributions in magnetic particle chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslett, O.; Ruta, S.; Chantrell, R. W.; Barker, J.; Friedman, G.; Hovorka, O.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate long-time thermal activation behaviour in magnetic particle chains of variable length. Chains are modelled as Stoner-Wohlfarth particles coupled by dipolar interactions. Thermal activation is described as a hopping process over a multidimensional energy landscape using the discrete orientation model limit of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert dynamics. The underlying master equation is solved by diagonalising the associated transition matrix, which allows the evaluation of distributions of time scales of intrinsic thermal activation modes and their energy representation. It is shown that as a result of the interaction dependence of these distributions, increasing the particle chain length can lead to acceleration or deceleration of the overall relaxation process depending on the initialisation procedure.

  5. Modeling Plasmas with a Kappa Electron Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2016-05-01

    Nonthermal kappa electron energy distributions have been observed in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, and are likely also present in the solar corona and in solar flares. In order to model the spectra of these plasmas, it is necessary to obtain the appropriate collision rate coefficients. We show that this can be done simply by summing appropriately weighted Maxwellian rate coefficients. The resulting data have similar or better accuracies than are obtained with other approaches. Summing Maxwellians has the additional advantages of being easy to implement and extendable to many different collision processes. We apply this technique to modeling the charge state distribution (CSD) of kappa-distribution plasmas. In particular, we examine the influence of electron impact multiple ionization on the equilibrium CSD and calculate the time variation of the CSD during a solar flare.

  6. Modeling Plasmas with a Kappa Electron Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal kappa electron energy distributions have been observed in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, and are likely also present in the solar corona and in solar flares. In order to model the spectra of these plasmas, it is necessary to obtain the appropriate collision rate coefficients. We show that this can be done simply by summing appropriately weighted Maxwellian rate coefficients. The resulting data have similar or better accuracies than are obtained with other approaches. Summing Maxwellians has the additional advantages of being easy to implement and extendable to many different collision processes. We apply this technique to modeling the charge state distribution (CSD) of kappa-distribution plasmas. In particular, we examine the influence of electron impact multiple ionization on the equilibrium CSD and calculate the time variation of the CSD during a solar flare.

  7. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  8. Determination of the polar and total surface energy distributions of particulates by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal C; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V; Stewart, Peter J

    2011-01-18

    This Letter reports a technique of measuring polar surface energy distributions of lactose using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The significance of this study is that the total surface energy distributions can now be characterized by combining the already known dispersive surface energy distribution with polar surface energy distribution determined in this study. The polar surface energy was calculated from the specific free energies for surface interactions with a monopolar basic probe, ethyl acetate, and a monopolar acidic probe, dichloromethane. PMID:21174410

  9. A Detailed Level Kinetics Model of NO Vibrational Energy Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Gilmore, John; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Several contemporary problems have pointed to the desirability of a detailed level kinetics approach to modeling the distribution of vibrational energy in NO. Such a model is necessary when vibrational redistribution reactions are insufficient to maintain a Boltzmann distribution over the vibrational energy states. Recent calculations of the rate constant for the first reaction of the Zeldovich mechanism (N2 + O (goes to) NO + N) have suggested that the product NO is formed in high vibrational states. In shock layer flowfields, the product NO molecules may experience an insufficient number of collisions to establish a Boltzmann distribution over vibrational states, thus necessitating a level kinetics model. In other flows, such as expansions of high temperature air, fast, near-resonance vibrational energy exchanges with N2 and O2 may also require a level specific model for NO because of the relative rates of vibrational exchange and redistribution. The proposed report will integrate computational and experimental components to construct such a model for the NO molecule.

  10. Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.

  11. Validated modeling of distributed energy resources at distribution voltages : LDRD project 38672.

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, Mark E.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    2004-03-01

    A significant barrier to the deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) onto the power grid is uncertainty on the part of utility engineers regarding impacts of DER on their distribution systems. Because of the many possible combinations of DER and local power system characteristics, these impacts can most effectively be studied by computer simulation. The goal of this LDRD project was to develop and experimentally validate models of transient and steady state source behavior for incorporation into utility distribution analysis tools. Development of these models had not been prioritized either by the distributed-generation industry or by the inverter industry. A functioning model of a selected inverter-based DER was developed in collaboration with both the manufacturer and industrial power systems analysts. The model was written in the PSCAD simulation language, a variant of the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), a code that is widely used and accepted by utilities. A stakeholder team was formed and a methodology was established to address the problem. A list of detailed DER/utility interaction concerns was developed and prioritized. The list indicated that the scope of the problem significantly exceeded resources available for this LDRD project. As this work progresses under separate funding, the model will be refined and experimentally validated. It will then be incorporated in utility distribution analysis tools and used to study a variety of DER issues. The key next step will be design of the validation experiments.

  12. A Two-Pronged Approach to Promote Food Science in U.S. High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Rollins, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), the IFT Foundation, and Discovery Education partnered to create and distribute food science information to science department and school counselor chairs in all 18,000 U.S. high schools in January 2006. Two multimedia "kits" were generated for teachers and counselors, each consisting of DVDs with food…

  13. Topography, energy and the global distribution of bird species richness

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Richard G; Orme, C. David L; Storch, David; Olson, Valerie A; Thomas, Gavin H; Ross, Simon G; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Bennett, Peter M; Owens, Ian P.F; Blackburn, Tim M; Gaston, Kevin J

    2007-01-01

    A major goal of ecology is to determine the causes of the latitudinal gradient in global distribution of species richness. Current evidence points to either energy availability or habitat heterogeneity as the most likely environmental drivers in terrestrial systems, but their relative importance is controversial in the absence of analyses of global (rather than continental or regional) extent. Here we use data on the global distribution of extant continental and continental island bird species to test the explanatory power of energy availability and habitat heterogeneity while simultaneously addressing issues of spatial resolution, spatial autocorrelation, geometric constraints upon species' range dynamics, and the impact of human populations and historical glacial ice-cover. At the finest resolution (1°), topographical variability and temperature are identified as the most important global predictors of avian species richness in multi-predictor models. Topographical variability is most important in single-predictor models, followed by productive energy. Adjusting for null expectations based on geometric constraints on species richness improves overall model fit but has negligible impact on tests of environmental predictors. Conclusions concerning the relative importance of environmental predictors of species richness cannot be extrapolated from one biogeographic realm to others or the globe. Rather a global perspective confirms the primary importance of mountain ranges in high-energy areas. PMID:17311781

  14. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2012-07-22

    In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

  15. Controlling the Electron Energy Distribution Function Using an Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Barnat, Edward V.; Hopkins, Mathew M.

    2014-10-01

    Positively biased electrodes inserted into plasmas influence the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) by providing a sink for low energy electrons that would otherwise be trapped by ion sheaths at the chamber walls. We develop a model for the EEDF in a hot filament generated discharge in the presence of positively biased electrodes of various surface areas, and compare the model results with experimental Langmuir probe measurements and particle-in-cell simulations. In the absence of an anode, the EEDF is characterized by a cool trapped population at energies below the sheath energy, and a comparatively warm tail population associated with the filament primaries. Anodes that are small enough to collect a negligible fraction of the electrons exiting the plasma have little affect on the EEDF, but as the anode area approaches √{me /mi }Aw , where Aw is the chamber wall area, the anode collects most of the electrons leaving the plasma. This drastically reduces the density of the otherwise trapped population, causing an effective heating of the electrons and a corresponding density decrease. A global model is developed based on the EEDF model and current balance, which shows the interconnected nature of the electron temperature, density and the plasma potential. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science at the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94SL85000, and by the University of Iowa Old Gold Program.

  16. Effect of the electron energy distribution on total energy loss with argon in inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, June Young; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-01-15

    The total energy lost per electron-ion pair lost ε{sub T} is investigated with the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The EEDFs are measured at various argon powers in RF inductively coupled plasma, and the EEDFs show a depleted distribution (a discontinuity occurring at the minimum argon excitation threshold energy level) with the bulk temperature and the tail temperature. The total energy loss per electron-ion pair lost ε{sub T} is calculated from a power balance model with the Maxwellian EEDFs and the depleted EEDFs and then compared with the measured ε{sub T} from the floating probe. It is concluded that the small population of the depleted high energy electrons dramatically increases the collisional energy loss, and the calculated ε{sub T} from the depleted EEDFs has a value that is similar to the measured ε{sub T}.

  17. Effect of the electron energy distribution on total energy loss with argon in inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, June Young; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The total energy lost per electron-ion pair lost ɛT is investigated with the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The EEDFs are measured at various argon powers in RF inductively coupled plasma, and the EEDFs show a depleted distribution (a discontinuity occurring at the minimum argon excitation threshold energy level) with the bulk temperature and the tail temperature. The total energy loss per electron-ion pair lost ɛT is calculated from a power balance model with the Maxwellian EEDFs and the depleted EEDFs and then compared with the measured ɛT from the floating probe. It is concluded that the small population of the depleted high energy electrons dramatically increases the collisional energy loss, and the calculated ɛT from the depleted EEDFs has a value that is similar to the measured ɛT.

  18. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible

  19. Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xue; Sandels, Claes; Zhu, Kun; Nordström, Lars

    2013-08-01

    There has been a large body of statements claiming that the large-scale deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) could eventually reshape the future distribution grid operation in numerous ways. Thus, it is necessary to introduce a framework to measure to what extent the power system operation will be changed by various parameters of DERs. This article proposed a modelling framework for an overview analysis on the correlation between DERs. Furthermore, to validate the framework, the authors described the reference models of different categories of DERs with their unique characteristics, comprising distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was made on the basis of the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden. Simulations are performed in two typical distribution network models for four seasons. The simulation results show that in general the DER deployment brings in the possibilities to reduce the power losses and voltage drops by compensating power from the local generation and optimizing the local load profiles.

  20. Patterns of inequality: Dynamics of income distribution in USA and global energy consumption distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Applying the principle of entropy maximization, we argued that the distribution of money in a closed economic system should be exponential [1], see also recent review [2]. In this talk, we show that income distribution in USA is exponential for the majority of population (about 97%). However, the high-income tail follows a power law and is highly dynamical, i.e., out of equilibrium. The fraction of income going to the tail swelled to 20% of all income in 2000 and 2006 at the peaks of speculative bubbles followed by spectacular crashes. Next, we analyze the global distribution of energy consumption per capita among different countries. In the first approximation, it is reasonably well captured by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990 and 2005, we observe that the distribution is getting closer to the exponential, presumably as a result of globalization of the world economy.[4pt] [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] V. M. Yakovenko and J. B. Rosser, to appear in Rev. Mod. Phys. (2009), arXiv:0905.1518.

  1. Planck/LFI measures of Planets Spectral Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Michele; Romelli, Erik; Gregorio, Anna; Zacchei, Andrea; Tomasi, Maurizio; Vassallo, Thomas; Sandri, Maura

    2015-08-01

    The spectral energy distribution at millimetric wavelengths of planets is an important benchmark to inter-calibrate different CMB experiments and a source of information on the atmospheric structure of planets. Planck/LFI observed Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune from three to eight times during its mission. In particular, as a calibrator Jupiter allows accurate comparison due to its high S/N ratio. Since planets are moving objects, the measure must account for their proper motion as well as a number of second order effects. Here we present the results of accurate measurements of brightness temperature Tb of planets, and we compare them with WMAP.

  2. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (<140kWe) to be economically attractive (suppliers made their money with maintenance contracts). In the Netherlands, most facilities were sized well above the economic size threshold of 100kWe (lower due to reduced operating and grid connection costs). Institutional players were key in improved sizing of DG. Aided by energy market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made

  3. Energy dependent pitch angle distributions of auroral primary electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.

    1988-01-01

    Double-layer/parallel-electric field accelerations and the subsequent electron-beam plasma interactions involving Cerenkov and anomalous cyclotron resonances are considered. It is found that these phenomena yield pitch angle distributions as noted from rocket and satellite studies. Although the electron acceleration by weak parallel electric fields forming a runaway electron tail is limited to a critical parallel energy determined by the anomalous cyclotron resonance, such a limitation does not occur with acceleration by a localized parallel electric field such as that in a double layer.

  4. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072

  5. Energy and angular distributions of hyperthermal-energy Li{sup +} scattered from Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Behringer, E.R.; McLean, J.G.; Cooper, B.H.

    1996-03-01

    We have measured the in-plane energy and angular distributions of scattered Li{sup +} ions that result when Li{sup +} ion beams with incident energies {ital E}{sub {ital i}}=100 and 400 eV impinge on Cu(001) with an incident angle {theta}{sub {ital i}}=65{degree} and along the {l_angle}100{r_angle} azimuth. By comparing the energy and angular distributions with those generated by classical trajectory simulations, we extract information about the ion-surface interaction potential. A model ion-surface potential consisting of a sum of Hartree-Fock pair potentials and an attractive term produces good agreement with the measured distributions at both incident energies, while the universal potential of Ziegler, Biersack, and Littmarck does so only for {ital E}{sub {ital i}} = 400 eV. Analysis of the simulated distributions enables us to correlate different types of scattering events with features of the measured distributions (e.g., rainbows) and so obtain a detailed understanding of the scattering of Li{sup +}, which is more complex than has been previously observed for heavier alkali ions (e.g., Na{sup +} and K{sup +}). We find that the energy loss of the Li{sup +} ions can be mostly accounted for by momentum transfer to the surface atoms and that inelastic losses are small but significant for this system at these incident energies. We also find that the thermal vibrations of the surface atoms have dramatic effects on the simulated energy and angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.

    2011-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  7. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  8. Energy distribution of proton microbeam transmitted through two flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of 1 MeV proton microbeam passing between two parallel flat plates was investigated. Three different materials were used in our experiments. As insulators we used Polytetrafluoroethylene and borosilicate glass plates and glass with gold layer on the surface as conductor. The surface of the plates was parallel to the beam axis and one of the plates was moved towards the beam. The energy distribution and the deflection of the transmitted beam were measured as the function of the sample distance relative to the beam. We found systematic differences between the behaviour of the metallic and insulator samples. The proton microbeam suffered significant deflection towards the sample surface due to the image acceleration when using conductor material. In case of the glass and Polytetrafluoroethylene plates the beam was deflected into the opposite direction, and the incident protons did not suffer significant energy loss, which is the consequence of the guiding effect.

  9. Long-distance distribution of genuine energy-time entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, A.; Carvacho, G.; Saavedra, G.; Cariñe, J.; Nogueira, W.A.T.; Figueroa, M.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.; Lima, G.; Xavier, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Any practical realization of entanglement-based quantum communication must be intrinsically secure and able to span long distances avoiding the need of a straight line between the communicating parties. The violation of Bell’s inequality offers a method for the certification of quantum links without knowing the inner workings of the devices. Energy-time entanglement quantum communication satisfies all these requirements. However, currently there is a fundamental obstacle with the standard configuration adopted: an intrinsic geometrical loophole that can be exploited to break the security of the communication, in addition to other loopholes. Here we show the first experimental Bell violation with energy-time entanglement distributed over 1 km of optical fibres that is free of this geometrical loophole. This is achieved by adopting a new experimental design, and by using an actively stabilized fibre-based long interferometer. Our results represent an important step towards long-distance secure quantum communication in optical fibres. PMID:24287678

  10. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  11. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Thomas S

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  12. Measurement of Gamma Energy Distributions and Multiplicities Using STEFF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, E.; Smith, A. G.; Pollitt, A. J.; Matarranz, J.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Soldner, T.; Koster, U.; Biswas, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Prompt gamma-ray energy distributions and multiplicities released during thermally induced fission of 235U have been measured using STEFF (SpecTrometer for Exotic Fission Fragments). Thermal neutrons are provided by the high-flux reactor at the ILL, Grenoble. STEFF is a unique 2E2v device that uses a coincidence timing method to measure the emission of prompt gamma rays as a function of the fragment mass and energy. Following scission, the fission fragments contain excitation energy that is released via prompt neutron and gamma-ray emission as the fragment decays to the ground state. STEFF contains an array of 11 NaI detectors surrounding the uranium target providing a 6.8% photopeak detection efficiency for gamma rays released within 1 ns of the scission time. STEFF also consists of 7 NE213 detectors, which detect the emission of prompt neutrons, the release of which is associated with reduction of fragment energy and, to a lesser extent, fragment spin. This experiment acts as a direct response to the NEA high priority demand which requires more accurate knowledge of heating caused by gamma emission in the next generation of nuclear reactors.

  13. On Energy Trading Decision Methods in Distributed Energy Management Systems with Multiple Customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Yohei; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    This paper addresses an operation and energy purchase planning problem under the CO2 emissions regulation for corporate entities. Considering energy trading, more efficient energy consumption may be possible. We have studied an agent-based planning system, called Distributed Energy Management Systems (DEMSs), which intends to reduce energy consumption. In the DEMSs, CO2 emissions regulation is imposed on each corporate entity, and electrical and thermal energy trading among the entities are allowed. We have proposed an energy trading decision method based on the Market Oriented Programming (MOP). In this paper, we propose trading decision methods for the group composed of several customers and several suppliers. Experimental results show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH ANISOTROPY AND CUTOFF ENERGY IN MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION. I. THE NEWTONIAN REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S.

    2009-09-20

    We construct numerical models of spherically symmetric Newtonian stellar clusters with anisotropic distribution functions. These models generalize solutions obtained earlier for isotropic Maxwellian distribution functions with an energy cutoff and take into account distributions with different levels of anisotropy.

  15. Low energy ion distribution measurements in Madison Symmetric Torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A.

    2014-06-15

    Charge-exchange neutrals contain information about the contents of a plasma and can be detected as they escape confinement. The Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA), used to measure the contents of neutral particle flux, has been reconfigured, calibrated, and installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) for high temperature deuterium plasmas. The energy range of the CNPA has been extended to cover 0.34–5.2 keV through an upgrade of the 25 detection channels. The CNPA has been used on all types of MST plasmas at a rate of 20 kHz throughout the entire discharge (∼70 ms). Plasma parameter scans show that the ion distribution is most dependent on the plasma current. Magnetic reconnection events throughout these scans produce stronger poloidal electric fields, stronger global magnetic modes, and larger changes in magnetic energy all of which heavily influence the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution (the fast ion tail)

  16. The angular and energy distribution of the primary electron beam.

    PubMed

    Keall, P J; Hoban, P W

    1994-09-01

    The angular distribution for electron beams produced by the Siemens KD-2 linear accelerator has been found by simulating electron transport through the scattering foils and air using two methods: Fermi-Eyges multiple Coulomb scattering calculations, and EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations. Fermi-Eyges theory gives solutions where both the angular and spatial fluence distributions are Gaussian, with the angular standard deviation being invariant with off-axis distance. The EGS4 results show slightly non-Gaussian angular and lateral distributions as a result of the use of Moliére theory rather than Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, as well as the simulation of discrete bremsstrahlung and Møller interactions. However, the results from both methods are very similar. The angular standard deviations obtained by these methods agree very closely with those found experimentally. The similar shape of the Monte Carlo and Fermi-Eyges results indicate that a Gaussian approximation to the incident angular distribution will be adequate for use in treatment planning algorithms. Furthermore, the angular standard deviation may be determined using Fermi-Eyges theory as an alternative to experimental methods. Both Monte Carlo simulations, and Fermi-Eyges theory predict that the mean electron angle is proportional to off axis distance for all useful field sizes. For a 15 MeV electron beam, an effective source position of 99 cm and 98 cm from the nominal 100 SSD plane was obtained from Fermi-Eyges and Monte Carlo results respectively for a 15 MeV beam. The effective source position found experimentally for this energy was 98 cm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7980200

  17. Product energy distributions and energy partitioning in O atom reactions on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Bret; Kori, Moris

    1987-01-01

    Surface reactions involving O atoms are likely to be highly exoergic, with different consequences if energy is channeled mostly to product molecules or surface modes. Thus the surface may become a source of excited species which can react elsewhere, or a sink for localized heat deposition which may disrupt the surface. The vibrational energy distribution of the product molecule contains strong clues about the flow of released energy. Two instructive examples of energy partitioning at surfaces are the Pt catalyzed oxidations: (1) C(ads) + O(ads) yields CO* (T is greater than 1000 K); and (2) CO(ads) + O(gas) yields CO2* (T is approx. 300 K). The infrared emission spectra of the excited product molecules were recorded and the vibrational population distributions were determined. In reaction 1, energy appeared to be statistically partitioned between the product CO and several Pt atoms. In reaction 2, partitioning was non-statistical; the CO2 asymmetric stretch distribution was inverted. In gas reactions these results would indicate a long lived and short lived activated complex. The requirement that Pt be heated in O atoms to promote reaction of atomic O and CO at room temperature is specifically addressed. Finally, the fraction of released energy that is deposited in the catalyst is estimated.

  18. Water-quality conditions and streamflow gain and loss of the South Prong of Spavinaw Creek basin, Benton County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, Robert L.; Green, W. Reed

    1994-01-01

    A study of the South Prong of Spavinaw Creek Basin conducted baween July 14 and July 23. 1993. described the surface- and ground-water quality of the basin and the streamflow gain and loss. Water samples were collected from 10 sites on the mainstem of the South Prong of Spavinaw Creek and from 4 sites on tributaries during periods of low to moderate streamflow (less than 11 cubic feet per second). Water samples were collected from 4 wells and 10 springs located in the basin. In 14 surface-water samples, nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.75 to 4.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen (mg/L). Orthophosphorus concentrations ranged from 0 03 to O. 15 mg/L as phosphorus. Fecal coliform bacteria counts ranged from 61 to 1,400 colonies per 100 milliliters (col/lOO mL), with a median of 120 col/100 mL. Fecal streptococci bacteria counts ranged from 70 to greater than 2,000 col/100 mL with a median of 185 col/lOO mL. Analysis for selected metals collected at one surface-water sites indicates that concentrations were usually below the reporting limit. Diel dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperatures were measured at an upstream and downstream site on the mainstem of the stream. At the upstream site, dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 7.2 to 83 mg/L and temperatures ranged from 15.5 to 17.0 C. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were higher and temperature values were lower at lhe upstream site, which is located close to two springs that produce all of the flow at that site. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate was present in all four wells sampled in the basin with concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 3.5 mg/L as nitrogen. Orthophosphorus was present in concentrations ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus. Volatile organic compound analyses in two wells indicate that toluene was present in both wells and chloroform was present in one well. All other volatile organic compounds were found to be below the reporting limits. Analysis for common

  19. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... distribution transformers (72 FR 58190). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005), Public Law 109-25, amended... transformers (77 FR 7282). Need for Correction As published, values in certain tables of the proposed rule are... February 10 NOPR. Corrections In proposed rule FR Doc. 2012-2642 appearing on page 7282 in the issue...

  20. Geophysical modeling of the structural relationships between the Precambrian Reading Prong rocks and the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence, Easton quadrangle, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Malinconico, L.L. Jr. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    This project involves the geophysical modeling of the structural relationships between the Precambrian Reading Prong rocks and the Paleozoic sedimentary cover rocks near Easton, Pennsylvania. The Precambrian rocks have generally been assumed to have been emplaced on the Paleozoic sequence along a shallow thrust fault. However, at present time the attitude of the faults bordering the Precambrian terranes are all very steeply dipping. This was explained by the subsequent folding of the whole sequence during later orogenic activity. The objective of this work is to determine the attitude and depth of the fault contact between the Precambrian crystalline rocks and the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. A series of traverses (each separated by approximately one mile) were established perpendicular to the strike of the Precambrian rocks. Along each traverse both gravity and magnetic readings were taken at 0.2 kilometer intervals. The data were reduced and presented as profiles and contour maps. Both the magnetic and gravity data show positive anomalies that correlate spatially with the location of the Precambrian rocks. The gravity data have a long wavelength regional trend increasing to the north with a shorter wavelength anomaly of 2 milligals which coincides with the Precambrian rocks. The magnetic data have a single positive anomaly of almost 1,000 gammas which also coincides with the Precambrian terrane. These data will now be used to develop two dimensional density and susceptibility models of the area. From these models, the thickness of each formation and the structural relationships between them, as well as the attitude and depth of the fault contact will be determined.

  1. Variable post-Paleozoic deformation detected by seismic reflection profiling across the northwestern "prong" of New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Devera, J.A.; Denny, F.B.; Woolery, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles across the northwesternmost part of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and northwestern margin of the Reelfoot rift, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the northern Mississippi embayment, reveal intense structural deformation that apparently took place during the late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic up to near the end of the Cretaceous Period. The seismic profiles were sited on both sides of the northeast-trending Olmsted fault, defined by varying elevations of the top of Mississippian (locally base of Cretaceous) bedrock. The trend of this fault is close to and parallel with an unusually straight segment of the Ohio River and is approximately on trend with the westernmost of two groups of northeast-aligned epicenters ("prongs") in the NMSZ. Initially suspected on the basis of pre-existing borehole data, the deformation along the fault has been confirmed by four seismic reflection profiles, combined with some new information from drilling. The new data reveal (1) many high-angle normal and reverse faults expressed as narrow grabens and anticlines (suggesting both extensional and compressional regimes) that involved the largest displacements during the late Cretaceous (McNairy); (2) a different style of deformation involving probably more horizontal displacements (i.e., thrusting) that occurred at the end of this phase near the end of McNairy deposition, with some fault offsets of Paleocene and younger units; (3) zones of steeply dipping faults that bound chaotic blocks similar to that observed previously from the nearby Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL); and (4) complex internal deformation stratigraphically restricted to the McNairy, suggestive of major sediment liquefaction or landsliding. Our results thus confirm the prevalence of complex Cretaceous deformations continuing up into Tertiary strata near the northern terminus of the NMSZ. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal smoothing of site-energy distributions from adsorption isotherms

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F.; Travis, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The equation for the adsorption isotherm on a heterogeneous surface is a Fredholm integral equation. In solving it for the site-energy distribution (SED), some sort of smoothing must be carried out. The optimal amount of smoothing will give the most information that is possible without introducing nonexistent structure into the SED. Recently, Butler, Reeds, and Dawson proposed a criterion (the BRD criterion) for choosing the optimal smoothing parameter when using regularization to solve Fredholm equations. The BRD criterion is tested for its suitability in obtaining optimal SED's. This criterion is found to be too conservative. While using it never introduces nonexistent structure into the SED, significant information is often lost. At present, no simple criterion for choosing the optimal smoothing parameter exists, and a modeling approach is recommended.

  3. Thylakoid protein phosphorylation: Regulation of light energy distribution in photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlan, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    It has become apparent that green plants possess the ability to adapt to changes in the spectral quality of ambient light. This phenomenon, state transitions, involves a reversible distribution of light energy between the two photosystems in response to changes in the excitation state of photosystems 1 and 2. Thus, the quantum efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport is maintained under different illumination conditions, and damage caused by excessive energetic input of light (photoinhibition) is prevented. This model comprises a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle of three major components: substrates, the protein kinase(s) and protein phosphatase(s) responsible for the specific phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of these of substrates, and the control mechanisms whereby the protein kinase(s) is activated/deactivated in response to redox and /or conformational changes in the thylakoid. This report considers the three components in some detail.

  4. A bolometer array for the SPEctral Energy Distribution (SPEED) Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Robert F.; Campano, Barbara; Chen, Tina C.; Cheng, Edward; Cottingham, David A.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Downes, Tom; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Logan, Dan; Meyer, Stephan S.; Perera, Thushara; Sharp, Elmer H.; Wilson, Grant W.

    2004-10-01

    The SPEED camera is being developed to study the spectral energy distributions of high redshift galaxies, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in X-ray clusters and other cold objects in the universe. Its initial runs will be done on the 10 m Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT), with later runs using the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). SPEED requires a 2x2 pixel cryogenic detector array of Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSB). Each of the pixels will have four frequency bands in the ~150-350 GHz range. Here we describe the development of the detector array of these high efficiency FSBs. The FSB design provides the multi-pixel multi-spectral band capability required for SPEED in a compact, light weight, stackable array. The SPEED FSB bolometers will use proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) as their temperature-sensing element permitting significantly higher levels of electronic multiplexing in future applications where larger numbers of detectors may be required.

  5. Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA): Scopes and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Michał H.

    2013-10-01

    The principle of operations of the VEDA program written by the author for Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis of theoretical vibrational spectra is described. Nowadays, the PED analysis is indispensible tool in serious analysis of the vibrational spectra. To perform the PED analysis it is necessary to define 3N-6 linearly independent local mode coordinates. Already for 20-atomic molecules it is a difficult task. The VEDA program reads the input data automatically from the Gaussian program output files. Then, VEDA automatically proposes an introductory set of local mode coordinates. Next, the more adequate coordinates are proposed by the program and optimized to obtain maximal elements of each column (internal coordinate) of the PED matrix (the EPM parameter). The possibility for an automatic optimization of PED contributions is a unique feature of the VEDA program absent in any other programs performing PED analysis.

  6. A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.

  7. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  8. Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars. I - Continuum energy distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Patrick W.; Brownsberger, Kenneth R.; Conti, Peter S.; Massey, Philip; Vacca, William D.

    1993-01-01

    All available low-resolution IUE spectra are assembled for Galactic, LMC, and SMC W-R stars and are merged with ground-based optical and NIR spectra in order to collate in a systematic fashion the shapes of these energy distributions over the wavelength range 0.1-1 micron. They can be consistently fitted by a power law of the form F(lambda) is approximately equal to lambda exp -alpha over the range 1500-9000 A to derive color excesses E(B-V) and spectral indices by removing the 2175-A interstellar absorption feature. The WN star color excesses derived are found to be in good agreement with those of Schmutz and Vacca (1991) and Koesterke et al. (1991). Significant heterogeneity in spectral index values was generally seen with any given subtype, but the groups consisting of the combined set of Galactic and LMC W-R stars, the separate WN and WC sequences, and the Galactic and LMC W-R stars all showed a striking and consistent Gaussian-like frequency distribution of values.

  9. The Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the infrared emission in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), whose strength is comparable to the optical/ultraviolet (OUV) emission, is generally thought to be a combination of thermal emission from dust and non-thermal, synchrotron emission. Although data are sparse, particularly in the far-infrared, the broad wavelength range of this emission suggests a wide range of temperatures and a combination of AGN and starburst heating mechanisms. The strength of the non-thermal emission is expected to be related to the radio emission. While this scenario is well-established, basic questions, such as the spatial and temperature distribution of the dust, the relative importance of AGN and starburst heating, and the significance of the non-thermal contribution remain largely undetermined. The wide wavelength range of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) combined with its arcmin spatial resolution and increased sensitivity facilitated the observation of a larger subset of the AGN population than previously covered, allowing these questions to be investigated in more detail. This paper will review the spectral energy distributions (SED) of AGN with particular emphasis on the infrared emission and on ISO's contributions to our knowledge. Preliminary results from ISO observations of X-ray selected and high-redshift AGN will be described.

  10. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Interacting Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Sandra; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Besla, Gurtina; Patton, David R.; Privon, George C.

    2016-01-01

    We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the TiNy Titans survey, the first systematic study of interactions between dwarf galaxies. Galaxy interactions are known to be of fundamental importance to the evolution of massive galaxies -- they have been observed to impact morphology, star formation rates, and ISM composition. Such interactions also occur frequently between low mass dwarf galaxies, but this process is poorly understood and largely overlooked in comparison. Although the majority of mergers at all redshifts are expected to take place between low mass galaxies, until now there have not been comparable systematic studies of dwarf galaxy interactions, leaving open the question of whether interactions between low mass galaxies can strongly affect their own evolution. The TiNy Titans survey, a complete sample of isolated dwarf galaxy pairs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), is specifically designed to address this gap in our understanding of galaxy evolution. The SEDs presented here, generated from archival WISE, SDSS, and GALEX photometric data, allow us to characterize the typical interacting dwarf galaxy, as well as quantify the deviations from this average distribution. We also present trends in the SEDs as a function of projected radial separation, a proxy for interaction stage.

  11. SATMC: Spectral energy distribution Analysis Through Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. P.; Wilson, G. W.; Tang, Y.; Scott, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    We present the general purpose spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting tool SED Analysis Through Markov Chains (SATMC). Utilizing Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) algorithms, SATMC fits an observed SED to SED templates or models of the user's choice to infer intrinsic parameters, generate confidence levels and produce the posterior parameter distribution. Here, we describe the key features of SATMC from the underlying MCMC engine to specific features for handling SED fitting. We detail several test cases of SATMC, comparing results obtained from traditional least-squares methods, which highlight its accuracy, robustness and wide range of possible applications. We also present a sample of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) that have been fitted using the SED synthesis routine GRASIL as input. In general, these SMGs are shown to occupy a large volume of parameter space, particularly in regards to their star formation rates which range from ˜30 to 3000 M⊙ yr-1 and stellar masses which range from ˜1010 to 1012 M⊙. Taking advantage of the Bayesian formalism inherent to SATMC, we also show how the fitting results may change under different parametrizations (i.e. different initial mass functions) and through additional or improved photometry, the latter being crucial to the study of high-redshift galaxies.

  12. Distributed Energy Alternative to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, Tim; Kelly, John

    2008-08-01

    The nation's power grid, specifically the New York region, faces burgeoning energy demand and suffers from congested corridors and aging equipment that cost New York consumers millions of dollars. Compounding the problem is high-density buildup in urban areas that limits available space to expand grid capacity. Coincidently, these urban areas are precisely where additional power is required. DER in this study refers to combined heat and power (CHP) technology, which simultaneously generates heat and electricity at or near the point where the energy will be consumed. There are multiple CHP options available that, combined with a portfolio of other building energy efficiency (EE) strategies, can help achieve a more efficient supply-demand balance than what the grid can currently provide. As an alternative to expanding grid capacity, CHP and EE strategies can be deployed in a flexible manner at virtually any point on the grid to relieve load. What's more, utilities and customers can install them in a variety of potentially profitable applications that are more environmentally friendly. Under the auspices of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory representing the Office of Electricity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Gas Technology Institute (GTI) conducted this study in cooperation with Consolidated Edison to help broaden the market penetration of EE and DER. This study provides realistic load models and identifies the impacts that EE and DER can have on the electrical distribution grid; specifically within the current economic and regulatory environment of a high load growth area of New York City called Hudson Yards in Midtown Manhattan. These models can be used to guide new policies that improve market penetration of appropriate CHP and EE technologies in new buildings. The following load modeling scenarios were investigated: (1) Baseline: All buildings are built per the Energy Conservation

  13. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from central

  14. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  15. Ion energy distribution functions in a supersonic plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldirola, S.; Roman, H. E.; Riccardi, C.

    2014-11-01

    Starting from experimental measurements of ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) in a low pressure supersonic plasma jet, we propose a model to simulate them numerically from first principles calculations. Experimentally we acquired IEDFs with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) collecting the argon ions produced from a inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and driven into a supersonic free gas expansion. From the discussion of these results and the physics of our system we developed a simulation code. Integrating the equations of motion the code evolves the trajectory of a single ion across the jet. Ar+- Ar collisions are modelled with a 12-4 Lennard-Jones potential which considers induced dipole interactions. IEDFs were simulated at different positions along the jet and compared with the experimental data showing good agreement. We have also implemented a charge transfer mechanism in which the ion releases its charge to a neutral atom which can take place at sufficiently close distances and is a function of the impact energy.

  16. The Spectral Energy Distribution of HH 100 IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the modeling of the radiative transfer in star forming regions has lead to improved dusty envelope models. Such models can now explain in great detail the observed infrared spectrum. The success of such models suggests that input parameters correspond to the true physical situation of the environment of the young stellar object. However, so far only minor attention has been given to models which include the spectroscopic signature of ice bands. Such models are applied to the Herbig-Haro energy source HH100 IRS. Calculations have been performed to interpret the spectral energy distribution as a function of dust parameters such as the grain size, the ice volume fraction, and the 'fluffiness' of the particles. The infrared spectrum together with the strength of the water ice band of HH 100 IRS is successfully reproduced if an upper limit of the grain size below 1 micron is used. Comet-like grains, with sizes above 1 micron, result in a poor fit of the observations.

  17. Optical Diagnostics of Electron Energy Distributions in Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Amy

    2011-05-01

    Passive, non-invasive optical emission measurements provide a means of probing important plasma parameters without introducing contaminants into plasma systems. We investigate the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in argon containing inductively-coupled plasmas due to dominant role in rates of gas-phase reactions for processing plasmas. EEDFs are determined using measurements of 3p5 4 p --> 3p5 4 s emissions in the 650-1150 nm wavelength range and measured metastable and resonant level concentrations, in conjunction with a radiation model that includes contributions from often neglected but critical processes such as radiation trapping and electron-impact excitation from metastable and resonant levels. Measurements over a wide range of operating conditions (pressure, RF power, Ar/Ne/N2 gas mixtures) show a depletion of the EEDF relative to the Maxwell- Boltzmann form at higher electron energy, in good agreement with measurements made with Langmuir probes and predictions of a global discharge model. This result is consistent with predictions of electron kinetics and can be explained in terms of reduced life times for energetic electrons due to wall losses and inelastic collisions. This example highlights the potential utility of this method as a tool for probing kinetics of many types of low-temperature plasma systems, which are typically characterized by non-Maxwellian EEDFs. This work was supported by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) and by NSF Grant CBET 0714600.

  18. Equilibrium distribution of the wave energy in a carbyne chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovriguine, D. A.; Nikitenkova, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    The steady-state energy distribution of thermal vibrations at a given ambient temperature has been investigated based on a simple mathematical model that takes into account central and noncentral interactions between carbon atoms in a one-dimensional carbyne chain. The investigation has been performed using standard asymptotic methods of nonlinear dynamics in terms of the classical mechanics. In the first-order nonlinear approximation, there have been revealed resonant wave triads that are formed at a typical nonlinearity of the system under phase matching conditions. Each resonant triad consists of one longitudinal and two transverse vibration modes. In the general case, the chain is characterized by a superposition of similar resonant triplets of different spectral scales. It has been found that the energy equipartition of nonlinear stationary waves in the carbyne chain at a given temperature completely obeys the standard Rayleigh-Jeans law due to the proportional amplitude dispersion. The possibility of spontaneous formation of three-frequency envelope solitons in carbyne has been demonstrated. Heat in the form of such solitons can propagate in a chain of carbon atoms without diffusion, like localized waves.

  19. Direct Energy Exchange Enhancement in Distributed Injection Light Gas Launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T W; Finucane, R G; Hall, J P; Penetrante, B M; Uphaus, T M

    2000-04-06

    initially contained in the reservoir. This results deserves emphasis: whereas conventional guns apply a few percent of the reservoir pressure to a fast moving projectile, our design is paradoxically capable of applying nearly double the contained pressure. We later confirmed this experimental result analytically and related it to a type of direct energy exchange between unsteady fluid flows. This physical approach was the basis for the German V-1 ''buzz bomb'' of World War II; it has been applied to a limited number of commercial applications. (This work should not be confused with the German WWII distributed injection missile launchers.) Direct fluid-energy exchange has not previously been applied to any gas-launcher technology. As a result of these discoveries, we estimate that a practical, 15 km/s, high-velocity launcher could be built using our direct-energy-exchange, distributed-injection approach. However, the radical nature of the results, the lack of confirming or allied work being carried out anywhere else, and the fact that it would take extensive time and resources to demonstrate targeted performance precluded further development. We plan to submit the results to a refereed journal to ensure that the work will not be lost to the launcher community.

  20. Quasar Spectral Energy Distributions As A Function Of Physical Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Shonda; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Derseweh, J. A.; Richmond, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). In turn, models of outflows have shown particular sensitivity to the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED), depending on the UV luminosity to transfer momentum to the gas, the X-ray luminosity to regulate how efficiently that transfer can be, etc. To investigate how SED changes with physical properties, we follow up on Richards et al. (2006), who constructed SEDs with varying luminosity. Here, we construct SEDs as a function of redshift, and physical property (black hole mass, bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio) for volume limited samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with photometry supplemented from 2MASS, WISE, GALEX, ROSAT, and Chandra. To estimate black hole masses, we adopt the scaling relations from Greene & Ho (2005) based on the H-alpha emission line FWHM. This requires redshifts less than 0.4. To construct volume-limited subsamples, we begin by adopting g=19.8 as a nominal limiting magnitude over which we are guaranteed to detect z<0.4 quasars. At redshift 0.4, we are complete down to Mg=-21.8, which yields 3300 objects from Data Release 7. At z=0.1, we are complete down to Mg=-18.5. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  1. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitiez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Marshall, F.; Scargle, J. D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  2. Space and energy. [space systems for energy generation, distribution and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.

    1976-01-01

    Potential contributions of space to energy-related activities are discussed. Advanced concepts presented include worldwide energy distribution to substation-sized users using low-altitude space reflectors; powering large numbers of large aircraft worldwide using laser beams reflected from space mirror complexes; providing night illumination via sunlight-reflecting space mirrors; fine-scale power programming and monitoring in transmission networks by monitoring millions of network points from space; prevention of undetected hijacking of nuclear reactor fuels by space tracking of signals from tagging transmitters on all such materials; and disposal of nuclear power plant radioactive wastes in space.

  3. Design, modeling, simulation and evaluation of a distributed energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cultura, Ambrosio B., II

    This dissertation presents the design, modeling, simulation and evaluation of distributed energy resources (DER) consisting of photovoltaics (PV), wind turbines, batteries, a PEM fuel cell and supercapacitors. The distributed energy resources installed at UMass Lowell consist of the following: 2.5kW PV, 44kWhr lead acid batteries and 1500W, 500W & 300W wind turbines, which were installed before year 2000. Recently added to that are the following: 10.56 kW PV array, 2.4 kW wind turbine, 29 kWhr Lead acid batteries, a 1.2 kW PEM fuel cell and 4-140F supercapacitors. Each newly added energy resource has been designed, modeled, simulated and evaluated before its integration into the existing PV/Wind grid-connected system. The Mathematical and Simulink model of each system was derived and validated by comparing the simulated and experimental results. The Simulated results of energy generated from a 10.56kW PV system are in good agreement with the experimental results. A detailed electrical model of a 2.4kW wind turbine system equipped with a permanent magnet generator, diode rectifier, boost converter and inverter is presented. The analysis of the results demonstrates the effectiveness of the constructed simulink model, and can be used to predict the performance of the wind turbine. It was observed that a PEM fuel cell has a very fast response to load changes. Moreover, the model has validated the actual operation of the PEM fuel cell, showing that the simulated results in Matlab Simulink are consistent with the experimental results. The equivalent mathematical equation, derived from an electrical model of the supercapacitor, is used to simulate its voltage response. The model is completely capable of simulating its voltage behavior, and can predict the charge time and discharge time of voltages on the supercapacitor. The bi-directional dc-dc converter was designed in order to connect the 48V battery bank storage to the 24V battery bank storage. This connection was

  4. Evaluation of a multi-pronged intervention to improve access to safe abortion care in two districts in Jharkhand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n = 1,253) followed by an endline survey (n = 1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe

  5. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  6. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  7. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  8. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  9. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are... EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption...

  10. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  11. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  12. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  13. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  14. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  15. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars; Hayward, Christopher C.; Brassington, Nicola

    2014-04-10

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  16. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Dwarf Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of G77-61 (Dahn et al. 1977) -- a star with a carbon-rich spectrum a mere 58 pc away and therefore of relatively low luminosity -- led to the recognition that _dwarf_ carbon (dC) stars exist. As more dCs are now known, the accepted paradigm of the presence of atmospheric carbon is that dCs must contain a white dwarf secondary. While the white dwarf companion was going through an AGB stage, it deposited carbon-rich material in the atmosphere of the lower-mass (and now brighter) dwarf star. Indeed, a handful of the dC's have exhibited radial velocity signatures consistent with this picture. To allow for the carbon to still be present in the atmosphere past the AGB stage, a replenishing outer shell or disk has been proposed. Current understanding of the formation and evolution of a dC is, however, limited by the small number of objects and observations. We present a full range of fluxes and flux limits from 1 - 160 um including 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel observations for a list of the nearest carbon dwarfs. We reconstruct the spectral energy distribution exploring the mid-infrared region where any residual debris disks would be detectable. The carbon dwarfs have been historically studied in the visible, and these new infrared observations provide a picture of the circumstellar dust.

  17. Electron energy distributions in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Sang-Heon E-mail: Sang-Heon.Song@us.tel.com; Yang, Yang; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-09-15

    Optimizing and controlling electron energy distributions (EEDs) is a continuing goal in plasma materials processing as EEDs determine the rate coefficients for electron impact processes. There are many strategies to customize EEDs in low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), for example, pulsing and choice of frequency, to produce the desired plasma properties. Recent experiments have shown that EEDs in low pressure ICPs can be manipulated through the use of static magnetic fields of sufficient magnitudes to magnetize the electrons and confine them to the electromagnetic skin depth. The EED is then a function of the local magnetic field as opposed to having non-local properties in the absence of the magnetic field. In this paper, EEDs in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (mICP) sustained in Ar are discussed with results from a two-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model. Results are compared with experimental measurements. We found that the character of the EED transitions from non-local to local with application of the static magnetic field. The reduction in cross-field mobility increases local electron heating in the skin depth and decreases the transport of these hot electrons to larger radii. The tail of the EED is therefore enhanced in the skin depth and depressed at large radii. Plasmas densities are non-monotonic with increasing pressure with the external magnetic field due to transitions between local and non-local kinetics.

  18. Energy Distribution of Electrons in Radiation Induced-Helium Plasmas. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Energy distribution of high energy electrons as they slow down and thermalize in a gaseous medium is studied. The energy distribution in the entire energy range from source energies down is studied analytically. A helium medium in which primary electrons are created by the passage of heavy-charged particles from nuclear reactions is emphasized. A radiation-induced plasma is of interest in a variety of applications, such as radiation pumped lasers and gaseous core nuclear reactors.

  19. 76 FR 50148 - Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC62 Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Negotiated Rulemaking Act (NRA) to negotiate proposed Federal standards for the energy efficiency of...

  20. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  1. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  2. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  3. Lifetime optimization of wireless sensor network by a better nodes positioning and energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J. M.; Murad, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of energy distribution on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Nodes are randomly positioned and the sink is placed at the centre of the surface. Simulations show that relay nodes around the sink are too much requested to convey data, which substantially reduces their lifetime. So, several algorithmic solutions are presented to optimize the energy distribution on each node, compared to the classical uniform energy distribution. Their performance is discussed in terms of failure rate of data transmission and network lifetime. Moreover, the total energy distributed on all nodes before the deployment is invariable and some non-uniform energy distributions are created. Finally, simulations show that every energy distributions greatly improve the WSN lifetime and decrease the failure rate of data transmission.

  4. Assessment of soil-gas and soil contamination at the South Prong Creek Disposal Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Andral W.; Falls, W. Fred; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas and soil were assessed for contaminants at the South Prong Creek Disposal Area at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included identifying and delineating organic contaminants present in soil-gas and inorganic contaminants present in soil samples collected from the area estimated to be the South Prong Creek Disposal Area, including two seeps and the hyporheic zone. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. All soil-gas samplers in the two seeps and the hyporheic zone contained total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration detected from the two seeps was 54.23 micrograms per liter, and the highest concentration in the hyporheic zone was 344.41 micrograms per liter. The soil-gas samplers within the boundary of the South Prong Creek Disposal Area and along the unnamed road contained total petroleum hydrocarbon mass above the method detection level. The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass detected was 147.09 micrograms in a soil-gas sampler near the middle of the unnamed road that traverses the South Prong Creek Disposal Area. The highest undecane mass detected was 4.48 micrograms near the location of the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass. Some soil-gas samplers detected undecane mass greater than the method detection level of 0.04 micrograms, with the highest detection of toluene mass of 109.72 micrograms in the same location as the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass. Soil-gas samplers installed in areas of high contaminant mass had no detections of explosives and chemical agents above their respective method detection levels. Inorganic concentrations in five soil samples did not exceed regional screening levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  5. Development of a High-Speed Static Switch for Distributed Energy and Microgrid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; Lynch, J.; John, V.; Meor Daniel, S.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Distributed energy resources can provide power to local loads in the electric distribution system and benefits such as improved reliability. Microgrids are intentional islands formed at a facility or in an electrical distribution system that contains at least one distributed resource and associated loads. Microgrids that operate both electrical generation and loads in a coordinated manner can offer additional benefits to the customer and local utility. The loads and energy sources can be disconnected from and reconnected to the area or local utility with minimal disruption to the local loads, thereby improving reliability. This paper details the development and testing of a highspeed static switch for distributed energy and microgrid applications.

  6. Constructing and Analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions with the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurino, Omar; Busko, I.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Doe, S.; Evans, J.; Pevunova, O.; Norris, P.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are a common and useful means of assessing the relative contributions of different emission processes occurring within an object. Iris, the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) SED tool, seamlessly combines key features of several existing astronomical software applications to streamline and enhance the SED analysis process. With Iris, users may build and display SEDs, browse data and metadata and apply filters to them, fit models to SEDs, and calculate confidence limits on best-fit parameters. SED data may be built from a number of sources using the SED Builder. Iris supports the Simple Application Messaging Protocol for interoperability with other Virtual Observatory applications, like the VAO Data Discovery tool, and can directly fetch SEDs from the NASA Extragalactic Database SED service. Particular attention has been paid to the integration of user spectrophotometric data from files in several different formats. File readers for custom formats can be provided at runtime, as well as custom models to fit the data, as template libraries for template fitting or arbitrary python functions. New functionalities can be added by installing plugins, i.e. third party components that are developed using the Iris Software Development Kit. The VAO was established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. Iris Individual components have also been supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA contract NAS8-03060, and by the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  7. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  8. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campusof Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-14

    In this study, referring to the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) which was developed by the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), E-GAMS programmer is developed with a research of database of energy tariffs, DER (Distributed Energy Resources) technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption in Japan. E-GAMS is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills. In this research, by using E-GAMS, we present a tool to select the optimal combination of distributed energy system for an Ecological-Campus, Kitakyushu, Science and Research Park (KSRP). We discuss the effects of the combination of distributed energy technologies on the energy saving, economic efficiency and environmental benefits.

  9. Variations of Low-energy Ion Distributions Measured in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2010-12-30

    This report is an update of low-energy ion intensities and angular distributions measured recently by the Low Energy Charged Particle instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in the inner heliosheath.

  10. Charge state dependence of cathodic vacuum arc ion energy andvelocity distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Schneider, Jochen M.; Anders, Andre

    2006-08-15

    In the literature, conflicting conclusions are reported concerning the charge state dependence of cathodic arc ion energy and velocity distributions. It appears that data from electrostatic energy analyzers indicate charge state dependence of ion energy, whereas time-of-flight methods support charge state independence of ion velocity. Here we present charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions and calculate the corresponding ion velocity distributions in aluminum vacuum arc plasma. We show that the conflicting conclusions reported in the literature for the two different characterization techniques may originate from the commonly employed data interpretation of energy and velocity, in which peak values and average values are not carefully distinguished.

  11. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Chapter II RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed Rule AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Act (NRA) to negotiate proposed Federal standards for the energy efficiency of liquid immersed...

  12. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    WISE J085510.83–071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855–0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (∼250 K) and the fourth-closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855–0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N ∼ 3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449 ± 0.008″ (2.23 ± 0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855–0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. and Morley et al. that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and nonequilibrium chemistry. Our estimates of Y ‑ J and J ‑ H for WISE 0855–0714 are redder than colors of other Y dwarfs, confirming a predicted reversal of near-IR colors to redder values at temperatures below 300–400 K. In color–magnitude diagrams, no single suite of models provides a clearly superior match to the sequence formed by WISE 0855–0714 and other Y dwarfs. Instead, the best-fitting model changes from one diagram to the next. Similarly, all of the models have substantial differences from the SED of WISE 0855–0714. As a result, we are currently unable to constrain the presence of clouds or nonequilibrium chemistry in its atmosphere. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, and the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory.

  13. MEAN SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, Sajjan S.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.064 < z < 5.46 using mid-IR data from Spitzer and WISE, near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIDSS, optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The mean SED requires a bolometric correction (relative to 2500 A) of BC{sub 2500A} =2.75 {+-} 0.40 using the integrated light from 1 {mu}m-2 keV, and we further explore the range of bolometric corrections exhibited by individual objects. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the mean SED on various parameters, particularly the UV luminosity for quasars with 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 and the properties of the UV emission lines for quasars with z {approx}> 1.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED-dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope ({alpha}{sub UV}), a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extreme UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possible models and explore the resulting bolometric corrections. Understanding these various SED-dependent effects will be important for accurate determination of quasar accretion rates.

  14. Energy distribution functions of kilovolt ions in a modified Penning discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The distribution function of ion energy parallel to the magnetic field of a Penning discharge was measured with a retarding potential energy analyzer. Simultaneous measurements of the ion energy distribution function perpendicular to the magnetic field were made with a charge-exchange neutral detector. The ion energy distribution functions are approximately Maxwellian, and their kinetic temperatures are equal within experimental error. This suggests that turbulent processes previously observed Maxwellianize the velocity distribution along a radius in velocity space, and result in an isotropic energy distribution. The kinetic temperatures are on the order of kilovolts, and the tails of the ion energy distribution functions are Maxwellian up to a factor of 7 e-folds in energy. When the distributions depart from Maxwellian, they are enhanced above the Maxwellian tail. Above densities of about 10 to the 10th power particles/cc, this enhancement appears to be the result of a second, higher temperature Maxwellian distribution. At these high particle energies, only the ions perpendicular to the magnetic field lines were investigated.

  15. Low-energy ion distribution functions on a magnetically quiet day at geostationary altitude /L = 7/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Raitt, W. J.; Yasuhara, F.

    1982-01-01

    Ion energy and pitch angle distribution functions are examined for a magnetically quiet day using averaged data from ATS 6. For both field-aligned and perpendicular fluxes, the populations have a mixture of characteristic energies, and the distribution functions can be fairly well approximated by Maxwellian distributions over three different energy bands in the range 3-600 eV. Pitch angle distributions varying with local time, and energy distributions are used to compute total ion density. Pitch angle scattering mechanisms responsible for the observed transformation of pitch angle distribution are examined, and it is found that a magnetic noise of a certain power spectral density belonging to the electromagnetic ion cyclotron mode near the ion cyclotron frequency can be effective in trapping the field aligned fluxes by pitch angle scattering.

  16. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  17. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  18. Terminal energy distribution of blast waves from bursting spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, A. A.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation results for the total energy delivered to the surroundings by the burst of an idealized massless sphere containing an ideal gas are presented. The logic development of various formulas for sphere energy is also presented. For all types of sphere bursts the fraction of the total initial energy available in the sphere that is delivered to the surroundings is shown to lie between that delivered for the constant pressure addition of energy to a source region and that delivered by isentropic expansion of the sphere. The relative value of E sub/Q increases at fixed sphere pressure/surrounding pressure as sphere temperature increases because the velocity of sound increases.

  19. Measurement of energy distribution in flowing hydrogen microwave plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R.; Morin, T.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic energy into kinetic energy of a flowing gas is investigated. A calorimetry system enclosing a microwave plasma system has been developed to accurately measure the energy inputs and outputs of the microwave plasma system. The rate of energy transferred to the gas can be determined to within + or - 1.8 W from an energy balance around the microwave plasma system. The percentage of the power absorbed by the microwave plasma system transferred to the hydrogen gas as it flows through the system is found to increase with the increasing flow rate, to decrease with the increasing pressure, and to be independent of the absorbed power. An upper bound for the hydrogen gas temperature is estimated from the energy content, heat capacity, and flow rate of the gas stream. A lower bound for an overall heat-transfer coefficient is then calculated, characterizing the energy loss from the hydrogen gas stream to the air cooling of the plasma discharge tube wall. The heat-transfer coefficient is found to increase with the increasing flow rate and pressure and to be independent of the absorbed power. This result indicates that a convective-type mechanism is responsible for the energy transfer.

  20. High-energy lasers by using distributed reflection: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Lasers may be made with higher energy photons than heretofore possible. It has been proposed that vacuum ultraviolet lasing can be obtained by bombarding superfluid helium with electron beam, while coupling acoustic energy into helium to set up standing waves in fluid.

  1. Electron-energy distribution in silicon under pulsed-laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensoussan, M.; Moison, J. M.

    1983-04-01

    By yield and energy-distribution measurements, we identify two photoemission regimes from silicon under nanosecond laser irradiation. At low fluence and high photon energy, two- and three-quantum processes are the main emission mechanisms; effects of initial and intermediate states are the dominant spectral features. At high fluence and low photon energy, thermoemission prevails and is characterized by a Maxwellian distribution with a temperature different from that of the lattice during the excitation pulse.

  2. Measurement Of Kinetic Energy Distribution Of Positive Ions From Electron Induced Dissociation Of Pyrimidine Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljevic, A. R.; Maljkovic, J. B.; Sevic, D.; Cadez, I.; Marinkovic, B. P.

    2010-07-01

    We report preliminary results on measurements of kinetic energy distribution of positive ions formed upon electron induced dissociative ionization of gaseous pyrimidine molecule (C4H4N2). The kinetic energy spectra were recorded without precedent mass/charge analysis, for different incident electron energies (50-250 eV) and different detection angles (40-90) with respect to the incident beam direction. An influence of the residual gas background to the recorded distributions has been investigated.

  3. Optimum irradiance distribution of concentrated sunlight for photovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, Pablo; Mohedano, Rubén

    1999-04-01

    The irradiance distribution on a concentration photovoltaic cell that produces maximum conversion efficiency has been found with the tools of Variational Calculus. The analysis is two dimensional and can be applied to a comb-like double busbar solar cell illuminated by a line-focus concentrator. The optimum distribution is, in general, nonuniform, and depends on the internal parameters of the solar cell: the higher the contribution of the grid to the global cell series resistance, the lower the uniformity of the optimum irradiance distribution. In practical cases, the efficiency for uniform illumination is close to that of the optimum, but in the latter the irradiance close to the busbar may be noticeable higher than the average.

  4. Model for radial dependence of frequency distributions for energy imparted in nanometer volumes from HZE particles.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Nikjoo, H; Goodhead, D T

    2000-04-01

    This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological damage produced by ionizing radiation. For high-energy ions, secondary electron (delta-ray) tracks originating from a primary ion track make dominant contributions to energy deposition events in small volumes. Our method uses the distribution of electrons produced about an ion's path and incorporates results from Monte Carlo simulation of electron tracks to predict frequency distributions for ions, including their dependence on radial distance. The contribution from primary ion events is treated using an impact parameter formalism of spatially restricted linear energy transfer (LET) and energy-transfer straggling. We validate our model by comparing it directly to results from Monte Carlo simulations for proton and alpha-particle tracks. We show for the first time frequency distributions of energy imparted in DNA structures by several high-energy ions such as cosmic-ray iron ions. Our comparison with results from Monte Carlo simulations at low energies indicates the accuracy of the method. PMID:10761008

  5. Model for radial dependence of frequency distributions for energy imparted in nanometer volumes from HZE particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Nikjoo, H.; Goodhead, D. T.; Decillo, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological damage produced by ionizing radiation. For high-energy ions, secondary electron (delta-ray) tracks originating from a primary ion track make dominant contributions to energy deposition events in small volumes. Our method uses the distribution of electrons produced about an ion's path and incorporates results from Monte Carlo simulation of electron tracks to predict frequency distributions for ions, including their dependence on radial distance. The contribution from primary ion events is treated using an impact parameter formalism of spatially restricted linear energy transfer (LET) and energy-transfer straggling. We validate our model by comparing it directly to results from Monte Carlo simulations for proton and alpha-particle tracks. We show for the first time frequency distributions of energy imparted in DNA structures by several high-energy ions such as cosmic-ray iron ions. Our comparison with results from Monte Carlo simulations at low energies indicates the accuracy of the method.

  6. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead. PMID:26426701

  7. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead. PMID:26426701

  8. The mapping of electronic energy distributions using experimental electron density.

    PubMed

    Tsirelson, Vladimir G

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the approximate kinetic energy density calculated using the second-order gradient expansion with parameters of the multipole model fitted to experimental structure factors reproduces the main features of this quantity in a molecular or crystal position space. The use of the local virial theorem provides an appropriate derivation of approximate potential energy density and electronic energy density from the experimental (model) electron density and its derivatives. Consideration of these functions is not restricted by the critical points in the electron density and provides a comprehensive characterization of bonding in molecules and crystals. PMID:12149553

  9. Amorphous metal distribution transformers: The energy-efficient alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    Amorphous metal distribution transformers have been commercially available for the past 13 years. During that time, they have realized the promise of exceptionally high core efficiency as compared to silicon steel transformer cores. Utility planners today must consider all options available to meet the requirements of load growth. While additional generation capacity will be added, many demand-side initiatives are being undertaken as complementary programs to generation expansion. The efficiency improvement provided by amorphous metal distribution transformers deserves to be among the demand-side options. The key to understanding the positive impact of amorphous metal transformer efficiency is to consider the aggregate contribution those transformers can make towards demand reduction. It is estimated that distribution transformer core losses comprise at least 1% of the utility`s peak demand. Because core losses are continuous, any significant reduction in their magnitude is of great significance to the planner. This paper describes the system-wide economic contributions amorphous metal distribution transformers can make to a utility and suggests evaluation techniques that can be used. As a conservation tool, the amorphous metal transformer contributes to reduced power plant emissions. Calibration of those emissions reductions is also discussed in the paper.

  10. Radial Flux Distribution of Low-Energy Neutrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higinbotham, J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to illustrate the basic principle involved in the process of moderation of fast neutrons by water, and the monitoring of the low-energy neutron flux using indium as a probe. (GA)