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Sample records for proovisit seat leon

  1. "Stepping-sticks" and "seat-sticks": new types of tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Alp, R

    1997-01-01

    In Tenkere, Sierra Leone, a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) spent long hours eating the fruits and flowers of the Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) tree. The branches of this species are covered in sharp thorns which make movement in their high canopies problematic for the chimpanzees. In an apparent attempt to increase their mobility and to ease the discomfort of lengthy bouts of eating in these trees, some of the Tenkere chimpanzees have been observed using stick tools as foot ("stepping-sticks") and body ("seat-sticks") protection against the painful thorns. This form of tool-using is culturally unique to the Tenkere chimpanzees, as at other sites where these apes have been observed eating parts of kapok trees, there are no published records of this tool technology. In three of the stepping-stick tool use incidents, the chimpanzee used the tool(s), held between their greater and lesser toes, in locomotion. This form of tool use is the first recorded case of habitually used tools that can be justifiably categorized as being "worn" by any known wild population of Pan troglodytes. PMID:9064197

  2. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  3. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  4. Take a Seat, Please.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Offers decision-making tips when choosing auditorium seating for both indoor and outdoor use. Tips for outdoor seating include deciding on weather-resistant options, permanent or temporary bleachers, seating materials, colors, and ease maintenance. Indoor seating selection tips include overall comfort and quietness, their adaptive features to…

  5. Fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Sophie and Pierre have enrolled in the operational team of a humanitarian organisation for two months, in order to help contain the Ebola epidemic. They landed in Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, only yesterday. PMID:26146002

  6. Integral aircraft passenger seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Human-engineering approach was used to design integral seat which provides all the safety, comfort, and protective features that can possibly be afforded airline passengers. Results of dynamic impact testing indicated that seat can withstand and attenuate gravity loads of 21-g horizontal and 45-g vertical; by design, seat will withstand lateral g's as well.

  7. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  8. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  9. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  10. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  11. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  12. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed...

  13. Susu Language Manual: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Freetown (Sierra Leone).

    A teacher's guide for Susu is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Sierra Leone. It contains a section on Susu phonology and 28 lessons on these topics: situation-specific greetings, basic greetings, introducing a friend, the market, travel and getting directions, visiting…

  14. English Teaching Profile: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Sierra Leone are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system, (2) teachers of English, (3) materials support; (4) educational administration for English teaching, (5) development and planning, (6) British support for the teaching of English, and (7) commercial opportunities.…

  15. Sierra Leone Temne Language Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    A language guide to Temne is designed for Peace Corps volunteers serving in Sierra Leone. It contains introductory sections about the Temnes and Temne phonology and orthography, teacher notes on the use of the manual, and 12 lessons. Each lesson consists of a dialogue or narrative, notes on classroom presentation, vocabulary and useful phrases,…

  16. English Teaching Profile: Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sierra Leone provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (preprimary, elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher education). Topics covered are: the…

  17. Seated postural hypotension.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Cohen, Natan

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of postural hypotension (PH) have focused on standing PH. Less is known about PH after transition from a supine to sitting position. Moreover, seated PH has not been previously reviewed in the English literature. The aim of this review was to provide current information regarding seating-induced PH. Seventeen studies were reviewed regarding prevalence, methods of evaluation, manifestations, predisposing factors, prognosis, and management of seated PH. Prevalence ranged from 8% among community-dwelling persons to 56% in elderly hospitalized patients. Dizziness and palpitations were the most frequent symptoms. Of a variety of factors that have been identified as predisposing and contributing to seated PH, aging, bed rest, and hypertension were most important. Because seated PH is a common, easily diagnosable and frequently symptomatic condition, especially in elderly inpatients, this disorder warrants attention. Moreover, seating-induced falls in blood pressure and the associated symptoms, may be largely prevented by nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26515671

  18. Narrowing Your Seating Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Offers guidance on selecting appropriate seating furniture for outdoor facilities, arenas, auditoriums, and lecture rooms. Considerations such as beam mounting systems to facilitate laptop computer and campuswide networking use by students and chair durability and ergonomics are discussed as are tips for choosing a seating remanufacturing company.…

  19. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  20. My Great Migration from Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's personal narrative as an immigrant from Sierra Leone who has undergone so many challenges in life and ended up turning all these obstacles into opportunities. In this article, the author describes his life growing up in Sierra Leone, his first experience of the horrors of war, his life as a student, and his dream…

  1. Child safety seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... seat's instructions), the vehicle's own lap and shoulder belts can be used to keep your child strapped ... up so the vehicle's own lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. The lap belt should fall across ...

  2. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  3. Seat-belt Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    The drivers and passengers of two cars which collided head-on all wore lap and diagonal seat-belts. Three of the four suffered ruptured viscera and two incurred flexion-compression fractures of the neck. A victim of a traffic accident who was wearing a seat-belt and who has superficial bruising or pain presents a difficult diagnostic problem. Visceral injury should be suspected in such cases. PMID:5697665

  4. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Raza, Naeem; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2006-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis, a type of irritant contact dermatitis attributed to a Staphylinid beetle, is prevalent in most parts of the world. We studied 50 cases of Paederus dermatitis at the United Nations Hospital at Koidu Sierra Leone (West Africa), over a period of 6 months from Oct 2003 to Mar 2004. The objectives of the study were to determine clinical patterns of dermatitis and its response to topical steroids, with and without antibiotics. Patients with a definite history of contact with the insect were included in the study. Amongst these, 14 of the more severe cases were treated with oral prednisolone or intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. The remainder of the 36 patients were divided in two equal groups A and B. Patients in Group A were treated with topical diflucortolone valerate 0.001 percent and oral cetirizine hydrochloride; patients in group B were given oral ciprofloxacin in addition. In 50 patients studied, 43 (86%) were males and 7 (14%) were females. The neck was the most common site involved followed by face. Healing time ranged from 14 to 28 days and lesions in all the patients healed with residual dyschromia. Healing time was shorter in Group B patients in comparison with those in Group A. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone is a relatively severe form of this dermatitis. The better response to a combination of topical steroids and oral antibiotics may indicate concurrent bacterial infection. PMID:17459295

  5. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  6. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  7. Car Seat Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides information and a product listing concerning the special automobile seating needs of children with disabilities. The products listed meet the needs of children who weigh less than 20 pounds, must be transported lying down, need help with trunk control and/or head control, wear hip spica casts, are ventilator-dependent, and…

  8. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  9. Leon Knopoff (1926-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul; Jackson, David; Gilbert, Freeman

    2011-06-01

    Leon Knopoff died at his home in Sherman Oaks, Calif., on 20 January 2011 at the age of 85. A man of wide-ranging talents, he had the rare distinction of being simultaneously a professor of physics, a professor of geophysics, and a research musicologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). As an undergraduate he studied electrical engineering and obtained his Ph.D. in physics and mathematics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1949. He was recruited to the Institute of Geophysics (now the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) at UCLA in 1950 by Louis Slichter, where he became a professor of geophysics in 1957 and of geophysics and physics in 1961. He became a research musicologist in the UCLA Institute of Ethnomusicology soon after it was formed in 1960. Other appointments included faculty positions at Miami University in Ohio (1948-1950) and Caltech (1962-1963) and visiting appointments at Cambridge, Karlsruhe, Harvard, Santiago, Trieste, and Venice.

  10. Particularizing Universal Education in Postcolonial Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Grace

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a vertical case study of the history of universalizing education in postcolonial Sierra Leone from the early 1950s to 1990 to highlight how there has never been a universal conception of universal education. In order to unite a nation behind a universal ideal of schooling, education needed to be adapted to different…

  11. Leon Foucault: His Life, Times and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aczel, Amir D.

    2004-01-01

    Leon Foucault's dramatic demonstration of the rotation of the Earth using a freely-rotating pendulum in 1850 shocked the world of science. Scientists were stunned that such a simple proof of our planet's rotation had to wait so long to be developed. Foucault's public demonstration, which was repeated at many locations around the world, put an end…

  12. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  13. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  14. Lateral bias in theatre-seat choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria; Reese, Miriam; Elias, Lorin J

    2014-01-01

    Examples of behavioural asymmetries are common in the range of human behaviour; even when faced with a symmetrical environment people demonstrate reliable asymmetries in behaviours like gesturing, cradling, and even seating. One such asymmetry is the observation that participants tend to choose seats to the right of the screen when asked to select their preferred seating location in a movie theatre. However, these results are based on seat selection using a seating chart rather than examining real seat choice behaviour in the theatre context. This study investigated the real-world seating patterns of theatre patrons during actual film screenings. Analysis of bias scores calculated using photographs of theatre patrons revealed a significant bias to choose seats on the right side of the theatre. These findings are consistent with the prior research in the area and confirm that the seating bias observed when seats are selected from a chart accurately reflects real-world seating behaviour. PMID:23387932

  15. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  16. Leon X-1, the First Chandra Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Tom; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; ODell, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Here we present an analysis of the first photons detected with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and an identification of the brightest source in the field which we named Leon X-1 to honor the momentous contributions of the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. The observation took place immediately following the opening of the last door protecting the X-ray telescope. We discuss the unusual operational conditions as the first extra-terrestrial X-ray photons reflected from the telescope onto the ACIS camera. One bright source was a p parent to the team at the control center and the small collection of photons that appeared on the monitor were sufficient to indicate that the telescope had survived the launch and was approximately in focus, even prior to any checks and subsequent adjustments.

  17. Take your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice.

    PubMed

    Harms, Victoria L; Poon, Lisa J O; Smith, Austen K; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. PMID:26347639

  18. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  20. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  1. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  2. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  3. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  4. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  5. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  6. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  7. 46 CFR 177.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seating. 177.820 Section 177.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 176.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has...

  8. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  9. 46 CFR 116.820 - Seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seating. 116.820 Section 116.820 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 116.820 Seating. (a) A seat must be provided for each passenger permitted in a space for which the fixed seating criterion in § 115.113(b)(3) of this subchapter has been used to determine the number...

  10. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  11. Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study - Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Schrag, Stephanie J; Carter, Rosalind J; Carr, Wendy; Legardy-Williams, Jennifer; Gibson, Laura; Lisk, Durodami R; Jalloh, Mohamed I; Bash-Taqi, Donald A; Kargbo, Samuel A Sheku; Idriss, Ayesha; Deen, Gibrilla F; Russell, James B W; McDonald, Wendi; Albert, Alison P; Basket, Michelle; Callis, Amy; Carter, Victoria M; Ogunsanya, Kelli R Clifton; Gee, Julianne; Pinner, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E; Goldstein, Susan T; Seward, Jane F; Samai, Mohamed; Schuchat, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences of the University of Sierra Leone, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE). STRIVE was an individually randomized controlled phase II/III trial to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV). The study population was health care and frontline workers in select chiefdoms of the five most affected districts in Sierra Leone. Participants were randomized to receive a single intramuscular dose of rVSV-ZEBOV at enrollment or to receive a single intramuscular dose 18-24 weeks after enrollment. All participants were followed up monthly until 6 months after vaccination. Two substudies separately assessed detailed reactogenicity over 1 month and immunogenicity over 12 months. During the 5 months before the trial, STRIVE and partners built a research platform in Sierra Leone comprising participant follow-up sites, cold chain, reliable power supply, and vaccination clinics and hired and trained at least 350 national staff. Wide-ranging community outreach, informational sessions, and messaging were conducted before and during the trial to ensure full communication to the population of the study area regarding procedures and current knowledge about the trial vaccine. During April 9-August 15, 2015, STRIVE enrolled 8,673 participants, of whom 453 and 539 were also enrolled in the safety and immunogenicity substudies, respectively. As of April 28, 2016, no Ebola cases and no vaccine-related serious adverse events, which by regulatory definition include death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability, were reported in the study population. Although STRIVE will not produce an

  12. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  13. Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Rosenberg, Edmund G

    1957-01-01

    A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed. This maximum seat-passenger deceleration is found to depend on the natural frequency of the seat containing the passenger, considered as a mass-spring system. A method is presented that shows how to arrive at a combination of seat strength, natural frequency, and ability to absorb energy in deformation beyond the elastic limit that will allow the seat to serve without failure during an airplane deceleration pulse taken as the design requirement.

  14. Ceramic valve guide and seat

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, D.H.; Schmidt, H.

    1987-08-25

    For molded inclusion in a cast metal cylinder head of a internal combustion engine, an integral ceramic valve seat and valve stem guide assembly are described for operative engagement with and support of a conventional poppet-type valve with its enlarged head portion with a sealing surface thereon and an elongated cylindrical stem portion. The guide and seat consist of: valve seat forming means cast in ceramic material having an annular configuration operatively conforming to the configuration of the sealing surface of the valve and defining an annular seating surface for sealing engagement with the enlarged valve head when the valve is in a closed position; valve stem support means cast in ceramic having a generally tubular configuration with an internal bore and defining a support for reciprocation of the cylindrical stem portion of the valve as the valve moves between open and closed operative position; connecting means cast in ceramic and integral with both the valve set forming means and the valve stem supporting guide means for aligning the means so that a plane through the annular seating surface is normal to the axis of the tubular guide means and coaxially supporting the annular valve set forming means and the tubular guide portion whereas the integral valve seat forming means.

  15. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Aircraft Pilot Seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Yolanda Nicole

    Seat comfort has become increasingly important in today's society as we spend more time at consoles, instrument panels, or just online. However, seat comfort is hard to define and difficult to measure. Several measures both objective and subjective were used to evaluate seat comfort in commercially available average pilot seats. Three pilot seats, which had the same material and similar adjustments but different physical attributes, and a universal classroom seat, with different material and no adjustments, were compared by 20 volunteers using subjective and objective measures in a Latin square controlled repeated measures design. A Friedman's test was used to determine that both the comfort questionnaire and the body-map rating results were able to discriminate objective comfort levels between the seats. One-way repeated measures ANOVA tests were used to analyze both the objective tests, actigraph and pressure pad data. All results indicated that one seat was clearly the most comfortable and another, the classroom seat was clearly the most uncomfortable seat. Furthermore, the overall comments per seat were compiled and compared to Fazlollahtabar's 2010) predictive automobile seat comfort theory to determine which factors influence comfort perception. The use of both subjective and objective data can better distinguish comfort from one seat over the other. These results have implications for future tests of seats that will be used for long durations. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed later in the paper. An interesting finding may explain why pressure pad data are typically seemingly at odds with subjective measures of seat comfort.

  16. Indigenous Knowledge and Library Work in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is vital information that is sadly diminishing at an alarming rate in Sierra Leone. There is, therefore, an urgent need to collect it before much of it is completely lost. This article explores the concept of indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems with a particular focus on Sierra Leone. Definitions and…

  17. The application of SEAT values for predicting how compliant seats with backrests influence vibration discomfort.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which a seat can provide useful attenuation of vehicle vibration depends on three factors: the characteristics of the vehicle motion, the vibration transmissibility of the seat, and the sensitivity of the body to vibration. The 'seat effective amplitude transmissibility' (i.e., SEAT value) reflects how these three factors vary with the frequency and the direction of vibration so as to predict the vibration isolation efficiency of a seat. The SEAT value is mostly used to select seat cushions or seat suspensions based on the transmission of vertical vibration to the principal supporting surface of a seat. This study investigated the accuracy of SEAT values in predicting how seats with backrests influence the discomfort caused by multiple-input vibration. Twelve male subjects participated in a four-part experiment to determine equivalent comfort contours, the relative discomfort, the location of discomfort, and seat transmissibility with three foam seats and a rigid reference seat at 14 frequencies of vibration in the range 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of vibration from 0.2 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s. The 'measured seat dynamic discomfort' (MSDD) was calculated for each foam seat from the ratio of the vibration acceleration required to cause similar discomfort with the foam seat and with the rigid reference seat. Using the frequency weightings in current standards, the SEAT values of each seat were calculated from the ratio of overall ride values with the foam seat to the overall ride values with the rigid reference seat, and compared to the corresponding MSDD at each frequency. The SEAT values provided good predictions of how the foam seats increased vibration discomfort at frequencies around the 4-Hz resonance but reduced vibration discomfort at frequencies greater than about 6.3 Hz, with discrepancies explained by a known limitation of the frequency weightings. PMID:24793821

  18. Treatment of neuropathic pain in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Lacoux, Phillipe; Ford, Nathan

    2002-07-01

    During Sierra Leone's violent decade-long war, the warring parties used amputation, especially of arms, as a means of terror. In a camp for amputees in the capital city Freetown, Médecins Sans Frontières established a clinic and a treatment programme for neuropathic pain. Insecurity and cultural and language barriers have complicated this work, but medical and humanitarian benefits have been demonstrated. Pain services are virtually non-existent in less-developed countries. There have recently been no major treatment advances for neuropathic or phantom pain; however, the general body of knowledge about amputation pain can be increased by observations from these difficult settings. PMID:12849488

  19. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  20. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Cynthia A.; Khan, Sheik H.; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever–hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Liberia. Each year, suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500–700 samples to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Sierra Leone. Generally only 30%–40% of samples tested are positive for Lassa virus (LASV) antigen and/or LASV-specific IgM; thus, 60%–70% of these patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had IgM to dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:24959946

  1. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Airplane Flight Manual (14 CFR 23.1581(j)). See 36 FR 12511; see also 14 CFR 23.562, 23.785; Legal... 121, part 91 did not require that each person have a separate seat and/or seat belt. See 36 FR 12511... possible, each person onboard an aircraft should voluntarily be seated in a separate seat and be...

  2. Sociometry and Classroom Seat Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody; Barbour, Alton

    Since attraction and close proxemic distances have been found to be associated throughout the study of nonverbal communication, a study was conducted that hypothesized that attraction would be a more important predictor of seat selection than any other variables. Subjects included students enrolled in introductory speech communication classes who…

  3. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seung Je; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-01-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  4. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    PubMed

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury. PMID:27478816

  5. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  6. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  7. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  8. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  9. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  10. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  11. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  12. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  13. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  14. 14 CFR 121.585 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 121.585 Section 121.585..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.585 Exit seating. (a)(1) Each certificate... passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a non-discriminatory manner...

  15. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  16. 14 CFR 135.129 - Exit seating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exit seating. 135.129 Section 135.129....129 Exit seating. (a)(1) Applicability. This section applies to all certificate holders operating... certificate holder shall make the passenger exit seating determinations required by this paragraph in a...

  17. Projected Treatment Capacity Needs in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. Methods: We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. Results: As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. Conclusions: The current outbreak will require massive input from the

  18. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.207 Standard No. 207; Seating systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This.... Definitions. Occupant seat means a seat that provides at least one designated seating position. Seat...

  19. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.207 Standard No. 207; Seating systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This.... Definitions. Occupant seat means a seat that provides at least one designated seating position. Seat...

  20. Initiatives for Sustainable Community Development in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamara, John M.; Kargbo, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, two church-sponsored programs are focused on sustainable development. The Wesleyan Development Education and Awareness Programme trains people to initiate community projects. Women's Loan Scheme encourages development of small-scale enterprises. (SK)

  1. Fatal parathion poisoning in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R. A.; Forthal, D. N.; Hill, R. H.; Demby, A.

    1987-01-01

    In May and June 1986, 49 persons in Sierra Leone were acutely poisoned by the organothiophosphate insecticide, parathion. Fourteen people died. Illness occurred in three episodes at two different locations that were 44 km apart. A study of 21 cases and 22 household controls was undertaken to explore which factors were associated with the development of the symptoms. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten bread in the 4 hours before becoming ill (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-83.8). Scrapings of residue from the floor of the truck that had brought the wheat flour from the mill to the general store where the baker purchased it were positive for parathion, suggesting that the flour had been contaminated during transport. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem in the developing world, and public health measures such as restricting the use of parathion may help to prevent fatal poisonings. PMID:3501344

  2. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard No. 207 1 (§ 571.207) (relating to seating systems). (b) Trucks and truck tractors—(1) Trucks and truck tractors manufactured on and after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, after June 30, 1972, every truck and truck tractor manufactured on or...

  3. Integrated seat frame and back support

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  4. Conical seat shut off valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A valve includes a housing defining a bore having an inlet and extending along a longitudinal axis. A head is attached to the housing and defines a head passage having an outlet. A piston is disposed within the bore and includes a piston passage extending through the piston along the longitudinal axis. The piston is moveable between a closed position in which a sealing end of the piston abuts a seat of the head to close fluid communication through the piston passage and an open position in which the sealing end of the piston is axially spaced along the longitudinal axis from the seat of the head to permit fluid communication through the piston passage between the inlet and the outlet. The housing defines an equalizing chamber in fluid communication with the head passage for damping movement of the piston.

  5. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  6. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  7. Apparent mass of seated man—First determination with a soft seat and dynamic seat pressure distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Barbara; Rützel, Sebastian; Blüthner, Ralph; Menzel, Gerhard; Wölfel, Horst Peter; Seidel, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Data of the impedance and/or the apparent mass of the sitting human body during the exposure to whole-body vibration in z-direction using rigid seats were standardized in the ISO 5982. These data are available as target functions for model developments. Models developed on this data basis should also apply to driver seats with a soft seat and backrest cushion, although the qualitative different contact conditions were neglected. Due to insufficient technical prerequisites, the determination of forces at the interface between subject and soft seat was impossible until very recently. Results of studies during static conditions showed clear differences in the pressure distributions between the rigid and the soft contact areas. In this experimental study pressure distributions on a seat cushion were measured during whole-body vibration in z-direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 20 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.25, 0.8, and 1.6 m s -2 unweighted root mean square measured at the seat base) with a sampling rate of 32 m s. The apparent masses were calculated by the forces derived from the pressure distributions and accelerations measured at one point of the seat cushion near the buttocks. The moduli of the apparent masses derived for the soft seat were clearly lower than those determined for a rigid seat. These apparent masses showed a similar dependence on the vibration magnitude as the apparent mass functions derived in the usual way for rigid seats. Factors that could explain differences between the apparent mass functions derived for the soft and rigid seat were discussed and evaluated. The data of this study indicate the possibility and necessity to consider the contact conditions at the interface when deriving target functions for the model development. Recommendations for technical improvements and further experimental studies with driver seats were derived.

  8. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  9. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Sesay, Foday R.; Massaquoi, Thomas A.; Idriss, Baimba R.; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G.

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8–70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (p<0.03). This complete survivor cohort from 1 ETU enables analysis of the proportion of symptoms of post-Ebola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain. PMID:26983037

  10. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Scott, Janet T; Sesay, Foday R; Massaquoi, Thomas A; Idriss, Baimba R; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8-70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (p<0.03). This complete survivor cohort from 1 ETU enables analysis of the proportion of symptoms of post-Ebola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain. PMID:26983037

  11. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  12. NASA general aviation crashworthiness seat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three load limiting seat concepts for general aviation aircraft designed to lower the deceleration of the occupant in the event of a crash were sled tested and evaluated with reference to a standard seat. Dummy pelvis accelerations were reduced up to 50 percent with one of the concepts. Computer program MSOMLA (Modified Seat Occupant Model for Light Aircraft) was used to simulate the behavior of a dummy passenger in a NASA full-scale crash test of a twin engine light aircraft. A computer graphics package MANPLOT was developed to pictorially represent the occupant and seat motion.

  13. Conical Seat Shut-Off Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A moveable valve for controlling flow of a pressurized working fluid was designed. This valve consists of a hollow, moveable floating piston pressed against a stationary solid seat, and can use the working fluid to seal the valve. This open/closed, novel valve is able to use metal-to-metal seats, without requiring seat sliding action; therefore there are no associated damaging effects. During use, existing standard high-pressure ball valve seats tend to become damaged during rotation of the ball. Additionally, forces acting on the ball and stem create large amounts of friction. The combination of these effects can lead to system failure. In an attempt to reduce damaging effects and seat failures, soft seats in the ball valve have been eliminated; however, the sliding action of the ball across the highly loaded seat still tends to scratch the seat, causing failure. Also, in order to operate, ball valves require the use of large actuators. Positioning the metal-to-metal seats requires more loading, which tends to increase the size of the required actuator, and can also lead to other failures in other areas such as the stem and bearing mechanisms, thus increasing cost and maintenance. This novel non-sliding seat surface valve allows metal-to-metal seats without the damaging effects that can lead to failure, and enables large seating forces without damaging the valve. Additionally, this valve design, even when used with large, high-pressure applications, does not require large conventional valve actuators and the valve stem itself is eliminated. Actuation is achieved with the use of a small, simple solenoid valve. This design also eliminates the need for many seals used with existing ball valve and globe valve designs, which commonly cause failure, too. This, coupled with the elimination of the valve stem and conventional valve actuator, improves valve reliability and seat life. Other mechanical liftoff seats have been designed; however, they have only resulted in

  14. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  15. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... not apply to bicycles with integrated seat masts, however, a permanent mark or other means to...

  16. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... not apply to bicycles with integrated seat masts, however, a permanent mark or other means to...

  17. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitations. No... axis. This requirement does not apply to recumbent bicycles. (b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain... not apply to bicycles with integrated seat masts, however, a permanent mark or other means to...

  18. 75 FR 34172 - Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24751). At the request of the state... Employment and Training Administration Lordstown Seating Systems, a Subsidiary of Magna Seating, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Intier Automotive Seatings of...

  19. Electrical Connector Mechanical Seating Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Captain, Janine; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A sensor provides a measurement of the degree of seating of an electrical connector. This sensor provides a number of discrete distances that a plug is inserted into a socket or receptacle. The number of measurements is equal to the number of pins available in the connector for sensing. On at least two occasions, the Shuttle Program has suffered serious time delays and incurred excessive costs simply because a plug was not seated well within a receptacle. Two methods were designed to address this problem: (1) the resistive pin technique and (2) the discrete length pins technique. In the resistive pin approach, a standard pin in a male connector is replaced with a pin that has a uniform resistivity along its length. This provides a variable resistance on that pin that is dependent on how far the pin is inserted into a socket. This is essentially a linear potentiometer. The discrete approach uses a pin (or a few pins) in the connector as a displacement indicator by truncating the pin length so it sits shorter in the connector than the other pins. A loss of signal on this pin would indicate a discrete amount of displacement of the connector. This approach would only give discrete values of connector displacement, and at least one pin would be needed for each displacement value that would be of interest.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  5. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  6. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  7. Seat belt use and stress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schichor, A; Beck, A; Bernstein, B; Crabtree, B

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the association of adolescent seat belt use with psychosocial risk factors in an urban minority population after the enactment of a mandatory seat belt law. Data on seat belt use, family support, feelings of being down, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual activity, school troubles, and problems with the law were obtained from 541 self-report intake forms administered to an adolescent medicine clinic population from 1986 to 1987. Respondents were almost exclusively black and Hispanic; 315 (59%) were females and 222 (41%) males, with a mean age of 15.4. Seat belt use was reported by 249 (46%) and no or intermittent use by 292 (54%). Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sums tests were used to examine associations between seat belt use and risk factors. Results showed that the group comprised of those reporting no and intermittent seat belt use was significantly more likely to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, have been on probation, and feel that life in general was not going very well. No association was found between seat belt use and cigarette, drug, or alcohol use or sexual activity without contraceptives. Taking into account the lack of observed behavioral information to validate such self-report questionnaires, these data nevertheless point to the nonuse or intermittent use of seat belts as a possible manifestation of a lack of self-care due to feeling down and/or preoccupation with family, school, or societal problems. PMID:2275431

  8. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car. How should I wear my seat belt? The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  9. Active vibration attenuating seat suspension for an armored helicopter crew seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, Pablo Javier

    An Active Vibration Attenuating Seat Suspension (AVASS) for an MH-60S helicopter crew seat is designed to protect the occupants from harmful whole-body vibration (WBV). Magnetorheological (MR) suspension units are designed, fabricated and installed in a helicopter crew seat. These MR isolators are built to work in series with existing Variable Load Energy Absorbers (VLEAs), have minimal increase in weight, and maintain crashworthiness for the seat system. Refinements are discussed, based on testing, to minimize friction observed in the system. These refinements include the addition of roller bearings to replace friction bearings in the existing seat. Additionally, semi-active control of the MR dampers is achieved using special purpose built custom electronics integrated into the seat system. Experimental testing shows that an MH-60S retrofitted with AVASS provides up to 70.65% more vibration attenuation than the existing seat configuration as well as up to 81.1% reduction in vibration from the floor.

  10. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  11. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of West Nile Virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F.; Loroño-Pino, María A.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Díaz, Francisco J.; González-Rojas, José I.; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A.; Black, William C.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002. PMID:15324558

  13. Life in Sierra Leone, West Africa. A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Richard A.

    This unit is designed for students in grades 6-12. The unit provides an introduction to Sierra Leone and the continent of Africa through basic concepts and a conceptual framework for learning. The unit is divided into 17 activities. Activities include: (1) "Stereotypes and Myths about African and Africans"; (2) "The Manding Name Game"; (3) "Common…

  14. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  15. School Libraries in Sierra Leone's Educational System: Quo Vadis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of school libraries in Sierra Leone's (Africa) educational system and the problems affecting their development. Discusses the need for materials to support teaching activities; sociological factors; teachers' and students' information needs; current trends and changes; rural areas with no school libraries; and lack of standards,…

  16. School-Based Peace Building in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Diane; Weston, Jane; Zbar, Vic

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of a peace education project, including the Peace Education Kit, in schools in Sierra Leone. The program, initiated by the World Bank, has involved working partnerships between local and international agencies and provides a case study of how schools can work with the community to contribute to a national…

  17. A New Agenda for Adult Education in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelt, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    After years of conflict, Sierra Leone has critical educational development needs including trauma healing and conflict resolution, rebuilding of the educational infrastructure, and citizenship and capacity building. Citizenship education in this context must be redefined as developing individual agency and encouraging active participation. (SK)

  18. Library Education and the Practitioner: The Sierra Leone Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    1999-01-01

    Examines the past and current educational trends of librarianship in Sierra Leone. Discuses courses offered in the current library school; economic and political issues affecting higher education; the need for full-time faculty; general versus specialized practitioner needs; attitudes of faculty toward working librarians; and professional…

  19. Why High School Must Go: An Interview with Leon Botstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Leon Botstein, longtime president of Bard College, as well as music director and conductor of the American and Jerusalem symphony orchestras. Botstein talks about his book entitled "Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture" and his views about teens and high schools in America.…

  20. Measuring the impact of Ebola control measures in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Adam J.; Camacho, Anton; Flasche, Stefan; Glover, Rebecca E.; Edmunds, W. John; Funk, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Between September 2014 and February 2015, the number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported in Sierra Leone declined in many districts. During this period, a major international response was put in place, with thousands of treatment beds introduced alongside other infection control measures. However, assessing the impact of the response is challenging, as several factors could have influenced the decline in infections, including behavior changes and other community interventions. We developed a mathematical model of EVD transmission, and measured how transmission changed over time in the 12 districts of Sierra Leone with sustained transmission between June 2014 and February 2015. We used the model to estimate how many cases were averted as a result of the introduction of additional treatment beds in each area. Examining epidemic dynamics at the district level, we estimated that 56,600 (95% credible interval: 48,300–84,500) Ebola cases (both reported and unreported) were averted in Sierra Leone up to February 2, 2015 as a direct result of additional treatment beds being introduced. We also found that if beds had been introduced 1 month earlier, a further 12,500 cases could have been averted. Our results suggest the unprecedented local and international response led to a substantial decline in EVD transmission during 2014–2015. In particular, the introduction of beds had a direct impact on reducing EVD cases in Sierra Leone, although the effect varied considerably between districts. PMID:26460023

  1. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  2. Home Alone: Children as Caretakers in Leon, Nicaragua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Herrara, Andres Rodriguez; Pena, Rodolfo; Dahlgren, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explore and understand the life situations of sibling caretakers in poor areas in Leon, Nicaragua. The every day lives for caretakers were studied through observations and interviews with children, informants and parents. The children themselves were satisfied and proud to be trusted as caretakers and felt useful in…

  3. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  4. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Bo, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A.; Covington, Andrea L.; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H.; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Lamin, Joseph M.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Stenger, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012–January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  5. Land Lab Experiences in Sierra Leone and Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Burton E.; Tucker, Sonny W.

    1978-01-01

    The agricultural education curriculum at Njala University College, University of Sierra Leone, is stressing practical farm experience programs on school land for students preparing to teach agriculture. In Illinois also the "land laboratories" concept appears to be effective in providing practical agricultural training. (MF)

  6. The Science Curriculum and the Secondary Student in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyerr, Ebun S.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the new primary and secondary-level science curriculum in Sierra Leone as well as new teacher roles and instructional approaches. Indicates that curricular changes in this country should address needs related to job opportunities, the environment, and citizenship. Results of 1972-80 secondary-level biology, chemistry, and physics…

  7. Lassa Fever in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M.; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J.; Jones, Abigail B.; Illick, Megan M.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Haislip, Allyson M.; Bishop, Christopher M.; Elliot, Deborah H.; Brown, Bethany L.; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Gire, Stephen K.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B.; Spence, Jennifer S.; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Happi, Christian T.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geske, F. Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E.; Wilson, Russell B.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Henderson, Lee A.; Khan, S. Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to

  8. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  9. Comparison of Contact Stress Distribution for Foam Seat and Seat of Auxetic Spring Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus-Michalska, M.; Jasińska, D.; Smardzewski, J.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and compare the results of numerical solutions of contact problem for two types of seats subjected to typical sitting loadings. The first seat is made of a typical hyperelastic foam, the other is designed with an auxetic polyamid spring skeleton. Computer simulations of the seat structure under a typical static loading exerted by a human body are performed by means of ABAQUS FEA. The model provides an insight into deformation modes and stress field in relation to geometric and material parameters of the seat structure.The other type of seat, due to the fact of global auxecity and progressive springs characteristics reduces contact stress concentrations, giving an advantegous distribution of pressure and provides the sensation of physical comfort. The proper seat skeleton shape leads to an improvement of ergonomic quality.

  10. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  11. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  12. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  13. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  14. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  15. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seating in assembly areas. 36.308 Section... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly... in assembly areas shall— (i) Provide a reasonable number of wheelchair seating spaces and seats...

  16. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  17. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  18. Effectiveness of Booster Seats Compared With No Restraint or Seat Belt Alone for Crash Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; He, Wei; Zhu, Shankuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster seats, compared with no restraint use and with seat belt use only, during motor vehicle crashes among U.S. children. Methods This was a retrospective matched cohort study with data from the 1998 through 2009 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The study sample consisted of children aged 0 to 10 years who were not seated in the front seat of the vehicle. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of overall, fatal, and regional body injury. Results Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats experienced less overall injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 0, adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.96; Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score of 2 or higher, adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58; ISS > 8, adjusted RR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.56), and less injury in most body regions except the neck (adjusted RR = 4.79, 95% CI = 1.43 to 16.00) than did children with no restraint use. Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats had an equal risk of injury but higher risks of neck (adjusted RR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.40) and thorax (adjusted RR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.33 to 6.15) injury than did children restrained by seat belts only. Conclusions Children using belt-positioning booster seats appear to experience a higher risk of AIS > 0 injury to the neck and thorax than do children using seat belts only. Future research should examine whether the observed increase in neck and thorax injuries can be attributed to improper use of booster seats. PMID:24050794

  19. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly.” While the rate of deaths in motor vehicle crashes in children under age 16 has decreased ... seat. Then a booster will make sure the vehicle’s lap-and-shoulder belt fit properly. The shoulder ...

  20. Using an experimental bicycle seat to reduce perineal numbness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kenneth S; Richburg, Allen; Wallis, David; Bracker, Mark

    2002-05-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental seat that was designed to prevent perineal numbness and possibly erectile dysfunction in male bicyclists. A trial of the device among 15 experienced cyclists measured perineal sensation after a 1-hour stationary cycling session on a standard seat followed several days later by the same exercise protocol on the experimental bike seat. Cyclists reported more numbness with the standard seat than with the experimental seat (79% vs 14%). Sensory testing found greater hypoesthesia with the standard seat. Innovations in bicycle seat design may decrease or eliminate perineal numbness. PMID:20086525

  1. Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, M.A.

    1994-10-10

    Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

  2. Car Seats for Growing Children: Guidelines for Counselling Parents on Which Type of Car Seat To Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Transportation, Springfield. Div. of Traffic Safety.

    Children's car seats provide protection from the types of injury with the worst consequences. This document presents guidelines for selecting and installing child car seats, booster seats, and seat belts. The document includes suggestions for identifying when a child's safety restraint system should be changed, for determining if the restraint…

  3. Pump-through pressure seat for use in a wellbore

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a valve seat, it comprises: an anchor section; a sealing lip coupled to the anchor section wherein a pressure differential is developed across the valve seat when the valve plug sealingly engages the seating surface, applying force to the sealing lip; wherein after passage of the valve plug, the seating surface of the seating lip is disposed in a second position relative to the anchor section defining a third clearance intermediate the first and second clearances.

  4. Response to the Ebola crisis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Beauty Chiedza; Bowley, Douglas; Roper, Katrina

    2015-02-27

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014 marked the first time that an epidemic of this viral haemorrhagic fever had occurred in West Africa. From its origin in Guinea, the outbreak rapidly increased to become a humanitarian crisis affecting all aspects of life in the three countries worst affected: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Improving understanding of Ebola virus disease among the general population and instigating the behavioural changes required to help break the epidemic were central to the public health response. This article explores some of the misconceptions about Ebola as it spread into Sierra Leonean communities, and the social mobilisation response of the government of Sierra Leone. It is a reflective account of conversations with Sierra Leonean nationals during a military deployment at the International Security Advisory Team headquarters medical treatment facility in Freetown. PMID:25711592

  5. Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Stockelman, Michael G.; Moses, Lina M.; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone. PMID:25811712

  6. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  7. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkander, Owolabi; Bangura, Laurel; Leigh, Bailah; Berggren, Vanja; Bergström, Staffan; Almroth, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice. Purpose To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors. Patients and methods A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258) attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open- ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel. Results All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%), the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8%) sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser), and 16 a health professional. Conclusion The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who undergo FGM before 10 years of age seem to be more vulnerable to serious complications than those who are older at the time of FGM. It is important that health care personnel are aware of, and look for possible complications from FGM, and encourage girls and women to seek medical care for their problems. PMID:22870046

  8. Methodology for stormwater runoff investigation, urban Leon County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Leon County is currently (1981) developing a lumped-parameter, rainfall-runoff model for the urban area of the county. Flood information from 16 sites is being collected and will be analyzed to define hydrologic relations useful for estimating magnitude and frequency of discharges in urban areas. This report summarizes methods of collection, processing, and analysis of rainfall-runoff data from the drainage basins that will be used in the model.

  9. 76 FR 68304 - Airworthiness Directives; Sicma Aero Seat Passenger Seat Assemblies, Installed on, But Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... central and lateral spreaders on an affected seat assembly (modify to ``Amendment B'' standard), in... that seat assembly. Credit for Actions Accomplished in Accordance With Previous Service Information...

  10. SAFEGUARD seat/compartment evaluation methodology for vehicles with suspended seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Amditis, A.; Stefani, O.; Dangelmaier, M.; Bekiaris, E.; Schaerli, H.; Bullinger, A.; Ramon, H.

    2004-09-01

    Back pain is observed in a high percentage of professional drivers of heavy-duty vehicles and trucks. It was found that whole-body vibrations, prolonged sitting and posture, because of task handling and seating system, are the main factors in the development of back pain. The attenuation of vibrations and the provision of a good ergonomic posture at all times are therefore becoming more important. To achieve this a better knowledge of human behaviour towards vibrations and when seated on suspended seats is required using more appropriate evaluation techniques. The EC project SAFEGUARD aims at developing a new seat evaluation methodology where with controlled vibration tests and virtual reality simulations as many features as possible of human behaviour when seated on suspended seats are combined. The results of this combined methodology will lead to better understanding of the driver-seat-cabin system and the relation to comfort and health. They will also provide a more accurate way to interpret the efficiency of new seat features in improving comfort and health.

  11. A methodology for quantifying seated lumbar curvatures.

    PubMed

    Leitkam, Samuel T; Bush, Tamara Reid; Li, Mingfei

    2011-11-01

    To understand the role seating plays in the support of posture and spinal articulation, it is necessary to study the interface between a human and the seat. However, a method to quantify lumbar curvature in commercially available unmodified seats does not currently exist. This work sought to determine if the lumbar curvature for normal ranges of seated posture could be documented by using body landmarks located on the anterior portion of the body. The development of such a methodology will allow researchers to evaluate spinal articulation of a seated subject while in standard, commercially available seats and chairs. Anterior measurements of boney landmarks were used to quantify the relative positions of the ribcage and pelvis while simultaneous posterior measurements were made of lumbar curvature. The relationship between the anterior and the posterior measures was compared. The predictive capacity of this approach was evaluated by determining linear and second-order regressions for each of the four postures across all subjects and conducting a leave-one-out cross validation. The relationships between the anterior and posterior measures were approximated by linear and second-order polynomial regressions (r(2 ) =  0.829, 0.935 respectively) across all postures. The quantitative analysis showed that openness had a significant relationship with lumbar curvature, and a first-order regression was superior to a second-order regression. Average standard errors in the prediction were 5.9° for the maximum kyphotic posture, 9.9° for the comfortable posture, 12.8° for the straight and tall, and 22.2° for the maximum lordotic posture. These results show predictions of lumbar curvature are possible in seated postures by using a motion capture system and anterior measures. This method of lumbar curvature prediction shows potential for use in the assessment of seated spinal curvatures and the corresponding design of seating to accommodate those curvatures; however

  12. 76 FR 9551 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    .../Commercial Fishing seats, Heritage Tourism seat, and Economic Development seat. Applicants are chosen based... Development, Education, Heritage Tourism, Maritime Archaeological Research, North Carolina Maritime...

  13. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  14. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  15. RTEMS SMP and MTAPI for Efficient Multi-Core Space Applications on LEON3/LEON4 Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, Daniel; Hellstrom, Daniel; Sherrill, Joel; Bloom, Gedare; Patte, Mathieu; Zulianello, Marco

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the final result of an European Space Agency (ESA) activity aimed at improving the software support for LEON processors used in SMP configurations. One of the benefits of using a multicore system in a SMP configuration is that in many instances it is possible to better utilize the available processing resources by load balancing between cores. This however comes with the cost of having to synchronize operations between cores, leading to increased complexity. While in an AMP system one can use multiple instances of operating systems that are only uni-processor capable, a SMP system requires the operating system to be written to support multicore systems. In this activity we have improved and extended the SMP support of the RTEMS real-time operating system and ensured that it fully supports the multicore capable LEON processors. The targeted hardware in the activity has been the GR712RC, a dual-core core LEON3FT processor, and the functional prototype of ESA's Next Generation Multiprocessor (NGMP), a quad core LEON4 processor. The final version of the NGMP is now available as a product under the name GR740. An implementation of the Multicore Task Management API (MTAPI) has been developed as part of this activity to aid in the parallelization of applications for RTEMS SMP. It allows for simplified development of parallel applications using the task-based programming model. An existing space application, the Gaia Video Processing Unit, has been ported to RTEMS SMP using the MTAPI implementation to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of multicore processors for space payload software. The activity is funded by ESA under contract 4000108560/13/NL/JK. Gedare Bloom is supported in part by NSF CNS-0934725.

  16. Benefits of Seat Belt Reminder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Vulcan, Peter; Brooks, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether fitting a more aggressive seat belt reminder system to new vehicles would be cost-beneficial for Australia. While seat belt wearing rates have been observed around 95% in the front seat, non-wearing rates in casualty crashes are as high as 33% among persons killed and 19% among seriously injured occupants. Benefits were computed for three device options (simple, simple-2 and complex) and three introduction scenarios (driver-only, front seat occupants and all occupants). Four levels of effectiveness were assumed, from 10% to 40%, depending on the type of device fitted. Unit benefits were computed assuming a 5% discount rate and a 15yr fleet life. Various industry experts provided the costs. The findings showed that Benefit-Cost-Ratios ranged from 4.0:1 at best (simple device for the driver only) to 0.9:1 for all seating positions. These figures are conservative, given the assumptions made and the discounted human capital methods used. PMID:12941229

  17. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    PubMed

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed. PMID:25189755

  18. NASA seat experiment and occupant responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the crash test of a remotely piloted transport aircraft instrumented to measure a NASA energy-absorbing transport seat are given. Human tolerance limits to acceleration and a dynamic response index model are discussed. It was found that the acceleration levels at the rear of the airplane were quite low and were below the stroking threshold of the NASA EA-seat. Therefore, dummies in the standard and EA-seat responded approximately the same. All longitudinal accelerations were quite low for the primary impact with very low forces measured in the lap belts. The vertical (spineward) acceleration levels measured in the dummies were also relatively low and very survivable from an impact tolerance standpoint. The pilot with an 18 G peak acceleration received by far the highest vertical acceleration and could have possibly received slight spinal injury.

  19. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  20. Non-Governmental Organizations in Africa: The Leonenet Street Children Project in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide snapshots of observations, interventions, and processes in the day to day working of a child charity in Sierra Leone. There were 114 local and 49 overseas funded Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Sierra Leone in 2002. The Leonenet Street Children Project was founded in 1996 by the membership of the…

  1. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  2. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  3. 12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SW corner of seating in Original Grandstand, including TV Center booth and reserved seating areas. Stairway above booth leads to turret on roof. Camera pointed SW. (May 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  4. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitation. No... under normal conditions of use. Following the road test, § 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk bicycle...

  5. 16 CFR 1512.15 - Requirements for seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.15 Requirements for seat. (a) Seat limitation. No... under normal conditions of use. Following the road test, § 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk bicycle...

  6. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... for the following vacant seats: Heritage Tourism seat, Citizen-at-Large seat, Recreational Diving seat..., Maritime Museums, The Mariners' Museum, Recreational/Commercial Fishing, Recreational Diving, the US...

  7. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  8. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  9. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last..., along with information on seat belt use rates from the FARS, and an algorithm relating FARS seat...

  10. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  11. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  12. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  13. Preliminary floor, seat, and dummy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    According to preliminary examination of the data, out of 179 data channels that were onboard the aircraft in support of the seat experiments, there is data from 168. There was somewhat more severe environment imposed in the structure of the obstacles than by the ground impact. Therefore, both ground impact and obstacle impact are of interest for crashworthiness experiments. Most of the data channels that were studied are fairly consistent with the physical evidence: they show acceleration levels that are reasonable, and in many cases these integrate out to a reasonable velocity change. Finally, from observation thus far, the ground impact did not fail or significantly damage any seat. Nor did any of the energy absorbers in the modified seats extend. The accelerations do not appear high enough and/or energetic enough to cause this to happen. At this time, the onboard films have not been studied; only some videotape have been viewed. Some of the seats were so badly damaged by the fire that any failures which might have occurred were obscured. A close examination of the onboard films using a stop-action projector will allow a more thorough evaluation.

  14. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord of the child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, neck, and back of the child causing less injury. Therefore, the rear-facing position is recommended for as long as possible for ...

  15. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seating in assembly areas. 36.308 Section... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly... each specialty seating area that provides spectators with distinct services or amenities that...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other...

  18. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other...

  19. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other...

  1. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs...

  2. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs...

  3. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seating in assembly areas. 36.308 Section... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly... each specialty seating area that provides spectators with distinct services or amenities that...

  4. 36 CFR 1192.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.75 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s... mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other...

  5. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs...

  6. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seating in assembly areas. 36.308 Section... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly... each specialty seating area that provides spectators with distinct services or amenities that...

  7. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.75 Section 38.75... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... them. (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations are provided, signs...

  8. 28 CFR 36.308 - Seating in assembly areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seating in assembly areas. 36.308 Section... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.308 Seating in assembly... each specialty seating area that provides spectators with distinct services or amenities that...

  9. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  10. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  11. Fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone: a view from the frontline.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen; Leyland, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The largest and most complex Ebola epidemic in history is believed to have started with the infection of a 2-year-old boy in South-eastern Guinea in late 2013. Within a year, thousands of children and their families had contracted the virus, many had died and many more were orphaned. We reflect on our experiences of volunteering at the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Centre in Sierra Leone between January and February 2015, where we were deployed to care for just a few of these children as part of the Save The Children team. PMID:26507816

  12. Development of crashworthy passenger seats for general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, M. J.; Tanner, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of energy absorbing passenger seat concepts suitable for installation in light twin-engine fixed wing aircraft were developed. An existing passenger seat for such an aircraft was used to obtain the envelope constraints. Ceiling suspended and floor supported seat concept designs were developed. A restraint system suitable for both concepts was designed. Energy absorbing hardware for both concepts was fabricated and tension and compression tests were conducted to demonstrate the stroking capability and the force deflection characteristics. Crash impact analysis was made and seat loads developed. The basic seat structures were analyzed to determine the adequacy of their strength under impact loading.

  13. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

  14. Evaluation of the seating of Qantas flight deck crew.

    PubMed

    Lusted, M; Healey, S; Mandryk, J A

    1994-10-01

    In 1985 Qantas Airways (Australia) requested an ergonomics assessment of three pilots' seats so that one could be selected for fitting in all new aircraft as well replacement in existing aircraft. The Ipeco seat was chosen. In 1991, after all aircraft were fitted with the Ipeco seats, the company then requested a further evaluation of the seat to see if it was acceptable to the pilots and if there were any outstanding problems. A seat feature checklist plus a body chart discomfort rating scale was given to the total crew of 1030 pilots. The results from the 202 respondents indicated that although the pilots found the Ipeco seat an improvement on the Weber seat there were some modifications required. The main problems included insufficient adjustment range of the lumbar support area and the thigh supports, and infrequent replacement of the seat cushion. The body charts supported the checklist results in that the main areas of discomfort indicated were the buttocks and low back. Recommendations for improvements in design of the Ipeco seat, training in use and maintenance are presented. The method used in this study has application for field assessment of seating in a wide range of occupations, particularly bus drivers, truck drivers and train drivers, who spend long hours seated without being able to take breaks. PMID:15676978

  15. Nonlinearity in the vertical transmissibility of seating: the role of the human body apparent mass and seat dynamic stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufano, Saverio; Griffin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a seat in reducing vibration depends on the characteristics of the vibration, the dynamic characteristics of the seat, and the dynamic characteristics of the person sitting on the seat. However, it is not known whether seat cushions influence the dynamic response of the human body, whether the human body influences the dynamic response of seat cushions, or the relative importance of human body nonlinearity and seat nonlinearity in causing nonlinearity in measures of seat transmissibility. This study was designed to investigate the nonlinearity of the coupled seat and human body systems and to compare the apparent mass of the human body supported on rigid and foam seats. A frequency domain model was used to identify the dynamic parameters of seat foams and investigate their dependence on the subject-sitting weight and hip breadth. With 15 subjects, the force and acceleration at the seat base and acceleration at the subject interface were measured during random vertical vibration excitation (0.25-25 Hz) at each of five vibration magnitudes, (0.25-1.6 ms-2 r.m.s.) with four seating conditions (rigid flat seat and three foam cushions). The measurements are presented in terms of the subject's apparent mass on the rigid and foam seat surfaces, and the transmissibility and dynamic stiffness of each of the foam cushions. Both the human body and the foams showed nonlinear softening behaviour, which resulted in nonlinear cushion transmissibility. The apparent masses of subjects sitting on the rigid seat and on foam cushions were similar, but with an apparent increase in damping when sitting on the foams. The foam dynamic stiffness showed complex correlations with characteristics of the human body, which differed between foams. The nonlinearities in cushion transmissibilities, expressed in terms of changes in resonance frequencies and moduli, were more dependent on human body nonlinearity than on cushion nonlinearity.

  16. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  17. Thermal comfort of aeroplane seats: influence of different seat materials and the use of laboratory test methods.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2003-07-01

    This study determined the influence of different cover and cushion materials on the thermal comfort of aeroplane seats. Different materials as well as ready made seats were investigated by the physiological laboratory test methods Skin Model and seat comfort tester. Additionally, seat trials with human test subjects were performed in a climatic chamber. Results show that a fabric cover produces a considerably higher sweat transport than leather. A three-dimensional knitted spacer fabric turns out to be the better cushion alternative in comparison to a moulded foam pad. Results from the physiological laboratory test methods nicely correspond to the seat trials with human test subjects. PMID:12880748

  18. A field-based approach for examining bicycle seat design effects on seat pressure and perceived stability.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Bliss, Shantelle; Cronin, John

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various bicycle seat designs on seat pressure and perceived stability in male and female cyclists using a unique field-based methodology. Thirty participants, comprising male and female cyclists, pedaled a bicycle at 118W over a 350m flat course under three different seat conditions: standard seat, a seat with a partial anterior cutout, and a seat with a complete anterior cutout. The pressure between the bicycle seat and perineum of the cyclist was collected with a remote pressure-sensing mat, and perceived stability was assessed using a continuous visual analogue scale. Anterior seat pressure and stability values for the complete cutout seat were significantly lower (p<0.05; 62-101%) than values for the standard and partial cutout designs. These findings were consistent between males and females. Our results would support the contention that the choice of saddle design should not be dictated by interface pressure alone since optimal anterior seat pressure and perceived seat stability appear to be inversely related. PMID:19013548

  19. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    An adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension (AMSS) was analyzed for optimal protection of occupants from shock loads caused by the impact of a helicopter with the ground. The AMSS system consists of an adaptive linear stroke magnetorheological shock absorber (MRSA) integrated into the seat structure of a helicopter. The MRSA provides a large controllability yield force to accommodate a wide spectrum for shock mitigation. A multiple degrees-of-freedom nonlinear biodynamic model for a 50th percentile male occupant was integrated with the dynamics of MRSA and the governing equations of motion were investigated theoretically. The load-stroke profile of MRSA was optimized with the goal of minimizing the potential for injuries. The MRSA yield force and the shock absorber stroke limitations were the most crucial parameters for improved biodynamic response mitigation. An assessment of injuries based on established injury criteria for different body parts was carried out.

  20. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1976-01-01

    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  1. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    This research focuses on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers for enhanced occupant protection during harsh vertical landings as well as isolation of the occupant from cockpit vibrations. The capabilities of the current state-of-the-art in helicopter crew seat energy absorption systems are highly limited because they cannot be optimally adapted to each individual crash scenario (i.e. variations in both occupant weight and crash load level). They also present an unnecessarily high risk of injury by not minimizing the load transmitted to the occupant during a crash. Additionally, current rotorcraft seats provide no means of isolating the occupant from harmful cockpit vibrations. The objective of this research was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of an MR-based suspension for rotorcraft seats. As such, this research began with an in-depth investigation into design feasibility. Three MR seat suspension design cases are investigated: (1) for only vibration isolation, (2) for adaptive occupant protection, and (3) for combined adaptive occupant protection and vibration isolation. It is shown that MR-based suspensions are feasible for each of these cases and the performance benefits and tradeoffs are discussed for each case. Next, to further illustrate the occupant protection benefits gained with an MR-based suspension, three control strategies were developed and performance metrics were compared. It was shown that MR dampers can be controlled such that they will automatically adapt to the crash load level as well as occupant weight. By using feedback of sensor signals, MR dampers were adjusted to utilize the full stroke capability of the seat suspension regardless crash level and occupant weight. The peak load transmitted to the occupant and the risk of spinal injury, therefore, was always minimized. Because this control significantly reduced or eliminated injury risk during less severe landings, it is a significant advance over the

  2. Establishing special needs car seat loan program.

    PubMed

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Stout, J; Doll, J P; Jones, J; Feller, N

    1990-04-01

    Car seat loan and rental programs have provided many families with low-cost access to child restraints. When an infant or child is unable to be accommodated in a standard car seat or seat belt owing to physical or medical problems, parents of these children have few, if any available resources. The establishment and operation of a loan program at the Indiana University School of Medicine for children who are medically fragile is reviewed in this article. This program was developed by the Automotive Safety for Children Program at the James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University Medical Center, to meet the special transportation needs of children with respiratory, orthopaedic, and other medical and physical difficulties. A summary table is included to highlight restraints that have performed satisfactorily during dynamic crash tests and are used to meet patient transportation needs at Riley Hospital. Guidelines for establishing and maintaining a child restraint loan program for children with special needs are outlined to encourage replication of this effort. PMID:2314968

  3. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  4. Driver discomfort in vehicle seats - Effect of changing road conditions and seat foam composition.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Neil; Sammonds, George; Nguyen, Linh

    2015-09-01

    Discomfort in vehicle seats is a multi-factorial problem with contributions occurring from effects of sitting duration, seat design, and the dynamic environment to which the occupant is exposed. This paper reports laboratory studies investigating the extent to which reports of discomfort are affected by vibration commencing or ceasing, and whether methods of assessment are sensitive enough to detect small changes in foam composition. Study 1 measured discomfort ratings for two conditions of 60 min each, comprising 30 min of vibration exposure followed by 30 min of static sitting in a car seat, and vice-versa. Study 2 measured discomfort ratings for three conditions over a period of 40 min each, whilst participants were sitting in one of two car seat compositions, and either exposed to vibration or not. In both studies participants operated a driving simulator. It is shown that exposure to vibration increases the rate of discomfort onset in comparison to periods of static sitting. When vibration stopped, there was an acute improvement in comfort but discomfort did not drop to the levels reported by those who had been unexposed. When vibration started after 30 min of static sitting, there was an acute increase in discomfort but not to the levels reported by those who had been exposed to 30 min of vibration. After 40 min of continuous exposure it was possible to detect significant differences in overall discomfort between the two seat compositions, although trends could be observed in less time. PMID:25959330

  5. Hospital-based rental programs to increase car seat usage.

    PubMed

    Colletti, R B

    1983-05-01

    The ability of hospital-based car seat rental programs to provide car seats inexpensively throughout an entire state and the effect of these rental programs on car seat usage by newborns were evaluated. In July 1979 individuals and groups committed to child passenger safety formed a coalition called Vermont SEAT (Seatbelts Eliminate Automobile Tragedies). During the next 3 years SEAT asked the major hospitals in the state to allow volunteers to operate car seat rental programs on their premises. The number of rental programs increased from 0 to 13; the percentage of newborns born in a hospital with a rental program increased from 0% to 99%. The estimated statewide rate of car seat usage by newborns, based on observations at discharge at five hospitals, increased from 15% to 70%. These findings suggest that a network of hospital-based car seat rental programs operated by volunteers can make car seats readily available throughout a state or region, and can significantly increase car seat usage by newborns. It is recommended that such programs be a part of comprehensive strategies to improve child passenger safety. PMID:6835761

  6. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters. PMID:22317045

  7. Car seat test for preterm infants: comparison with polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Dawn E; Russell, Letitia; Sheppard, Deidre; Purdie, Gordon L; Campbell, Angela J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To monitor preterm infants in a cot and a car seat and compare an observed car seat trial with polysomnography (PSG). Design Non‐randomised controlled trial. Setting Regional neonatal unit. Patients Preterm infants before discharge. Interventions Nap PSG respiratory and sleep variables were measured including gastro‐oesophageal pH. Nurse observations included respiratory distress, apnoea measured by apnoea alarm, oxygen saturation and heart rate. Infants were studied supine in a cot and then in a car seat. Nursing observations were compared with PSG during the car seat trial only. Criteria for failure of the PSG and observed tests were predefined. Main outcome measures Difference in respiratory instability between cot and car seat. Concurrence regarding failure of the car seat trial between nurse‐observed data and PSG. Results 20 infants (median gestation 33 weeks (range 28–35 weeks; median postmenstrual age (PMA) at study 36.5 weeks (range 35–38 weeks)) were studied. There were sufficient car seat data on 18 infants for comparison. There were fewer central apnoeas and arousals in the cot than the car seat (p = 0.047 and p = 0.024, respectively). Airway obstruction was not more common in the car seat. Younger PMA at time of study predicted failure in both car seat (p = 0.022) and cot (p = 0.022). The nurse‐observed test had low sensitivity for predicting PSG failure but more accurately predicted airway obstruction on PSG. Conclusions Immature infants exhibit respiratory instability in cots and car seats. A car seat test does not accurately detect all adverse events during sleep in the seat. PMID:17412748

  8. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  9. Notes from The Field: Ebola Virus Disease Cluster - Northern Sierra Leone, January 2016.

    PubMed

    Alpren, Charles; Sloan, Michelle; Boegler, Karen A; Martin, Daniel W; Ervin, Elizabeth; Washburn, Faith; Rickert, Regan; Singh, Tushar; Redd, John T

    2016-01-01

    On January 14, 2016, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was notified that a buccal swab collected on January 12 from a deceased female aged 22 years (patient A) in Tonkolili District had tested positive for Ebola virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most recent case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Sierra Leone had been reported 4 months earlier on September 13, 2015 (1), and the World Health Organization had declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in Sierra Leone on November 7, 2015 (2). The Government of Sierra Leone launched a response to prevent further transmission of Ebola virus by identifying contacts of the decedent and monitoring them for Ebola signs and symptoms, ensuring timely treatment for anyone with Ebola, and conducting an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of infection. PMID:27388584

  10. Ebola response in Sierra Leone: The impact on children.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Awonuga, Waheed; Shah, Tejshri; Youkee, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest ever seen, with over 28,000 cases and 11,300 deaths since early 2014. The magnitude of the outbreak has tested fragile governmental health systems and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to their limit. Here we discuss the outbreak in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, the shape of the local response and the impact the response had on caring for children suspected of having contracted EVD. Challenges encountered in providing clinical care to children whilst working in the "Red Zone" where risk of EVD is considered to be highest, wearing full personal protective equipment are detailed. Suggestions and recommendations both for further research and for operational improvement in the future are made, with particular reference as to how a response could be more child-focused. PMID:27177732

  11. Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seat Belt Use Among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seat Belt Use

    PubMed Central

    LITT, DANA M.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.; LINKENBACH, JEFFREY W.; LANDE, GARY; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one’s own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. Methods High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Results Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one’s own seat belt use. Conclusions Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents’ behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms–based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID:24628560

  12. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J H E E; McInerney, P A

    2006-08-01

    Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women's health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a "Breast Week" during which 1,200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the "Breast Week" which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10%) who participated in the "Breast Week" was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6%) of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%). An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time. PMID:17131611

  13. Aetiology of uveitis in Sierra Leone, west Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Ronday, M J; Stilma, J S; Barbe, R F; McElroy, W J; Luyendijk, L; Kolk, A H; Bakker, M; Kijlstra, A; Rothova, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1992, non-onchocercal uveitis caused 9% of blindness, 8% of visual impairment, and 11% of uniocular blindness among patients visiting an eye hospital in Sierra Leone, west Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology of uveitis in this population. METHODS: General and ophthalmic examination complemented by serum and aqueous humour analyses for various infectious agents was performed for 93 uveitis patients and compared with serum (n = 100) and aqueous humour (n = 9) analysis of endemic controls. RESULTS: At the initial examination, 45 patients (48%) proved to be severely visually handicapped. After clinical and laboratory analyses, an aetiological diagnosis was established for 49 patients (52%). Toxoplasma gondii was the most important cause of uveitis (40/93; 43%). Anti-toxoplasma IgM antibodies were detected in serum samples of seven of 93 patients (8%) compared with one of 100 controls (1%, p < 0.05). At least six patients (15%) with ocular toxoplasmosis had acquired the disease postnatally. Antibodies against Treponema pallidum were detected in 18 of 92 patients (20%) and in 21 controls (21%). Other causes of uveitis were varicella zoster virus (one patient), herpes simplex virus (two patients), and HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis with ankylosing spondylitis (one patient), while one patient had presumed HTLV-I uveitis. CONCLUSIONS: In a hospital population in Sierra Leone, west Africa, uveitis was associated with severe visual handicap and infectious diseases. Toxoplasmosis proved to be the most important cause of the uveitis. Although the distribution of congenital versus acquired toxoplasmosis in this population could not be determined, the results indicate an important role of postnatally acquired disease. The results further suggested minor roles for HIV, tuberculosis, toxocariasis, and sarcoidosis as causes of uveitis in this population. PMID:8976721

  14. NASA experiments on the B-720 structure and seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments onboard a remotely piloted transport aircraft that was crashed on landing are discussed. The structural experiment deals with the location and distribution of the instrumentation throughout the airplane structure. In the seat experiment, the development and testing of an energy absorbing seat are discussed. The objective of the structural experiment was to obtain a data base of structural crash loads for use in the advancement of crashworthy technology of materials (such as composites) in structural design and for use in the comparison between computer and experimental results. The objective of the seat experiment was to compare the performance of an energy absorbing transport seat and a standard seat when subjected to similar crash pulses. Details are given on the location of instrumentation, on the dynamic seat test pulse and headward acceleration limits.

  15. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J. Roger; Routley, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365–476 mm in height for seat pans; 429–522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for firetruck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  16. View of room lined with posters beneath balcony seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of room lined with posters beneath balcony seating - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Ward Memorial Hall, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  17. Fuel injection valve having a burnished guide bore and seat

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, I.; Takaoka, Y.

    1987-03-24

    A method is described of producing a fuel injection valve which comprises a main fuel injection valve body; a valve rod slidable in the body and having an end with a valve body; and a valve seat-forming member attached to the main fuel injection valve body with the valve rod guidably received therein; the valve seat forming member having an interior including a guide bore for guiding opening and closing displacements of the valve rod. The guide bore has a uniform diameter throughout its entire length. A valve seat connected to the guide bore by an intermediate connecting portion, the valve seat having a smaller diameter than that of the guide bore and a fuel discharge port formed in continuation of the valve seat. The method comprises: forming a starting bore in the valve seat-forming member by boring, the starting bore having a straight, rectilinear bore portion leading into a lower tapered bore portion, and thereafter concurrently forming the guide bore and the valve seat from the starting bore by simultaneously subjecting the surfaces of the straight, rectilinear portion of the lower tapered bore portion of the starting bore to a burnishing operation by a single and common burnishing tool. This leaves a non-barnished portion between the burnished guide bore and the burnished valve seat, the non-burnished portion forming the intermediate connecting portion which provides a smoothly stepped configuration from the guide bore to the valve seat.

  18. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  19. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  20. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  1. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  2. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  3. Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive Behavior of Fifth Grade Students during Independent Seatwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…

  4. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  5. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  6. 14 CFR 382.83 - Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.83 Section 382.83 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.83 Through what mechanisms do carriers make seating accommodations... provide the seating accommodations required by § 382.81. (i) You must not assign these seats to...

  7. Design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croyle, Scott; Delarosa, Jose; George, Daren; Hinkle, Cathy; Karas, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Future space shuttle missions presented by NASA might require the shuttle to rendezvous with the Russian space station Mir for the purpose of transporting astronauts back to earth. Due to the atrophied state of these astronauts, a special seating system must be designed for their transportation. The main functions of this seating system are to support and restrain the astronauts during normal reentry flight and to dampen some of the loading that might occur in a crash situation. Through research, the design team developed many concept variants for these functional requirements. By evaluating each variant, the concepts were eliminated until the four most attractive designs remained. The team used a decision matrix to determine the best concept to carry through embodiment. This concept involved using struts for support during reentry flight and a spring damper/shock absorber system to dampen crash landing loads. The embodiment design process consisted of defining the layout of each of the main functional components, specifically, the seat structure and the strut structure. Through the use of MCS/pal two, the design was refined until it could handle all required loads and dampen to the forces specified. The auxiliary function carriers were then considered. Following the design of these components, the complete final layout could be determined. It is concluded that the final design meets all specifications outlined in the conceptual design. The main advantages of this design are its low weight, simplicity, and large amount of function sharing between different components. The disassembly of this design could potentially present a problem because of time and size constraints involved. Overall, this design meets or exceeds all functional requirements.

  8. A sloped seat wedge can change the kinematics of the lumbar spine of seated workers with limited hip flexion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether a wedge type seat decreases the lumbar flexion angle of seated workers with limited hip flexion. [Subjects] Twelve sedentary workers with limited hip flexion were recruited. [Methods] Three seat surfaces were used: a level surface, a forward-inclining wedge, and a backward-reclining wedge. The angles of lumbar flexion and pelvic tilt were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Differences in kinematic data of the subjects seated on the three seat surfaces were analyzed using repeated one-way analysis of variance. [Results] The degree of lumbar flexion decreased significantly when using the forward-inclining wedge compared with the level surface and backward-reclining wedge. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that sitting on a forward-inclining wedge may be useful for minimizing the compensatory lumbar flexion of individuals with limited hip flexion who work in a seated position. PMID:25202175

  9. Fuel compositions for lessening valve seat recession

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, T.E.; Dorer, C.J. Jr.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel composition is described for internal combustion engines comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor, property improving amount sufficient to reduce valve seat recession when the fuel is used in an internal combustion engine of (A) at least one hydrocarbon-soluble alkali or alkaline earth metal containing composition containing at least 8 aliphatic carbon atoms and (B) at least one hydrocarbon-soluble ashless dispersant wherein (A) is the alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt of a sulfur acid, a carboxylic acid or a phenol.

  10. Discomfort of seated persons exposed to low frequency lateral and roll oscillation: effect of seat cushion.

    PubMed

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The discomfort caused by lateral oscillation, roll oscillation, and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation has been investigated at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz when sitting on a rigid seat and when sitting on a compliant cushion, both without a backrest. Judgements of vibration discomfort and the transmission of lateral and roll oscillation through the seat cushion were obtained with 20 subjects. Relative to the rigid seat, the cushion increased lateral acceleration and roll oscillation at the lower frequencies and also increased discomfort during lateral oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.63 Hz), roll oscillation (at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz), and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation (at frequencies between 0.315 and 0.5 Hz). The root-sums-of-squares of the frequency-weighted lateral and roll acceleration at the seat surface predicted the greater vibration discomfort when sitting on the cushion. The frequency-dependence of the predicted discomfort may be improved by adjusting the frequency weighting for roll acceleration at frequencies between 0.25 and 1.0 Hz. PMID:24947003

  11. Seating Location in Large Lectures: Are Seating Preferences or Location Related to Course Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Mary Ellen; Hoag, John

    2004-01-01

    Using data on individuals taking principles of economics courses in large lecture rooms, the authors investigate whether a student's seating preference is related to success in the classroom. They find that individuals who prefer to sit near the front of the room have a higher probability of receiving As, whereas those who prefer the back have a…

  12. Reduced Protection for Belted Occupants in Rear Seats Relative to Front Seats of New Model Year Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of the rear seat in protecting occupants of different age groups in frontal crashes for 2000–2009 model years (MY) of vehicles was estimated and compared to 1990–1999 model years of vehicles. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the front seat for various age groups in newer model year vehicles. The double paired comparison method was used to estimate relative effectiveness. For belted adults of the 25–49 age group, the fatality reduction effectiveness of the rear seat compared to the right front seat was 25 % (CI 11% to 36%), in the 1990–1999 model year vehicles. The relative effectiveness was −31% (CI −63% to −5%) for the same population, in the 2000–2009 model year vehicles. For restrained children 0–8 years old, the relative effectiveness was 55% (CI 48% to 61%) when the vehicles were of the 1990–1999 period. The level of effectiveness for this age group was reduced to 25% (CI −4% to 46%) in the 2000–2009 MYs of vehicles. Results for other age groups of belted occupants have followed a similar trend. All belted adult occupants of 25+ years old were significantly less protected in rear seats as compared to right front seats in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. For unbelted occupants however, rear seats were still a safer position than front seats, even in the 2000–2009 model years of vehicles. PMID:21050599

  13. Coupled head neck torso and seat model for car seat optimization under rear-end impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Willinger, Rémy

    2008-06-01

    The development of new protective systems must be performed on tools reliable and representative of alive human. In an earlier study, a simplified but realistic modelling of the head-neck system under moderate rear impact was performed. In order to address this issue, an original lumped model of the human torso was developed and coupled to a car seat-head rest complex. The experimental modal analysis of the human torso in a seating position performed by Kitazaki in 1992 [Paper presented at the United Kingdom Meeting on Human Response to Vibration held at I.S.V.R. University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 28-30 September 1992.] was used in the present study for the identification of the mechanical parameters of a lumped human torso model. Despite its low complexity, this model was able to reproduce the five first experimental vibration modes and it was possible to validate it in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratio and mode shapes. In addition to the lumped approach, an external geometry of the human torso was implemented in order to provide a realistic coupling of the human body model to a finite element model of the car seat also developed in the present study. A parametric study was finally carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the torso behaviour and of the different parts of a car seat on the mechanical neck response under rear-end impact. The results of this study allow concluding that the torso behaviour has an important influence on the neck loading and therefore that the quality of a car seat depends on the human body substitute used. For instance, with the proposed torso model, a low-neck injury criterion (NIC) rearward value was obtained with low rigidity of the backrest foam and a stiff backrest net.

  14. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond will be highly dependent on the seat layout. A primary concern with the seat layout design of the new vehicle is the amount of seated height growth that occurs in space; this could cause a major accommodation issue. The design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation are all critically affected due to the increase in height that occurs in microgravity. The increase in height due to spinal elongation caused by the absence of gravity could lead to inadequate clearances that would have implications for the ability of crewmembers to return safely or to conduct nominal operations during the mission. This study was designed to reduce the risk of inadequate design of the vehicle, environment, tools, equipment, etc. (SHFE risk 2.3.1.1) and safely return crewmembers to earth from low-earth orbit travel, ISS, and beyond. In order to safely return the crewmembers, the design requirements must anticipate microgravity growth, elongation of the spine, bone and muscle loss, fluid shifts, etc. Thus, this study is to determine the amount of torso growth (spinal elongation) for a seated posture during Shuttle and ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to quantify the amount of growth that occurred as a result of microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement which allows for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that , during flight, seated height increases by a range of approximately 2-6 percent compared to pre-launch seated height.

  15. Simulation of the interaction between driver and seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoming; Ren, Jindong; Sang, Chunlei; Li, Lemeng

    2013-11-01

    Test is one of methods to acquire human-seat pressure distribution in driving, with the deficiency of being uneasy to obtain the stress information of soft tissue inside human body and the sheer force of interface between human and seat, which can be obtained by simulation. But current simulation method focuses mainly on calculation itself other than combining it with posture prediction and cab packaging parameters, which cause it difficult to acquire accurate pressure calculation results without accurate posture of human body, and make it almost meaningless to design optimization. Therefore, a human body geometric model with posture change capability is built and linked up with Cascade Prediction Model(CPM), which takes cab packaging parameters as inputs. A detailed finite element model of driver human body is constructed and used to conduct the driver-seat interaction simulation between human body and seat. Good accordance of pressure distribution is observed between simulation and test, which validates the simulation. In addition to the distribution pattern, curves on key sections are used to analyze the pressure and shear stress on the seat surface, as well as soft tissue stress inside human body. The simulation shows that the maximum stress of buttocks locates under the ischial tuberosity, and the maximum stress of trunk occurs near the scapula posterior and the lower waist. These are the places where fatigue usually occurs. The maximum pressure of seat appears at the driver-seat contact area corresponding to the driver's maximum skin tissue stress. In order to guide the seat design and cab packaging and study the influence of posture to pressure distribution, finite element models for different levels of cab packaging parameters are created by using CPM. The pressure distributions are calculated and their tendencies varying with cab packaging parameters are obtained. The method presented provides a new way to accurately simulate the interaction between driver

  16. Wearable monitoring of seated spinal posture.

    PubMed

    Dunne, L E; Walsh, P; Hermann, S; Smyth, B; Caulfield, B

    2008-06-01

    This work describes the evaluation of a wearable plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for monitoring seated spinal posture, as compared to a conventional expert visual analysis, and the development of a field-deployable posture monitoring system. A garment-integrated POF sensor was developed and tested on nine healthy subjects. Data from the wearable sensor were compared to data taken simultaneously from a marker-based motion capture system, for accuracy and reliability. Peak analysis of the resulting data showed a mean time error of 0.53 plusmn 0.8 s, and a mean value error of 0.64 plusmn 3.1 deg, which represents 14.5% of the average range of motion. Expert determination of transitional (good to bad) posture showed a variation of 20.9% of range of motion. These results indicate that the wearable sensor approximates the accuracy of expert visual analysis, and provides sufficient accuracy of measurement to reliably monitor seated spinal posture. PMID:23852756

  17. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  18. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  19. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  20. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publications is approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  7. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are...

  8. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  9. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  10. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  11. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  12. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  18. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  19. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  3. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  4. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  5. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  6. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  7. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  8. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  9. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  10. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  11. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  12. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  15. 49 CFR 38.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.105 Section 38.105 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.105 Priority seating signs....

  16. 49 CFR 38.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.27 Section 38.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.27 Priority seating signs. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.27 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Priority seating signs. 1192.27 Section 1192.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.27 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s)...

  18. 36 CFR 1192.105 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.105 Section 1192.105 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.105 Priority seating signs. (a) Each car shall contain sign(s)...

  19. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  20. 49 CFR 38.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Priority seating signs. 38.55 Section 38.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.55 Priority seating signs....

  1. 36 CFR 1192.55 - Priority seating signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Priority seating signs. 1192.55 Section 1192.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.55 Priority seating signs. (a) Each vehicle shall contain...

  2. 49 CFR 571.10 - Designation of seating positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222). (b... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of seating positions. 571.10...

  3. MODIFIED VALVE SEAT FOR THE STATIC MERCURY DROP ELECTRODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modification in the design of the valve seat of the static mercury drop electrode is presented. The creation of a 'four-point' seal within the modified valve seat prevents the capillary 'O' ring seal from becoming flattened and distorted. The design has eliminated air leakage i...

  4. The Symphonic Wind Ensemble: Seating for Sound Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Whaley, Garwood

    1976-01-01

    Inherent in the basic principles of the symphonic wind ensemble concept are several important concepts about seating--concepts that are intended to apply only to the seating of a full symphonic wind ensemble and not to small or large chamber ensembles. (Author/RK)

  5. Validation of the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Laura J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Lane, Suzanne; Boninger, Michael L.; Minkel, Jean; McCue, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the scoring system for the Seating and Mobility Script Concordance Test (SMSCT), obtain and appraise internal and external structure evidence, and assess the validity of the SMSCT. The SMSCT purpose is to provide a method for testing knowledge of seating and mobility prescription. A sample of 106 therapists…

  6. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber's insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  7. Seated occupant interactions with seat backrest and pan, and biodynamic responses under vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakheja, S.; Stiharu, I.; Zhang, H.; Boileau, P.-É.

    2006-12-01

    The relative interactions of the seated occupants with an inclined backrest were investigated in terms of apparent mass (APMS) responses at the two driving-points formed by the buttock-seat pan and the upper body-backrest under exposure to broad-band and road-measured vertical vibration. The measurements were performed using 24 adult subjects seated with full contact with the back support and two different positions of the hands (in lap and on steering wheel), while exposed to three different levels of broad band (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s 2 rms acceleration) vibration in the 0.5-40 Hz frequency range, and a track-measured vibration spectrum (1.07 m/s 2 rms acceleration). The forces developed on the seat pan and the backrest in directions normal to the supporting surfaces were measured to derive the APMS responses at both the driving-points. The results showed significant interactions of the upper body with the back support in a direction normal to the backrest, even though the vibration is applied along the vertical axis. At low frequencies, the backrest APMS magnitude was smaller than that measured at the seat pan, but it either exceeded or approached that of the seat pan APMS in the vicinity of the primary resonant frequencies. The results also suggested considerable effect of the hands position on the APMS magnitudes measured at both the driving-points. The effects of variations in the excitation type and magnitude, considered in this study, were observed to be small compared to those caused by the hands position and individual body masses. Owing to the strong effects of the body mass on the measured APMS responses at both driving-points, a total of 8 target data sets were identified corresponding to four mass groups (<60, 60.6-70, 70.5-80 and >80 kg) and two hands positions for formulating mechanical equivalent models. The model parameters identified for the target functions suggested that the models mass, stiffness and damping parameters increase with increasing

  8. A pilot evaluation of two G-seat cueing schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of two contrasting G-seat cueing schemes. The G-seat, an aircraft simulation subsystem, creates aircraft acceleration cues via seat contour changes. Of the two cueing schemes tested, one was designed to create skin pressure cues and the other was designed to create body position cues. Each cueing scheme was tested and evaluated subjectively by five pilots regarding its ability to cue the appropriate accelerations in each of four simple maneuvers: a pullout, a pushover, an S-turn maneuver, and a thrusting maneuver. A divergence of pilot opinion occurred, revealing that the perception and acceptance of G-seat stimuli is a highly individualistic phenomena. The creation of one acceptable G-seat cueing scheme was, therefore, deemed to be quite difficult.

  9. Seat belt usage: A potential target for applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott; Casali, John G.; Johnson, Richard P.

    1980-01-01

    Results of 1,579 observations of cars entering or exiting campus parking lots showed direct relationships between seat belt wearing and the intrusiveness of the engineering device designed to induce belt usage, and between device intrusiveness and system defeat. For example, all drivers with working interlocks or unlimited buzzer reminders were wearing a seat belt; but 62% of the systems with interlocks or unlimited buzzers had been defeated, and only 15.9% of the drivers in these cars were wearing a seat belt. The normative data indicated marked ineffectiveness of the negative reinforcement contingencies implied by current seat belt inducement systems; but suggested that unlimited buzzer systems would be the optimal system currently available if contingencies were developed to discourage the disconnection and circumvention of such systems. Positive reinforcement strategies are discussed that would be quite feasible for large-scale promotion of seat belt usage. PMID:16795638

  10. Factors in students' seat selection: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Losonczy-Marshall, Marta; Marshall, P Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for students' seat selection. Participants were 346 college students (14% freshmen, 47% sophomores, 24% juniors, and 14% seniors) from 12 classes (six sections of two courses). A 20-item questionnaire was used to ask students why they chose their seats in class. An exploratory factor analysis reduced the items to five seat-selection factors: Performance, Social, Asocial, Noticeability, and Environment. Seat selection factors were analyzed in terms of seating location: by row, by front/middle/back of the room, by center versus perimeter of the room, and by mid-room versus sides of the room. Performance and Noticeability ratings decreased by row from the front toward the back of the room. The Asocial factor was rated higher by those who sat in the back of the room, while the Environment factor was rated higher by those who sat in the center of the room. PMID:23833891

  11. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  12. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'. PMID:25892386

  13. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National... seeking applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary... August 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower...

  14. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  15. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on the gathered data and the subsequent interpretation of it, the authors identified several educational implications and drew the following conclusions: (a) science should be taught within an historical perspective; (b) textbook authors generally have an empiricist epistemology which makes their presentation of science difficult to understand; (c) an historical perspective inevitably involves comparing, contrasting, and scrutinizing different historical accounts of the same events; (d) varying interpretations of observations do not undermine the objective nature of science; (e) new ideas in physics comprise an imposed vision of the world, and these ideas are then slowly accepted by the scientific community; (f) the current view in any science is almost always a mixture of data, hypotheses, theoretical ideas, and conjectures; (g) since experiments are difficult to perform and understand, scientists rely on their presuppositions to guide the integration of data, theory, and conjectures; (h) inconsistencies in the construction of theories can facilitate new theoretical ideas; and (i) case studies based on various experiments show that scientists use intuition which is guided by facts, conjectures, and speculations.

  16. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  17. Electrocardiographic parameters in the clinically healthy Zamorano-leones donkey.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Andrés; González, José R; Benedito, José L; Prieto, Felipe R; Ayala, Ignacio

    2009-12-01

    Limited information exists regarding electrocardiographic parameters in clinically healthy donkeys. The study was carried out in 75 healthy adult animals (40 females and 35 males) using the Einthoven standard II and base-apex leads. The P wave showed usually a bifid shape deflection. The QRS complex of the donkeys appeared in several forms: QR and R were the most frequent in limb lead II, and QS and QR in the base-apex lead. Most T waves presented a simple negative configuration in lead II and biphasic shape in the base-apex one. Mean heart rate value was 52 beats per minute. The direction of the QRS vector in lead II had a mean value of 91.4 degrees. We observed a lack of detected arrhythmias. Statistically significant differences were observed between sexes for several parameters. The electrocardiogram of Zamorano-leones donkey differs in several duration, amplitude and morphologic parameters from that of several breeds of horses and donkeys. This fact justifies obtaining values for a specific breed against which to compare values for the same breed. PMID:19433331

  18. AAS Publishing News: An Interview with Leon Golub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    In the lead-up to next weeks 2016 Solar Physics Division (SPD) meeting, we wanted to introduce you to Leon Golub, our new Lead Editor for the Sun and the Heliosphere corridor.Leon is a Senior Astrophysicist in the High Energy Division at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He specializes in studies of solar and stellar magnetic activity, and he has built numerous rocket and satellite instruments to study the Sun and its dynamic behavior.* * * * *Tell me about your field of research and some of your current projects.Ive been working primarily on understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, especially using new types of instrumentation that can provide challenges to our theoretical understanding.Image of the Apollo Telescope Mount on Skylab. [NASA]Why did you choose this field?Shortly after graduating from MIT in experimental high energy physics I found a position with a group that was preparing to launch an X-ray telescope on Skylab as part of the cluster of solar instruments called the Apollo Telescope Mount. I have stayed with that field and related ones ever since.What do you consider to be some of the biggest open questions in solar and heliospheric research today?There are so many major questions that its difficult to just settle on a few. The heliosphere is defined by the extent of the influence of the Sun on the interstellar medium. It is an exciting time in that area of study, because we now have the ability to make impressive new observations that allow us to test our understanding of that outer boundary.Within those limits, the Sun has a major influence on solar system objects via its gravitational pull, its light and heat, and the magnetized plasma and high energy particles that it emits in all directions. We are making major discoveries related to how the Sun has influenced the formation and evolution of the planets, including our own planet.The source of all this influence is, of course, the Sun itself, and we are working to understand

  19. Mating patterns of female Leon Springs pupfish Cyprinodon bovinus.

    PubMed

    Leiser, J K; Gagliardi-Seeley, J L; Wisenden, B D; Itzkowitz, M

    2015-09-01

    In a field study of Leon Springs pupfish Cyprinodon bovinus, two questions about female promiscuity were investigated. First, were females selective in the males with whom they spawned or were they unselective, spawning randomly among males? Second, how promiscuous were the females, i.e. with how many males did they spawn? If simply spawning with many males maximized a female's reproductive success, then females might be expected to spawn randomly with as many males as possible. Alternatively, if females were selective but engaged in multiple mating, they would limit their spawning to preferred males. In the only wild population of this endangered fish, breeding males defend closely associated territories in the shallow margins of a single desert pool. No territories were observed elsewhere in the pool. Therefore, all territorial males were present simultaneously and females could survey all of them, depositing any number of eggs with one, a few or many males. Rather than spawning randomly, females surveyed many males first, visited relatively few males and ultimately spawned with a small fraction of those available males. With increasing numbers of spawns, however, females increased the number of different mates with whom they spawned. Thus, females showed a bet-hedging tactic of having a narrow mate preference while also laying eggs in the territories of other males, possibly to reduce egg predation and to avoid inbreeding. PMID:26289774

  20. On the seat of the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, D.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of some of the issues raised in connection with the seat of the solar cycle are presented. Is the cycle controlled by a strictly periodic oscillator that operates in the core, or is it a turbulent dynamo confined to the convection zone and possibly a thin boundary layer beneath it? Sunspot statistics are discussed, with a view to ascertaining the length of the memory of the cycle, without drawing a definitive conclusion. Also discussed are some of the processes that might bring about variations delta L and delta R in the luminosity and the radius of the photosphere. It appears that the ratio W = delta lnR/delta lnL increases with the depth of the disturbance that produces the variations, so that imminent observations might determine whether or not the principal dynamical processes are confined to only the outer layers of the Sun.

  1. Molecular Characterization of the First Ebola Virus Isolated in Italy, from a Health Care Worker Repatriated from Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Castilletti, Concetta; Carletti, Fabrizio; Gruber, Cesare E. M.; Bordi, Licia; Lalle, Eleonora; Quartu, Serena; Meschi, Silvia; Lapa, Daniele; Colavita, Francesca; Chiappini, Roberta; Mazzarelli, Antonio; Marsella, Patrizia; Petrosillo, Nicola; Nicastri, Emanuele; Chillemi, Giovanni; Valentini, Alessio; Desideri, Alessandro; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an Ebola virus (EBOV) isolated from a health worker repatriated from Sierra Leone to Italy in November 2014. The sequence, clustering in clade 3 of the Sierra Leone sequences, was analyzed with respect to mutations possibly affecting diagnostic and therapeutic targets as well as virulence. PMID:26089420

  2. Relationship between measured apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility responses of seated occupants exposed to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Rakheja, S.; Boileau, P.-É.

    2008-07-01

    The "to-the-body" and "through-the-body" biodynamic response functions of the seated human body exposed to vertical vibration are measured and analyzed in an attempt to identify relationships between the apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility measures. The experiments involved 12 male subjects exposed to three magnitudes of whole-body vertical random vibration (0.25,0.5,1.0 m/s 2 rms acceleration) in the 0.5-15 Hz frequency range, and seated with three back support conditions (none, vertical and inclined), and two different hands positions (hands in lap and hands on the steering wheel). The vertical apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility responses were acquired during the experiments, where the head acceleration was measured using a light and adjustable helmet-strap mounted accelerometer. The results showed that both the measured responses show good agreements in the primary resonances, irrespective of the back support condition, while considerable differences between the normalized apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility could be seen in the secondary resonance range for the two back supported postures. The seat-to-head transmissibility responses are further shown to be relatively sensitive to back supported postures compared with that of apparent mass responses. Relatively stronger effects of hands position were observed on the seat-to-head transmissibility responses compared with the apparent mass responses under back supported conditions. From the results, it is further concluded that seat-to-head transmissibility emphasizes the biodynamic response in the vicinity of the secondary resonance compared to the apparent mass. The seat-to-head transmissibility measure is thus considered to be more appropriate for describing seated body response to higher frequency vibration.

  3. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    SciTech Connect

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  4. Application of Zen sitting principles to microscopic surgery seating.

    PubMed

    Noro, Kageyu; Naruse, Tetsuya; Lueder, Rani; Nao-I, Nobuhisa; Kozawa, Maki

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the application of an alternative seating concept for surgeons that reflects the research of Zen sitting postures, which require Zazen meditators to maintain fixed postures for long durations. The aim of this alternative approach is to provide sitters with a seat pan with sacral support(1) that provides a more even distribution of seat pressures, induces forward pelvic rotation and improves lumbar, buttock and thigh support. This approach was applied to the development of a chair for microscopic surgery. The experimental chair is a seat pan that closely matches the three-dimensional contours of the user's buttocks. Seat comfort was evaluated by comparing both changes in pelvic tilt and seat pressure distributions using Regionally-Differentiated Pressure Maps (RDPM) with subjective ratings of surgeons while operating in prototype and conventional chairs. Findings include that the sacral support of the prototype chair prevents backward pelvic rotation, as seen in zazen (Zen sitting postures). Preliminary data suggests that the prototype provided greater sitting comfort and support for constrained operating postures than did the conventional chair. These findings support the selective application of concave-shaped seat pans that conform to users' buttocks and reflect Zen sitting principles. PMID:21798514

  5. Seat belt usage rates: a test of Peltzman's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, P S

    1986-10-01

    Despite the universally accepted belief that the use of seat belts would have a significant impact upon the number of vehicular fatalities, current evidence indicates that relatively few drivers employ their seat belts. Various hypotheses have been offered to explain this phenomenon, many of which conclude that a driver's decision to use a seat belt is independent of the risk experienced in his trip making. This paper develops an economic model which focuses upon the relationship between driver use of seat belts and the travel conditions under which trips are made. Using data obtained from a national survey of households, a binary logit model is developed to test the hypothesis that seat belt usage is influenced by the level of risk experienced in one's trip making. The estimation results were consistent with the underlying hypothesis that individuals travelling in more risky environments are more likely to use their seat belts. The econometric results are then employed to examine various policy issues, including the predicted use of seat belts for population sub-groups, driver response to the introduction of a small urban car, and the impact upon the probability of a fatality resulting from vehicle fleet downsizing. PMID:3768132

  6. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  7. Energy Absorbing Seat System for an Agricultural Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A task was initiated to improve the energy absorption capability of an existing aircraft seat through cost-effective retrofitting, while keeping seat-weight increase to a minimum. This task was undertaken as an extension of NASA ongoing safety research and commitment to general aviation customer needs. Only vertical crash scenarios have been considered in this task which required the energy absorbing system to protect the seat occupant in a range of crash speeds up to 31 ft/sec. It was anticipated that, the forward and/or side crash accelerations could be attenuated with the aid of airbags, the technology of which is currently available in automobiles and military helicopters. Steps which were followed include, preliminary crush load determination, conceptual design of cost effective energy absorbers, fabrication and testing (static and dynamic) of energy absorbers, system analysis, design and fabrication of dummy seat/rail assembly, dynamic testing of dummy seat/rail assembly, and finally, testing of actual modified seat system with a dummy occupant. A total of ten full scale tests have been performed including three of the actual aircraft seat. Results from full-scale tests indicated that occupant loads were attenuated successfully to survivable levels.

  8. Structural dynamic characterization of a vehicle seat coupled with human occupant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Leon; Fard, Mohammad; Subic, Aleksandar; Jazar, Reza

    2013-02-01

    Predicting the responses of the combined human body-seat structure to vibration excitation is still a challenging task. This is mainly due to the complex dynamics behaviour of the seated human body in response to vibration. It is however essential to characterize and predict the critical frequencies and the corresponding vibration patterns of the seat when it is coupled with a human occupant. This study provides important knowledge to predict the structural resonant frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the vehicle seat coupled with occupant from the seat alone or seat bare-frame (seat without foam cushion). An experiment is designed to measure the frequency responses, resonant frequencies, and corresponding mode shapes of the three different selected vehicle seats when mounted on the test rig. Six volunteers have participated in the experiments. The experiment data for each of the seats were collected for the seat bare-frames, seat alone (seat with foam cushion), and seat with human occupant. The results indicate that the vehicle seat bare-frame, seat alone, and seat with occupant have similar main seatback lateral, seatback fore-aft, and seat twisting structural resonant frequencies below 80 Hz. The coupling of the seated human body with the seat shows that the human occupant is not adding any new structural resonant frequency or mode shape to the seat below 80 Hz. It is therefore possible to characterize and predict the key vibration attributes such as occupied seat structural resonant frequencies and mode shapes from their corresponding unoccupied seat or bare frame characteristics. This alleviates the need for complex modelling or detailed analysis of the human body structure itself.

  9. Multiple-Use Mechanisms for Attachment to Seat Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraske, Martin; May, Rich

    2003-01-01

    A Seat Track Attach Mechanism (SAM) is a multiple-use clamping device intended for use in mounting various objects on the standard seat tracks used on the International Space Station (ISS). The basic SAM design could also be adapted to other settings in which seat tracks are available: for example, SAM-like devices could be used as universal aircraft-seat-track mounting clamps. A SAM (see figure) is easily installed by inserting it in a seat track, then actuating a locking lever to clamp the SAM to the track. The SAM includes an over-center locking feature that prevents premature disengagement that could be caused by some inadvertent movements of persons or objects in the vicinity. A SAM can be installed in, or removed from, any position along a seat track, without regard for the locations of the circular access holes. Hence, one or more SAM(s) can be used to mount an object or objects on a track or a pair of tracks in an infinite number of preferred configurations. A SAM can be incorporated into a dual swivel device, so that two of the SAMs can be made to lock onto two side-by-side seat tracks simultaneously, as would be the case in a standard ISS rack bay where two side-by-side racks reside. The main benefit to using two SAMs in a side-by-side arrangement is to provide a coupled load. By picking up load points on two seat tracks, a coupled loading is created, improving the stability and strength since the load is spread to two seat tracks at a short distance.

  10. Seat belt use among Hispanic ethnic subgroups of national origin

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, N C; Schlundt, D G; Levine, R S; Goldzweig, I A; Stinson, N; Warren, R C

    2006-01-01

    Objective Findings from over a dozen studies of Hispanic/white disparities in seat belt use have been inconsistent, variably revealing that seat belt use prevalence among Hispanics is higher, lower, or comparable to use among non‐Hispanics. In contrast to previous studies, this study investigates disparities in seat belt use by Hispanic subgroups of national origin. Methods Data from the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to compare seat belt use among 60 758 non‐Hispanic whites and 6879 Hispanics (Mexican American (MA), n = 5175; Central American/South American (CASA), n = 876; Puerto Rican (PR), n = 412; Cuban (CU), n = 416) killed in crashes from 1999–2003. Logistic regression was used to adjust for age, gender, seat belt law, seat position, urban/rural region, and income. Results Overall adjusted odds ratios for seat belt use among Hispanic subgroups, relative to non‐Hispanic whites, were 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 1.28) for CUs, 1.17 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.44) for PRs, 1.33 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.42) for MAs, and 1.66 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.91) for CASAs. Relative to their non‐Hispanic white counterparts, odds ratios among MA and CASA Hispanics were highest for men, younger age groups, drivers, primary law states, rural areas, and lower income quartiles. Conclusion Among all Hispanic subgroups, seat belt use was at least as prevalent as among non‐Hispanic whites. In the CASA and MA subgroups, which have the most rapidly growing subpopulations of immigrants, seat belt use was significantly more common than among whites. PMID:17170195

  11. Car seat safety for high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Howard-Salsman, Kimberly D

    2006-01-01

    Most neonates discharged from the hospital are able to go home in a standard car safety seat. Some infants, though, require special devices to ensure their safe travel. NICU nurses must have the knowledge and skills to comfortably and competently give vital information to parents preparing to take their infant home. This article is intended to increase awareness among NICU nurses of the potential dangers babies face when placed in a car seat. It provides a basic overview of car seat safety for infants being discharged home from an NICU and includes references for those who seek further information on this topic. PMID:16610484

  12. Semi-active control of seat suspension with MR damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. J.; Fu, J.; Yu, M.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    The vibration control of a seat suspension system with magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated in this study. Firstly, a dynamical model of the seat suspension system with parameter uncertainties (such as mass, stiffness, damping) and actuator saturation is established. Secondly, based on Lyapunov functional theory and considering constraint conditions for damping force, the semi-active controller is designed, and the controller parameters are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which guarantees performance index. Finally, compared control strategy and the passive, skyhook control strategy, the simulation results in time and frequency domains demonstrate the proposed approach can achieve better vertical acceleration attenuation for the seat suspension system and improve ride comfort.

  13. An essential guide to managing seated patients in the community.

    PubMed

    Collins, Fiona

    2008-03-01

    More and more clinicians working in the community are faced with the difficult task of advising and solving patients' seating problems. Frequently, important education on the relationship between sitting and pressure damage is unavailable, which results in people often making inadvisable choices on seating solutions and as a consequence, spending large sums of money which is then wasted. This article aims to provide clinicians with basic information on the relationship between sitting and pressure damage, how to conduct a simple seating assessment and what different types of armchairs are available for purchase. PMID:18557573

  14. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  15. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  16. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  17. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  18. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  19. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  20. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  1. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  2. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicable foreign government safety requirements, including those pertaining to exit seating (see 14 CFR 121... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  3. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  4. 14 CFR 382.81 - For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seating accommodations? 382.81 Section 382.81 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.81 For which passengers must carriers make seating accommodations? As a carrier, you must provide the following seating accommodations to the following passengers...

  5. 14 CFR 135.75 - Inspectors credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 135.75 Section 135.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an.... (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with headset or...

  6. 14 CFR 125.317 - Inspector's credentials: Admission to pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. 125.317 Section 125.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... pilots' compartment: Forward observer's seat. (a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an... of safety. (b) A forward observer's seat on the flight deck, or forward passenger seat with...

  7. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH TOWARD MOVEABLE FIELD LEVEL SEATS. NOTE RETRACTABLE PENTAGONAL LIGHT RING GONDOLA SUSPENDED FROM ROOF CUPOLA. SKY LIGHTS PAINTED OVER TO REDUCE GLARE FOR BASEBALL OUTFIELDERS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... car safety seats when traveling in a motor vehicle. But, many municipalities exempt taxis from this safety ... the risk of death or injury from motor vehicle collisions, there should be no exemptions in car ...

  9. Analysis of differences between seating positions in simulators and orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongan, Philip T.

    1993-01-01

    Crew comments indicate that Space Shuttle simulator seats place crewmembers in a position different from that of the actual Orbiter seats. The crew feel that they launch in a different position, and with a different reach and visibility, from that in which they had trained. This study examined three factors in differences between training and flight positions. Key dimensions, which were considered important to spatial orientation, were compared in the Orbiters and simulators. These were dimensions such as seat back to glare shield and seat pan to overhead. The differences between flight and training crew equipment, and how these differences may contribute to the problem were discussed with engineers and technicians responsible for the equipment. Eye position measurements were taken on subjects to assess any differences that could be attributed to different ingress methods in the Orbiters and the simulators. This report presents the data, analysis, and recommendations.

  10. Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of arena, showing roof structure over seating area. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area at mid point of Block 1 and illustrates poor maintenance of vegetation within the park - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  13. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND CONNECTION OF END POST AND LOWER CHORD; FACING SOUTHWEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  15. 15. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEARING SEAT WITH EXPANSION ROLLERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEARING SEAT WITH EXPANSION ROLLERS ON NORTHERN PIER; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. Bench seating in northwest corner of the building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bench seating in northwest corner of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. 15. INTERRUPTED SILL, SEATED AND MORTICED INTO HOLESET POST (NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERRUPTED SILL, SEATED AND MORTICED INTO HOLE-SET POST (NOTE LOWER END CUT OFF AND SHOVED UP WITH BRICK UNDERPINNING) - Cedar Park, Cumberstone Road on West River, Cumberstone, Anne Arundel County, MD

  18. 32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE AT CONTROL PANEL, ABOUT 1965. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  19. Backrest Shape Affects Head-Neck Alignment and Seated Pressure.

    PubMed

    Ukita, Atsuki; Nishimura, Shigeo; Kishigami, Hirotoshi; Hatta, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Unstable back support against gravity results in a forward head posture and contributes to buttocks pressure ulcers. However, the association between these health problems and a wheelchair backrest is unclear. Our newly developed wheelchair (N-WC) supports the back of the pelvis and thorax from obliquely underneath. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different backrest shapes on head-neck alignment and seated pressure. Data from 28 healthy subjects were analyzed. Outcome measures were head-neck alignment angles, support angles of the backrest, and pressure distributions on the supporting surfaces. Compared with a typical wheelchair that has a flat backrest, the seat pressure decreased and the center of pressure was located in the middle of both the seat and backrest in the N-WC. Moreover, the head-neck alignment when seated in the N-WC was upright. These results highlight the importance of the shape of the wheelchair backrest. PMID:26288886

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections HIV / AIDS Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... enforcement seat belt laws achieved 88% use.* Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for ...

  1. Optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire blocking layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Ling, A. C.; Hovatter, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes work completed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. The purpose of this work was to examine the potential of fire blocking mechanisms for aircraft seat cushions in order to provide an optimized seat configuration with adequate fire protection and minimum weight. Aluminized thermally stable fabrics were found to provide adequate fire protection when used in conjunction with urethane foams, while maintaining minimum weight and cost penalty.

  2. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  3. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  4. High-Pressure Valve With Controlled Seating Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Poppet and seat less likely to be damaged by faulty operation. Improvements in widely-used high-pressure valve increase accuracy of preloading of poppet. Redesigned valve prevents metal shavings and other debris from developing during operation, installation, or removal. New features include secondary seal in cap. Belleville washers create precise value of seating force. If installer attempts to exceed force, torque limiter gives tactile and aural warning and makes further force increases difficult.

  5. Analysis of seated and standing triple Wingate tests.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert W; Snyder, Ann C; Dorman, Jason C

    2009-05-01

    Observations of athletes in seated and standing cycling positions in laboratory and field settings have led to the perception that they produce different outputs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in power output and physiological responses between seated and standing positions of athletes during 3 consecutive Wingate tests. Seven (n = 7) elite-level speedskaters completed 3 x 30-second Wingate tests (resistance = 7.5% body weight) with 3.5 minutes of recovery between each test in both seated and standing positions. During the recovery period, athletes pedaled against no resistance in the seated position. Testing was randomized and separated by at least 48 hours. Power output, heart rate, blood lactate, and muscle oxygenation data were collected. Statistical analysis of comparable tests (i.e., seated Wingate test 1 [WinD1] compared with standing Wingate test 1 [WinU1]; WinD2:WinU2; WinD3:WinU3) revealed no significant differences between the seated and standing variables. Position during a short-duration maximal-effort exercise test on a stationary bike did not produce statistically different results in power, maximal heart rate, blood lactate, or muscle oxygenation. As no differences were detected between positions, practitioners can allow subjects to choose their position. Also, if a subject rises out of the seat during a "seated" test, this change may not affect the subject's physiological variables. However, transitioning from one position to the other during the test is not advised due to the possible chance of injury. It should be acknowledged that there may be reasons for stipulating one position over another (e.g., injuries, leg length). PMID:19387391

  6. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. PMID:26154212

  7. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  8. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  9. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  10. Seating and wheeled mobility in the disabled elderly population.

    PubMed

    Redford, J B

    1993-08-01

    Elderly persons constitute the largest among the populations regularly using wheelchairs. This is a review of the few studies specifically concerned with seating for the elderly; it identifies current problems, particularly in the seating for aged people who are in long-term care facilities. This review describes ways of matching currently available seating technology with the needs of disabled elderly persons. Two major barriers to greater use of newer seating technology are (1) the high cost of durable medical equipment and (2) the failure of most clinicians and institutional administrators to recognize the importance of posture and comfort to provide functional independence in wheelchair users. This review discusses seating for four groups of elderly persons: (1) the nonmobile, dependents who may be safety risks and are without energy or ability to wheel or walk by themselves; (2) mobile nonambulatory; and (3) ambulatory, but with special wheelchair needs. Research is needed in wheeled mobility in a number of areas: better matching of mobility to function, cheaper and more effective cushions, more modular seating systems, and better lifting and transfer devices. The American National Standards Institute in cooperation with Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America has recently recommended standards for wheelchair performance that may be legislated in the next few years. PMID:8347074

  11. Optimal seat suspension design based on minimum "simulated subjective response".

    PubMed

    Wan, Y; Schimmels, J M

    1997-11-01

    This work addresses a method for improving vertical whole body vibration isolation through optimal seat suspension design. The primary thrusts of this investigation are: (1) the development of a simple model that captures the essential dynamics of a seated human exposed to vertical vibration, (2) the selection and evaluation of several standards for assessing human sensitivity to vertical vibration, and (3) the determination of the seat suspension parameters that minimize these standards to yield optimal vibration isolation. Results show that the optimal seat and cushion damping coefficients depend very much on the selection of the vibration sensitivity standard and on the lower bound of the stiffnesses used in the constrained optimization procedure. In all cases, however, the optimal seat damping obtained here is significantly larger (by than a factor of 10) than that obtained using existing seat suspension design methods or from previous optimal suspension studies. This research also indicates that the existing means of assessing vibration in suspension design (ISO 7096) requires modification. PMID:9407279

  12. Whole body vibration exposures in metropolitan bus drivers: A comparison of three seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blood, R. P.; Ploger, J. D.; Yost, M. G.; Ching, R. P.; Johnson, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a repeated measures study design, three different seats were evaluated as 12 metropolitan bus drivers drove a standardized test route including city streets, old and new freeways, and a street segment containing 10 large speed humps. Three comparisons were made: (1) comparing seats made by different manufactures (Seats 1 and 2), (2) comparing seats with a standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans, and (3) comparing WBV exposures based on individual factors such as seat pressure settings and body weight. Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures were measured using a tri-axial seat pan accelerometer and the attenuation capabilities of each seat were evaluated by comparing the vibrations measured at the floor and seat of the bus. There were significant WBV exposure differences between the various street types, which was shown across all seat types. The city street and older freeway segments had the highest WBV exposures with both segments producing WBV exposures slightly above the action limit for vibration dose value (VDV). Relative to Seat 2, Seat 1 performed better at attenuating impulsive and shock related WBV exposures; however, neither seat performed significantly better when average vibration ( A w) and VDV WBV exposures were compared. In addition, no performance differences were seen between the standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans. Seat suspension stiffness (air pressure) was also examined, and the results indicated that the higher the seat air pressure the lower the A w, VDV, and static compressive dose ( S ed) vibration exposures. This study provided a unique opportunity to evaluate on-the-job whole body vibration exposures in a standardized, controlled setting.

  13. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4. Requirements. S4.1Type. S4.1... seating position for which a Type 1 or a Type 2 seat belt assembly is required by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR... seating position for which a Type 2 seat belt assembly is required by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR...

  14. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  15. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  16. Assessment of the severity of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Y; Zhang, W; Kargbo, D; Haque, U; Hu, W; Wu, P; Kamara, A; Chen, Y; Kargbo, B; Glass, G E; Yang, R; Cowling, B J; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in scale, and Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country. The case fatality risk (CFR) and hospitalization fatality risk (HFR) were used to characterize the severity of infections in confirmed and probable EVD cases in Sierra Leone. Proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate factors associated with the risk of death in EVD cases. In total, there were 17 318 EVD cases reported in Sierra Leone from 23 May 2014 to 31 January 2015. Of the probable and confirmed EVD cases with a reported final outcome, a total of 2536 deaths and 886 recoveries were reported. CFR and HFR estimates were 74·2% [95% credibility interval (CrI) 72·6-75·5] and 68·9% (95% CrI 66·2-71·6), respectively. Risks of death were higher in the youngest (0-4 years) and oldest (⩾60 years) age groups, and in the calendar month of October 2014. Sex and occupational status did not significantly affect the mortality of EVD. The CFR and HFR estimates of EVD were very high in Sierra Leone. PMID:27029911

  17. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  18. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  19. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  20. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  1. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively…

  2. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  3. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  4. Conservation Effects Assessment Project research in the Leon River and Riesel watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, the Leon River basin was selected as a Benchmark watershed for the USDA Conservation Effects Project (CEAP) to complement the historical USDA-ARS experimental watersheds near Riesel, TX. In both watersheds the major water quality concerns are excessive nutrient and bacteria concentrations ...

  5. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  6. Towards An Improved Curriculum for Agricultural Education at the Secondary School Level in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conteh, Kaimasa M.

    1974-01-01

    Agricultural education is a recent addition to secondary curriculum in Sierra Leone. The author lists (1) justification for teaching it, (2) the Government's educational goals, (3) program planning steps needed, (4) tentative curriculum objectives, (5) central concepts to be transmitted to students, (6) guidelines on content organization, (7)…

  7. Bender-Gestalt Performance of Sierra Leone, West African Children from Four Sub-Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Sharon K.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of the Bender-Gestalt performance of normal class-six children in four Sierra Leone subcultures with varying degrees of modernization showed the quality of the reproductions of the most modern subcultures to be significantly higher. The interaction of gender and the parallel to adult divisions of labor are discussed. (Author/CM)

  8. Rediscovering how Rural People Learn: An Initiative at the University of Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Farhana

    1987-01-01

    Reports on an on-going study of traditional education in Sierra Leone using examples of traditional crafts. Notes that traditional education is not cut off from life; involves the whole family; is practical and situational, interdisciplinary and multi-methodological; and is geared to the student's interests, talents, and learning patterns. (DHP)

  9. The Development of Education in Sierra Leone 1974/75-1975/76. Report (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Sierra Leone).

    The report on educational development in Sierra Leone describes plans and policies set by the Ministry of Education to quicken the pace of social and economic development. In line with its objectives of eliminating illiteracy and providing primary education to every child of school age, the government has allocated a high proportion of the…

  10. Illiteracy, Colonial Legacy and Education: The Case of Modern Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banya, Kingsley

    1993-01-01

    As a legacy of British colonial rule, Sierra Leone's education system gives half of its budget to higher education, heavily benefits the upper and middle classes and serves the poor and rural populations badly. The illiteracy rate is 85%. Policy recommendations are outlined for resource allocation and major restructuring of the education system.…

  11. Quality in an Integrated Rural Development Program: The Sierra Leone Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banya, Kingsley

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the quality of teaching in a rural development project in Sierra Leone, based on teacher knowledge of subject matter and beliefs about teaching and classroom management. Focus was on the preservice training of teachers and the attitudes they brought to teaching, rather than on classroom dynamics. Subjects were 100 teacher…

  12. Adult Learning Principles for the Improvement of Agricultural Extension in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebun-Cole, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Basic adult education principles should be applied in the change agent-farmer relationship in extension education in Sierra Leone. They include active learners, lifelong learning, teacher knowledge as nonabsolute, and the farming community as the center of problem generation. (SK)

  13. Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP) Program: Sierra Leone, 2000-2001. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Gloria; Daniels, Bonnie

    Management Systems International (MSI), with funding from United States Agency for International Development Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID/OTI) and in coordination with other partners, is implementing a program in Sierra Leone entitled "Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace" (YRTEP). The object is to provide non-formal…

  14. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Guanajuato, Mexico: The Leon Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fombonne, Eric; Marcin, Carlos; Manero, Ana Cecilia; Bruno, Ruth; Diaz, Christian; Villalobos, Michele; Ramsay, Katrina; Nealy, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There are no epidemiological data on autism for Mexico. This study was conducted to generate a first estimate of ASD prevalence in Mexico. We surveyed children age eight in Leon (Guanajuato). The sample was stratified in two strata: (1) children having special education and medical records (SEMR; N = 432) and (2) children attending regular schools…

  15. Measurement and modelling of x-direction apparent mass of the seated human body-cushioned seat system.

    PubMed

    Stein, George Juraj; Múcka, Peter; Chmúrny, Rudolf; Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    For modelling purposes and for evaluation of driver's seat performance in the vertical direction various mechano-mathematical models of the seated human body have been developed and standardized by the ISO. No such models exist hitherto for human body sitting in an upright position in a cushioned seat upper part, used in industrial environment, where the fore-and-aft vibrations play an important role. The interaction with the steering wheel has to be taken into consideration, as well as, the position of the human body upper torso with respect to the cushioned seat back as observed in real driving conditions. This complex problem has to be simplified first to arrive at manageable simpler models, which still reflect the main problem features. In a laboratory study accelerations and forces in x-direction were measured at the seat base during whole-body vibration in the fore-and-aft direction (random signal in the frequency range between 0.3 and 30 Hz, vibration magnitudes 0.28, 0.96, and 2.03 ms(-2) unweighted rms). Thirteen male subjects with body masses between 62.2 and 103.6 kg were chosen for the tests. They sat on a cushioned driver seat with hands on a support and backrest contact in the lumbar region only. Based on these laboratory measurements a linear model of the system-seated human body and cushioned seat in the fore-and-aft direction has been developed. The model accounts for the reaction from the steering wheel. Model parameters have been identified for each subject-measured apparent mass values (modulus and phase). The developed model structure and the averaged parameters can be used for further bio-dynamical research in this field. PMID:16962599

  16. The effects of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Ali, Desta B; Tomek, Michal; Lisk, Durodami R

    2014-08-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of false beliefs and social stigma in the setting of Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the impacts of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone (SL), we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study examining its effects on school attendance, participation in physical activities, and social acceptance among classmates. We also assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding epilepsy of both the children's caregivers and teachers. The data were collected at various epilepsy clinics and schools in Freetown, SL. A total of 50 patients were interviewed and questionnaires administered to their caregivers and teachers, making a total of 150 respondents. Fifty-one percent of the children were absent from school for >5 days per month. Ninety percent did not participate in games and sports, with the commonest reason being fear of occurrence of seizures. Thirty-six percent claimed having experienced negative attitude from their classmates. Regarding the caregivers, 48% believed that epilepsy was a medical illness, while 34% considered it a demonic manifestation. Forty-eight percent were apprehensive about sending their children to school, with 83% of these caregivers stating fear of seizures and potential injuries. Only 8% of the caregivers did not prevent their children from taking part in any physical activity at school. Regarding the teachers, 16% believed that epilepsy was a demonic manifestation, and 10% thought that it was contagious. Fourteen percent did not think that children with epilepsy should go to school, and 80% would prevent children with epilepsy from participating in games and sports. When faced with a child having a seizure, 48% would hold the child down, 12% would place a hard object in the child's mouth, and 12% would avoid any physical contact. In total, 20% of the children ceased attending school permanently; daily occurrence of seizures (p<0.05), negative attitude of classmates (p<0.001), and

  17. Fertility differentials in rural Sierra Leone: demographic and socioeconomic effects.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M; Serow, W J

    1991-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis with an ordinary least squares model was used to examine the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of fertility in rural Sierra Leone among a sample of 2000 women aged 15-49 years and 680 husbands in 1979. Size of place of current residence was of particular interest. The primary sampling unit (PSU) was proportionately sampled and systematically included chiefdoms for the Dasse, Kamajei, Kori, and Kowa in Moyamba District. Villages and towns were also sampled in the 3-stage probability sample. A wide selection of variables were collected; 11 variables were used in the analysis: children ever born as the dependent variable; husband's tribal affiliation, his religion, and size of place of current residence as background variables; educational levels of the respondent and her husband, reported annual household income, and wife's occupation; and age at marriage, infant and child mortality, and desired family size. The age structure was similar and small sample sizes for place limit the use of age grouping. Specification of each variable is given. The results reveal that in the full equation with all 11 variables, only size of place of residence is statistically significant (p = .10) and positively affecting fertility. Only opportunity cost to the wife (women working in nonagricultural jobs and educational attainment) negatively influences fertility as expected. Income effects are insignificant and in the wrong direction. Demographic influences are in the expected direction. In the analysis by size of place (small, 0-499; intermediate, 500-1999; and large, 2000), variance is demonstrated in the importance of explanatory variables. Background variables have coefficients hovering around 0. Opportunity cost (nonagricultural employment) is strong,and significantly negative only in large places. Household's infant and child mortality is significant and positive in all places. Desired family size is similar (positive and significant), but a

  18. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  19. Effect of crash pulse shape on seat stroke requirements for limiting loads on occupants of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study was made to provide comparative information on various crash pulse shapes that potentially could be used to test seats under conditions included in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats, show the effects that crash pulse shape can have on the seat stroke requirements necessary to maintain a specified limit loading on the seat/occupant during crash pulse loadings, compare results from certain analytical model pulses with approximations of actual crash pulses, and compare analytical seat results with experimental airplace crash data. Structural and seat/occupant displacement equations in terms of the maximum deceleration, velocity change, limit seat pan load, and pulse time for five potentially useful pulse shapes were derived; from these, analytical seat stroke data were obtained for conditions as specified in Federal Regulations Part 23 Paragraph 23.562(b)(1) for dynamic testing of general aviation seats.

  20. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  1. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  2. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  3. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  4. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  5. Adaptive control of an active seat for occupant vibration reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zengkang; Hillis, Andrew J.; Darling, Jocelyn

    2015-08-01

    The harmful effects on human performance and health caused by unwanted vibration from vehicle seats are of increasing concern. This paper presents an active seat system to reduce the vibration level transmitted to the seat pan and the occupants' body under low frequency periodic excitation. Firstly, the detail of the mechanical structure is given and the active seat dynamics without external load are characterized by vibration transmissibility and frequency responses under different excitation forces. Owing the nonlinear and time-varying behaviour of the proposed system, a Filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive control algorithm with on-line Fast-block LMS (FBLMS) identification process is employed to manage the system operation for high vibration cancellation performance. The effectiveness of the active seat system is assessed through real-time experimental tests using different excitation profiles. The system identification results show that an accurate estimation of the secondary path is achieved by using the FBLMS on-line technique. Substantial reduction is found for cancelling periodic vibration containing single and multiple frequencies. Additionally, the robustness and stability of the control system are validated through transient switching frequency tests.

  6. [Measures to prevent injuries related to bicycle seats].

    PubMed

    Martelli, A; Angrisano, A; Verdoni, F

    1999-01-01

    Injuries related to the use of bicycle seats are increasing due to the more frequent use of bicycles, mostly in metropolis. Several cases of children who suffered lesions to the lower limbs are reported from which we may summarize the most frequent clinical features, characterized by a foot swelling caused by the crushing between the wheel spokes, with different degrees of skin injuries. Fractures of the lower part of the leg bones are frequent as well. A greater number of cases was reported in summertime and, in all the bicycles, there was no spoke cover and the seats did not provide any protection to the feet. So far no precise rules for the marketing approval of bicycle seats have been fixed by UE, contrary to what has been already set for cars. Therefore, we suggest that such rules should soon be enforced. We also recommend the compulsory use of the helmet, as in other countries. We underline the usefulness of a more detailed epidemiological monitoring to better understand the dynamic of such traumatic events and, consequently, achieve some further improvements in the seats design, for an increased safety. The critical factor in prevention, however, will always remain a proper sanitary education. In the general chapter of accidents prevention, pediatrics should provide the parents with all the indications and cautions concerned with bicycle seat safety. PMID:10356943

  7. On the Estimation of Parameters and the Evaluation of a Mathematical Model: A Reply to Pascual-Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trabasso, Tom

    1978-01-01

    A reply to a rejoinder in which Pascual-Leone defended his quantitative model of children's information processing capacity. Trabasso focuses on empirical evidence in presenting his reply to this rejoinder. (BD)

  8. Statistical Signature of Deep-seated Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, C.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Belmont, P.; Mackey, B. H.; Fuller, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the statistical signature of deep-seated landslides using basin wide topographic data and flowpath arrangement and explore the extent to which these globally derived signatures can be used to locally map landslides. We used directed distance from the divide, which accounts for the distance traveled along flowpaths starting from significant ridgelines, as a scale parameter and demonstrate that local slope vs. directed distance and curvature vs. local slope offer powerful means for identifying the presence of landslides in a landscape. By exploring a threshold on the probability distribution of local slopes conditional on directed distance we show that mapping of landslide features is possible. We apply the methodology to three 0.5 to 2.5 km2 watersheds in northern California and document three regions of distinct geomorphic signatures [Gangodagamage et al., 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009252]. In region A, hillslope gradient increases with distance from the divide and flowpaths are divergent or parallel. Region B corresponds to the zone with highly convergent flowpaths and exhibits the strongest signal of landslide related features. Region C is a moderately convergent zone that transitions into the fluvial channel network. Next, we use specific quantiles of the probability density function of local slopes conditioned on directed distance from the divide to map individual landslide features. This analysis allows us to explore the 3D morphometry of the landslide affected basins and to develop a supervised set of ensemble templates for landslides as a function of local slope vs. directed distance (DD) relationship. Then we use this template and demonstrate that the landslide affected basins can be identified by iterative matching the landslide signature template with the basin wide signatures of the tributary basins in the South Fork Eel River, CA. Finally, we perform a multiscale analysis of the contributing area parameterized by directed

  9. RF Loading Effects of Aircraft Seats in an Electromagnetic Reverberating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong

    2000-01-01

    Loading effects of aircraft seats in an electromagnetic reverberating environment are investigated. The effects are determined by comparing the reverberation chamber s insertion losses with and without the seats. The average per-seat absorption cross-sections are derived for coach and first class seats, and the results are compared for several seat configurations. An example is given for how the seat absorption cross-sections can be used to estimate the loading effects on the RF environment in an aircraft passenger cabin.

  10. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  11. Response of a seat-passenger system to impulsive loading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. A.; Turnbow, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of a study of the dynamic response of an aircraft seat-passenger system to impulsive loading typical of aircraft crash situations. A brief description of the computer model SIMULA is presented, and selected data from 305 separate cases which have been studied are discussed. Maximum system forces, displacements, velocities, and accelerations are presented as functions of velocity change, aircraft deceleration, crash pulse shape, passenger weight, and seat belt slack. Data from both single and coupled parameter studies are included. A correlation of SIMULA results with experimentally obtained data is made.

  12. 75 FR 2852 - Availability of Seats for the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...): Conservation Primary (1 seat) and Alternate (2 seats); Education Primary and Alternate; Community-at-Large San... to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations;...

  13. Comprehensive Yet Scalable Health Information Systems for Low Resource Settings: A Collaborative Effort in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Braa, Jørn; Kanter, Andrew S.; Lesh, Neal; Crichton, Ryan; Jolliffe, Bob; Sæbø, Johan; Kossi, Edem; Seebregts, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of how to integrate health information systems in low-income African countries in which technical infrastructure and human resources vary wildly within countries. We describe a set of tools to meet the needs of different service areas including managing aggregate indicators, patient level record systems, and mobile tools for community outreach. We present the case of Sierra Leone and use this case to motivate and illustrate an architecture that allows us to provide services at each level of the health system (national, regional, facility and community) and provide different configurations of the tools as appropriate for the individual area. Finally, we present a, collaborative implementation of this approach in Sierra Leone. PMID:21347003

  14. Female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone: who are the decision makers?

    PubMed

    Bjälkander, Owolabi; Leigh, Bailah; Harman, Grace; Bergström, Staffan; Almroth, Lars

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify decision makers for FGM and determine whether medicalization takes place in Sierra Leone. Structured interviews were conducted with 310 randomly selected girls between 10 and 20 years in Bombali and Port Loko Districts in Northern Sierra Leone. The average age of the girls in this sample was 14 years, 61% had undergone FGM at an average age of 7.7 years (range 1-18). Generally, decisions to perform FGM were made by women, but father was mentioned as the one who decided by 28% of the respondents. The traditional excisors (Soweis) performed 80% of all operations, health professionals 13%, and traditional birth attendants 6%. Men may play a more important role in the decision making process in relation to FGM than previously known. Authorities and health professionals' associations need to consider how to prevent further medicalization of the practice. PMID:23444549

  15. Areas Contributing Recharge to Wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Perreault, Jeff A.; Presley, Todd K.

    2007-01-01

    To address the concerns about the potential for contamination of drinking-water wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa, a numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used to delineate areas contributing recharge to the wells (ACRWs). Surveys and analyses were conducted to obtain or compile certain essential hydrogeologic information needed for the model, such as groundwater production statistics, ground-water levels under current production, and an assessment of the distribution of groundwater recharge. The ground-water surveys indicate that total production from all wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain between 1985 and 2005 averaged 6.1 Mgal/d and showed a gradual increase. A synoptic survey indicates that current water levels in the Tafuna-Leone Plain are highest near its inland boundary, decrease toward the coast, and are slightly depressed in high-production well fields. Ground-water levels showed little effect from the increased production because hydraulic conductivites are high and withdrawal is small relative to recharge. Analysis of ground-water recharge using a soil water-budget analysis indicates that the Tafuna-Leone Plain and adjacent areas receive about 280 Mgal/d of water from rainfall, of which 24 percent runs off to the ocean, 26 percent is removed by evapotranspiration, and 50 percent goes to ground-water recharge. Ground-water recharge per unit area is generally higher at the mountain crests than at the coast, but the highest recharge per unit area is in the mountain-front recharge zone at the juncture between the Tafuna-Leone Plain and the adjacent mountains. Surface water from the mountains also contributes to ground-water recharge in the eastern Tafuna-Leone Plain, in a process analogous to mountain-front recharge described in arid areas. Analysis of stream-gage data indicates that in the mountains of Tutuila, ground water discharges and contributes substantially to the total flow of the streams. In contrast, multiple

  16. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  17. 75 FR 57444 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Advisory Council: for member and alternate seats for Conservation; and alternates seats for Whalewatching, Education, At-Large and Mobile...

  18. 75 FR 66064 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Advisory Council: For member and alternate seats for Conservation; and alternates seats for Whalewatching, Education, At-Large and Mobile...

  19. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National... vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Fishing...

  20. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National... vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Fishing...

  1. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.

  2. Human factors in design of passenger seats for commercial aircraft: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaedel, S. F.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Seat comfort and safety research since the early part of the century is reviewed. The approach blends empirical and theoretical human factors and technical knowledge of seated humans under static and dynamic conditions experienced on commercial aircraft.

  3. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease Linked to a Single Funeral - Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, 2014.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kathryn G; Gibson, James J; Marke, Dennis; Caulker, Victor; Bomeh, John; Redd, John T; Bunga, Sudhir; Brunkard, Joan; Kilmarx, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    As of February 17, 2016, a total of 14,122 cases (62% confirmed) of Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) and 3,955 Ebola-related deaths had been reported in Sierra Leone since the epidemic in West Africa began in 2014. A key focus of the Ebola response in Sierra Leone was the promotion and implementation of safe, dignified burials to prevent Ebola transmission by limiting contact with potentially infectious corpses. Traditional funeral practices pose a substantial risk for Ebola transmission through contact with infected bodies, body fluids, contaminated clothing, and other personal items at a time when viral load is high; however, the role of funeral practices in the Sierra Leone epidemic and ongoing Ebola transmission has not been fully characterized. In September 2014, a sudden increase in the number of reported Ebola cases occurred in Moyamba, a rural and previously low-incidence district with a population of approximately 260,000. The Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation and CDC investigated and implemented public health interventions to control this cluster of Ebola cases, including community engagement, active surveillance, and close follow-up of contacts. A retrospective analysis of cases that occurred during July 11-October 31, 2014, revealed that 28 persons with confirmed Ebola had attended the funeral of a prominent pharmacist during September 5-7, 2014. Among the 28 attendees with Ebola, 21 (75%) reported touching the man's corpse, and 16 (57%) reported having direct contact with the pharmacist before he died. Immediate, safe, dignified burials by trained teams with appropriate protective equipment are critical to interrupt transmission and control Ebola during times of active community transmission; these measures remain important during the current response phase. PMID:26938950

  4. Porting LEON3FT/GRLIB to 4th Generation Flash-Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jan; Habinc, Sandi; Prinetto, Paolo; Trotta, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Cobham Gaisler develops the LEON3FT SPARC V8 fault-tolerant microprocessor that is available both as IP cores part of an IP library (GRLIB) that allows users to design their own custom system-on-chip (SoC) designs, and also as part of ready-made designs and devices. Cobham Gaisler has recently added support for Microsemi IGLOO2, and experimental support for Microsemi radiation-tolerant RTG4, devices to GRLIB.

  5. Natural law Judaism? The genesis of bioethics in Hans Jonas, Leo Strauss, and Leon Kass.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Leon Kass is much misunderstood. He is not simply a Republican ideologue who tailored his ideas to break out of the ivory tower and into the halls of power. Nor does he look simply to use human nature as a moral guide. When the full range of his writings is considered and set in the tradition of his teachers, Hans Jonas and Leo Strauss, what emerges is a natural law position colored by religious revelation. PMID:16776021

  6. Transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease and intervention effectiveness in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yao, Hong-Wu; Kargbo, David; Li, Xin-Lou; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Kargbo, Brima; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Ya-Wei; Liu, Kun; Kamara, Abdul; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Sun, Ye; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Chen, Wan-Jun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Dean, Natalie E.; Thomas, Harold; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014−2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission. PMID:27035948

  7. Transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease and intervention effectiveness in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yao, Hong-Wu; Kargbo, David; Li, Xin-Lou; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Kargbo, Brima; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Ya-Wei; Liu, Kun; Kamara, Abdul; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Sun, Ye; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Chen, Wan-Jun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Dean, Natalie E; Thomas, Harold; Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-04-19

    Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission. PMID:27035948

  8. Evaluating the relationships between the postural adaptation of patients with profound cerebral palsy and the configuration of the Seating Buggy's seating support surface.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Tatsuo; Nishimura, Shigeo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yamanaka, Masanori; Maki, Makoto; Kobayashi, Norikazu; Kishigami, Hirotoshi; Sato, Masahiko

    2007-03-01

    We are currently investigating the physiological polymorphism of wheelchair users with profound cerebral palsy and the properties of the Seating Buggy (developed by S. Nishimura, 1998) to clarify important and general elements of wheelchairs for widespread use. Cerebral palsy is a diagnostic term used to describe a group of motor syndromes resulting from disorders in early brain development. Recently, it has been shown that the Seating Buggy produces functional head-neck alignments and active control of sitting balance for people with profound cerebral palsy. The Seating Buggy is a wheelchair for the profoundly disabled and features a wide adjustment range from heights of 120 cm to 175 cm. Its seating support surface is comprised of a sling-seat. To examine the relationships between the postural adaptation of patients with profound cerebral palsy and the configuration of the Seating Buggy's seating, we assessed the postural alignment of the Seating Buggy's user and then measured the configuration of its resulting seating support surface with a three dimensional scanning system. Twenty-one subjects were used for the purposes of this investigation in their everyday environment. Postural adaptation and wheelchair fitting in the Seating Buggy were assessed from the viewpoint of the Active Balanced Seating by a seating expert. The subjects fell into two categories, as follows: 11 for appropriate or nearly appropriate fitting, and 10 for ill-fitting. The depth of thoracic support and the forward distance of lumbar support for those who claimed that it was ill-fitting were significantly reduced compared with that of those who claimed that the Seating Buggy offered an appropriate or nearly appropriate fitting. It was suggested that the properly adjusted depth of thoracic support and distance of the lumbar support were related to the resulting satisfactory head-neck alignment and sitting balance of the patients with profound cerebral palsy. PMID:17435368

  9. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-06-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. PMID:26744190

  10. Analysis of water-surface profiles in Leon County and the city of Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, M.A.; Orr, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water surface profiles for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-yr recurrence interval floods for most of the streams that drain developing areas of Leon County and the city of Tallahassee are presented. The principal streams studied are in the Lake Munson, Lake Lafayette, and Lake Jackson basins Peak discharges were computed from regression equations based on information gained from 15 streamflow stations in the area. Standard step-backwater procedures were used to determine the water-surface elevations for the streams. The flood elevations were generally higher than those in the Flood Insurance Studies for Tallahassee (1976) and Leon County (1982). The primary reason for the higher profiles is that peak discharges used in this report are larger than those used previously, largely due to changes in land use. The flood profiles for Bradford Brook, North Branch Gum Creek, and West Branch Gum Creek generally match those in the Leon County Flood Insurance Studies. Channel improvements in some areas would lower the flood elevation in that area, but would probably increase flooding downstream. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity among four ethnic groups in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bruce A; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Kirbah, Salwa; Sidney, Sheree S; Rosenberger, Joshua; Bassie, Larry; Alie, Joe A D; McLean, David C; Garvey, W Timothy; Ely, Bert

    2005-09-01

    Although there are numerous ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the Mende and Temne together account for approximately 60% of the total population. To see if genetic differences could be observed among ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable 1 (HV1) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was determined from samples of the two major ethnic groups, the Mende (n=59) and Temne (n=121), and of two minor ethnic groups, the Loko (n=29) and Limba (n=67). Among these 276 HV1 sequences, 164 individual haplotypes were observed. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the distribution of these haplotypes within the Limba sample was significantly different from that of the other ethnic groups. No significant genetic variation was seen between the Mende, Temne, and Loko. These results indicate that distinguishing genetic differences can be observed among ethnic groups residing in historically close proximity to one another. Furthermore, we observed some mitochondrial DNA haplotypes that are common among the Sierra Leone ethnic groups but that have not been observed in other published studies of West African ethnic groups. Therefore, we may have evidence for mtDNA lineages that are unique to this region of West Africa. PMID:15761855

  12. Learning from the challenges of Ebola Virus Disease contact tracers in Sierra Leone, February, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sierra Leone was in the process of strengthening tracing of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) contact with training of contact tracers, continuous mentoring and monitoring, supervision and continuous support. This was through various national and international organizations. This study aimed at identifying the challenges of contact tracers with a view of improving contact tracing activities in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone. Methods In-depth interview was conducted among contact tracers who were actively involved in contact tracing within the 4 weeks preceding the interview. In-depth interview guide was used to interview the contact tracers. Questions were asked about the state of EVD outbreak, challenges of contact tracing, ways to improving contact tracers activities and ways to ensure community participation and follow up action. Results A total of 12 Contact tracers were interviewed. Most of the contact tracers saw the lifting of ban by the Government on movement as a delay to stopping the outbreak. Some of them were being threatened by their communities and insulted. Some communities with EVD cases felt it was no longer in Sierra Leone and that the contact tracers were the ones infecting the people with Ebola. More than 80% of the participants indicated that retraining of contact tracers and re-orientation of community members would help in putting a stop to the outbreak. Conclusion All participants indicated interest in improving their activities and performance. They suggested that more social mobilization is needed to ensure the cooperation of their communities. PMID:26740849

  13. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-01-01

    The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. PMID:26744190

  14. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chapter. (e) No certificate holder may take off or land an airplane unless each passenger seat back is in... during take off, landing, and movement on the surface. (2) Except as required in paragraph (c)(1) of this... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held...

  16. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter. (e) No certificate holder may take off or land an airplane unless each passenger seat back is in... during take off, landing, and movement on the surface. (2) Except as required in paragraph (c)(1) of this... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held...

  17. 9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Grandstand seating and aisles viewed from roof of north addition of Clubhouse (roof of Chinook Pass Room). TV Center is partially visible on far left. Camera pointed N. (July 1993) - Longacres, Original Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  18. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  19. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... vehicle. But, many municipalities exempt taxis from this safety rule, the researchers said. Study senior investigator Dr. Ruth Milanaik is with Cohen Children's Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. "Given that car safety seats have been shown to significantly decrease the ...

  20. How Far up Am I? The Mathematics of Stadium Seating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Rebecca; Romero, David; Krueger, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The mathematics students are given a task to understand the fundamentals of liner functions by analyzing the height of the football stadium bleachers, as studying mathematical relationships in real-world contexts can enhance a student's knowledge of mathematics. The study of the stadium seating problem helps students to understand quadratic,…

  1. Seating tool for preparing molded-plug terminations on FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, C. M.; Corum, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Hand-operated tool positions and seats window piece and conductor spacer onto conductors of two stripped cables during process of terminating cables with molded plug. Tool accommodates cables up to 3 in. wide and is used in conjunction with folding tools.

  2. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale.

    PubMed

    Barks, Lelia; Luther, Stephen L; Brown, Lisa M; Schulz, Brian; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking) are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study's purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS), Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI), Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI) of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p < 0.001) and negatively with muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale, r = -0.44, p = 0.001), supporting SPS construct validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha). Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research. PMID:26230339

  3. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section 571.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards §...

  4. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 207; Seating systems. 571.207 Section 571.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards §...

  5. Getting a Seat at the Table--An Ongoing Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing effort in the Massachusetts School Library Association (MSLA). Library media specialists who are members of the MSLA have utilized key components to successfully advocate for library media centers in the state of Massachusetts. These key components have resulted in their acquiring seats at important decision…

  6. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, G. J.; Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  7. The Effect of Seat Location and Movement or Permanence on Student-Initiated Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tory; Hoopes, Olivia; Eggett, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the effect of seat location on student performance and participation in the classroom. The two major hypotheses are (1) that seat location influences student behavior and (2) that seat preference and selection is associated with personality traits of students. This study evaluated both hypotheses within a 55…

  8. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meets the frontal crash protection requirements of S5.1 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). S4.1... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  9. Seat Belts in School Buses: Analyzing the Literature and Using the Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    This literature review addresses three specific safety issues: installing seat belts in new buses, retrofitting existing buses with seat belts, and comparing seat belts with other safety features. While inconclusive evidence is provided concerning the first issue, studies do suggest retiring older buses and possibly equipping buses that meet PL…

  10. 23 CFR 1340.10 - Submission and approval of seat belt survey design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE Administrative Requirements § 1340.10 Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. (a) Contents: The following...

  11. 23 CFR 1340.10 - Submission and approval of seat belt survey design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE Administrative Requirements § 1340.10 Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. (a) Contents: The following...

  12. 23 CFR 1340.10 - Submission and approval of seat belt survey design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Submission and approval of seat belt survey design. 1340.10 Section 1340.10 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE Administrative Requirements § 1340.10 Submission and approval of seat...

  13. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seat belt use policies...

  14. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and... Cargo Accommodations § 27.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat, safety belt, harness, and adjacent part of the rotorcraft at each station designated for occupancy...

  15. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seat belt use policies...

  16. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  17. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seat belt use policies...

  18. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  19. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  20. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and... and Cargo Accommodations § 29.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat, safety belt, harness, and adjacent part of the rotorcraft at each station designated for occupancy...

  1. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  2. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  3. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seat belt use policies...

  4. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ...The ONMS is seeking applications for the following vacant seats on the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational/Commercial Fishing and Education seats. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management......

  5. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  6. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall be... No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). S4.1.2(a) Notwithstanding the requirement of S4.1.1, each...

  7. Effects of Seating Position on Student Performance in High School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Paul Eric

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of seating position on mathematics course performance with relationship to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The study was conducted using three seating arrangements: alphabetic, student self-select and rotation. The data collected included the students' seating position,…

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  12. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  14. Patterns of Seated Activity in Sensory Gardens among Children Educated in Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Hazreena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the seated activity among children educated in special schools and their adult carers in two sensory gardens in the United Kingdom. Seated activity was established whether the seating was used as intended or whether users preferred to sit on other attributes during their learning session. The objectives of this study are to…

  15. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  16. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  17. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  18. Academic Library Seating: A Survey of Usage, with Implications for Space Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organ, Michael; Jantti, Margie

    1997-01-01

    To identify areas where seats could be removed to accommodate a growing collection, the University of Wollongong (New South Wales, Australia) library surveyed patron seating usage. The survey supported a 12% reduction in seating, which enabled the installation of additional shelving and a compactus to store 20,000 volumes while having a minimal…

  19. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: 1. To collect spinal elongation induced seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments. 2. To provide information relating to the seated height rate of change over time for astronauts subjected to microgravity. We will collect: Seated Height measurement (ground & flight) and digital still photograph (ground and flight).

  20. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D Appendix D to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL...

  1. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Seat Belt Use, 23 CFR Part 1340), NHTSA will calculate a State seat belt use rate, using the last... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D Appendix D to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL...

  2. 76 FR 291 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... forward- and aft-facing seats in mind, the orientation of the seat does not change the relevant test... absorption; body- to-body impacts are unacceptable. 2. The restraint system and the retention of occupants in... for head contact with the seat and/or adjacent structures. 2. Body-to-Wall/Furnishing Contact:...

  3. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  4. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  5. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Digital flight data recorders for 10-19... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  6. 26 CFR 49.4261-9 - Seats and berths; rate and application of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax at a prescribed rate upon payments of any amounts for seating or sleeping accommodations in... tax. The tax is imposed under section 4261(c) upon the amount paid for seating or sleeping... section 4261 (a) or (b) are also applicable to the tax on payments for seating or sleeping accommodations....

  7. Rear Seat Occupant Thorax Protection in Near Side Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Katarina; Rosén, Erik; Sunnevang, Cecilia; Boström, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Thoracic side-airbags (SAB) have proven to protect front seat occupants in side impacts. This benefit has not been evaluated for rear seat occupants who are typically small statured. The objective was to analyze field data from rear seat occupants in near side impacts, and evaluate the effect of a SAB in the rear seat, through full scale vehicle tests. A field study using the NASS-CDS database was performed to review rear seat crash characteristics, occupant injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 3+, AIS3+) and injury sources. Full scale tests were performed with the side impact dummy SID-IIs at two different crash severities, with and without SAB in a midsize passenger car. Field data showed that of all AIS3+ injured restrained occupants 13 years and older, 59% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 38% had AIS3+ head injuries. The thoracic injuries were distributed to lungs (60%), skeletal fractures (38%) and injuries to arteries (1,26%) and heart (0,1%). For AIS3+ injured children, age 4–12, 51% had AIS3+ thoracic injuries and 54% had AIS3+ head injuries. Compared to adults, children sustained less fractures and more lung injuries. The rear side interior was the main injury source regardless of age group. In the full scale tests, the thoracic side-airbag reduced the average rib deflection by 50% and resulted in an AIS3+ injury risk reduction from 36% to 3%. At the higher impact speed, SAB reduced the injury risk from 93% to 24%. The full scale crash tests showed that SAB offer a significant potential for thoracic injury reduction in the crash severities causing the majority of serious injuries in real life crashes. PMID:20184828

  8. Heat generated during seating of dental implant fixtures.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2014-04-01

    Frictional heat can be generated during seating of dental implants into a drill-prepared osteotomy. This in vitro study tested the heat generated by implant seating in dense bovine mandible ramus. A thermocouple was placed approximately 0.5 mm from the rim of the osteotomy during seating of each dental implant. Four diameters of implants were tested. The average temperature increases were 0.075°C for the 5.7-mm-diameter implant, 0.97°C for the 4.7-mm-diameter implant, 1.4°C for the 3.7-mm-diameter implant, and 8.6°C for the 2.5-mm-diameter implant. The results showed that heat was indeed generated and a small temperature rise occurred, apparently by the friction of the implant surface against the fresh-cut bone surface. Bone is a poor thermal conductor. The titanium of the implant and the steel of the handpiece are much better heat conductors. Titanium may be 70 times more heat conductive than bone. The larger diameter and displacement implant may act as a heat sink to draw away any heat produced from the friction of seating the implant at the bone-implant interface. The peak temperature duration was momentary, and not measured, but this was approximately less than 1 second. Except for the 2.5-mm-diameter implants, the temperature rises and durations were found to be below those previously deemed to be detrimental, so no clinically significant osseous damage would be expected during dental implant fixture seating of standard and large-diameter-sized implants. A 2.5-mm implant may generate detrimental heat during seating in nonvital bone, but this may be clinically insignificant in vital bone. The surface area and thermal conductivity are important factors in removing generated heat transfer at the bone-implant interface. The F value as determined by analysis of variance was 69.22, and the P value was less than .0001, demonstrating significant differences between the groups considered as a whole. PMID:24400840

  9. The Children's War: Towards Peace in Sierra Leone. A Field Report Assessing the Protection and Assistance Needs of Sierra Leonean Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Marc

    Based on a 3-week field visit to Sierra Leone and Guinea, this report investigates why children (ages 0-17) have become key figures in Sierra Leone's civil war, and explores the problems that war has caused them. The report describes significant new effects of violence on three groups of Sierra Leonean children, very few of whom have received any…

  10. Preventive Effects of Seat Belt on Clinical Outcomes for Road Traffic Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proper seat belt use saves lives; however, the use rate decreased in Korea. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of seat belt on case-fatality across drivers and passengers. We used the Emergency Department based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 17 EDs between 2011 and 2012. All of adult injured patients from road traffic injuries (RTI) in-vehicle of less than 10-seat van were eligible, excluding cases with unknown seat belt use and outcomes. Primary and secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality and intracranial injury. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of seat belt use and driving status for study outcomes adjusting for potential confounders. Among 23,698 eligible patients, 15,304 (64.6%) wore seat belts. Driver, middle aged (30-44 yr), male, daytime injured patients were more likely to use seat belts (all P < 0.001). In terms of clinical outcome, no seat belt group had higher proportions of case-fatality and intracranial injury compared to seat belt group (both P < 0.001). Compared to seat belt group, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt group were 10.43 (7.75-14.04) for case-fatality and 2.68 (2.25-3.19) for intracranial injury respectively. In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of no seat belt use for case-fatality were 11.71 (8.45-16.22) in drivers and 5.52 (2.83-14.76) in non-driving passengers, respectively. Wearing seat belt has significantly preventive effects on case-fatality and intracranial injury. Public health efforts to increase seat belt use are needed to reduce health burden from RTIs. PMID:26713066

  11. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  12. The influence of seat configuration on maximal average crank power during pedaling: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    Manipulating seat configuration (i.e., seat tube angle, seat height and pelvic orientation) alters the bicycle-rider geometry, which influences lower extremity muscle kinematics and ultimately muscle force and power generation during pedaling. Previous studies have sought to identify the optimal configuration, but isolating the effects of specific variables on rider performance from the confounding effect of rider adaptation makes such studies challenging. Of particular interest is the influence of seat tube angle on rider performance, as seat tube angle varies across riding disciplines (e.g., road racers vs. triathletes). The goals of the current study were to use muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of pedaling to 1) identify the overall optimal seat configuration that produces maximum crank power and 2) systematically vary seat tube angle to assess how it influences maximum crank power. The simulations showed that a seat height of 0.76 m (or 102% greater than trochanter height), seat tube angle of 85.1 deg, and pelvic orientation of 20.5 deg placed the major power-producing muscles on more favorable regions of the intrinsic force-length-velocity relationships to generate a maximum average crank power of 981 W. However, seat tube angle had little influence on crank power, with maximal values varying at most by 1% across a wide range of seat tube angles (65 to 110 deg). The similar power values across the wide range of seat tube angles were the result of nearly identical joint kinematics, which occurred using a similar optimal seat height and pelvic orientation while systematically shifting the pedal angle with increasing seat tube angles. PMID:21245509

  13. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  14. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  15. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  16. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  17. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  18. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Spieth, H.; Trabold, E.

    1980-01-01

    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials (foam cushion, decorative fabric, slip sheet, fire-blocking layer, and cushion-reinforcement layer) were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers (decorative fabric, slip sheet, fire blocking, and cushion reinforcement) with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. Top layers exhibiting desirable burning profiles were combined with foam cushion materials. The smoke and heat-release rate of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/sq cm. Choices of contact and silicon adhesives for bonding multilayered assemblies were based on flammability, burn and smoke generation, animal toxicity tests, and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  19. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  20. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  1. The influence of vibration on seated human drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Amzar; Fard, Mohammad; Azari, Michael F; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Arnardóttir, Erna Sif; Jazar, Reza; Maeda, Setsuo

    2016-08-01

    Although much is known about human body vibration discomfort, there is little research data on the effects of vibration on vehicle occupant drowsiness. A laboratory experimental setup has been developed. Vibration was applied to the volunteers sitting on the vehicle seat mounted on the vibration platform. Seated volunteers were exposed to a Gaussian random vibration, with 1-15 Hz frequency bandwidth at 0.2 ms(-2) r.m.s., for 20-minutes. Two drowsiness measurement methods were used, Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Significant changes in PVT (p<0.05) and KSS (p<0.05) were detected in all eighteen volunteers. Furthermore, a moderate correlation (r>0.4) was observed between objective measurement (PVT) and subjective measurement (KSS). The results suggest that exposure to vibration even for 20-minutes can cause significant drowsiness impairing psychomotor performance. This finding has important implications for road safety. PMID:26829971

  2. RESNA's position on wheelchairs used as seats in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Bertocci, Gina; Schneider, Lawrence W; Manary, Miriam; Karg, Patricia; Brown, Dalthea; Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This position paper is based on the premise that those who ride seated in wheelchairs are entitled to equivalent occupant safety when they are traveling in motor vehicles. The document summarizes research and best practice for safety and selection of crashworthy wheelchairs with the requisite features required by the WC19 safety standard when it is necessary for individuals to use a wheelchair as a seat in a motor vehicle. Recommendations are based on data from accident and injury databases, prior research and a synopsis of the design, testing, performance and labeling requirements of ANSI and ISO voluntary industry standards for wheelchair transportation safety. This paper is intended for an audience of consumers, rehabilitation and health care professionals, manufacturers of wheelchairs and wheelchair transportation equipment and those who make reimbursement and public policy decisions. PMID:22876735

  3. A quantitative measurement method for comparison of seated postures.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Susan J; Hollington, James

    2016-05-01

    This technical note proposes a method to measure and compare seated postures. The three-dimensional locations of palpable anatomical landmarks corresponding to the anterior superior iliac spines, clavicular notch, head, shoulders and knees are measured in terms of x, y and z co-ordinates in the reference system of the measuring apparatus. These co-ordinates are then transformed onto a body-based axis system which allows comparison within-subject. The method was tested on eleven unimpaired adult participants and the resulting data used to calculate a Least Significant Difference (LSD) for the measure, which is used to determine whether two postures are significantly different from one another. The method was found to be sensitive to the four following standardised static postural perturbations: posterior pelvic tilt, pelvic obliquity, pelvic rotation, and abduction of the thighs. The resulting data could be used as an outcome measure for the postural alignment aspect of seating interventions in wheelchairs. PMID:26920073

  4. Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the Commander's Seat on the Flight Deck of the Orbiter Discovery. Toward the right of the view and in front of te seat is the commander's Rotational Hand Controller. The pilot station has an identical controller. These control the acceleration in the roll pitch and yaw directions via the reaction control system and/or the orbiter maneuvering system while outside of Earth's atmosphere or via the orbiter's aerosurfaces wile in Earth's atmosphere when the atmospheric density permits the surfaces to be effective. There are a number of switches on the controller, most notably a trigger switch which is a push-to-talk switch for voice communication and a large button on top of the controller which is a switch to engage the backup flight system. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. The influence of vibration on seated human drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    AZIZAN, Amzar; FARD, Mohammad; AZARI, Michael F.; BENEDIKTSDÓTTIR, Bryndís; ARNARDÓTTIR, Erna Sif; JAZAR, Reza; MAEDA, Setsuo

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about human body vibration discomfort, there is little research data on the effects of vibration on vehicle occupant drowsiness. A laboratory experimental setup has been developed. Vibration was applied to the volunteers sitting on the vehicle seat mounted on the vibration platform. Seated volunteers were exposed to a Gaussian random vibration, with 1–15 Hz frequency bandwidth at 0.2 ms−2 r.m.s., for 20-minutes. Two drowsiness measurement methods were used, Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Significant changes in PVT (p<0.05) and KSS (p<0.05) were detected in all eighteen volunteers. Furthermore, a moderate correlation (r>0.4) was observed between objective measurement (PVT) and subjective measurement (KSS). The results suggest that exposure to vibration even for 20-minutes can cause significant drowsiness impairing psychomotor performance. This finding has important implications for road safety. PMID:26829971

  6. Penetrating pediatric trauma owing to improper child safety seat use.

    PubMed

    Riggle, Andrew; Bollins, John; Konda, Subbarredy; Aggarwal, Rahul; Beiswenger, Ashlei

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 15-month-old child with a history of thoracic impalement after improper safety seat restraint. The foreign body was stabilized with bulky dressings in the field before transport. Imaging revealed possible pulmonary artery involvement; and consequently, a thoracotomy was done to obtain vascular control before removal. We use this case to highlight prehospital care and operative management of a patient with foreign body impalement. PMID:20105612

  7. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... longitudinal direction; (c) For a seat belt assembly attached to the seat—the force specified in paragraph (a... accordance with S4.2 of § 571.210; and (d) In its rearmost position—a force that produces a 373 newton meters... restraining device. S4.3.2.1Static force. (a) Once engaged, the restraining device for a forward-facing...

  8. Magnetorheological impact seat suspensions for ground vehicle crash mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-04-01

    Semi-active magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) are one type of the most promising actuator for both the vibration and shock control. This paper investigates the frontal crash mitigation performance of semi-active MR impact seat suspensions for ground vehicles. The characteristics of two MREAs, a conventional MREA and an MREA with an internal bypass, with an identical volume, are theoretically evaluated and compared. To explore the control effectiveness of MREAs in the shock control systems, the mechanical model of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) sliding seat suspension system with MREAs is constructed. An optimal Bingham number control, which is to minimize the crash pulse loads transmitted to occupants by utilizing maximum stroke of the MREAs based on initial velocity of crash pulse, mass, and damping, is proposed and developed to improve the crash mitigation performance of the 4DOF MR sliding seat suspension control systems. The simulated control performances of the mitigation systems based on the MREAs with different functional structures are evaluated, compared, and analyzed. The research results indicate that (1) the constant stroking load velocity range of the MREAs is of significance to evaluate the controllability of the MREAs (i.e., the effectiveness of the semi-active shock control systems), and (2) suboptimal Bingham number control cannot realize "soft landing" (i.e., either an end-stop impact or incomplete utilization of the MREA stroke happens).

  9. Effect of Cognitive Load on Seating Posture in Children.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although children are frequently required to sit upright, it is often difficult to maintain this posture when performing cognitive tasks. Information about the relationship between a cognitive tasks and postural seating control is important for children to complete tasks more effectively. To determine the muscle activity and body sway of children in a seated posture while performing a cognitive task, changes in muscle activity and center of pressure (COP) were recorded while 4(th) grade children performed arithmetic tasks. Electromyography was recorded from the internal oblique and lumbar multifidus muscles, and the COP was recorded using a baropodometer placed on the stool. These variables were measured during easy (EA) and difficult (DA) arithmetic tasks. EMG activity decreased during the EA and DA tasks, while the COP was displaced in the DA task. The results of the arithmetic tasks were not related to the EMG or COP changes. Attention to maintain a seated posture may be reduced when children perform cognitive tasks. Therefore, it may be better to allow children to alter their posture especially when they are performing difficult tasks. In this research, we only used arithmetic tasks as the cognitive exercise, and therefore, other types of tasks should be examined. PMID:26317316

  10. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  11. The Impact of the West Africa Ebola Outbreak on Obstetric Health Care in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Brolin Ribacke, Kim J.; van Duinen, Alex J.; Nordenstedt, Helena; Höijer, Jonas; Molnes, Ragnhild; Froseth, Torunn Wigum; Koroma, AP; Darj, Elisabeth; Bolkan, Håkon Angel; Ekström, AnnaMia

    2016-01-01

    Background As Sierra Leone celebrates the end of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, we can begin to fully grasp its impact on already weak health systems. The EVD outbreak in West Africa forced many hospitals to close down or reduce their activity, either to prevent nosocomial transmission or because of staff shortages. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of EVD on nationwide access to obstetric care in Sierra Leone. Methods and Findings Community health officers collected weekly data between January 2014—May 2015 on in-hospital deliveries and caesarean sections (C-sections) from all open facilities (public, private for-profit and private non-profit sectors) offering emergency obstetrics in Sierra Leone. This was compared to official data of EVD cases per district. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to compute risk and rate estimates. Nationwide, the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections decreased by over 20% during the EVD outbreak. The decline occurred early on in the EVD outbreak and was mainly attributable to the closing of private not-for-profit hospitals rather than government facilities. Due to difficulties in collecting data in the midst of an epidemic, limitations of this study include some missing data points. Conclusions Both the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections substantially declined shortly after the onset of the EVD outbreak. Since access to emergency obstetric care, like C-sections, is associated with decreased maternal mortality, many women are likely to have died due to the reduced access to appropriate care during childbirth. Future research on indirect health effects of health system breakdown should ideally be nationwide and continue also into the recovery phase. It is also important to understand the mechanisms behind the deterioration so that important health services can be reestablished. PMID:26910462

  12. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers. Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just ‘business as normal’. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis. PMID:25797469

  13. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-02-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers.Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just 'business as normal'. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis. PMID:25797469

  14. Tertiary carbonate-dissolution cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Cepek, P.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the Tertiary section on Sierra Leone Rise off northwest Africa consists of chalk, marl, and limestone that show cyclic alterations of clay-rich and clay-poor beds about 20-60 cm thick. On the basis of biostratigraphic accumulation rates, the cycles in Oligocene and Miocene chalk have periods which average about 44,000 years, and those in Eocene siliceous limestone have periods of 4000-27,000 years. Several sections were sampled in detail to further define the cycles in terms of content of CaCO3, clay minerals, and relative abundances of calcareous nannofossils. Extending information gained by analyses of Pleistocene cores from the continental margin of northwest Africa to the Tertiary cycles on Sierra Leone Rise, both dilution by noncarbonate material and dissolution of CaCO3 could have contributed to the observed relative variations in clay and CaCO3. However, dissolution of CaCO3 as the main cause of the carbonate-clay cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, rather than dilution by clay, is suggested by the large amount of change (several thousand percent) in terrigenous influx required to produce the observed variations in amount of clay and by the marked increase in abundance of dissolution-resistant discoasters relative to more easily dissolved coccoliths in low-carbonate parts of cycles. The main cause of dissolution of CaCO3 was shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the early Neogene and climatically induced fluctuations in the thickness of Antarctic Bottom Water. ?? 1981.

  15. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Sierra Leone from a nationwide community survey

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiten D; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Samai, Mohamed; Farahzad, Mina M; Cassidy, Laura D; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large number of unrepaired inguinal hernias is expected in sub-Saharan Africa where late presentation often results in incarceration, strangulation, or giant scrotal hernias. However, no representative population-based data is available to quantify the prevalence of hernias. We present data on groin masses in Sierra Leone to estimate prevalence, barriers to care, and associated disability. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey of 75 clusters of 25 households with 2 respondents each was designed to calculate the prevalence of and disability caused by groin hernias in Sierra Leone using a verbal head-to-toe examination. Barriers to hernia repairs were assessed by asking participants the main reason for delay in surgical care. Results Information was obtained from 3645 respondents in 1843 households, of which 1669 (46%) were male and included in the study. In total, 117 males or 7.01% (95% CI 5.64-8.38) reported a soft or reducible swelling likely representing a hernia with four men having two masses. Of the 93.2% who indicated the need for health care, only 22.2% underwent a procedure, citing limited funds (59.0%) as the major barrier to care. On disability assessment, 20.2% were not able to work secondary to the groin swelling. Conclusions The results indicate groin masses represent a major burden for the male population in Sierra Leone. Improving access to surgical care for adult patients with hernias and early intervention for children will be vital to address the burden of disease and prevent complications or limitations of daily activity. PMID:24241327

  16. Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi-Gang; Shi, Wei-Feng; Liu, Di; Qian, Jun; Liang, Long; Bo, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Jun; Ren, Hong-Guang; Fan, Hang; Ni, Ming; Sun, Yang; Jin, Yuan; Teng, Yue; Li, Zhen; Kargbo, David; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Chen, Cheng-Chao; Lan, Zhi-Heng; Jiang, Hui; Luo, Yang; Lu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Fan; Hu, Yi; Cao, Yu-Xi; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Su, Hao-Xiang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Wen-Sen; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Bu, Zhao-Yang; Guo, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, Liu-Bo; Nie, Wei-Min; Bai, Chang-Qing; Sun, Chun-Hua; An, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Pei-Song; Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan; Huang, Yong; Mi, Zhi-Qiang; Yu, Dong; Yao, Hong-Wu; Feng, Yong; Xia, Zhi-Ping; Zheng, Xue-Xing; Yang, Song-Tao; Lu, Bing; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Kargbo, Brima; He, Fu-Chu; Gao, George F; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-08-01

    A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 × 10(-3) to 1.41 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:25970247

  17. Rapid assessment of Ebola infection prevention and control needs--six districts, Sierra Leone, October 2014.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Ishani; O'Connor, Katherine A; Adams, Monica L; Rao, Carol Y; Kilmarx, Peter H; Park, Benjamin J; Mermin, Jonathan; Kargbo, Brima; Wurie, Alie H; Clarke, Kevin R

    2014-12-12

    As of October 31, 2014, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation had reported 3,854 laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) since the outbreak began in May 2014; 199 (5.2%) of these cases were among health care workers. Ebola infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are essential to interrupt Ebola virus transmission and protect the health workforce, a population that is disproportionately affected by Ebola because of its increased risk of exposure yet is essential to patient care required for outbreak control and maintenance of the country's health system at large. To rapidly identify existing IPC resources and high priority outbreak response needs, an assessment by CDC Ebola Response Team members was conducted in six of the 14 districts in Sierra Leone, consisting of health facility observations and structured interviews with key informants in facilities and government district health management offices. Health system gaps were identified in all six districts, including shortages or absence of trained health care staff, personal protective equipment (PPE), safe patient transport, and standardized IPC protocols. Based on rapid assessment findings and key stakeholder input, priority IPC actions were recommended. Progress has since been made in developing standard operating procedures, increasing laboratory and Ebola treatment capacity and training the health workforce. However, further system strengthening is needed. In particular, a successful Ebola outbreak response in Sierra Leone will require an increase in coordinated and comprehensive district-level IPC support to prevent ongoing Ebola virus transmission in household, patient transport, and health facility settings. PMID:25503922

  18. Technical efficiency of peripheral health units in Pujehun district of Sierra Leone: a DEA application

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ade; Kirigia, Joses M; Zere, Eyob A; Barry, Saidou P; Kirigia, Doris G; Kamara, Clifford; Muthuri, Lenity HK

    2005-01-01

    Background The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method has been fruitfully used in many countries in Asia, Europe and North America to shed light on the efficiency of health facilities and programmes. There is, however, a dearth of such studies in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Since hospitals and health centres are important instruments in the efforts to scale up pro-poor cost-effective interventions aimed at achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, decision-makers need to ensure that these health facilities provide efficient services. The objective of this study was to measure the technical efficiency (TE) and scale efficiency (SE) of a sample of public peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. Methods This study applied the Data Envelopment Analysis approach to investigate the TE and SE among a sample of 37 PHUs in Sierra Leone. Results Twenty-two (59%) of the 37 health units analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average score of 63% (standard deviation = 18%). On the other hand, 24 (65%) health units were found to be scale inefficient, with an average scale efficiency score of 72% (standard deviation = 17%). Conclusion It is concluded that with the existing high levels of pure technical and scale inefficiency, scaling up of interventions to achieve both global and regional targets such as the MDG and Abuja health targets becomes far-fetched. In a country with per capita expenditure on health of about US$7, and with only 30% of its population having access to health services, it is demonstrated that efficiency savings can significantly augment the government's initiatives to cater for the unmet health care needs of the population. Therefore, we strongly recommend that Sierra Leone and all other countries in the Region should institutionalise health facility efficiency monitoring at the Ministry of Health headquarter (MoH/HQ) and at each health district headquarter. PMID:16354299

  19. Clinical Illness and Outcomes in Patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Schieffelin, J.S.; Shaffer, J.G.; Goba, A.; Gbakie, M.; Gire, S.K.; Colubri, A.; Sealfon, R.S.G.; Kanneh, L.; Moigboi, A.; Momoh, M.; Fullah, M.; Moses, L.M.; Brown, B.L.; Andersen, K.G.; Winnicki, S.; Schaffner, S.F.; Park, D.J.; Yozwiak, N.L.; Jiang, P.-P.; Kargbo, D.; Jalloh, S.; Fonnie, M.; Sinnah, V.; French, I.; Kovoma, A.; Kamara, F.K.; Tucker, V.; Konuwa, E.; Sellu, J.; Mustapha, I.; Foday, M.; Yillah, M.; Kanneh, F.; Saffa, S.; Massally, J.L.B.; Boisen, M.L.; Branco, L.M.; Vandi, M.A.; Grant, D.S.; Happi, C.; Gevao, S.M.; Fletcher, T.E.; Fowler, R.A.; Bausch, D.G.; Sabeti, P.C.; Khan, S.H.; Garry, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. METHODS We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. RESULTS Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P = 0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P = 0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded

  20. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.