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Sample records for propagation two-stream theory

  1. Two-stream theory of reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1979-01-01

    Spectral reflectance of snow under diffuse illumination is studied using the two-stream approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The scattering and absorption parameters of the radiative transfer equation - the single scattering albedo, the optical depth, and the integrated phase function are obtained from the grain size and density of snow. Analytical expressions for the intensity within the snowpack, the reflectance, and the asymptotic flux extinction coefficient, are given. Good agreement is shown between the theory and available experimental data on visible and near-infrared reflectance, and the asymptotic flux extinction coefficient. The theory may also be used to explain the observed effect of aging on the snow reflectance.

  2. Two-stream theory of spectral reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral reflectance of snow under diffuse illumination is studied using the two-stream approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The scattering and absorption within the snowcover due to the randomly distributed ice grains are characterized by the single scattering albedo and anisotropic phase function. Geometric optics calculations are used to relate the scattering and absorption parameters to grain size and density of snow. Analytical expressions for the intensity within the snowpack and the asymptotic flux extinction coefficient are also obtained. Good agreement is shown between the theory and available experimental data on visible and near-infrared reflectance and asymptotic flux extinction coefficient. The theory also may be used to explain the observed effect of aging on the snow reflectance.

  3. Weibel and Two-Stream Instabilities for Intense Charged Particle Beam Propagation through Neutralizing Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Davidson; Igor Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev

    2004-04-09

    Properties of the multi-species electromagnetic Weibel and electrostatic two-stream instabilities are investigated for an intense ion beam propagating through background plasma. Assuming that the background plasma electrons provide complete charge and current neutralization, detailed linear stability properties are calculated within the framework of a macroscopic cold-fluid model for a wide range of system parameters.

  4. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-04-01

    The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics. However, the beam-plasma interaction can result in the development of collective instabilities that may have deleterious effects on ballistic propagation of an ion beam. In the case of fast, light-ion beams, non-linear fields created by instabilities can lead to significant defocusing of the beam. We study an ion beam pulse propagating in a background plasma, which is subjected to two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons, using PIC code LSP. The defocusing effects of the instability on the beam can be much more pronounced in small radius beams. We show through simulations that a beamlet produced from an ion beam passed through an aperture can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability and quantify its defocusing effects. The effect can be observed on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma.

  5. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    SciTech Connect

    Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-04-15

    The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics. However, the beam-plasma interaction can result in the development of collective instabilities that may have deleterious effects on ballistic propagation of an ion beam. In the case of fast, light-ion beams, non-linear fields created by instabilities can lead to significant defocusing of the beam. We study an ion beam pulse propagating in a background plasma, which is subjected to two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons, using PIC code LSP. The defocusing effects of the instability on the beam can be much more pronounced in small radius beams. We show through simulations that a beamlet produced from an ion beam passed through an aperture can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability and quantify its defocusing effects. The effect can be observed on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma.

  6. An axially propagating two-stream instability in the Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsikata, S.; Cavalier, J.; Héron, A.; Honoré, C.; Grésillon, D.; Lemoine, N.; Coulette, D.

    2014-07-15

    Collective Thomson scattering experiments reveal the presence of high-frequency, axial electron density fluctuations at millimetric wavelengths in the Hall thruster plasma. The properties of these fluctuations are investigated experimentally and via linear kinetic theory. The relative drift of electrons and ions in the axial direction is found to be insufficient to cause excitation of the observed mode. Instead, the mode is determined to be a two-stream instability arising due to the velocity difference between singly and doubly charged ion populations in the plume.

  7. Two-stream Maxwellian kinetic theory of cloud droplet growth by condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, N. F.; Scott, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    A new growth rate formula (NGRF) is developed for the rate of growth of cloud droplets by condensation. The theory used is a modification of the Lees-Shankar theory in which the two-stream Maxwellian distribution function of Lees is used in Maxwell's method of moments to determine the transport of water vapor to and heat away from the droplet. Boundary conditions at the droplet are the usual conditions set in terms of accommodation coefficients, and the solution passes smoothly into diffusion flow in the far region. Comparisons are given between NGRF and the conventional formula showing close agreement (approximately 0.1%) for large radii with significant difference (approximately 5%) for small radii (not greater than 1 micron). Growth times for haze droplets in a Laktionov chamber are computed.

  8. Theory of Collisional Two-Stream Plasma Instabilities in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Chad Allen; Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers; Fontenla, Juan

    2014-06-01

    The solar chromosphere experiences intense heating just above its temperature minimum. The heating increases the electron temperature in this region by over 2000 K. Furthermore, it exhibits little time variation and appears widespread across the solar disk. Although semi-empirical models, UV continuum observations, and line emission measurements confirm the existence of the heating, its source remains unexplained. Potential heating sources such as acoustic shocks, resistive dissipation, and magnetic reconnection via nanoflares fail to account for the intensity, persistence, and ubiquity of the heating. Fontenla (2005) suggested turbulence from a collisional two-stream plasma instability known as the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) could contribute significantly to the heating. This instability is known to heat the plasma of the E-region ionosphere which bears many similarities to the chromospheric plasma. However, the ionospheric theory of the FBI does not account for the diverse ion species found in the solar chromosphere. This work develops a new collisional, two-stream instability theory appropriate for the chromospheric plasma environment using a linear fluid analysis to derive a new dispersion relationship and critical E x B drift velocity required to trigger the instability. Using a 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, radiative transfer model and careful estimates of collision rates and magnetic field strengths, we calculate the trigger velocities necessary to induce the instability throughout the chromosphere. Trigger velocities as low as 4 km s^-1 are found near the temperature minimum, well below the local neutral acoustic speed in that region. From this, we expect the instability to occur frequently, converting kinetic energy contained in neutral convective flows from the photosphere into thermal energy via turbulence. This could contribute significantly to chromospheric heating and explain its persistent and ubiquitous nature.

  9. Two-stream Stability Properties of the Return-Current Layer for Intense Ion Beam Propagation Through Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev, Ronald C. Davidson and Mikhail Dorf

    2009-09-10

    When an ion beam with sharp edge propagates through a background plasma, its current is neutralized by the plasma return current everywhere except at the beam edge over a characteristic transverse distance Δχ⊥ ~ δpe, where δpe = c/ωpe is the collisionless skin depth, and ωpe is the electron plasma frequency. Because the background plasma electrons neutralizing the ion beam current inside the beam are streaming relative to the background plasma electrons outside the beam, the background plasma can support a two-stream surface-mode excitation. Such surface modes have been studied previously assuming complete charge and current neutralization, and have been shown to be strongly unstable. In this paper we study the detailed stability properties of this two-stream surface mode for an electron flow velocity profile self-consistently driven by the ion beam. In particular, it is shown that the self-magnetic field generated inside the unneutralized current layer, which has not been taken into account previously, completely eliminates the instability.

  10. Theory of the modified two-stream instability in a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, D.E.; Niewood, E. )

    1991-04-01

    It is shown that for plasma parameters characteristic of those found in magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters the modified two-stream instability may exist in the plasma. The critical parameter for triggering this instability is the ratio of the crossfield current to the ion saturation current. Once triggered, this instability greatly increases the plasma resistivity to the flow of the current and heats both ions and electrons. The anomalous momentum-exchange frequency and heating rates are calculated for characteristic MPD thruster parameters. 17 refs.

  11. Two-stream instability model with electrons trapped in quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, P. J.

    2009-08-01

    We formulate the theory of the two-stream instability (e-cloud instability) with electrons trapped in quadrupole magnets. We show that a linear instability theory can be sensibly formulated and analyzed. The growth rates are considerably smaller than the linear growth rates for the two-stream instability in drift spaces and are close to those actually observed.

  12. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  13. Theory of directional pulse propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsler, P.; Radnor, S. B. P.; New, G. H. C.

    2005-12-15

    We construct combined electric and magnetic field variables which independently represent energy flows in the forward and backward directions, respectively, and use these to reformulate Maxwell's equations. These variables enable us to not only judge the effect and significance of backward-traveling field components, but also to discard them when appropriate. They thereby have the potential to simplify numerical simulations, leading to potential speed gains of up to 100% over standard finite difference time-domain (FDTD) or pseudospectral spatial-domain (PSSD) simulations. We present results for various illustrative situations, including an example application to second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate. These field variables are also used to derive both envelope equations useful for narrow-band pulse propagation, and a second order wave equation. Alternative definitions are also presented.

  14. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.

    2016-04-01

    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.

  15. Infrared propagators of Yang-Mills theory from perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2010-11-15

    We show that the correlation functions of ghosts and gluons for the pure Yang-Mills theory in Landau gauge can be accurately reproduced for all momenta by a one-loop calculation. The key point is to use a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. The agreement with lattice simulation is excellent in d=4. The one-loop calculation also reproduces all the characteristic features of the lattice simulations in d=3 and naturally explains the peculiarities of the propagators in d=2.

  16. Thermal Theory of Combustion and Explosion. 3; Theory of Normal Flame Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenov, N. N.

    1942-01-01

    The technical memorandum covers experimental data on flame propagation, the velocity of flame propagation, analysis of the old theoretical views of flame propagation, confirmation of the theory for simple reactions (theory of combustion of explosive substances and in particular nitroglycol), and check of the theory by example of a chain oxidizing reaction (theory of flame propagation in carbon monoxide, air and carbon monoxide - oxygen mixtures).

  17. TRANSVERSE ELECTRON-PROTON TWO-STREAM INSTABILITY IN A BUNCHED BEAM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T. F.; Channell, Paul J.; Macek, R. J.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    For intense proton beams, the focus of recent two-stream instability analyses has been on the transverse instability observed in the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PSR stores a long proton bunch with a near triangular line density profile for a duration of about one millisecond. The instability is observed as rapidly growing transverse oscillations of the stored beam, usually occuring when the beam intensity reaches 2.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp or higher, causing fast beam loss. Experimental results support the conjecture that the instability in PSR is due to the two-stream interaction between the circulating proton beam and the electrons created in the ring, i.e., the so called e-p instability. However, the understanding of the physics of this instability is usually based on the theory developed for a continuous beam of uniform line density. Although computer simulations have been implemented or are being developed to study the e-p instability in bunched beams, a companion analytical theory still remains to be developed. The present work is an attempt to investigate the transverse e-p instability in a proton bunch using an analytical approach based on the centroid model built on the 'one-pass' interaction between the protons and the electrons. This paper is an analytical investigation of the transverse electron-proton (e-p) two-stream instability in a proton bunch propagating through a stationary electron background. The equations of motion, including the effect of damping, are derived for the centroids of the proton beam and the electron cloud. An approach is developed to solve the coupled linear centroid equations in the time domain describing the e-p instability in proton bunches with nonuniform line densities. Examples are presented for proton line densities corresponding to uniform and parabolic profiles.

  18. Ultraviolet complete Lorentz-invariant theory with superluminal signal propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Patrick; Dubovsky, Sergei; Mohsen, Ali

    2014-04-01

    We describe a UV complete asymptotically fragile Lorentz-invariant theory exhibiting superluminal signal propagation. Its low energy effective action contains "wrong" sign higher dimensional operators. Nevertheless, the theory gives rise to an S matrix, which is defined at all energies. As expected for a nonlocal theory, the corresponding scattering amplitudes are not exponentially bounded on the physical sheet, but otherwise are healthy. We study some of the physical consequences of this S matrix.

  19. Correlated digital back propagation based on perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaojun; Kumar, Shiva

    2015-06-01

    We studied a simplified digital back propagation (DBP) scheme by including the correlation between neighboring signal samples. An analytical expression for calculating the correlation coefficients is derived based on a perturbation theory. In each propagation step, nonlinear distortion due to phase-dependent terms in the perturbative expansion are ignored which enhances the computational efficiency. The performance of the correlated DBP is evaluated by simulating a single-channel single-polarization fiber-optic system operating at 28 Gbaud, 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (32-QAM), and 40 × 80 km transmission distance. As compared to standard DBP, correlated DBP reduces the total number of propagation steps by a factor of 10 without performance penalty. Correlated DBP with only 2 steps per link provides about one dB improvement in Q-factor over linear compensation. PMID:26072825

  20. Application of a scattering theory of VHF transequatorial propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    Numerical application is made of the theory of scattering by long, curved, field-aligned irregularities of ionization density in the F-region developed by Ferguson and Booker (1983). Using an intermediate-scale regime of irregularities with an outer scale equal to the scale height of the F-region and an inner scale equal to the ion gyroradius, combined with a small-scale regime with an outer scale equal to the ionic gyroradius and an inner scale equal to the electron gyroradius, calculations are made corresponding to (1) equatorial spread-F in the VHF and UHF bands, (2) long-range transequatorial propagation of the type observed by Nielson, and (3) short-range transequatorial propagation of the type observed by Cohen and Bowles. The same ionospheric model yields field-strengths of the right order of magnitude in all three cases. The theory also predicts a focusing phenomenon that should be looked for experimentally.

  1. Noncausal propagation in spin-0 theories with external field interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, R. F.; Wilson, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The two-component Sakata-Taketani (ST) spin-0 theory and the single-component Klein-Gordon theory are obtained from the five-component Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) theory with six types of external field interactions by means of a Peirce decomposition. Whereas the DKP equation manifests the covariance, the ST equation manifests the causal properties. In particular, the presence of noncausal wave propagation when there is coupling to a second-rank tensor field is apparent from the form of the ST equation, in which the coefficients of all the space derivatives depend on the external field. The results indicate that the causal properties of higher-spin equations should also be obvious when they are expressed in 2(2J + 1)-component Schroedinger form

  2. New developments in the theory of flame propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1996-12-31

    Two topics in combustion fluid mechanics are discussed. The first is a theory of the outward propagating spherical flame in the regime of well-developed hydrodynamic instability. In a qualitative agreement with experimental observations it is shown that the flame assumes a fractal-like wrinkled structure resulting in the overall burning rate acceleration. In contrast to hydrodynamically unstable flames, the expanding flame subject exclusively to the effect of diffusive instability does not indicate any disposition toward acceleration. The second topic concerns the dynamics of diffusively unstable flames subjected to radiative heat losses. At high enough heat losses the flame breaks up into separate self-propagating cap-like flamelets while a significant portion of the fuel remains unconsumed.

  3. Sound propagation through a variable area duct - Experiment and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, R. J.; Lester, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of experiment and theory has been made for the propagation of sound through a variable area axisymmetric duct with zero mean flow. Measurement of the acoustic pressure field on both sides of the constricted test section was resolved on a modal basis for various spinning mode sources. Transmitted and reflected modal amplitudes and phase angles were compared with finite element computations. Good agreement between experiment and computation was obtained over a wide range of frequencies and modal transmission variations. The study suggests that modal transmission through a variable area duct is governed by the throat modal cut-off ratio.

  4. The theory of compensated laser propagation through strong thermal blooming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    An account is given of the theory of adaptive compensation for a laser beam's thermal blooming in atmospheric transmission, giving attention to MOLLY, a highly realistic computer simulation of adaptively compensated laser propagation which illustrates the effects of atmospheric turbulence and thermal blooming. Robust experimental signatures have been developed for such important fundamental processes as phase-compensation instability (PCI), which is caused by positive feedback between an adaptive optics system and laser-induced atmospheric heating. The physics of uncompensated and compensated thermal blooming is discussed, in conjunction with the architecture of MOLLY and an analysis of PCI that takes detailed adaptive-optics hardware structures into account.

  5. Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-08-01

    In a recent paper, Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The original work was according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)], but Gaelzer et al. noted that the terms pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory did not enjoy proper dimensionality. The purpose of Gaelzer et al. was to restore the dimensional consistency associated with such terms. However, Gaelzer et al. was concerned only with linear wave-particle interaction terms. The present paper completes the analysis by considering the dimensional correction to nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms in the wave kinetic equation.

  6. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Schunck, N; McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-03-17

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going eff orts seek to better root nuclear DFT in the theory of nuclear forces, energy functionals remain semi-phenomenological constructions that depend on a set of parameters adjusted to experimental data in fi nite nuclei. In this paper, we review recent eff orts to quantify the related uncertainties, and propagate them to model predictions. In particular, we cover the topics of parameter estimation for inverse problems, statistical analysis of model uncertainties and Bayesian inference methods. Illustrative examples are taken from the literature.

  7. Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-08-15

    In a recent paper, Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The original work was according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)], but Gaelzer et al. noted that the terms pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory did not enjoy proper dimensionality. The purpose of Gaelzer et al. was to restore the dimensional consistency associated with such terms. However, Gaelzer et al. was concerned only with linear wave-particle interaction terms. The present paper completes the analysis by considering the dimensional correction to nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms in the wave kinetic equation.

  8. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-15

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. Stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  9. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-26

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  10. Kinetic theory of weak turbulence in magnetized plasmas: Perpendicular propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-08-15

    The present paper formulates a weak turbulence theory in which electromagnetic perturbations are assumed to propagate in directions perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. By assuming that all wave vectors lie in one direction transverse to the ambient magnetic field, the linear solution and second-order nonlinear solutions to the equation for the perturbed distribution function are obtained. Nonlinear perturbed current from the second-order nonlinearity is derived in general form, but the limiting situation of cold plasma temperature is taken in order to derive an explicit nonlinear wave kinetic equation that describes three-wave decay/coalescence interactions among X and Z modes. A potential application of the present formalism is also discussed.

  11. Propagation of radiation in fluctuating multiscale plasmas. I. Kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Pal Singh, Kunwar; Thirunavukarasu, A.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2012-11-15

    A theory for propagation of radiation in a large scale plasma with small scale fluctuations is developed using a kinetic description in terms of the probability distribution function of the radiation in space, time, and wavevector space. Large scale effects associated with spatial variations in the plasma density and refractive index of the plasma wave modes and small scale effects such as scattering of radiation by density clumps in fluctuating plasma, spontaneous emission, damping, and mode conversion are included in a multiscale kinetic description of the radiation. Expressions for the Stokes parameters in terms of the probability distribution function of the radiation are used to enable radiation properties such as intensity and polarization to be calculated.

  12. Two-stream approach to electron transport and thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Stamnes, K.

    1981-04-01

    An explicit solution to the electron transport and energy degradation problem is presented in the two-stream approximation. The validity of this simple approach is discussed, and it is shown that it can be extended to high electron energies (appropriate for applications to auroras) provided the coupling between the two streams, described by the backscatter ratio, is correctly estimated. A simple formula for the backscatter ratio which can be used at all energies is derived.

  13. The modified two stream instability at nonmagnetic planets

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Shapiro, V. D.; Uecer, D.; Quest, K. B.

    2010-12-14

    We describe the role the modified two stream instability plays in the interaction of the solar wind with non-magnetized planets. The instability leads to the production of energetic electrons that can be responsible for the observed x-ray emission.

  14. Numerical simulation of optical vortex propagation and reflection by the methods of scalar diffraction theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Nikolay V; Pavlov, Pavel V; Malov, A N

    2013-06-30

    Using the equations of scalar diffraction theory we consider the formation of an optical vortex on a diffractive optical element. The algorithms are proposed for simulating the processes of propagation of spiral wavefronts in free space and their reflections from surfaces with different roughness parameters. The given approach is illustrated by the results of numerical simulations. (propagation of wave fronts)

  15. Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability development in an extraction system of a negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barminova, H. Y.; Chikhachev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability may occur in an extraction system of a negative ion source based on a volume-produced plasma. The reasons for instability development are discussed. Analytically the conditions of unstable beam propagation are determined. The instability threshold is shown to be increased compared with the pure Pierce instability. The influence of inclined perturbations on the instability behavior is investigated. The numerical calculations are performed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results confirm the existence of such a mixed instability appearance that develops due to both the electrons of the external circuit and the background positive ions.

  16. Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability development in an extraction system of a negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Barminova, H Y; Chikhachev, A S

    2016-02-01

    Mixed Pierce-two-stream instability may occur in an extraction system of a negative ion source based on a volume-produced plasma. The reasons for instability development are discussed. Analytically the conditions of unstable beam propagation are determined. The instability threshold is shown to be increased compared with the pure Pierce instability. The influence of inclined perturbations on the instability behavior is investigated. The numerical calculations are performed in COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results confirm the existence of such a mixed instability appearance that develops due to both the electrons of the external circuit and the background positive ions. PMID:26931917

  17. TRANSVERSE ELECTRON-PROTON TWO-STREAM INSTABILITY IN A BUNCHED BEAM

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. WANG; P.J. CHANNELL; R.J. MACEK; R.C. DAVIDSON

    2001-06-01

    This paper is an analytical investigation of the trans-verse electron-proton (e-p) two-stream instability in a pro-ton bunch propagating through a stationary electron back-ground. The equations of motion, including the effect of damping, are derived for the centroids of the proton beam and the electron cloud. An approach is developed to solve the coupled linear centroid equations in the time domain describing the e-p instability in proton bunches with non-uniform line densities. Examples are presented for proton line densities corresponding to uniform and parabolic profiles.

  18. Application of a simplified theory of ELF propagation to a simplified worldwide model of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi-Toosi, A. B.; Booker, H. G.

    1980-12-01

    The simplified theory of ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere transmission lines developed by Booker (1980) is applied to a simplified worldwide model of the ionosphere. The theory, which involves the comparison of the local vertical refractive index gradient with the local wavelength in order to classify the altitude into regions of low and high gradient, is used for a model of electron and negative ion profiles in the D and E regions below 150 km. Attention is given to the frequency dependence of ELF propagation at a middle latitude under daytime conditions, the daytime latitude dependence of ELF propagation at the equinox, the effects of sunspot, seasonal and diurnal variations on propagation, nighttime propagation neglecting and including propagation above 100 km, and the effect on daytime ELF propagation of a sudden ionospheric disturbance. The numerical values obtained by the method for the propagation velocity and attenuation rate are shown to be in general agreement with the analytic Naval Ocean Systems Center computer program. It is concluded that the method employed gives more physical insights into propagation processes than any other method, while requiring less effort and providing maximal accuracy.

  19. Simplified theory of large-amplitude wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.

    1976-01-01

    An orbit perturbation procedure was applied to the description of monochromatic, large-amplitude, electrostatic plasma wave propagation. In the lowest order approximation, untrapped electrons were assumed to follow constant-velocity orbits and trapped electrons were assumed to execute simple harmonic motion. The deviations of these orbits from the actual orbits were regarded as perturbations. The nonlinear damping rate and frequency shift were then obtained in terms of simple functions. The results are in good agreement with previous less approximate analyses.

  20. A quasi-one-dimensional theory for anisotropic propagation of excitation in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Johnson, E A; Kootsey, J M

    1996-01-01

    It has been shown that propagation of excitation in cardiac muscle is anisotropic. Compared to propagation at right angles to the long axes of the fibers, propagation along the long axis is faster, the extracellular action potential (AP) is larger in amplitude, and the intracellular AP has a lower maximum rate of depolarization, a larger time constant of the foot, and a lower peak amplitude. These observations are contrary to the predictions of classical one-dimensional (1-D) cable theory and, thus far, no satisfactory theory for them has been reported. As an alternative description of propagation in cardiac muscle, this study provides a quasi-1-D theory that includes a simplified description of the effects of action currents in extracellular space as well as resistive coupling between surface and deeper fibers in cardiac muscle. In terms of classical 1-D theory, this quasi-1-D theory reveals that the anisotropies in the wave form of the AP arise from modifications in the effective membrane ionic current and capacitance. The theory also shows that it is propagation in the longitudinal, not in the transverse direction that deviates from classical 1-D cable theory. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8913583

  1. Nonlinear damping of a finite amplitude whistler wave due to modified two stream instability

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Shinji; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro; Umeda, Takayuki

    2015-07-15

    A two-dimensional, fully kinetic, particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate the nonlinear development of a parallel propagating finite amplitude whistler wave (parent wave) with a wavelength longer than an ion inertial length. The cross field current of the parent wave generates short-scale whistler waves propagating highly oblique directions to the ambient magnetic field through the modified two-stream instability (MTSI) which scatters electrons and ions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively. The parent wave is largely damped during a time comparable to the wave period. The MTSI-driven damping process is proposed as a cause of nonlinear dissipation of kinetic turbulence in the solar wind.

  2. Trans-Mediterranean Infrasound Propagation in Summer: Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.; Fee, D.; Waxler, R.; Hetzer, C. H.; Assink, J.; Drob, D. P.; Le Pichon, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Gitterman, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The ground surface detonation of ~82 tons of high explosives was successfully conducted on 26 August 2009 by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at the Sayarim Military Range in the Negev desert. The measured detonation time was 6:31:54 GMT, and the GPS coordinates of the surface explosion are 30.00057°N, 34.81351°E, 556 m altitude. The primary goal of the experiment was to transmit low-frequency sound across the Mediterranean to improve our understanding of infrasound propagation in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions. Multiple infrasound arrays were deployed by collaborating institutions, which will also cooperate in the analysis and modeling of the recorded signals. The following organizations participated in temporary infrasound microphone and array deployments in the Mediterranean and Middle East: The Geophysical Institute of Israel and the University of Mississippi (Israel and Cyprus), University of Alaska (Israel), Geological Survey of Cyprus (Cyprus), National Observatory of Athens and University of Hawaii (Rhodes, Crete, and Peloponnese, Greece), University of Florence (Calabria, Italy), CEA/DAM (Provence and Paris, France), and the United Nations (N. Italy, Austria, Germany, and Tunisia). All these station recorded acoustic signals, with ranges from ~100 m (Sayarim, Israel) to ~3500 km (Paris, France). The observations validate the predicted acoustic returns from refraction in the stratosphere and thermosphere during Summer, and are used to further refine sound propagation models and atmospheric specifications.

  3. Spatially growing disturbances in a high velocity ratio two-stream, coplanar jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of cold and heated secondary flow on the instability of a two-stream, coplanar jet having a 0.7 Mach number heated primary jet for a nominal fan to primary velocity ratio of 0.68 was investigated by means of inviscid linearized stability theory. The instability properties of spatially growing axisymmetric and first order azimuthal disturbances were studied. The instability characteristics of the two-stream jet with a velocity ratio of 0.68 are very different from those of a single stream jet, and a two-stream, coplanar jet having a 0.9 Mach number heated primary jet and a cold secondary jet for a fan to primary velocity ratio of 0.30. For X/D = 1 and in comparison to the case where the velocity ratio was 0.3, the presence of the fan stream with a velocity ratio of 0.68 enhanced the instability of the jet and increased the unstable frequency range. However, the axisymmetric mode (m = 0) and the first order azimuthal mode (m = 1) have similar spatial growth rates where the velocity ratio is 0.68 while for a velocity ratio of 0.3 the growth rate of the first order azimuthal mode (m = 1) is greater. Comparing the cold and hot secondary flow results showed that for a velocity ratio of 0.68 the growth rate is greater for cold.

  4. Influence of electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability on the evolution of laser-driven plasma beat-wave

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D. N.; Singh, K. P.; Suk, H.

    2007-01-15

    The electrostatic oscillating two-stream instability of laser-driven plasma beat-wave was studied recently by Gupta et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 5250 (2004)], who applied their theory to limit the amplitude level of a plasma wave in the beat-wave accelerator. As a self-generated magnetic field is observed in laser-produced plasma, hence, the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability may be another possible mechanism for the saturation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave. The efficiency of this scheme is higher than the former.

  5. All-electron time-dependent density functional theory with finite elements: time-propagation approach.

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Havu, Ville; Puska, Martti

    2011-10-21

    We present an all-electron method for time-dependent density functional theory which employs hierarchical nonuniform finite-element bases and the time-propagation approach. The method is capable of treating linear and nonlinear response of valence and core electrons to an external field. We also introduce (i) a preconditioner for the propagation equation, (ii) a stable way to implement absorbing boundary conditions, and (iii) a new kind of absorbing boundary condition inspired by perfectly matched layers. PMID:22029294

  6. Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators for d=3 Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2010-06-15

    We study a manifestly gauge-invariant set of Schwinger-Dyson equations to determine the nonperturbative dynamics of the gluon and ghost propagators in d=3 Yang-Mills theory. The use of the well-known Schwinger mechanism, in the Landau gauge leads to the dynamical generation of a mass for the gauge boson (gluon in d=3), which, in turn, gives rise to an infrared finite gluon propagator and ghost dressing function. The propagators obtained from the numerical solution of these nonperturbative equations are in very good agreement with the results of SU(2) lattice simulations.

  7. Field theory of propagating reaction-diffusion fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero, C.

    2004-10-01

    The problem of velocity selection of reaction-diffusion fronts has been widely investigated. While the mean-field limit results are well known theoretically, there is a lack of analytic progress in those cases in which fluctuations are to be taken into account. Here, we construct an analytic theory connecting the first principles of the reaction-diffusion process to an effective equation of motion via field-theoretic arguments, and we arrive at results already confirmed by numerical simulations.

  8. Analytical theory of wave propagation through stacked fishnet metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Marqués, R; Jelinek, L; Mesa, F; Medina, F

    2009-07-01

    This work analyzes the electromagnetic wave propagation through periodically stacked fishnets from zero frequency to the first Wood's anomaly. It is shown that, apart from Fabry-Perot resonances, these structures support two transmission bands that can be backward under the appropriate conditions. The first band starts at Wood's anomaly and is closely related to the well-known phenomena of extraordinary transmission through a single fishnet. The second band is related to the resonances of the fishnet holes. In both cases, the in-plane periodicity of the fishnet cannot be made electrically small, which prevents any attempt of homogenization of the structure along the fishnet planes. However, along the normal direction, even with very small periodicity transmission is still possible. An homogenization procedure can then be applied along this direction, thus making that the structure can behave as a backward-wave transmission line for such transmission bands. Closed-form design formulas will be provided by the analytical formulation here presented. These formulas have been carefully validated by intensive numerical computations. PMID:19582074

  9. Two-stream instability of electrons in the shock front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedalin, M.

    During their collisionless motion in the shock front electrons are efficiently accelerated by the de Hoffman-Teller cross shock potential. Inside the shock ramp two electron beams are formed: those which are accelerated from upstream to downstream and those which come from the downstream region to match the upstream distribution. This electron distribution is two-stream unstable. We estimate the typical temporal and spatial scales on which the instability develops. We argue that this instability could result in fast relaxation of the electron beams and formation of the observed flattopped distributions.

  10. A higher-order nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and its applications in wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.

    2015-05-01

    approach. Two additional kinds of parameters, the higher-order nonlocal parameters and the nonlocal gradient length coefficients are introduced to account for the size-dependent characteristics of nonlocal gradient materials at nanoscale. To illustrate its application values, the theory is applied for wave propagation in a nonlocal strain gradient system and the new dispersion relations derived are presented through examples for wave propagating in Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko nanobeams. The numerical results based on the new nonlocal strain gradient theory reveal some new findings with respect to lattice dynamics and wave propagation experiment that could not be matched by both the classical nonlocal stress model and the contemporary strain gradient theory. Thus, this higher-order nonlocal strain gradient model provides an explanation to some observations in the classical and nonlocal stress theories as well as the strain gradient theory in these aspects.

  11. Two-stream-like Instability in Dilute Hot Relativistic Beams and Astrophysical Relativistic Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakar, Ehud; Bret, Antoine; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2011-09-01

    Relativistic collisionless shocks are believed to be efficient particle accelerators. Nonlinear outcome of the interaction of accelerated particles that run ahead of the shock, the so-called precursor, with the unperturbed plasma of the shock upstream, is thought to facilitate additional acceleration of these particles and to possibly modify the hydrodynamic structure of the shock. We explore here the linear growth of kinetic modes appearing in the precursor-upstream interaction in relativistic shocks propagating in non- and weakly magnetized plasmas: electrostatic two-stream parallel mode and electrostatic oblique modes. The physics of the parallel and oblique modes is similar, and thus, we refer to the entire spectrum of electrostatic modes as "two-stream-like." These modes are of particular interest because they are the fastest growing modes known in this type of system. Using a simplified distribution function for a dilute ultrarelativistic beam that is relativistically hot in its own rest frame, yet has momenta that are narrowly collimated in the frame of the cold upstream plasma into which it propagates, we identify the fastest growing mode in the full k-space and calculate its growth rate. We consider all types of plasma (pairs and ions-electrons) and beam (charged and charge-neutral). We find that unstable electrostatic modes are present in any type of plasma and for any shock parameters. We further find that two modes, one parallel (k bottom = 0) and the other one oblique (k_\\bot \\sim k_\\Vert), are competing for dominance and that either one may dominate the growth rate in different regions of the phase space. The dominant mode is determined mostly by the perpendicular spread of the accelerated particle momenta in the upstream frame, which reflects the shock Lorentz factor. The parallel mode becomes more dominant in shocks with lower Lorentz factors (i.e., with larger momentum spreads). We briefly discuss possible implications of our results for

  12. On the dimensionally correct kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaelzer, R. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Yoon, P. H. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Kim, Sunjung E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br

    2015-03-15

    Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)] formulated a second-order nonlinear kinetic theory that describes the turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Their theory also includes discrete-particle effects, or the effects due to spontaneously emitted thermal fluctuations. However, terms associated with the spontaneous fluctuations in particle and wave kinetic equations in their theory contain proper dimensionality only for an artificial one-dimensional situation. The present paper extends the analysis and re-derives the dimensionally correct kinetic equations for three-dimensional case. The new formalism properly describes the effects of spontaneous fluctuations emitted in three-dimensional space, while the collectively emitted turbulence propagates predominantly in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. As a first step, the present investigation focuses on linear wave-particle interaction terms only. A subsequent paper will include the dimensionally correct nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms.

  13. Gaussian beam propagation in anisotropic turbulence along horizontal links: theory, simulation, and laboratory implementation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David G; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga

    2016-05-20

    Experimental and theoretical work has shown that atmospheric turbulence can exhibit "non-Kolmogorov" behavior including anisotropy and modifications of the classically accepted spatial power spectral slope, -11/3. In typical horizontal scenarios, atmospheric anisotropy implies that the variations in the refractive index are more spatially correlated in both horizontal directions than in the vertical. In this work, we extend Gaussian beam theory for propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence to the case of anisotropic turbulence along the horizontal direction. We also study the effects of different spatial power spectral slopes on the beam propagation. A description is developed for the average beam intensity profile, and the results for a range of scenarios are demonstrated for the first time with a wave optics simulation and a spatial light modulator-based laboratory benchtop counterpart. The theoretical, simulation, and benchtop intensity profiles show good agreement and illustrate that an elliptically shaped beam profile can develop upon propagation. For stronger turbulent fluctuation regimes and larger anisotropies, the theory predicts a slightly more elliptical form of the beam than is generated by the simulation or benchtop setup. The theory also predicts that without an outer scale limit, the beam width becomes unbounded as the power spectral slope index α approaches a maximum value of 4. This behavior is not seen in the simulation or benchtop results because the numerical phase screens used for these studies do not model the unbounded wavefront tilt component implied in the analytic theory. PMID:27411135

  14. Numerical simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation by means of fractal theory

    SciTech Connect

    Valle G., R. del

    1994-12-31

    A numerical approach was developed for the dynamic simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation. Based on some ideas of percolation theory and fractal growth, a network of particles and strings represent the rock model. To simulate an inhomogeneous medium, the particles and springs have random distributed elastic parameters and are implemented in the dynamic Navier equation. Some of the springs snap with criteria based on the confined stress applied, therefore creating a fractured rock consistent with the physical environment. The basic purpose of this research was to provide a method to construct a fractured rock with confined stress conditions as well as the wave propagation imposed in the model. Such models provide a better understanding of the behavior of wave propagation in fractured media. The synthetic seismic data obtained henceforth, can be used as a tool to develop methods for characterizing fractured rocks by means of geophysical inference.

  15. Application of ray theory to propagation of low frequency noise from wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Ray theory is used to explain data from two experiments (1985 and 1985) on the propagation of low frequency sound generated by the WTS-4 wind turbine. Emphasis is on downwind data, but some upwind measurements taken during the 1985 experiment are also considered. General ray theory for a moving medium is reviewed and ray equations obtained. Restrictions are introduced simplifying the equations and permitting the use of a ray theory program MEDUSA, the computed propagation loss curve of which is compared to the measurements. Good qualitative agreement is obtained with 1984 downwind data. The results indicate that the downwind sound field is that of a near-ground sound channel. Although more scatter is seen in the 1985 data, agreement between theory and data is also good. In particular, the position and magnitude of the jump in the sound levels associated with the beginning of the sound channel is correctly predicted. The theoretical explanation of the upwind data is less successful. Ray theory calculations indicate the formation of a shadow zone that, in fact, does not occur. While no sharp shadow zone is apparent in the data, the general expectation (based on ray theory) that sound levels should be much reduced upwind is confirmed by the data.

  16. Electrostatic two-stream instability in Fermi-Dirac plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Mohammadnejad, M.; Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the electrostatic two-stream instability is investigated for a large range of plasma number-density using the quantum hydrodynamic model by incorporating the relativistic degeneracy, electron-exchange, quantum diffraction and strong parallel quantizing magnetic field effects. It is found that the electron diffraction effect significantly alters the instability growth rate in a wide range of plasma number density. Two cases of classical and quantum Landau quantization limits are compared and the parametric instability condition is closely inspected. It is remarked that for a given streaming speed the instability is bounded by an upper plasma number-density limit. It is also shown that for a given stream speed there is a maximal growth rate corresponding to specific plasma number-density and perturbation wavelength. Current study can help in better understanding of electron-beam plasma interactions and energy exchange for a wide area of number densities ranging from solid density, inertial confined plasmas, big planetary cores and compact stars. It may also be useful in understanding of electrostatic beam-plasma interactions and origin of large magnitude sustainable electrical currents in super-intense plasmas with critically high magnetic fields such as, pulsars, white dwarf interiors and neutron star crusts.

  17. Computation of three-dimensional flows using two stream functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, Mahesh S.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to compute 3-D flows using two stream functions is presented. The method generates a boundary fitted grid as part of its solution. Commonly used two steps for computing the flow fields are combined into a single step in the present approach: (1) boundary fitted grid generation; and (2) solution of Navier-Stokes equations on the generated grid. The presented method can be used to directly compute 3-D viscous flows, or the potential flow approximation of this method can be used to generate grids for other algorithms to compute 3-D viscous flows. The independent variables used are chi, a spatial coordinate, and xi and eta, values of stream functions along two sets of suitably chosen intersecting stream surfaces. The dependent variables used are the streamwise velocity, and two functions that describe the stream surfaces. Since for a 3-D flow there is no unique way to define two sets of intersecting stream surfaces to cover the given flow, different types of two sets of intersecting stream surfaces are considered. First, the metric of the (chi, xi, eta) curvilinear coordinate system associated with each type is presented. Next, equations for the steady state transport of mass, momentum, and energy are presented in terms of the metric of the (chi, xi, eta) coordinate system. Also included are the inviscid and the parabolized approximations to the general transport equations.

  18. Electron proton two-stream instability at the PSR.

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R. J.; Browman, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; McCrady, R.; Merrill, F.; Plum, M.; Spickermann, T.; Wang, T. S.; Griffin, J.; Ng, K. Y.; Wildman, D.; Harkay, K.; Kustom, R.; Rosenberg, R.

    2002-02-19

    A strong, fast, transverse instability has long been observed at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) where it is a limiting factor on peak intensity. Most of the available evidence, based on measurements of the unstable proton beam motion, is consistent with an electron-proton two-stream instability. The need for higher beam intensity at PSR [1] and for future high-intensity, proton drivers has motivated a multi-lab collaboration (LANL, ANL, FNAL, LBNL, BNL, ORNL, and PPPL) to coordinate research on the causes, dynamics and cures for this instability. Important characteristics of the electron cloud were recently measured with retarding field electron analyzers and various collection electrodes. Suppression of the electron cloud formation by TiN coatings has confirmed the importance of secondary emission processes in its generation. New tests of potential controls included dual harmonic rf, damping by higher order multipoles, damping by X,Y coupling and the use of inductive inserts to compensate longitudinal space charge forces. With these controls and higher rf voltage the PSR has accumulated stable beam intensity up to 9.7 {micro}C/pulse (6 x 10{sup 13} protons), which is a 60% increase over the previous maximum.

  19. Sound propagation in and radiation from acoustically lined flow ducts: A comparison of experiment and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumblee, H. E., Jr.; Dean, P. D.; Wynne, G. A.; Burrin, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an experimental and theoretical study of many of the fundamental details of sound propagation in hard wall and soft wall annular flow ducts are reported. The theory of sound propagation along such ducts and the theory for determining the complex radiation impedance of higher order modes of an annulus are outlined, and methods for generating acoustic duct modes are developed. The results of a detailed measurement program on propagation in rigid wall annular ducts with and without airflow through the duct are presented. Techniques are described for measuring cut-on frequencies, modal phase speed, and radial and annular mode shapes. The effects of flow velocity on cut-on frequencies and phase speed are measured. Comparisons are made with theoretical predictions for all of the effects studies. The two microphone method of impedance is used to measure the effects of flow on acoustic liners. A numerical study of sound propagation in annular ducts with one or both walls acoustically lined is presented.

  20. Indoor propagation and assessment of blast waves from weapons using the alternative image theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Jung, S.; Song, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Blast waves generated from the muzzles of various weapons might have significant effects on the human body, and these effects are recognized as being more severe when weapons are fired indoors. The risk can be assessed by various criteria, such as waveform, exposed energy, and model-based types. This study introduces a prediction model of blast wave propagation for estimating waveform parameters related to damage risk assessment. To simulate indoor multiple reflections in a simple way, the model is based on the alternative image theory and discrete wavefront method. The alternative theory is a kind of modified image theory, but it uses the image space concept from a receiver's perspective, so that it shows improved efficiency for indoor problems. Further, the discrete wavefront method interprets wave propagation as the forward movement of a finite number of wavefronts. Even though the predicted results show slight differences from the measured data, the locations of significant shock waves indicate a high degree of correlation between them. Since the disagreement results not from the proposed techniques but from the assumptions used, it is concluded that the model is appropriate for analysis of blast wave propagation in interior spaces.

  1. Energetic Geodesic Acoustic Modes Associated with Two-Stream-like Instabilities in Tokamak Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Qu, Z S; Hole, M J; Fitzgerald, M

    2016-03-01

    An unstable branch of the energetic geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is found using fluid theory with fast ions characterized by their narrow width in energy distribution and collective transit along field lines. This mode, with a frequency much lower than the thermal GAM frequency ω_{GAM}, is now confirmed as a new type of unstable EGAM: a reactive instability similar to the two-stream instability. The mode can have a very small fast ion density threshold when the fast ion transit frequency is smaller than ω_{GAM}, consistent with the onset of the mode right after the turn-on of the beam in DIII-D experiments. The transition of this reactive EGAM to the velocity gradient driven EGAM is also discussed. PMID:26991183

  2. Two-stream cyclotron radiative instabilities due to the marginally mirror-trapped fraction for fustion alphas in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-07-01

    It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c{alpha}}. This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies {omega} {approx} m{omega}{sub c{alpha}}.

  3. On wave propagation characteristics in fluid saturated porous materials by a nonlocal Biot theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Lihong; Yu, Yang; Hu, Wentao; Shi, Yufeng; Xu, Changjie

    2016-09-01

    A nonlocal Biot theory is developed by combing Biot theory and nonlocal elasticity theory for fluid saturated porous material. The nonlocal parameter is introduced as an independent variable for describing wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic material. A physical insight on nonlocal term demonstrates that the nonlocal term is a superposition of two effects, one is inertia force effect generated by fluctuation of porosity and the other is pore size effect inherited from nonlocal constitutive relation. Models for situations of excluding fluid nonlocal effect and including fluid nonlocal effect are proposed. Comparison with experiment confirms that model without fluid nonlocal effect is more reasonable for predicting wave characteristics in saturated porous materials. The negative dispersion is observed theoretically which agrees well with the published experimental data. Both wave velocities and quality factors as functions of frequency and nonlocal parameter are examined in practical cases. A few new physical phenomena such as backward propagation and disappearance of slow wave when exceeding critical frequency and disappearing shear wave in high frequency range, which were not predicted by Biot theory, are demonstrated.

  4. Ligand-Induced Protein Responses and Mechanical Signal Propagation Described by Linear Response Theories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Kitao, Akio; Huang, Bang-Chieh; Gō, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general linear response theory (LRT) is formulated to describe time-dependent and -independent protein conformational changes upon CO binding with myoglobin. Using the theory, we are able to monitor protein relaxation in two stages. The slower relaxation is found to occur from 4.4 to 81.2 picoseconds and the time constants characterized for a couple of aromatic residues agree with those observed by UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectrometry and time resolved x-ray crystallography. The faster “early responses”, triggered as early as 400 femtoseconds, can be best described by the theory when impulse forces are used. The newly formulated theory describes the mechanical propagation following ligand-binding as a function of time, space and types of the perturbation forces. The “disseminators”, defined as the residues that propagate signals throughout the molecule the fastest among all the residues in protein when perturbed, are found evolutionarily conserved and the mutations of which have been shown to largely change the CO rebinding kinetics in myoglobin. PMID:25229149

  5. Local gauge transformation for the quark propagator in an SU(N) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, M. Jamil; Bashir, A.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    In an S U (N ) gauge field theory, the n -point Green functions, namely, propagators and vertices, transform under the simultaneous local gauge variations of the gluon vector potential and the quark matter field in such a manner that the physical observables remain invariant. In this article, we derive this intrinsically nonperturbative transformation law for the quark propagator within the system of covariant gauges. We carry out its explicit perturbative expansion up to O (gs6) and, for some terms, up to O (gs8) . We study the implications of this transformation for the quark-antiquark condensate, multiplicative renormalizability of the massless quark propagator, as well as its relation with the quark-gluon vertex at the one-loop order. Setting the color factors CF=1 and CA=0 , Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformation for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics is trivially recovered. We also test whether the usually employed proposals for the truncations of Schwinger-Dyson equations are consistent with what the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations entail for the massless quark propagator.

  6. Propagation of high power electromagnetic beams in overdense plasmas: Higher order paraxial theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Faisal, Mohammad

    2008-03-15

    This article presents the paraxial theory of the propagation of an initially Gaussian electromagnetic beam in an inhomogeneous plasma with an overdense region; in contrast to earlier work on penetration in overdense plasma, higher order terms (up to r{sup 4}) in the expansion of the dielectric function and the eikonal have been taken into account. Three types of nonlinearities, viz., collisional, ponderomotive, and relativistic, have been considered. As expected the higher order terms do not affect the critical curves, corresponding to initial propagation without convergence or divergence. It is seen that the inclusion of higher order terms does significantly affect the dependence of the beam width on the distance of propagation. Corresponding to the case of ponderomotive nonlinearity numerical results for the dependence of beam width parameter and the axial dielectric function on the distance of propagation have been presented for specific values of the initial beam width and axial irradiance and specific spatial dependence of the electron density in the absence of the beam. Both the situations, viz., formation of bright or dark rings in the transverse irradiation pattern, have been considered. From a parametric analysis the dependence of the maximum penetration (when the axial dielectric function tends to zero) on the axial irradiance and an inhomogeneity parameter has been graphically illustrated.

  7. A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the earth-ionosphere transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, H. G.

    1980-12-01

    An approximate theory is developed for ELF wave propagation in the transmission-line mode between the conducting earth and the ionosphere. The theory combines the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre (1977) with the treatment of Greifinger and Greifinger (1978, 1979) of ionization below the reflection level. The procedure for evaluating ionospheric effects involves the evaluation of the reflection heights of ordinary and extraordinary magnetoionic waves and of the complex refractive indexes and elliptical polarizations for the waves at these heights, followed by the calculation of the equivalent complex heights of reflection and of the bottom of the ionosphere in order to obtain the phase velocity and attenuation rate. Consideration is given to the effects of simultaneous reflection from the D and E regions, and to the cases of three and five reflection heights, corresponding to daytime and nighttime conditions, respectively.

  8. Microscopic theory of sound propagation in the superfluid 3He aerogel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashitani, S.; Miura, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Nagai, K.

    2005-04-01

    We present a theory of sound propagation in superfluid He3 confined in aerogel, taking dragged aerogel motion into account. The superfluid dynamics coupled with the aerogel motion is formulated by use of the Keldysh Green’s function for weak-coupling superfluid Fermi liquid. We apply the theory to the hydrodynamic regime and calculate the attenuation of a hydrodynamic longitudinal sound mode, the so-called fast mode. The result is compared to the acoustic experiment reported by the Northwestern University group [R. Nomura, G. Gervais, T. M. Haard, Y. Lee, N. Mulders, and W. P. Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4325 (2000); G. Gervais, R. Nomura, T. M. Haard, Y. Lee, N. Mulders, and W. P. Halperin, J. Low Temp. Phys. 122, 1 (2001)]. We find reasonable agreement between the theory and the experiment.

  9. Electron binding energies of anionic alkali metal triatomics from partial fourth order electron propagator theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. V.

    1988-11-01

    Vertical ionization energies of Li-3, Na-3, LiNa-2, and Li2Na- are calculated with ab initio electron propagator theory. D∞h and C∞v isomers for the heteronuclear triatomics are considered. Two doublet final states with Σ symmetry are considered for each case. Koopmans's theorem, second order, third order, and partial fourth order results form a steadily converging series. Outer valence approximation results are not similar and are probably inferior to the partial fourth order results. Convergence of results with respect to the order of electron interaction in the propagator self-energy and with respect to basis set saturation is achieved to within 0.1 eV.

  10. A theory of solar type 3 radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.; Smith, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes.

  11. More on Gribov copies and propagators in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Fixing a gauge in the nonperturbative domain of Yang-Mills theory is a nontrivial problem due to the presence of Gribov copies. In particular, there are different gauges in the nonperturbative regime which all correspond to the same definition of a gauge in the perturbative domain. Gauge-dependent correlation functions may differ in these gauges. Two such gauges are the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge, both corresponding to the perturbative Landau gauge. These, and their numerical implementation, are described and presented in detail. Other choices will also be discussed. This investigation is performed, using numerical lattice gauge theory calculations, by comparing the propagators of gluons and ghosts for the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the propagators are different in the far infrared and even at energy scales of the order of half a GeV. In particular, the finite-volume effects are also modified. This is observed in two and three dimensions. Some remarks on the four-dimensional case are provided as well.

  12. Constraints on the infrared behavior of the ghost propagator in Yang-Mills theories

    SciTech Connect

    Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2008-11-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds for the momentum-space ghost propagator G(p) of Yang-Mills theories in terms of the smallest nonzero eigenvalue (and of the corresponding eigenvector) of the Faddeev-Popov matrix. We apply our analysis to data from simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in Landau gauge, using the largest lattice sizes to date. Our results suggest that, in three and in four space-time dimensions, the Landau gauge ghost propagator is not enhanced as compared to its tree-level behavior. This is also seen in plots and fits of the ghost dressing function. In the two-dimensional case, on the other hand, we find that G(p) diverges as p{sup -2-2{kappa}} with {kappa}{approx_equal}0.15, in agreement with A. Maas, Phys. Rev. D 75, 116004 (2007). We note that our discussion is general, although we make an application only to pure gauge theory in Landau gauge. Our simulations have been performed on the IBM supercomputer at the University of Sao Paulo.

  13. Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Low-to-intermediate frequency regime

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-09-15

    A previous paper [P. H. Yoon, “Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results,” Phys. Plasmas 22, 082309 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field, in which the original work according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)] was refined, following the paper by Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)]. The main finding involved the dimensional correction pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory. However, the final result was presented in terms of formal linear and nonlinear susceptibility response functions. In the present paper, the formal equations are explicitly written down for the case of low-to-intermediate frequency regime by making use of approximate forms for the response functions. The resulting equations are sufficiently concrete so that they can readily be solved by numerical means or analyzed by theoretical means. The derived set of equations describe nonlinear interactions of quasi-parallel modes whose frequency range covers the Alfvén wave range to ion-cyclotron mode, but is sufficiently lower than the electron cyclotron mode. The application of the present formalism may range from the nonlinear evolution of whistler anisotropy instability in the high-beta regime, and the nonlinear interaction of electrons with whistler-range turbulence.

  14. Propagation equations for deformable test bodies with microstructure in extended theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Puetzfeld, Dirk; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2007-10-15

    We derive the equations of motion in metric-affine gravity by making use of the conservation laws obtained from Noether's theorem. The results are given in the form of propagation equations for the multipole decomposition of the matter sources in metric-affine gravity, i.e., the canonical energy-momentum current and the hypermomentum current. In particular, the propagation equations allow for a derivation of the equations of motion of test particles in this generalized gravity theory, and allow for direct identification of the couplings between the matter currents and the gauge gravitational field strengths of the theory, namely, the curvature, the torsion, and the nonmetricity. We demonstrate that the possible non-Riemannian spacetime geometry can only be detected with the help of the test bodies that are formed of matter with microstructure. Ordinary gravitating matter, i.e., matter without microscopic internal degrees of freedom, can probe only the Riemannian spacetime geometry. Thereby, we generalize previous results of general relativity and Poincare gauge theory.

  15. Oscillating two stream instability of electromagnetic pump in the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Nafis; Tripathi, V. K.; Rafat, M.; Husain, Mudassir M.

    2009-06-15

    An analytical formalism of oscillating two stream instability of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a plasma is developed. The instability produces electrostatic ion cyclotron sidebands and a driven low frequency mode. The nonlinear coupling arises primarily due to the motion of ions and is strong when the pump frequency is close to ion cyclotron frequency and the oscillatory ion velocity is a significant fraction of acoustic speed. For propagation perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, the X-mode pump wave produces flute type perturbation with maximum growth rate at some specific wavelengths, which are three to four times larger than the ion Larmor radius. For propagation at oblique angles to ambient magnetic field, the ion cyclotron O-mode, the growth rate increases with the wave number of the low frequency mode.

  16. Application of a Simplified Theory of ELF Propagation to a Simplified Worldwide Model of the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi-Toosi, Amir B.; Booker, Henry G.

    1983-05-01

    The approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line described by Booker (1980) is applied to a simplified worldwide model of the D and E regions, and of the Earth's magnetic field. At 1000 Hz by day, reflection is primarily from the gradient on the underside of the D region. At 300 Hz by day, reflection is primarily from the D region at low latitudes, but it is from the E region at high latitudes. Below 100 Hz by day, reflection is primarily from the gradient on the underside of the E region at all latitudes. By night, reflection from the gradient on the topside of the E region is important. There is then a resonant frequency (˜ 300 Hz) at which the optical thickness of the E region for the whistler mode is half a wavelength. At the Schumann resonant frequency in the Earth-ionosphere cavity (˜ 8 Hz) the nocturnal E region is almost completely transparent for the whistler mode and is semi-transparent for the Alfvén mode. Reflection then takes place from the F region. ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line by night is quite dependent on the magnitude of the drop in ionization density between the E and F regions. Nocturnal propagation at ELF therefore depends significantly on an ionospheric feature whose magnitude and variability are not well understood. A comparison is made with results based on the computer program of the United States Naval Ocean Systems Center.

  17. Nonlinear theory of shocked sound propagation in a nearly choked duct flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, M. K.; Callegari, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of shocks in the sound field propagating through a nearly choked duct flow is analyzed by extending a quasi-one dimensional theory. The theory is applied to the case in which sound is introduced into the flow by an acoustic source located in the vicinity of a near-sonic throat. Analytical solutions for the field are obtained which illustrate the essential features of the nonlinear interaction between sound and flow. Numerical results are presented covering ranges of variation of source strength, throat Mach number, and frequency. It is found that the development of shocks leads to appreciable attenuation of acoustic power transmitted upstream through the near-sonic flow. It is possible, for example, that the power loss in the fundamental harmonic can be as much as 90% of that introduced at the source.

  18. Calculation of positron binding energies using the generalized any particle propagator theory

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Jonathan; Charry, Jorge A.; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-09-21

    We recently extended the electron propagator theory to any type of quantum species based in the framework of the Any-Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) approach [J. Romero, E. Posada, R. Flores-Moreno, and A. Reyes, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074105 (2012)]. The generalized any particle molecular orbital propagator theory (APMO/PT) was implemented in its quasiparticle second order version in the LOWDIN code and was applied to calculate nuclear quantum effects in electron binding energies and proton binding energies in molecular systems [M. Díaz-Tinoco, J. Romero, J. V. Ortiz, A. Reyes, and R. Flores-Moreno, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194108 (2013)]. In this work, we present the derivation of third order quasiparticle APMO/PT methods and we apply them to calculate positron binding energies (PBEs) of atoms and molecules. We calculated the PBEs of anions and some diatomic molecules using the second order, third order, and renormalized third order quasiparticle APMO/PT approaches and compared our results with those previously calculated employing configuration interaction (CI), explicitly correlated and quantum Montecarlo methodologies. We found that renormalized APMO/PT methods can achieve accuracies of ∼0.35 eV for anionic systems, compared to Full-CI results, and provide a quantitative description of positron binding to anionic and highly polar species. Third order APMO/PT approaches display considerable potential to study positron binding to large molecules because of the fifth power scaling with respect to the number of basis sets. In this regard, we present additional PBE calculations of some small polar organic molecules, amino acids and DNA nucleobases. We complement our numerical assessment with formal and numerical analyses of the treatment of electron-positron correlation within the quasiparticle propagator approach.

  19. Two-stream Instabilities within the Front of Supercritical Quasi-perpendicular Shocks: a Synthetic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschietti, L.; Lembege, B.

    2015-12-01

    toward upstream for the oblique whistlers, as expected. We present a synthetic view of wave emissions of two-stream origin and connect our results with the low-frequency whistlers of Hellinger and Mangeney [JGR 102, 1997], the MTSI-1 and 2 of Matsukyio and Scholer [JGR 111, 2006], and the Bernstein waves of Muschietti and Lembege [JGR 118, 2013].

  20. A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, Henry G.

    1983-05-01

    An approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line is developed by combining the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre (1977) with Greifinger and Greiferinger's (1978, 1979) treatment of the effect of ionization below the level of reflection. The theory allows for the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, for reflection from the gradient on the underside of the D region (or, at night, of a ledge below the E region), for reflection from the gradient on the underside of the E region, and for reflection from the gradient on the topside of the E region. The procedure is to compare local vertical gradient with local wavelength, thereby classifying altitude into intervals where the gradient is high and ones where it is low. Where the gradient is low, the phase-integral treatment is adequate. An interval where the gradient is high may, to a first approximation, be replaced by a discontinuity. The amount of the discontinuity is the difference between the refractive indices at the top and bottom of the interval of high gradient, judged in relation to local wavelength. It is then a matter of combining reflections from the several discontinuities. This requires calculation of the complex phase-changes between the discontinuities. But these are the intervals where the phase-integral treatment is available. To a beter approximation, there is a non-zero phase-change associated with an interval of high gradient. The method for incorporating this is described.

  1. 2PN light propagation in the scalar - tensor theory: an N - point mass case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xue-Mei; Xie, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Within the framework of the scalar - tensor theory, its second post - Newtonian (2PN) approximation is obtained by Chandrasekhar ’ s approach. By focusing on an N - point mass system as first step, we reduce the metric to its full 2PN form for light propagation. W e find that although there exist s two parameterized post - Newtonian (PPN) parameters gamma and beta in the 2PN metric, only gamma appears in the 2PN equations of light. As a simple example for applications, a gauge - invariant angle between the directions of two incoming photons for a differential measurement is investigated after the light trajectory is solved in a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. It shows the deviation from the general relativity does not depend on beta even at 2PN level in this circumstance.

  2. Quantum theory for the nanoscale propagation of light through stacked thin film layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Kayn A.; Williams, Mathew D.; Andrews, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Stacked multi-layer films have a range of well-known applications as optical elements. The various types of theory commonly used to describe optical propagation through such structures rarely take account of the quantum nature of light, though phenomena such as Anderson localization can be proven to occur under suitable conditions. In recent and ongoing work based on quantum electrodynamics, it has been shown possible to rigorously reformulate, in photonic terms, the fundamental mechanisms that are involved in reflection and optical transmission through stacked nanolayers. Accounting for sum-over-pathway features in the quantum mechanical description, this theory treats the sequential interactions of photons with material boundaries in terms of individual scattering events. The study entertains an arbitrary number of reflections in systems comprising two or three internally reflective surfaces. Analytical results are secured, without recourse to FTDT (finite-difference time-domain) software or any other finite-element approximations. Quantum interference effects can be readily identified. The new results, which cast the optical characteristics of such structures in terms of simple, constituent-determined properties, are illustrated by model calculations.

  3. Seismic wavefield propagation in 2D anisotropic media: Ray theory versus wave-equation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Hu, Guang-yi; Zhang, Yan-teng; Li, Zhong-sheng

    2014-05-01

    Despite the ray theory that is based on the high frequency assumption of the elastic wave-equation, the ray theory and the wave-equation simulation methods should be mutually proof of each other and hence jointly developed, but in fact parallel independent progressively. For this reason, in this paper we try an alternative way to mutually verify and test the computational accuracy and the solution correctness of both the ray theory (the multistage irregular shortest-path method) and the wave-equation simulation method (both the staggered finite difference method and the pseudo-spectral method) in anisotropic VTI and TTI media. Through the analysis and comparison of wavefield snapshot, common source gather profile and synthetic seismogram, it is able not only to verify the accuracy and correctness of each of the methods at least for kinematic features, but also to thoroughly understand the kinematic and dynamic features of the wave propagation in anisotropic media. The results show that both the staggered finite difference method and the pseudo-spectral method are able to yield the same results even for complex anisotropic media (such as a fault model); the multistage irregular shortest-path method is capable of predicting similar kinematic features as the wave-equation simulation method does, which can be used to mutually test each other for methodology accuracy and solution correctness. In addition, with the aid of the ray tracing results, it is easy to identify the multi-phases (or multiples) in the wavefield snapshot, common source point gather seismic section and synthetic seismogram predicted by the wave-equation simulation method, which is a key issue for later seismic application.

  4. Light propagation through weakly scattering media: a study of Monte Carlo vs. diffusion theory with application to neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancora, Daniele; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2015-07-01

    One of the major challenges within Optical Imaging, photon propagation through clear layers embedded between scattering tissues, can be now efficiently modelled in real-time thanks to the Monte Carlo approach based on GPU. Because of its nature, the photon propagation problem can be very easily parallelized and ran on low cost hardware, avoiding the need for expensive Super Computers. A comparison between Diffusion and MC photon propagation theory is presented in this work with application to neuroimaging, investigating low scattering regions in a mouse-like phantom. Regions such as the Cerebral Spinal Fluid, are currently not taken into account in the classical computational models because of the impossibility to accurately simulate light propagation using fast Diffusive Equation approaches, leading to inaccuracies during the reconstruction process. The goal of the study presented here, is to reduce and further improve the computation accuracy of the reconstructed solution in a highly realistic scenario in the case of neuroimaging in preclinical mouse models.

  5. The propagation of radio waves: The theory of radio waves of low power in the ionosphere and magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budden, K. G.

    The effect of the ionized regions of the earth's atmosphere on radio wave propagation is comprehensively treated. After an introductory consideration of the terrestrial ionosphere and magnetosphere, wave propagation in ion plasmas, and their disturbances, attention is given to basic equations for the consideration of propagation effects, such constitutive relations as the Lorentz polarization term and the Debye length, the roles of polarization and refractive index in magnetoionic theory, rays and group velocity, the Booker quartic in stratified media, and the 'WKB' solutions. Further topics encompass the Airy integral function and the Stokes phenomenon, ray tracing in a loss-free stratified medium, ray theory and full wave solution results for an isotropic ionosphere, and full wave methods for anisotropic stratified media and their applications.

  6. Analysis of light propagation in slotted resonator based systems via coupled-mode theory.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Kirankumar R; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt

    2011-04-25

    Optical devices with a slot configuration offer the distinct feature of strong electric field confinement in a low refractive index region and are, therefore, of considerable interest in many applications. In this work we investigate light propagation in a waveguide-resonator system where the resonators consist of slotted ring cavities. Owing to the presence of curved material interfaces and the vastly different length scales associated with the sub-wavelength sized slots and the waveguide-resonator coupling regions on the one hand, and the spatial extent of the ring on the other hand, this prototypical system provides significant challenges to both direct numerical solvers and semi-analytical approaches. We address these difficulties by modeling the slot resonators via a frequency-domain spatial Coupled-Mode Theory (CMT) approach, and compare its results with a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain (DGTD) solver that is equipped with curvilinear finite elements. In particular, the CMT model is built on the underlying physical properties of the slotted resonators, and turns out to be quite efficient for analyzing the device characteristics. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of the CMT approach by comparing the results with the numerically exact solutions obtained by the DGTD solver. Besides providing considerable physical insight, the CMT model thus forms a convenient basis for the efficient analysis of more complex systems with slotted resonators such as entire arrays of waveguide-coupled resonators and systems with strongly nonlinear optical properties. PMID:21643116

  7. Iso-flux tension propagation theory of driven polymer translocation: The role of initial configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Ikonen, Timo; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of pore-driven polymer translocation by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the tension propagation theory within the constant flux approximation we derive an explicit equation of motion for the tension front. From this we derive a scaling relation for the average translocation time τ, which captures the asymptotic result τ ∝ N_0^{1+ν }, where N0 is the chain length and ν is the Flory exponent. In addition, we derive the leading correction-to-scaling term to τ and show that all terms of order N_0^{2ν } exactly cancel out, leaving only a finite-chain length correction term due to the effective pore friction, which is linearly proportional to N0. We use the model to numerically include fluctuations in the initial configuration of the polymer chain in addition to thermal noise. We show that when the cis side fluctuations are properly accounted for, the model not only reproduces previously known results but also considerably improves the estimates of the monomer waiting time distribution and the time evolution of the translocation coordinate s(t), showing excellent agreement with MD simulations.

  8. Two-stream approximations to radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres - A unified description of existing methods and a new improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, W. E.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Existing two-stream approximations to radiative transfer theory for particulate media are shown to be represented by identical forms of coupled differential equations if the intensity is replaced by integrals of the intensity over hemispheres. One set of solutions thus suffices for all methods and provides convenient analytical comparisons. The equations also suggest modifications of the standard techniques so as to duplicate exact solutions for thin atmospheres and thus permit accurate determinations of the effects of typical aerosol layers. Numerical results for the plane albedos of plane-parallel atmospheres are given for conventional and modified Eddington approximations, conventional and modified two-point quadrature schemes, the hemispheric-constant method and the delta-function method, all for comparison with accurate discrete-ordinate solutions. A new two-stream approximation is introduced that reduces to the modified Eddington approximation in the limit of isotropic phase functions and to the exact solution in the limit of extreme anisotropic scattering. Comparisons of plane albedos and transmittances show the new method to be generally superior over a wide range of atmospheric conditions (including cloud and aerosol layers), especially in the case of nonconservative scattering.

  9. Weighing classes and streams: toward better methods for two-stream convolutional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoseong; Uh, Youngjung; Ko, Seunghyeon; Byun, Hyeran

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of two-stream convolutional networks has boosted the performance of action recognition by concurrently extracting appearance and motion features from videos. However, most existing approaches simply combine the features by averaging the prediction scores from each recognition stream without realizing that some classes favor greater weight for appearance than motion. We propose a fusion method of two-stream convolutional networks for action recognition by introducing objective functions of weights with two assumptions: (1) the scores from streams do not weigh the same and (2) the weights vary across different classes. We evaluate our method by extensive experiments on UCF101, HMDB51, and Hollywood2 datasets in the context of action recognition. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms the standard two-stream convolutional networks by a large margin (5.7%, 4.8%, and 3.6%) on UCF101, HMDB51, and Hollywood2 datasets, respectively.

  10. Wave-like warp propagation in circumbinary discs - I. Analytic theory and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Stefano; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we analyse the propagation of warps in protostellar circumbinary discs. We use these systems as a test environment in which to study warp propagation in the bending-wave regime, with the addition of an external torque due to the binary gravitational potential. In particular, we want to test the linear regime, for which an analytic theory has been developed. In order to do so, we first compute analytically the steady-state shape of an inviscid disc subject to the binary torques. The steady-state tilt is a monotonically increasing function of radius, but misalignment is found at the disc inner edge. In the absence of viscosity, the disc does not present any twist. Then, we compare the time-dependent evolution of the warped disc calculated via the known linearized equations both with the analytic solutions and with full 3D numerical simulations. The simulations have been performed with the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code using two million particles. We find a good agreement both in the tilt and in the phase evolution for small inclinations, even at very low viscosities. Moreover, we have verified that the linearized equations are able to reproduce the diffusive behaviour when α > H/R, where α is the disc viscosity parameter. Finally, we have used the 3D simulations to explore the non-linear regime. We observe a strongly non-linear behaviour, which leads to the breaking of the disc. Then, the inner disc starts precessing with its own precessional frequency. This behaviour has already been observed with numerical simulations in accretion discs around spinning black holes. The evolution of circumstellar accretion discs strongly depends on the warp evolution. Therefore, the issue explored in this paper could be of fundamental importance in order to understand the evolution of accretion discs in crowded environments, when the gravitational interaction with other stars is highly likely, and in multiple systems. Moreover, the evolution of

  11. Saturation mechanism in a two-stream free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdizadeh, N.

    2015-12-01

    > The effect of a guide field on the saturation mechanism in a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) is verified. Two monoenergetic electron beams with a vanishing pitch-angle spread are considered. Nonlinear wave-particle interaction is described by a set of coupled differential equations in a 1-D approximation. Output power is presented as a function of the axial distance. It was found that through using a focusing mechanism, the two-stream FEL reached the saturation regime in a shorter axial distance in comparison with the case of no focusing mechanism.

  12. On the Theory and Numerical Simulation of Cohesive Crack Propagation with Application to Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudraraju, Siva Shankar; Garikipati, Krishna; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of crack propagation is among the predominant modes of failure in many natural and engineering structures, often leading to severe loss of structural integrity and catastrophic failure. Thus, the ability to understand and a priori simulate the evolution of this failure mode has been one of the cornerstones of applied mechanics and structural engineering and is broadly referred to as "fracture mechanics." The work reported herein focuses on extending this understanding, in the context of through-thickness crack propagation in cohesive materials, through the development of a continuum-level multiscale numerical framework, which represents cracks as displacement discontinuities across a surface of zero measure. This report presents the relevant theory, mathematical framework, numerical modeling, and experimental investigations of through-thickness crack propagation in fiber-reinforced composites using the Variational Multiscale Cohesive Method (VMCM) developed by the authors.

  13. Accuracy and computational efficiency of real-time subspace propagation schemes for the time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Varga, Kalman

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) has become successful for its balance of economy and accuracy. However, the application of TDDFT to large systems or long time scales remains computationally prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the numerical stability and accuracy of two subspace propagation methods to solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations with finite and periodic boundary conditions. The bases considered are the Lánczos basis and the adiabatic eigenbasis. The results are compared to a benchmark fourth-order Taylor expansion of the time propagator. Our results show that it is possible to use larger time steps with the subspace methods, leading to computational speedups by a factor of 2-3 over Taylor propagation. Accuracy is found to be maintained for certain energy regimes and small time scales.

  14. Accuracy and computational efficiency of real-time subspace propagation schemes for the time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Varga, Kalman

    2016-05-28

    Time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) has become successful for its balance of economy and accuracy. However, the application of TDDFT to large systems or long time scales remains computationally prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the numerical stability and accuracy of two subspace propagation methods to solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations with finite and periodic boundary conditions. The bases considered are the Lánczos basis and the adiabatic eigenbasis. The results are compared to a benchmark fourth-order Taylor expansion of the time propagator. Our results show that it is possible to use larger time steps with the subspace methods, leading to computational speedups by a factor of 2-3 over Taylor propagation. Accuracy is found to be maintained for certain energy regimes and small time scales. PMID:27250297

  15. Breaking news dissemination in the media via propagation behavior based on complex network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nairong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of breaking news largely relies on propagation behaviors in the media. The tremendous and intricate propagation relationships in the media form a complex network. An improved understanding of breaking news diffusion characteristics can be obtained through the complex network research. Drawing on the news data of Bohai Gulf oil spill event from June 2011 to May 2014, we constructed a weighted and directed complex network in which media are set as nodes, the propagation relationships as edges and the propagation times as the weight of the edges. The primary results show (1) the propagation network presents small world feature, which means relations among media are close and breaking news originating from any node can spread rapidly; (2) traditional media and official websites are the typical sources for news propagation, while business portals are news collectors and spreaders; (3) the propagation network is assortative and the group of core media facilities the spread of breaking news faster; (4) for online media, news originality factor become less important to propagation behaviors. This study offers a new insight to explore information dissemination from the perspective of statistical physics and is beneficial for utilizing the public opinion in a positive way.

  16. Application of Semi-analytical Satellite Theory orbit propagator to orbit determination for space object catalog maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Srinivas J.; Cefola, Paul J.; Montenbruck, Oliver; Fiedler, Hauke

    2016-05-01

    Catalog maintenance for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) demands an accurate and computationally lean orbit propagation and orbit determination technique to cope with the ever increasing number of observed space objects. As an alternative to established numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the accuracy and computational load of the Draper Semi-analytical Satellite Theory (DSST). The standalone version of the DSST was enhanced with additional perturbation models to improve its recovery of short periodic motion. The accuracy of DSST is, for the first time, compared to a numerical propagator with fidelity force models for a comprehensive grid of low, medium, and high altitude orbits with varying eccentricity and different inclinations. Furthermore, the run-time of both propagators is compared as a function of propagation arc, output step size and gravity field order to assess its performance for a full range of relevant use cases. For use in orbit determination, a robust performance of DSST is demonstrated even in the case of sparse observations, which is most sensitive to mismodeled short periodic perturbations. Overall, DSST is shown to exhibit adequate accuracy at favorable computational speed for the full set of orbits that need to be considered in space surveillance. Along with the inherent benefits of a semi-analytical orbit representation, DSST provides an attractive alternative to the more common numerical orbit propagation techniques.

  17. Finite-difference theory for sound propagation in a lined duct with uniform flow using the wave envelope concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    Finite difference equations are derived for sound propagation in a two dimensional, straight, soft wall duct with a uniform flow by using the wave envelope concept. This concept reduces the required number of finite difference grid points by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the length of the duct and the frequency of the sound. The governing acoustic difference equations in complex notation are derived. An exit condition is developed that allows a duct of finite length to simulate the wave propagation in an infinitely long duct. Sample calculations presented for a plane wave incident upon the acoustic liner show the numerical theory to be in good agreement with closed form analytical theory. Complete pressure and velocity printouts are given to some sample problems and can be used to debug and check future computer programs.

  18. Fast two-stream method for computing diurnal-mean actinic flux in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filyushkin, V. V.; Madronich, S.; Brasseur, G. P.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a derivation of the two-stream daytime-mean equations of radiative flux transfer, a method for computing the daytime-mean actinic fluxes in the absorbing and scattering vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere is suggested. The method applies direct daytime integration of the particular solutions of the two-stream approximations or the source functions. It is valid for any duration of period of averaging. The merit of the method is that the multiple scattering computation is carried out only once for the whole averaging period. It can be implemented with a number of widely used two-stream approximations. The method agrees with the results obtained with 200-point multiple scattering calculations. The method was also tested in runs with a 1-km cloud layer with optical depth of 10, as well as with aerosol background. Comparison of the results obtained for a cloud subdivided into 20 layers with those obtained for a one-layer cloud with the same optical parameters showed that direct integration of particular solutions possesses an 'analytical' accuracy. In the case of the source function interpolation, the actinic fluxes calculated above the one-layer and 20-layer clouds agreed within 1%-1.5%, while below the cloud they may differ up to 5% (in the worst case). The ways of enhancing the accuracy (in a 'two-stream sense') and computational efficiency of the method are discussed.

  19. EVIDENCE AGAINST THE OSCILLATING TWO-STREAM INSTABILITY AND SPATIAL COLLAPSE OF LANGMUIR WAVES IN SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D. B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Malaspina, D. M.; Ergun, R. E.

    2012-07-01

    Recently Thejappa et al. studied a specific Langmuir wave packet observed by STEREO A and argued based on the electric field from one of the three antennas that this packet satisfied the conditions for the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) and was undergoing wave collapse. We analyze the same event using all three electric components and show that, while the wave packet has structure consistent with collapse simulations and theory, the field strength is well below that required for collapse to proceed. Analyzing the three electric field components shows that the power spectrum and dominance of wave power perpendicular to the local magnetic field are inconsistent with OTSI. We show that this packet and other more intense packets are inconsistent with collapse and show no evidence of OTSI, but are likely trapped eigenmodes in density wells. Therefore, OTSI and collapse are unlikely explanations for intense Langmuir events observed in the solar wind.

  20. An investigation of stress wave propagation in a shear deformable nanobeam based on modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh Khorshidi, Majid; Shariati, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a new investigation for propagation of stress wave in a nanobeam based on modified couple stress theory. Using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory, and Reddy beam theory, the effect of shear deformation is investigated. This nonclassical model contains a material length scale parameter to capture the size effect and the Poisson effect is incorporated in the current model. Governing equations of motion are obtained by Hamilton's principle and solved explicitly. This solution leads to obtain two phase velocities for shear deformable beams in different directions. Effects of shear deformation, material length scale parameter, and Poisson's ratio on the behavior of these phase velocities are investigated and discussed. The results also show a dual behavior for phase velocities against Poisson's ratio.

  1. Effect of parametric resonance on the formation of waves with a broad multiharmonic spectrum during the development of two-stream instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kulish, V. V.; Lysenko, A. V.; Rombovsky, M. Yu.

    2010-07-15

    A cubically nonlinear multiharmonic theory of two-stream instability in a two-velocity relativistic electron beam is constructed with allowance for parametric resonance between harmonics of longitudinal waves of different types, as well as between wave harmonics of the same type. The effect of these two kinds of parametric resonance interaction on the development of two-stream instability is investigated. It is shown that parametric resonance between different types of longitudinal waves excited in a two-velocity beam can substantially affect the development of physical processes in the system under study. It is proposed to use parametric resonance between longitudinal waves of different types to form waves with a prescribed broad multiharmonic spectrum.

  2. Theory for accelerated slow crack propagation in polyethylene fuel pipes. Annual report, 1987-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Moet, A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Chaoui, K.; Strebel, J.

    1988-06-01

    The report describes a test for assessing the resistance of polyethylene fuel gas pipe materials to brittle crack propagation. The test employs fatigue loading to a notched specimen. Pipe specimens prepared from 2306-IIC and 2306-IA exhibit an initial stage of brittle crack propagation which becomes progressively ductile as it approaches ultimate failure by tearing. The complete test duration is extremely short in comparison to others currently employed, yet it similarly ranks both materials tested. Further, crack layer analysis is employed to evaluate the specific energy of fracture, gamma, a fundamental parameter characteristic of the material's resistance to brittle-crack propagation. It is also found from microscopic examinations that brittle fatigue involves a crazing mechanism known to occur under creep condition.

  3. Theory and experiments on the ice–water front propagation in droplets freezing on a subzero surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An approximate theory is presented that describes the propagation of the ice–water front that develops in droplets of water that are deposited on a planar surface at a temperature below the melting point of ice. This theory is compared with experimental observation of the time evolution of this front. These experiments were performed by freezing water droplets directly on a block of dry ice, and to examine the effects of the thermal conductivity of a substrate during the freezing process. Such droplets were also deposited on a glass plate and on a copper plate placed on dry ice. The temperature at the base of these droplets, and the dependence of the freezing time on their size were also obtained experimentally, and compared with our analytic theory. These experiment can be readily performed by physics undergraduate students, and reveal that the usual assumption of constant temperature at the base of the droplets cannot be implemented in practice.

  4. On the Theory of High-Power Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in Raman-Active Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belenov, E. M.; Isakov, V. A.; Kanavin, A. P.; Smetanin, I. V.

    1996-01-01

    The propagation of an intense femtosecond pulse in a Raman-active medium is analyzed. An analytic solution which describes in explicit form the evolution of the light pulse is derived. The field of an intense light wave undergoes a substantial transformation as the wave propagates through the medium. The nature of this transformation can change over time scales comparable to the period of the optical oscillations. As a result, the pulse of sufficiently high energy divides into stretched and compressed domains where the field decreases and increases respectively.

  5. Electron two-stream instability and its application in solar and heliophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Haihong

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that electron beams accelerated in solar flares can drive two-stream instability and produce radio bursts in the solar corona as well as in the interplanetary medium. Recent observations show that the solar wind likely originates from nanoflare-like events near the surface of the Sun where locally heated plasma escapes along open field lines into space. Recent numerical simulations and theoretical studies show that electron two-stream instability (ETSI) driven by nanoflare-accelerated electron beams can produce the observed nanoflare-type radio bursts, the non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function of the solar wind, and the kinetic scale turbulence in solar wind. This brief review focus on the basic theoretical framework and recent progress in the nonlinear evolution of ETSI driven by electron beams, including the formation of electron holes, Langmuir wave generation in warm plasma, and the nonlinear modulation instability and Langmuir collapse. Potential applications in heliophysics and astrophysics are discussed.

  6. Instability saturation by the oscillating two-stream instability in a weakly relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Barnali; Poria, Swarup; Sahu, Biswajit

    2015-04-15

    The two-stream instability has wide range of astrophysical applications starting from gamma-ray bursts and pulsar glitches to cosmology. We consider one dimensional weakly relativistic Zakharov equations and describe nonlinear saturation of the oscillating two-stream instability using a three dimensional dynamical system resulting form a truncation of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation to three modes. The equilibrium points of the model are determined and their stability natures are discussed. Using the tools of nonlinear dynamics such as the bifurcation diagram, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunav exponents, existence of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic solutions are established in the dynamical system. Interestingly, we observe the multistable behavior in this plasma model. The system has multiple attractors depending on the initial conditions. We also notice that the relativistic parameter plays the role of control parameter in the model. The theoretical results presented in this paper may be helpful for better understanding of space and astrophysical plasmas.

  7. Spectral finite element based on an efficient layerwise theory for wave propagation analysis of composite and sandwich beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Namita; Kapuria, S.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral finite element model (SFEM) using an efficient and accurate layerwise (zigzag) theory, which is applicable for wave propagation analysis of highly inhomogeneous laminated composite and sandwich beams. The theory assumes a layerwise linear variation superimposed with a global third-order variation across the thickness for the axial displacement. The conditions of zero transverse shear stress at the top and bottom and its continuity at the layer interfaces are subsequently enforced to make the number of primary unknowns independent of the number of layers, thereby making the theory as efficient as the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The spectral element developed is validated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. A comparison of the natural frequencies of simply supported composite and sandwich beams obtained by the present spectral element with the exact two-dimensional elasticity and FSDT solutions reveals that the FSDT yields highly inaccurate results for the inhomogeneous sandwich beams and thick composite beams, whereas the present element based on the zigzag theory agrees very well with the exact elasticity solution for both thick and thin, composite and sandwich beams. A significant deviation in the dispersion relations obtained using the accurate zigzag theory and the FSDT is also observed for composite beams at high frequencies. It is shown that the pure shear rotation mode remains always evanescent, contrary to what has been reported earlier. The SFEM is subsequently used to study wavenumber dispersion, free vibration and wave propagation time history in soft-core sandwich beams with composite faces for the first time in the literature.

  8. Creation of high-energy electron tails by means of the modified two-stream instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-01-01

    Particle simulations of the modified two-stream instability demonstrate strong electron acceleration rather than bulk heating when the relative drift speed is below a critical speed Vc. A very interesting nonlinear mode transition and autoresonance acceleration process is observed which accelerates the electrons much above the phase speed of the linearly unstable modes. Simple criteria are presented that predict the value of Vc and the number density of the accelerated electrons.

  9. On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Ritter, C.

    2010-03-01

    The Two-Stream technique employs simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars pointing at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a number of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) campaigns dedicated to Arctic research, the AWI's Polar 2 aircraft with the integrated onboard nadir-pointing Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) was utilised. The aircraft flew over a vicinity of Ny Ålesund on Svalbard, where the zenith-pointing Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) has been located. This experimental approach gave the unique opportunity to retrieve the extinction profiles with a rarely used Two-Stream technique against a well established Raman technique. Both methods were applied to data obtained for clean Arctic conditions during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric clouds and Radiation (ASTAR 2004) campaign, and slightly polluted Arctic conditions during the Svalbard Experiment (SvalEx 2005) campaign. Successful comparison of both evaluation tools in different measurement conditions demonstrates sensitivity and feasibility of the Two-Stream method to obtain particle extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles without assumption of their relationship (lidar ratio). The method has the potential to serve as an extinction retrieval tool for KARL or AMALi simultaneous observations with the space borne CALIPSO lidar overpasses during the ASTAR 2007.

  10. Application of an effective medium theory for modeling ultrasound wave propagation in healing long bones.

    PubMed

    Potsika, Vassiliki T; Grivas, Konstantinos N; Protopappas, Vasilios C; Vavva, Maria G; Raum, Kay; Rohrbach, Daniel; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative ultrasound has recently drawn significant interest in the monitoring of the bone healing process. Several research groups have studied ultrasound propagation in healing bones numerically, assuming callus to be a homogeneous and isotropic medium, thus neglecting the multiple scattering phenomena that occur due to the porous nature of callus. In this study, we model ultrasound wave propagation in healing long bones using an iterative effective medium approximation (IEMA), which has been shown to be significantly accurate for highly concentrated elastic mixtures. First, the effectiveness of IEMA in bone characterization is examined: (a) by comparing the theoretical phase velocities with experimental measurements in cancellous bone mimicking phantoms, and (b) by simulating wave propagation in complex healing bone geometries by using IEMA. The original material properties of cortical bone and callus were derived using serial scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) images from previous animal studies. Guided wave analysis is performed for different healing stages and the results clearly indicate that IEMA predictions could provide supplementary information for bone assessment during the healing process. This methodology could potentially be applied in numerical studies dealing with wave propagation in composite media such as healing or osteoporotic bones in order to reduce the simulation time and simplify the study of complicated geometries with a significant porous nature. PMID:24091149

  11. Wave propagation in two-dimensional block media with viscoelastic layers (Theory and experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraikin, V. A.; Chernikov, A. G.; Sher, E. N.

    2015-07-01

    A model of a medium consisting of parallel layers of elastic rectangular blocks separated by deformable viscoelastic interlayers is considered. The model is proposed for describing the lowfrequency part of the spectrum in waves propagating in media with such a structure. For a twodimensional assembly consisting of 36 blocks, the results of numerical calculations are compared with experimental data.

  12. Light propagation beyond the mean-field theory of standard optics.

    PubMed

    Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-01-25

    With ready access to massive computer clusters we may now study light propagation in a dense cold atomic gas by means of basically exact numerical simulations. We report on a direct comparison between traditional optics, that is, electrodynamics of a polarizable medium, and numerical simulations in an elementary problem of light propagating through a slab of matter. The standard optics fails already at quite low atom densities, and the failure becomes dramatic when the average interatomic separation is reduced to around k(-1), where k is the wave number of resonant light. The difference between the two solutions originates from correlations between the atoms induced by light-mediated dipole-dipole interactions. PMID:26832481

  13. One-dimensional transport equation models for sound energy propagation in long spaces: theory.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Larsen, Edward W; Xiang, Ning

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional transport equation model is developed to describe the sound energy propagation in a long space. Then this model is reduced to a one-dimensional model by approximating the solution using the method of weighted residuals. The one-dimensional transport equation model directly describes the sound energy propagation in the "long" dimension and deals with the sound energy in the "short" dimensions by prescribed functions. Also, the one-dimensional model consists of a coupled set of N transport equations. Only N=1 and N=2 are discussed in this paper. For larger N, although the accuracy could be improved, the calculation time is expected to significantly increase, which diminishes the advantage of the model in terms of its computational efficiency. PMID:20370013

  14. Propagation of high power electromagnetic beam in relativistic magnetoplasma: Higher order paraxial ray theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Tarsem Singh; Kaur, Ravinder; Mahajan, Ranju

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of self-consistent, steady-state, theoretical model, which explains the ring formation in a Gaussian electromagnetic beam propagating in a magnetoplasma, characterized by relativistic nonlinearity. Higher order terms (up to r4) in the expansion of the dielectric function and the eikonal have been taken into account. The condition for the formation of a dark and bright ring derived earlier by Misra and Mishra [J. Plasma Phys. 75, 769 (2009)] has been used to study focusing/defocusing of the beam. It is seen that inclusion of higher order terms does significantly affect the dependence of the beam width on the distance of propagation. Further, the effect of the magnetic field and the nature of nonlinearity on the ring formation and self-focusing of the beam have been explored.

  15. A difference theory for noise propagation in an acoustically lined duct with mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    A finite difference formulation is presented for sound propagation in a two-dimensional straight soft-walled duct with uniform flow. The difference analysis is developed in terms of complex notation. The governing acoustic difference equations and the appropriate displacement boundary conditions associated with uniform flow are presented for the sound attenuation in straight hard and soft-walled ducts. At present the finite Mach number case is solved only for the one-dimensional hard walled duct.

  16. A difference theory for noise propagation in an acoustically lined duct with mean flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    A finite difference formulation is presented for sound propagation in a two-dimensional straight soft-walled duct with uniform flow. The difference analysis is developed in terms of complex notation. The governing acoustic difference equations and the appropriate displacement boundary conditions associated with uniform flow are presented. Example calculations are presented for the sound attenuation in straight hard and soft-walled ducts. At present the finite Mach number case is solved only for the one-dimensional hard walled duct.

  17. Invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seulong; Kim, Kihong

    2016-06-01

    Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Tellegen media. In contrast to the case of ordinary isotropic media, we find that the surface wave excitation and the mode conversion occur for both s and p waves in bi-isotropic media.

  18. A new theory to evaluate the critical length for fracture propagation in snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Johan; van Herwijnen, Alec; Chambon, Guillaume; Wever, Nander; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    The failure of a weak snow layer buried below cohesive slab layers is a necessary, but insufficient condition for the release of a dry-snow slab avalanche. The size of the crack in the weak layer must also exceed a critical length to propagate over a wide surface. In contrast to founding shear-based approaches, the recent anticrack model accounts for weak layer collapse and allows to better explain typical observations of remote triggering from flat areas. However, the latter model predicts that the critical length for crack propagation is independent of slope angle, a rather surprising and counterintuitive result. Our new mechanical model reconciles past approaches by considering for the first time the complex interplay between slab elasticity, the failure envelope of the weak layer and its structural collapse. We were able to reproduce crack propagation on flat terrain and the decrease of the critical length with slope angle observed in numerical experiments. Furthermore, we show that the anticrack model only works on flat terrain and significantly overestimates the critical crack length for steep slopes where most avalanches are triggered. This important limitation is due to strong and unfounded assumptions concerning the weak layer which is treated as a purely rigid material with a slope-independent failure criterion. The good agreement of our new model with extensive field data and its successful implementation in the snow cover model SNOWPACK opens promising prospect to improve avalanche forecasting.

  19. Impact of pore space topology on permeability, cut-off frequencies and validity of wave propagation theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarout, Joël.

    2012-04-01

    For the first time, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the domains of validity of popular wave propagation theories for porous/cracked media is provided. The case of a simple, yet versatile rock microstructure is detailed. The microstructural parameters controlling the applicability of the scattering theories, the effective medium theories, the quasi-static (Gassmann limit) and dynamic (inertial) poroelasticity are analysed in terms of pores/cracks characteristic size, geometry and connectivity. To this end, a new permeability model is devised combining the hydraulic radius and percolation concepts. The predictions of this model are compared to published micromechanical models of permeability for the limiting cases of capillary tubes and penny-shaped cracks. It is also compared to published experimental data on natural rocks in these limiting cases. It explicitly accounts for pore space topology around the percolation threshold and far above it. Thanks to this permeability model, the scattering, squirt-flow and Biot cut-off frequencies are quantitatively compared. This comparison leads to an explicit mapping of the domains of validity of these wave propagation theories as a function of the rock's actual microstructure. How this mapping impacts seismic, geophysical and ultrasonic wave velocity data interpretation is discussed. The methodology demonstrated here and the outcomes of this analysis are meant to constitute a quantitative guide for the selection of the most suitable modelling strategy to be employed for prediction and/or interpretation of rocks elastic properties in laboratory-or field-scale applications when information regarding the rock's microstructure is available.

  20. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. II. Radiative Transfer via the Two-stream Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin; Mendonça, João M.; Lee, Jae-Min

    2014-11-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior), and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically underdetermined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We concoct recipes for implementing two-stream radiative transfer in stand-alone numerical calculations and general circulation models. We use our two-stream solutions to construct toy models of the runaway greenhouse effect. We present a new solution for temperature-pressure profiles with a non-constant optical opacity and elucidate the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the optical and infrared. We derive generalized expressions for the spherical and Bond albedos and the photon deposition depth. We demonstrate that the value of the optical depth corresponding to the photosphere is not always 2/3 (Milne's solution) and depends on a combination of stellar irradiation, internal heat, and the properties of scattering in both the optical and infrared. Finally, we derive generalized expressions for the total, net, outgoing, and incoming fluxes in the convective regime.

  1. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. II. RADIATIVE TRANSFER VIA THE TWO-STREAM APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Mendonça, João M.; Lee, Jae-Min E-mail: joao.mendonca@csh.unibe.ch

    2014-11-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior), and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically underdetermined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We concoct recipes for implementing two-stream radiative transfer in stand-alone numerical calculations and general circulation models. We use our two-stream solutions to construct toy models of the runaway greenhouse effect. We present a new solution for temperature-pressure profiles with a non-constant optical opacity and elucidate the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the optical and infrared. We derive generalized expressions for the spherical and Bond albedos and the photon deposition depth. We demonstrate that the value of the optical depth corresponding to the photosphere is not always 2/3 (Milne's solution) and depends on a combination of stellar irradiation, internal heat, and the properties of scattering in both the optical and infrared. Finally, we derive generalized expressions for the total, net, outgoing, and incoming fluxes in the convective regime.

  2. Time dependent difference theory for sound propagation in axisymmetric ducts with plug flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The time dependent governing/acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard wall duct with a plug mean flow and spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the transient as well as the 'steady' state solutions of the acoustic field. The time dependent finite difference analysis has two advantages over the steady state finite difference and finite element techniques: (1) the elimination of large matrix storage requirements, and (2) shorter solution times under most conditions.

  3. Time-dependent difference theory for noise propagation in a two-dimensional duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A time-dependent numerical formulation is derived for sound propagation in a two-dimensional straight soft-walled duct in the absence of mean flow. The time-dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed along with the maximum stable time increment. Example calculations are presented for sound attenuation in hard- and soft-wall ducts. The time-dependent analysis has been found to be superior to the conventional steady numerical analysis because of much shorter solution times and the elimination of matrix storage requirements.

  4. Infrared analysis of propagators and vertices of Yang-Mills theory in Landau and Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Schleifenbaum, W.; Leder, M.; Reinhardt, H.

    2006-06-15

    The infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators, ghost-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex is investigated for both the covariant Landau and the noncovariant Coulomb gauge. Assuming infrared ghost dominance, we find a unique infrared exponent in the d=4 Landau gauge, while in the d=3+1 Coulomb gauge we find two different infrared exponents. We also show that a finite dressing of the ghost-gluon vertex has no influence on the infrared exponents. Finally, we determine the infrared behavior of the three-gluon vertex analytically and calculate it numerically at the symmetric point in the Coulomb gauge.

  5. Application of steady state finite element and transient finite difference theory to sound propagation in a variable area duct: A comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Eversman, W.; Astley, R. J.; White, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sound propagation without flow in a rectangular duct with a converging-diverging area variation was studied experimentally and theoretically. The area variation was of sufficient magnitude to produce large reflections and induce modal scattering. The rms (root-mean-squared) pressure and phase angle on both the flat and curved surface were measured and tabulated. The steady state finite element theory and the transient finite difference theory are in good agreement with the data. It is concluded that numerical finite difference and finite element theories appear ideally suited for handling duct propagation problems which encounter large area variations.

  6. A time dependent difference theory for sound propagation in ducts with flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    A time dependent numerical solution of the linearized continuity and momentum equation is developed for sound propagation in a two-dimensional straight hard or soft wall duct with a sheared mean flow. The time dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed along with a numerical determination of the maximum stable time increments. The analysis begins with a harmonic noise source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the transient as well as the 'steady' state solution of the acoustic field. Example calculations are presented for sound propagation in hard and soft wall ducts, with no flow and with plug flow. Although the problem with sheared flow has been formulated and programmed, sample calculations have not yet been examined. So far, the time dependent finite difference analysis has been found to be superior to the steady state finite difference and finite element techniques because of shorter solution times and the elimination of large matrix storage requirements.

  7. Acoustic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere 1. Rediscussion of the linearized theory including nonstationary solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Ulrich, Roger K.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1995-01-01

    The normal dispersion analysis for linear adiabatic wave propagation in stratified atmospheres adopts a real frequency and solves for the complex vertical wavenumber. We show that an exponentially stratified atmosphere does not have any spatially bounded normal modes for real frequencies. The usual treatment involves a representation where the imaginary part of the vertical wavenumber yields a rho(sup -1/2) dependence of the velocity amplitude which diverges as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. This solution includes a cutoff frequency below which acoustic modes cannot propagate. The standard dispersion analysis is a local representation of the wave behavior in both space and time but which is assumed to represent the motion throughout - infinity is less than t is less than infinity and 0 is less than infinity. However, any solution which has a purely sinusoidal time dependence extends through this full domain and is divergent due to the rho(sup -1/2) dependence. We show that a proper description is in terms of a near field of a boundary piston which is driven arbitrarily as a function of space and time. The atmosphere which responds to this piston is a semi-infinite layer which has an initially constant sound speed but which has the usual gravitational stratification. In a restricted domain of space and time above this boundary, the wavelike behavior of the medium may be described by frequencies and vertical wavenumbers which are both complex. When both parameters are allowed to have imaginary components, a new range of solutions is found for which there is virtually no cutoff frequency. We show that vertical energy propagation can take place through the solar atmosphere as a result of oscillations below the nominal cutoff frequency. Previously, the largest amplitude oscillations which generally have low frequencies were dropped from the calculation of energy flux becuase their frequencies are below the cutoff frequency. This new family of near

  8. Faddeev-Popov-ghost propagators for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2008-09-15

    The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.

  9. Effects on light propagating in an electromagnetized vacuum, as predicted by a particular class of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raptis, T. E.; Minotti, F. O.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of static electromagnetic fields on the propagation of light is analyzed in the context of a particular class of scalar-tensor gravitational theories. It is found that for appropriate field configurations and light polarization, anomalous amplitude variations of the light as it propagates in either a magnetized or an electrified vacuum are strong enough to be detectable in relatively simple laboratory experiments.

  10. A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line and its worldwide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, H. G.

    1980-03-01

    An approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line is developed by combining the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre (1977) with Greifinger and Greifinger's treatment 81978, 1979) of the effect of ionization below the level of reflection. The theory allows for the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, for reflection from the gradient on the under side of the D region (or, at night, of a ledge below the E region), for reflection from the gradient on the under side of the E region, and for reflection from the gradient on the top side of the E region. The procedure is to compare local vertical gradient with local wavelength, thereby classifying altitude into intervals where the gradient is high and ones where it is low. Where the gradient is low, the phase-integral treatment is adequate. An interval where the gradient is high may, to a first approximation, be replaced by a discontinuity. The amount of the discontinuity is the difference between the refractive indices at the top and bottom of the interval of high gradient, judged in relation to local wavelength. It is then a matter of combining reflections from the several discontinuities. This requires calculation of the complex phase-changes between the discontinuities. But these are the intervals where the phase-integral treatment is available. To a better approximation, there is a non-zero phase-change associated with an interval of high gradient. The method for incorporating this is described.

  11. Higher-order paraxial theory of the propagation of ring rippled laser beam in plasma: Relativistic ponderomotive regime

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Mahmoud, Saleh T.

    2015-05-15

    This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate.

  12. Theory of current-direction dependence of normal-zone propagation velocity in multifilamentary composite conductors - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    It has been known for some time that normal-zone propagation in a multifilamentary composite conductor is driven primarily by Joule heating in both the normal zone and the current-sharing zone, which lies between the normal (T > T/sub c/) and superconducting (I < I/sub c/) zones. Bartlett et al., however, discovered that the normal-zone propagation velocity along a multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn/Cu composite conductor has different values depending upon the direction of current flow, the velocity difference being about 10%. Some thermoelectric effect is evidently responsible for such a current-direction dependence. Gurevich and Mints proposed an explanation in terms of the Thomson effect. In the present paper, however, we show that this effect is about an order of magnitude too small to account for the experimental results in the Nb/sub 3/Sn/Cu conductor. Instead we demonstrate that the experiments are well understood in terms of the Peltier effect, which is an important secondary source of heating or cooling, depending upon the current direction. Our theory is based upon that of Dresner but includes as heat sources, in addition to the Joule contribution, Thomson heat in the normal matrix and Peltier heat at the superconductor/normal matrix interfaces in the current-sharing zone.

  13. Vertical structure of surface gravity waves propagating over a sloping seabed: Theory and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Qingping; Hay, Alex E.; Bowen, Anthony J.

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical predictions of the vertical structure of wave motion over a sloping seabed are compared with field observations close to the bed in the nearshore zone. Of particular interest is the effect of the local slope on the magnitude and phase of the vertical velocity. Field measurements of near-bed velocity profiles on a 2° bed slope were obtained using a coherent Doppler profiler. The surface elevation was measured by a colocated, upward looking, acoustic sounder. Results are presented from two intervals of different wave energy levels during a storm event: for wave height/water depth ratios smaller than 0.3 and for Ursell numbers smaller than 0.6. The local comparisons of magnitude and phase between the vertical velocity and surface elevation measurements are in good agreement with linear theory for a sloping bed, but differ greatly from that for a horizontal bottom, especially in the lower water column. The sloping bottom, however, has little effect on the horizontal velocity. Linear theory appears to adequately describe the transfer function between the surface elevation and the near-bed velocities, not only at the peak frequencies but also at their harmonics. However, in relatively shallow water the local transformations of free and forced waves at the harmonic frequencies are indistinguishable in the lower water column. Therefore, given surface elevation measurements at a particular location (which reflect the integrated effects of nonlinearities associated with wave shoaling), the vertical structure of the third moments of velocity fields estimated from linear theory is in reasonable agreement with the observations. Both theory and observations show that the skewness and asymmetry of the vertical velocity are subject to significant bottom slope effects, whereas those of horizontal velocity are not.

  14. Light propagation in thin-clad fibers: a coupled-mode theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Talabuttala; Selvarajan, Ananth

    1992-12-01

    Coupled-mode theory (CMT) has a number of application. involving mvJtiple wavegtides periodically perturbed nonlinear or extenzally perftirbed wave g''ides. In this paper CMT is tsed to deterniinig the scaMr modes of a tt clad fiber. The basie of the approach 18 that the normal modes of a copIed wavegttide th''schire can be eXpres8Cd as a . riperposition of the cospied modu. 1

  15. A review of the theoretical and numerical approaches to modeling skyglow: Iterative approach to RTE, MSOS, and two-stream approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modeling in different environments.

  16. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.

    2007-09-01

    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  17. Oscillating two-stream instability in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinakiche, Nouara; Annou, R.

    2015-04-01

    Oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma has been thoroughly studied, e.g., in ionospheric heating experiments [C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves With Electron Beams and Plasmas (World Scientific, 1994); V. K. Tripathi and P. V. Siva Rama Prasad, J. Plasma Phys. 41, 13 (1989); K. Ramachandran and V. K. Tripathi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 423 (1997)]. In this paper, OTSI is investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The dispersion relation of the process is established. The pump field threshold, along with the maximum growth rate of the instability is assessed using the Arecibo and HAARP parameters.

  18. Behavioral and catastrophic drift of invertebrates in two streams in northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wangsness, David J.; Peterson, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Invertebrate drift samples were collected in August 1977 from two streams in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming. The streams are Clear Creek, a mountain stream, and the Little Powder River, a plains stream. Two major patterns of drift were recognized. Clear Creek was sampled during a period of normal seasonal conditions. High drift rates occurred during the night indicating a behavioral drift pattern that is related to the benthic invertebrate density and carrying capacity of the stream substrates. The mayfly genes Baetis, a common drift organism, dominated the peak periods of drift in Clear Creek. The Little Powder River has a high discharge during the study period. Midge larvae of the families Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae, ususally not common in drift, dominated the drift community. The dominance of midge larvae, the presence of several other organisms not common in drift, and the high discharge during the study period caused a catastrophic drift pattern. (USGS)

  19. Oscillating two-stream instability in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tinakiche, Nouara; Annou, R.

    2015-04-15

    Oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma has been thoroughly studied, e.g., in ionospheric heating experiments [C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves With Electron Beams and Plasmas (World Scientific, 1994); V. K. Tripathi and P. V. Siva Rama Prasad, J. Plasma Phys. 41, 13 (1989); K. Ramachandran and V. K. Tripathi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 423 (1997)]. In this paper, OTSI is investigated in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. The dispersion relation of the process is established. The pump field threshold, along with the maximum growth rate of the instability is assessed using the Arecibo and HAARP parameters.

  20. Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    The success of implementation and execution of numerous subsurface energy technologies such shale gas extraction, geothermal energy, underground coal gasification rely on detailed characterization of the geology and the subsurface properties. For example, spatial variability of subsurface permeability controls multi-phase flow, and hence impacts the prediction of reservoir performance. Subsurface properties can vary significantly over several length scales making detailed subsurface characterization unfeasible if not forbidden. Therefore, in common practices, only sparse measurements of data are available to image or characterize the entire reservoir. For example pressure, P, permeability, k, and production rate, Q, measurements are only available at the monitoring and operational wells. Elsewhere, the spatial distribution of k is determined by various deterministic or stochastic interpolation techniques and P and Q are calculated from the governing forward mass balance equation assuming k is given at all locations. Several uncertainty drivers, such as PSUADE, are then used to propagate and quantify the uncertainty (UQ) of quantities (variable) of interest using forward solvers. Unfortunately, forward-solver techniques and other interpolation schemes are rarely constrained by the inverse problem itself: given P and Q at observation points determine the spatially variable map of k. The approach presented here, motivated by fluid imaging for subsurface characterization and monitoring, was developed by progressively solving increasingly complex realistic problems. The essence of this novel approach is that the forward and inverse partial differential equations are the interpolator themselves for P, k and Q rather than extraneous and sometimes ad hoc schemes. Three cases with different sparsity of data are investigated. In the simplest case, a sufficient number of passive pressure data (pre-production pressure gradients) are given. Here, only the inverse hyperbolic

  1. On the theory of the propagation of detonation in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeldovich, Y B

    1950-01-01

    The existing theory of detonation is critically examined. It is shown that the considerations with which the steady value of the velocity of detonation is chosen are not convincing. In connection with the problem of the process of the chemical reaction in a detonation wave, the objections raised against the conceptions of Le Chatelier and Vieille of the 19th century with regard to the ignition of the gas by the shock wave are refuted. On the basis of this concept, it is possible to give a rigorous foundation for the existing method of computing the detonation velocity. The distributions of the temperature, the pressure, and the velocity in the detonation wave front as the chemical reaction proceeds, are considered. On the assumption of the absence of losses, the pure compression of the gas in the shock wave at the start of the chemical reaction develops a temperature that is near the temperature of combustion of the given mixture at constant pressure.

  2. A multiple scattering theory for EM wave propagation in a dense random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.; Wong, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    For a dense medium of randomly distributed scatterers an integral formulation for the total coherent field has been developed. This formulation accounts for the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves including both the twoand three-particle terms. It is shown that under the Markovian assumption the total coherent field and the effective field have the same effective wave number. As an illustration of this theory, the effective wave number and the extinction coefficient are derived in terms of the polarizability tensor and the pair distribution function for randomly distributed small spherical scatterers. It is found that the contribution of the three-particle term increases with the particle size, the volume fraction, the frequency and the permittivity of the particle. This increase is more significant with frequency and particle size than with other parameters.

  3. Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of spheres: Analytical comparison between coupled phase model and multiple scattering theory.

    PubMed

    Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of small spheres is studied using two models: a hydrodynamic model based on the coupled phase equations and an acoustic model based on the ECAH (ECAH: Epstein-Carhart-Allegra-Hawley) multiple scattering theory. The aim is to compare both models through the study of three fundamental kinds of particles: rigid particles, elastic spheres, and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic model is based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation generalized to elastic spheres and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic forces for elastic spheres are introduced by analogy with those of droplets. The ECAH theory is also modified in order to take into account the velocity of rigid particles. Analytical calculations performed for long wavelength, low dilution, and weak absorption in the ambient fluid show that both models are strictly equivalent for the three kinds of particles studied. The analytical calculations show that dilatational and translational mechanisms are modeled in the same way by both models. The effective parameters of dilute suspensions are also calculated. PMID:26520342

  4. Frozen Gaussian series representation of the imaginary time propagator theory and numerical tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dong H.; Shao Jiushu; Pollak, Eli

    2009-07-28

    Thawed Gaussian wavepackets have been used in recent years to compute approximations to the thermal density matrix. From a numerical point of view, it is cheaper to employ frozen Gaussian wavepackets. In this paper, we provide the formalism for the computation of thermal densities using frozen Gaussian wavepackets. We show that the exact density may be given in terms of a series, in which the zeroth order term is the frozen Gaussian. A numerical test of the methodology is presented for deep tunneling in the quartic double well potential. In all cases, the series is observed to converge. The convergence of the diagonal density matrix element is much faster than that of the antidiagonal one, suggesting that the methodology should be especially useful for the computation of partition functions. As a by product of this study, we find that the density matrix in configuration space can have more than two saddle points at low temperatures. This has implications for the use of the quantum instanton theory.

  5. PRPSIM: A FORTRAN code to calculate properties of radio wave propagation in a structured ionized medium. Volume 2: Theory and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, R. E.; Krueger, D. J.; Guigliano, F. W.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the PRPSIM (Properties of Radio Wave Propagation in a Structured Ionized Medium) code, a FORTRAN computer program for use in evaluating electromagnetic propagation effects resulting from detonation of nuclear weapons on satellite communications and radar systems. The code uses nuclear environment data files created by the SCENARIO high altitude, multiburst nuclear phenomenology code. PRPSIM calculates propagation effects due to enhanced mean ionization levels (e.g., absorption, noise, refraction, phase shift, Doppler and time delay variations, etc.). The code is written in ANSI FORTRAN-77 and has been installed and run on VAX, CDC/CYBER, ELXSI/EMBOS, and CRAY-1 computer systems. Volume 1 of the report is a user's guide which describes code installation, input, output, structure, and application. Volume 2 describes the underlying propagation effects theory and computational models.

  6. Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array: Theory and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Peter; Archuleta, Ralph J.

    1991-04-01

    We present an approach for measuring the spatial extent, duration, directions and speeds of rupture propagation during an earthquake using array signal processing techniques. Unlike most previous approaches, no assumptions are made regarding the directions and speeds of propagation. The solution we obtain is unique, and its accuracy, precision and resolution can be estimated. We use preprocessing and coprocessing techniques that improve the accuracy/precision of existing frequency-wavenumber methods. Subarray spatial averaging modifies frequency-wavenumber techniques so that they are sensitive to multiple deterministic (transient) as well as stochastic (stationary) signals. This technique is also advantageous because it ensemble averages the cross spectral matrix and reduces the variance of the frequency-wavenumber spectrum. Seismogram alignment is a preprocessing procedure that accounts for nonplanar wavefronts due to lateral velocity variations beneath an array. This procedure also allows us to study signals of interest using much shorter time windows than has previously been possible. The use of short time windows is important for reducing uncertainty in estimates of arrival times of seismic phases. We tested subarray spatial averaging and seismogram alignment with a variety of frequency-wavenumber techniques and found that the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method gave the best resolution of multiple signals. We also note that standard theoretical estimates of uncertainties in peak locations of frequency-wavenumber spectra are much smaller than those typically observed using seismic arrays and we present a different formula that more accurately describes observed uncertainties. Using synthetic P and S body-wave seismograms from extended earthquake sources we show that the above array signal processing techniques can be combined with ray theory to obtain accurate estimates of the locations and rupture times of an earthquake's high-frequency seismic

  7. Link between alginate reaction front propagation and general reaction diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Thomas; Valero, Ana; Colella, Ludovica; Pataky, Kristopher; Brugger, Jürgen; Renaud, Philippe

    2011-03-15

    We provide a common theoretical framework reuniting specific models for the Ca(2+)-alginate system and general reaction diffusion theory along with experimental validation on a microfluidic chip. As a starting point, we use a set of nonlinear, partial differential equations that are traditionally solved numerically: the Mikkelsen-Elgsaeter model. Applying the traveling-wave hypothesis as a major simplification, we obtain an analytical solution. The solution indicates that the fundamental properties of the alginate reaction front are governed by a single dimensionless parameter λ. For small λ values, a large depletion zone accompanies the reaction front. For large λ values, the alginate reacts before having the time to diffuse significantly. We show that the λ parameter is of general importance beyond the alginate model system, as it can be used to classify known solutions for second-order reaction diffusion schemes, along with the novel solution presented here. For experimental validation, we develop a microchip model system, in which the alginate gel formation can be carried out in a highly controlled, essentially 1D environment. The use of a filter barrier enables us to rapidly renew the CaCl(2) solution, while maintaining flow speeds lower than 1 μm/s for the alginate compartment. This allows one to impose an exactly known bulk CaCl(2) concentration and diffusion resistance. This experimental model system, taken together with the theoretical development, enables the determination of the entire set of physicochemical parameters governing the alginate reaction front in a single experiment. PMID:21351747

  8. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.

    2016-05-01

    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  9. Chaotic /strange/ and periodic behavior in instability saturation by the oscillating two-stream instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. A.; Ott, E.

    1981-01-01

    The nonlinear Schroedinger equation with linear growth and damping is truncated to three waves. The resulting system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describes the excitation of linearly damped waves by the oscillating two-stream instability driven by a linearly unstable pump wave. This system represents a simple model for the nonlinear saturation of a linearly unstable wave. The model is examined analytically and numerically as a function of the dimensionless parameters of the system. It is found that the model can exhibit a wealth of characteristic dynamical behavior including stationary equilibria, Hopf bifurcations to periodic orbits, period doubling bifurcations, chaotic solutions characteristic of a strange attractor, tangent bifurcations from chaotic to periodic solutions, transient chaos, and hysteresis. Many of these features are shown to be explainable on the basis of one-dimensional maps. In the case of chaotic solutions, evidence for the presence of a strange attractor is provided by demonstrating Cantor set-like structure (i.e., scale invariance) in the surface of section.

  10. Two-dimensional electron-electron two-stream instability of an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect

    Marocchino, A.; Lapenta, G.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Nebel, R. A.; Park, J.

    2006-10-15

    Theoretical works by Barnes and Nebel [D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998); R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)] have suggested that a tiny oscillating ion cloud (referred to as the periodically oscillating plasma sphere or POPS) may undergo a self-similar collapse in a harmonic oscillator potential formed by a uniform electron background. A major uncertainty in this oscillating plasma scheme is the stability of the virtual cathode that forms the harmonic oscillator potential. The electron-electron two-stream stability of the virtual cathode has previously been studied with a fluid model, a slab kinetic model, a spherically symmetric kinetic model, and experimentally [R. A. Nebel and J. M. Finn, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1505 (2001); R. A. Nebel et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 040501 (2005)]. Here the mode is studied with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Results indicate stability limits near those of the previously spherically symmetric case.

  11. First Simulations of a Collisional Two-Stream Instability in the Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Meers; Dimant, Yakov; Madsen, Chad Allen; Fontenla, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Observations and modeling shows that immediately above the temperature minimum in the solar atmosphere, a steep rise from below 4,000 K to over 6,000K occurs. Recent papers show that a collisional two-stream plasma instability called the Farley-Buneman Instability can develop at the altitudes where this increase occurs. This instability may play an important role in transferring energy from turbulent neutral flows originating in the photosphere to the mid-chromosphere in the form of heat. Plasma turbulence resulting from this instability could account for some or most of this intense chromospheric heating. This paper presents a set of simulations showing the development and evolution of the Farley-Buneman Instability (FBI) applicable to the chromosphere. It compares these results with the better-understood ionospheric FBI. It examines the linear behavior and the dependence of growth rates for a range of altitudes and driving flows. It also presents the first study of FBI driven plasma nonlinearities and turbulence in the chromosphere. This research should help us evaluate the FBI as a mechanism to convert neutral flow and turbulence energy into electron thermal energy in the quiet Sun.

  12. Observations and transport theory analysis of low frequency, acoustic mode propagation in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K; Colosi, John A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    Second order mode statistics as a function of range and source depth are presented from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX). During LOAPEX, low frequency broadband signals were transmitted from a ship-suspended source to a mode-resolving vertical line array. Over a one-month period, the ship occupied seven stations from 50 km to 3200 km distance from the receiver. At each station broadband transmissions were performed at a near-axial depth of 800 m and an off-axial depth of 350 m. Center frequencies at these two depths were 75 Hz and 68 Hz, respectively. Estimates of observed mean mode energy, cross mode coherence, and temporal coherence are compared with predictions from modal transport theory, utilizing the Garrett-Munk internal wave spectrum. In estimating the acoustic observables, there were challenges including low signal to noise ratio, corrections for source motion, and small sample sizes. The experimental observations agree with theoretical predictions within experimental uncertainty. PMID:24116512

  13. Semianalytic theory of self-similar optical propagation and mode locking using a shape-adaptive model pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Jirauschek, Christian; Ilday, F. Oemer

    2011-06-15

    A semianalytic theory for the pulse dynamics in similariton amplifiers and lasers is presented, based on a model pulse with adaptive shape. By changing a single parameter, this test function can be continuously tweaked between a pure Gaussian and a pure parabolic profile and can even represent sech-like pulses, the shape of a soliton. This approach allows us to describe the pulse evolution in the self-similar and other regimes of optical propagation. Employing the method of moments, the evolution equations for the characteristic pulse parameters are derived from the governing nonlinear Schroedinger or Ginzburg-Landau equation. Due to its greatly reduced complexity, this description allows for extensive parameter optimization, and can aid intuitive understanding of the dynamics. As an application of this approach, we model a soliton-similariton laser and validate the results against numerical simulations. This constitutes a semianalytic model of the soliton-similariton laser. Due to the versatility of the model pulse, it can also prove useful in other application areas.

  14. Application of 'steady' state finite element and transient finite difference theory to sound propagation in a variable duct - A comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Eversman, W.; Astley, R. J.; White, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for sound propagation in a simulated infinite hard wall duct with a large change in duct cross sectional area. The data are conveniently tabulated for further use. The 'steady' state finite element theory of Astley and Eversman (1981) and the transient finite difference theory of White (1981) are in good agreement with the data for both the axial and transverse pressure profiles and the axial phase angle. Therefore, numerical finite difference and finite element theories appear to be ideally suited for handling duct propagation problems which encounter large axial gradients in acoustic parameters. The measured energy reflection coefficient agrees with the values from the Astley-Eversman modal coupling model.

  15. Determination of effective brain connectivity from functional connectivity using propagator-based interferometry and neural field theory with application to the corticothalamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    2014-10-01

    It is shown how to compute both direct and total effective connection matrices (deCMs and teCMs), which embody the strengths of neural connections between regions, from correlation-based functional CMs using propagator-based interferometry, a method that stems from geophysics and acoustics, coupled with the recent identification of deCMs and teCMs with bare and dressed propagators, respectively. The approach incorporates excitatory and inhibitory connections, multiple structures and populations, and measurement effects. The propagator is found for a generalized scalar wave equation derived from neural field theory, and expressed in terms of neural activity correlations and covariances, and wave damping rates. It is then related to correlation matrices that are commonly used to express functional and effective connectivities in the brain. The results are illustrated in analytically tractable test cases.

  16. Theory of wave propagation in partially saturated double-porosity rocks: a triple-layer patchy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weitao; Ba, Jing; Carcione, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Wave-induced local fluid flow is known as a key mechanism to explain the intrinsic wave dissipation in fluid-saturated rocks. Understanding the relationship between the acoustic properties of rocks and fluid patch distributions is important to interpret the observed seismic wave phenomena. A triple-layer patchy (TLP) model is proposed to describe the P-wave dissipation process in a double-porosity media saturated with two immiscible fluids. The double-porosity rock consists of a solid matrix with unique host porosity and inclusions which contain the second type of pores. Two immiscible fluids are considered in concentric spherical patches, where the inner pocket and the outer sphere are saturated with different fluids. The kinetic and dissipation energy functions of local fluid flow (LFF) in the inner pocket are formulated through oscillations in spherical coordinates. The wave propagation equations of the TLP model are based on Biot's theory and the corresponding Lagrangian equations. The P-wave dispersion and attenuation caused by the Biot friction mechanism and the local fluid flow (related to the pore structure and the fluid distribution) are obtained by a plane-wave analysis from the Christoffel equations. Numerical examples and laboratory measurements indicate that P-wave dispersion and attenuation are significantly influenced by the spatial distributions of both, the solid heterogeneity and the fluid saturation distribution. The TLP model is in reasonably good agreement with White's and Johnson's models. However, differences in phase velocity suggest that the heterogeneities associated with double-porosity and dual-fluid distribution should be taken into account when describing the P-wave dispersion and attenuation in partially saturated rocks.

  17. Hydrologic and geochemical controls on pesticide and nutrient transport to two streams on the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Brayton, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides and nutrients move from application areas through ground water and surface runoff to streams on the Delmarva Peninsula. The relative importance of different transport media to the movement of these compounds in different watersheds is related to locally variable hydrologic and geochemical conditions among areas of regionally similar land use, geology, and soils. Consideration of such local variability is important to land-management efforts or future environmental investigations on the Peninsula. Chemical analyses of samples collected over a multiyear period from two streams on the Delmarva Peninsula were analyzed along with similar available analyses of ground water to document the occurrence of pesticides and nutrients, and illustrate important processes controlling their movement through watersheds to streams. The upper Pocomoke River and Chesterville Branch drain predominantly agricultural watersheds typical of the Delmarva Peninsula. Chesterville Branch drains a watershed of moderate relief, good drainage, and a permeable surficial aquifer that ranges in thickness from about 15 to 25 meters. The upper Pocomoke River Watershed, however, is extremely flat with poorly drained soils and abundant artificial drainage. Influences on the chemistry of water in each stream were determined from seasonal patterns in the concentrations of selected constituents from 1996 through 2001, and relations with streamflow. Nutrients and pesticides are detectable throughout the year in the upper Pocomoke River and Chesterville Branch. Water in both streams is typically dilute, slightly acidic, and well oxygenated, and nitrate and phosphorus concentrations generally exceed estimated natural levels. Pesticide concentrations are generally low, although concentrations of selected metabolites commonly exceed 1 microgram per liter, particularly in Chesterville Branch. Nitrate and metabolites of pesticide compounds are apparently transported to Chesterville Branch preferentially

  18. Two-Stream Model: Toward Data Production for Sharing Field Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. S.; Palmer, C. L.; Thomer, A. K.; Wickett, K.; DiLauro, T.; Asangba, A. E.; Fouke, B. W.; Choudhury, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific data play a central role in the production of knowledge reported in scientific publications. Today, data sharing policies together with technological capacity are fueling visions of data as open and accessible where data appear to stand-alone as products of the research process. Yet, guidelines and outputs are constantly being produced that impact subsequent work with the data, particularly in field-oriented, data-rich earth science research. We propose a model that focuses on two distinct yet intertwined data streams: internal-use data and public-reuse data. Internal-use data often involves a complex mix of processing, analysis and integration strategies creating data in forms leading to the publication of papers. Public-reuse data is prepared with a more standardized set of procedures creating data packages in the form of well-described, parameter-based datasets for release to a data repository and for reuse by others. While scientific researchers are familiar with collecting and analyzing data for publication in the scientific literature, the second data stream helps to identify tasks relating to the preparation of data for future, unanticipated reuse. The second stream represents an expansion in conceptualization of data management for the majority of natural scientists from a publication metaphor to recognition of a release metaphor (Parsons and Fox 2012). A combined dual-function model brings attention to some of the less recognized barriers that impede preparation of data for reuse. Digital data analysis spawns a multitude of files often assessed while ';in use' so for reuse of data, scientists must first identify what data files to share. They must also create robust data processes that frequently involve establishing new distributions of labor. The two-stream approach creates a visual representation for data generators who now must think about what data are most likely to have value not only for their work but also for the work of others

  19. Lattice gluon and ghost propagators and the strong coupling in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory: Finite lattice spacing and volume effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Anthony G.; Oliveira, Orlando; Silva, Paulo J.

    2016-07-01

    The dependence of the Landau gauge two-point gluon and ghost correlation functions on the lattice spacing and on the physical volume are investigated for pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions using lattice simulations. We present data from very large lattices up to 1284 and for two lattice spacings 0.10 fm and 0.06 fm corresponding to volumes of ˜(13 fm )4 and ˜(8 fm )4 , respectively. Our results show that, for sufficiently large physical volumes, both propagators have a mild dependence on the lattice volume. On the other hand, the gluon and ghost propagators change with the lattice spacing a in the infrared region, with the gluon propagator having a stronger dependence on a compared to the ghost propagator. In what concerns the strong coupling constant αs(p2), as defined from gluon and ghost two-point functions, the simulations show a sizeable dependence on the lattice spacing for the infrared region and for momenta up to ˜1 GeV .

  20. Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ogoshi, Yosuke; Okada, Eiji

    2005-04-10

    A practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region by use of diffusion theory was investigated. The diffusion approximation does not hold in a nonscattering or low-scattering regions. The hybrid radiosity-diffusion method was adopted to model the light propagation in the head with a nonscattering region. In the hybrid method the geometry of the nonscattering region is acquired as a priori information. In reality, low-level scattering occurs in the CSF region and may reduce the error caused by the diffusion approximation. The partial optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile calculated by the finite-element method agree well with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method in the case in which the transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is greater than 0.3 mm(-1). Because it is feasible to assume that the transport scattering coefficient of a CSF layer is 0.3 mm(-1), it is practical to adopt diffusion theory to the modeling of light propagation in an adult head as an alternative to the hybrid method. PMID:15835358

  1. Practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with low-scattering regions by use of diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ogoshi, Yosuke; Okada, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    A practical and adequate approach to modeling light propagation in an adult head with a low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region by use of diffusion theory was investigated. The diffusion approximation does not hold in a nonscattering or low-scattering regions. The hybrid radiosity-diffusion method was adopted to model the light propagation in the head with a nonscattering region. In the hybrid method the geometry of the nonscattering region is acquired as a priori information. In reality, low-level scattering occurs in the CSF region and may reduce the error caused by the diffusion approximation. The partial optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile calculated by the finite-element method agree well with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method in the case in which the transport scattering coefficient of the CSF layer is greater than 0.3 mm^-1. Because it is feasible to assume that the transport scattering coefficient of a CSF layer is 0.3 mm^-1, it is practical to adopt diffusion theory to the modeling of light propagation in an adult head as an alternative to the hybrid method.

  2. Applications of velocity potential function to acoustic duct propagation and radiation from inlets using finite element theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element velocity potential program was developed to study acoustic wave propagation in complex geometries. For irrotational flows, relatively low sound frequencies, and plane wave input, the finite element solutions showed significant effects of inlet curvature and flow gradients on the attenuation of a given acoustic liner in a realistic variable area turbofan inlet. The velocity potential approach can not be used to estimate the effects of rotational flow on acoustic propagation, since the potential acoustic disturbances propagate at the speed of the media in sheared flow. Approaches are discussed that are being considered for extending the finite element solution to include the far field, as well as the internal portion of the duct. A new matrix partitioning approach is presented that can be incorporated in previously developed programs to allow the finite element calculation to be marched into the far field. The partitioning approach provided a large reduction in computer storage and running times.

  3. The use of two-stream approximations for the parameterization of solar radiative energy fluxes through vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J.H.; Iaquinta, J.; Pinty, B.

    1996-10-01

    Two-stream approximations have been used widely and for a long time in the field of radiative transfer through vegetation in various contexts and in the last 10 years also to model the hemispheric reflectance of vegetated surfaces in numerical models of the earth-atmosphere system. For a plane-parallel and turbid vegetation medium, the existence of rotational invariance allows the application of a conventional two-stream approximation to the phase function, based on an expansion in Legendre Polynomials. Three conditions have to be fulfilled to make this reduction possible in the case of vegetation. The scattering function of single leaves must be bi-Lambertian, the azimuthal distribution of leaf normals must be uniform, and the azimuthally averaged Leaf Area Normal Distribution (LAND) must be either uniform or planophile. The first and second assumptions have been shown to be acceptable by other researchers and, in fact, are usually assumed explicitly or implicitly when dealing with radiative transfer through canopies. The third one, on the shape of the azimuthally averaged LAND, although investigated before, is subjected to a detailed sensitivity test in this study, using a set of synthetic LAND`s as well as experimental data for 17 plant canopies. It is shown that the radiative energy flux equations are relatively insensitive to the exact form of the LAND. The experimental Ross functions and hemispheric reflectances lie between those for the synthetic cases of planophile and erectophile LAND`s. However, only the uniform and planophile LANDS lead to canopy hemispheric reflectances, which are markedly different from one another. The analytical two-stream solutions for the either the planophile or the uniform LAND cases may be used to model the radiative fluxes through plant canopies in the solar spectral range. The choice between the two for any particular case must be made on the basis of experimental data. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  4. The Use of Two-Stream Approximations for the Parameterization of Solar Radiative Energy Fluxes through Vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josepoh, Joachim H.; Laquinta, Jean; Pinty, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Two-stream approximations have been used widely and for a long time in the field of radiative transfer through vegetation in various contexts and in the last 10 years also to model the hemispheric reflectance of vegetated surfaces in numerical models of the earth-atmosphere system.For a plane-parallel and turbid vegetation medium, the existence of rotational invariance allows the application of a conventional two-stream approximation to the phase function, based on an expansion in Legendre Polynomials. Three conditions have to be fulfilled to nuke this reduction possible in the case of vegetation. The scattering function of single leaves must be bi-Lambertian, the azimuthal distribution of leaf normals must be uniform, and the azimuthally averaged Leaf Area Normal Distribution (LAND) must be either uniform or planophile. The first and second assumptions have been shown to he acceptable by other researchers and. in fact, are usually assumed explicitly or implicitly when dealing with radiative transfer through canopies. The third one, on the shape of the azimuthally averaged LAND, although investigated before, is subjected to a detailed sensitivity test in this study, using a set of synthetic LAND's as well as experimental data for 17 plant canopies.It is shown that the radiative energy flux equations are relatively insensitive to the exact form of the LAND. The experimental Ross functions and hemispheric reflectances lie between those for the synthetic cases of planophile and erectophile LANDS. However, only the uniform and planophile LANDs lead to canopy hemispheric reflectances, which are markedly different from one another.The analytical two-stream solutions for the either the planophile or the uniform LAND cases may be used to model the radiative fluxes through plant canopies in the solar spectral range. The choice between the two for any particular case must he made on the basis of experimental data.

  5. Applications of velocity potential function to acoustic duct propagation and radiation from inlets using finite element theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Majjigi, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element velocity potential program has been developed to study acoustic wave propagation in complex geometries. For irrotational flows, relatively low sound frequencies, and plane wave input, the finite element solutions show significant effects of inlet curvature and flow gradients on the attenuation of a given acoustic liner in a realistic variable area turbofan inlet. In addition, as shown in the paper, the velocity potential approach can not be used to estimate the effects of rotational flow on acoustic propagation since the potential acoustic disturbances propagate at the speed of the media in sheared flow. Approaches are discussed that are being considered for extending the finite element solution to include the far field as well as the internal portion of the duct. A new matrix partitioning approach is presented that can be incorporated in previously developed programs to allow the finite element calculation to be marched into the far field. The partitioning approach provides a large reduction in computer storage and running times.

  6. Evanescent waves propagation along a periodically corrugated surface and their amplification by relativistic electron beam (quasi-optical theory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Malkin, A. M.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2013-06-15

    By using a quasi-optical approach, we study propagation of evanescent waves along a periodically corrugated surface and their excitation by relativistic electron beams. Under assumption of a shallow (in the scale of period) corrugation, the dispersion equation for normal waves is derived and two particular cases are studied. In the first case, the wave frequency is far from the Bragg resonance; therefore, the evanescent wave propagation can be described by using the impedance approximation with deceleration of the zeroth spatial harmonic. The second case takes place at the frequencies close to the Bragg resonance. There, the field can be represented as two counter-propagating quasi-optical wave beams, which are coupled on the corrugated surface and form an evanescent normal wave. With regard to the interaction with an electron beam, the first case corresponds to the convective instability that can be used for amplification of radiation, while the second case corresponds to the absolute instability used in surface-wave oscillators. This paper is focused on studying main features of amplifier schemes, such as the increments, electron efficiency, and formation of a self-consistent spatial structure of the radiated field. For practical applications, the feasibility of realization of relativistic surface-wave amplifiers in the submillimeter wavelength range is estimated.

  7. Generating Elastic, Biodegradable Polyurethane/Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Fibrous Sheets with Controlled Antibiotic Release via Two-Stream Electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yi; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; Tobita, Kimimasa; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Damage control laparotomy is commonly applied to prevent compartment syndrome following trauma but is associated with new risks to the tissue, including infection. To address the need for biomaterials to improve abdominal laparotomy management, we fabricated an elastic, fibrous composite sheet with two distinct submicrometer fiber populations: biodegradable poly(ester urethane) urea (PEUU) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), where the PLGA was loaded with the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (PLGA-tet). A two-stream electrospinning setup was developed to create a uniform blend of PEUU and PLGA-tet fibers. Composite sheets were flexible with breaking strains exceeding 200%, tensile strengths of 5–7 MPa, and high suture retention capacity. The blending of PEUU fibers markedly reduced the shrinkage ratio observed for PLGA-tet sheets in buffer from 50% to 15%, while imparting elastomeric properties to the composites. Antibacterial activity was maintained for composite sheets following incubation in buffer for 7 days at 37 °C. In vivo studies demonstrated prevention of abscess formation in a contaminated rat abdominal wall model with the implanted material. These results demonstrate the benefits derivable from a two-stream electrospinning approach wherein mechanical and controlled-release properties are contributed by independent fiber populations and the applicability of this composite material to abdominal wall closure. PMID:18318501

  8. Nonlinear and three-dimensional theory for cross-magnetic field propagation of short-pulse lasers in underdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2004-05-01

    The nonlinear and finite spot size effects for short laser pulses propagating in a plasma across a constant magnetic field (ordinary and extraordinary modes) have been studied. Starting from a fluid Lagrangian for magnetized plasmas with immobile ions, we derive the envelope equation for the laser and also the equation for the plasma wake in a three-dimensional geometry. The derived equations reveal that the external magnetic field reduces the strength of ponderomotive self-focusing, causes astigmatic self-focusing, and leads to the possibility of deflecting a short and narrow laser pulse in a magnetized plasma.

  9. Time-dependent difference theory for noise propagation in a two-dimensional duct. [of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    A time dependent numerical formulation was derived for sound propagation in a two dimensional straight soft-walled duct in the absence of mean flow. The time dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions were developed along with the maximum stable time increment. Example calculations were presented for sound attenuation in hard and soft wall ducts. The time dependent analysis were found to be superior to the conventional steady numerical analysis because of much shorter solution times and the elimination of matrix storage requirements.

  10. Effects of finite beam and plasma temperature on the growth rate of a two-stream free electron laser with background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdizadeh, N.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2013-02-28

    A fluid theory is used to derive the dispersion relation of two-stream free electron laser (TSFEL) with a magnetic planar wiggler pump in the presence of background plasma (BP). The effect of finite beams and plasma temperature on the growth rate of a TSFEL has been verified. The twelve order dispersion equation has been solved numerically. Three instabilities, FEL along with the TS and TS-FEL instabilities occur simultaneously. The analysis in the case of cold BP shows that when the effect of the beam temperature is taken into account, both instable bands of wave-number and peak growth rate in the TS instability increase, but peak growth of the FEL and TS-FEL instabilities decreases. Thermal motion of the BP causes to diminish the TS instability and it causes to decrease the FEL and TS-FEL instabilities. By increasing the beam densities and lowering initial velocities (in the collective Raman regime), growth rate of instabilities increases; however, it has opposite behavior in the Campton regime.

  11. Propagation in the ionosphere, A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Paul S.

    1994-09-01

    The use of ionospheric models and ray tracing models as components of a propagation model are discussed. These can be used as decision aids to support human interpretation of ionospheric propagation. The physical basis for ionospheric decision aids is introduced by reference to ionospheric morphology and the basic theory of ionospheric propagation, which, along with ray tracing techniques, is then reviewed.

  12. Utility of surface-floating Vhironomidae pupal exuviae in assessing the impact of PCBs on two stream communities. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Surface-floating pupal exuviae of the midge family Chironomidae were collected from two stream systems with a known history of PCB pollution. Sites from Holden, Missouri were separated into PCB absent and PCB present groups and their taxa were analyzed for differences in composition and abundance. The PCB-absent sites had a higher total frequency of specimens and a higher total species richness than PCB present sites. Orthocladiini were present at every site except one in the PCB absent category whereas the PCB present category contained only two with Orthocladiini present. Scatterplots and correlation of taxa frequencies vs. PCB levels revealed specific taxa that may be more tolerant of PCBs than others. These taxa included Larsia sp., Einfeldia sp.gp.A, Dicrotendipes sp. 1, Geoldichironomus holoprasinus, Glyptotendipes sp.gp.A, Paratanytarsus inopertus gp. and Procladius sublettei.

  13. Light propagation in the field of a moving axisymmetric body: Theory and applications to the Juno mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, A.; Bertone, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2014-10-01

    Given the extreme accuracy of modern space science, a precise relativistic modeling of observations is required. We use the time transfer function formalism to study light propagation in the field of uniformly moving axisymmetric bodies, which extends the field of application of previous works. We first present a space-time metric adapted to describe the geometry of an ensemble of uniformly moving bodies. Then, we show that the expression of the time transfer functions in the field of a uniformly moving body can be easily derived from its well-known expression in a stationary field by using a change of variables. We also give a general expression of the time transfer function in the case of an ensemble of arbitrarily moving point masses. This result is given in the form of an integral that is easily computable numerically. We also provide the derivatives of the time transfer function in this case, which are mandatory to compute Doppler and astrometric observables. We particularize our results in the case of moving axisymmetric bodies. Finally, we apply our results to study the different relativistic contributions to the range and Doppler tracking for the Juno mission in the Jovian system.

  14. Kinetic theory of instability-enhanced collisional effects

    SciTech Connect

    Baalrud, S. D.; Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.

    2010-05-15

    The Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is used to derive a generalization of the Lenard-Balescu plasma kinetic equation that accounts for wave-particle scattering due to instabilities that originate from discrete particle motion. Application to convective instabilities is emphasized for which the growing waves either propagate out of the domain of interest or modify the particle distribution to reduce the instability amplitude before nonlinear amplitudes are reached. Two such applications are discussed: Langmuir's paradox and determining the Bohm criterion for multiple ion species plasmas. In these applications, collisions are enhanced by ion-acoustic and ion-ion two-stream instabilities, respectively. The relationship between this kinetic theory and quasilinear theory is discussed.

  15. On horizontal coherence estimates from path integral theory for sound propagation through random ocean sound-speed perturbations.

    PubMed

    Colosi, John A

    2013-10-01

    Previously published results from path integral theory for the horizontal coherence length utilized an empirical relation for the phase structure function density that was quite different from path integral results obtained for depth and time coherence where the phase structure function density was expanded to second order in the lag. This letter presents a result for horizontal coherence length which carries out the quadratic expansion and analytically solves the integral equations. Some simple calculations of horizontal coherence length demonstrate the differences between the present and old expressions. In contrast to the empirical result the present expression shows the expected one over square-root range and one over frequency scalings. The results also show more clearly how transverse coherence is sensitive to the space-time scales of internal waves and other environmental parameters. PMID:24116509

  16. Self-field effects on instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenpour, Taghi Rezaee Rami, Omme Kolsoum

    2014-07-15

    Free electron lasers (FEL) play major roles in the Raman Regime, due to the charge and current densities of the beam self-field. The method of perturbation has been applied to study the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. A dispersion relation for two-stream free electron lasers with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field has been found. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to investigate the influence of self-fields on the FEL coupling and the two-stream instability. It was found that self-fields can produce very large effects on the FEL coupling, but they have almost negligible effects on two-stream instability.

  17. Effect of a delta tab on fine scale mixing in a turbulent two-stream shear layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. K.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1996-01-01

    The fine scale mixing produced by a delta tab in a shear layer has been studied experimentally. The tab was placed at the trailing edge of a splitter plate which produced a turbulent two-stream mixing layer. The tab apex tilted downstream and into the high speed stream. Hot-wire measurements in the 3-D space behind the tab detailed the three velocity components as well as the small scale population distributions. These small scale eddies, which represent the peak in the dissipation spectrum, were identified and counted using the Peak-Valley-Counting technique. It was found that the small scale populations were greater in the shear region behind the tab, with the greatest increase occurring where the shear layer underwent a sharp turn. This location was near, but not coincident, with the core of the streamwise vortex, and away from the region exhibiting maximum turbulence intensity. Moreover, the tab increased the most probably frequency and strain rate of the small scales. It made the small scales smaller and more energetic.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR THE OSCILLATING TWO STREAM INSTABILITY AND SPATIAL COLLAPSE OF LANGMUIR WAVES IN A SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; Bergamo, M.; Papadopoulos, K.; MacDowall, R. J. E-mail: mbergamo@umd.edu E-mail: Robert.MacDowall@nasa.gov

    2012-03-15

    We present observational evidence for the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) and spatial collapse of Langmuir waves in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. High time resolution observations from the STEREO A spacecraft show that Langmuir waves excited by the electron beam occur as isolated field structures with short durations {approx}3.2 ms and with high intensities exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. These short duration events are identified as the envelope solitons which have collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets contain an intense peak and two sidebands, corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, and down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, respectively, and low-frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI. The observed high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures, and low-frequency enhancements strongly suggest that the OTSI and spatial collapse of Langmuir waves probably control the nonlinear beam-plasma interactions in type III radio bursts.

  19. Shock formation processes due to interactions of two plasmas in a magnetic field and modified two-stream instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Toida, Mieko; Uragami, Tatsunori

    2013-11-15

    The study of interactions of exploding and surrounding plasmas in an external magnetic field [K. Yamauchi and Y. Ohsawa, Phys. Plasmas 14, 053110 (2007)] is verified with two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic particle simulations, for a case in which the initial velocity of the exploding plasma is perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The 2D simulations show essentially the same shock-formation processes as those in the previous one-dimensional simulation, including penetration of exploding ions into surrounding plasma, formation of a strong magnetic-field pulse due to deceleration of the exploding ions, ion reflection by the pulse, and subsequent splitting of the pulse into two magnetosonic pulses which then develop into forward and reverse shock waves. Furthermore, the 2D structure of electromagnetic fields in the region, where the exploding and surrounding ions overlap, is investigated with particular attention to the linear and nonlinear evolution of modified two-stream instabilities in the magnetic field that is being gradually compressed. The effects of these instabilities on ion reflection and on 2D magnetic fluctuations in the two generated pulses are also discussed.

  20. ON THE ACCURACY OF THE PROPAGATION THEORY AND THE QUALITY OF BACKGROUND OBSERVATIONS IN A SCHUMANN RESONANCE INVERSION PROCEDURE Vadim MUSHTAK, Earle WILLIAMS PARSONS LABORATORY, MIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.

    2009-12-01

    Observations of electromagnetic fields in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range (5 to 40 Hz) contain information about both the major source of the electromagnetic radiation (repeatedly confirmed to be global lightning activity) and the source-to-observer propagation medium (the Earth-ionosphere waveguide). While the electromagnetic signatures from individual lightning discharges provide preferable experimental material for exploring the medium, the properties of the world-wide lightning process are best reflected in background spectral SR observations. In the latter, electromagnetic contributions from thousands of lightning discharges are accumulated in intervals of about 10-15 minutes - long enough to present a statistically significant (and so theoretically treatable) ensemble of individual flashes, and short enough to reflect the spatial-temporal dynamics of global lightning activity. Thanks to the small (well below 1 dB/Mm) attenuation in the SR range and the accumulated nature of background SR observations, the latter present globally integrated information about lightning activity not available via other (satellite, meteorological) techniques. The most interesting characteristics to be extracted in an inversion procedure are the rates of vertical charge moment change (and their temporal variations) in the major global lightning “chimneys”. The success of such a procedure depends critically on the accuracy of the propagation theory (used to carry out “direct” calculations for the inversion) and the quality of experimental material. Due to the nature of the problem, both factors - the accuracy and the quality - can only be estimated indirectly, which requires specific approaches to assure that the estimates are realistic and more importantly, that the factors could be improved. For the first factor, simulations show that the widely exploited theory of propagation in a uniform (spherically symmetrical) waveguide provides unacceptable (up to

  1. Atmospheric Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embleton, Tony F. W.; Daigle, Gilles A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviewed here is the current state of knowledge with respect to each basic mechanism of sound propagation in the atmosphere and how each mechanism changes the spectral or temporal characteristics of the sound received at a distance from the source. Some of the basic processes affecting sound wave propagation which are present in any situation are discussed. They are geometrical spreading, molecular absorption, and turbulent scattering. In geometrical spreading, sound levels decrease with increasing distance from the source; there is no frequency dependence. In molecular absorption, sound energy is converted into heat as the sound wave propagates through the air; there is a strong dependence on frequency. In turbulent scattering, local variations in wind velocity and temperature induce fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the sound waves as they propagate through an inhomogeneous medium; there is a moderate dependence on frequency.

  2. Evaluation of the Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) over the Hainich Forest FLUXNET site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, B.; Jung, M.; Kaminski, T.; Lavergne, T.; Mund, M.; Plummer, S.; Thomas, E.; Widlowski, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    The Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) makes use of the MODIS and MISR white sky albedo products to deliver consistent sets of information about the terrestrial environments. The baseline version of the JRC-TIP operates at a spatial resolution of 0.01degree and yields estimates of the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the effective canopy Leaf Area Index (LAI), the canopy background albedo, the vegetation scattering properties, as well as, the absorbed, reflected and transmitted fluxes of the vegetation canopy. In this contribution the evaluation efforts of the JRC-TIP products are extended to the deciduous forest site of Hainich (Germany) where multiannual datasets of in-situ estimates of canopy transmission - derived from LAI-2000 observations - are available. As a Fluxnet site, Hainich offers access to camera acquisitions from fixed locations in and above the canopy that are being used in phenological studies. These images qualitatively confirm the seasonal patterns of the effective LAI, canopy transmission and canopy absorption products (in the visible range of the solar spectrum) derived with the JRC-TIP. Making use of the LAI-2000 observations it is found that 3/4 of the JRC-TIP products lie within a +/- 0.15 interval around the in-situ estimates of canopy transmission and absorption. The largest discrepancies occur at the end of the senescence phase when the scattering properties of the vegetation (evidenced by the pictures) and the effective LAI (also derived from LAI-2000 measurements) are experiencing large simultaneous changes. It was also found that the seasonal pattern of vegetation scattering properties derived from MISR observations in the near-infrared varies together with the Excess Green index computed from the various channels of the camera data acquired at the top of the canopy. The approach adopted in the present study is cost-effective, rather simple but efficient to provide a first evaluation of the JRC

  3. Nonlinear stability of solar type 3 radio bursts. 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1978-01-01

    A theory of the excitation of solar type 3 bursts is presented. Electrons initially unstable to the linear bump-in-tail instability are shown to rapidly amplify Langmuir waves to energy densities characteristic of strong turbulence. The three-dimensional equations which describe the strong coupling (wave-wave) interactions are derived. For parameters characteristic of the interplanetary medium the equations reduce to one dimension. In this case, the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is the dominant nonlinear instability, and is stablized through the production of nonlinear ion density fluctuations that efficiently scatter Langmuir waves out of resonance with the electron beam. An analytical model of the electron distribution function is also developed which is used to estimate the total energy losses suffered by the electron beam as it propagates from the solar corona to 1 A.U. and beyond.

  4. Instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenpour, Taghi; Mehrabi, Narges

    2013-08-15

    The dispersion relation of a two-stream free-electron laser (TSFEL) with a one-dimensional helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field is studied. Also, all relativistic effects on the space-charge wave and radiation are considered. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to find the unstable interaction among the all wave modes. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream FEL. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the two-stream instability and the FEL resonance is investigated. The maximum growth rate of FEL resonance is investigated numerically as a function of the axial magnetic field.

  5. Theory of wave propagation in magnetized near-zero-epsilon metamaterials: evidence for one-way photonic states and magnetically switched transparency and opacity.

    PubMed

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Engheta, Nader

    2013-12-20

    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation. PMID:24483756

  6. Theory of Wave Propagation in Magnetized Near-Zero-Epsilon Metamaterials: Evidence for One-Way Photonic States and Magnetically Switched Transparency and Opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2013-12-01

    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.

  7. Light propagation through atomic vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddons, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This tutorial presents the theory necessary to model the propagation of light through an atomic vapour. The history of atom-light interaction theories is reviewed, and examples of resulting applications are provided. A numerical model is developed and results presented. Analytic solutions to the theory are found, based on approximations to the numerical work. These solutions are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  8. Different roles of electron beam in two stream instability in an elliptical waveguide for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, S.; Jazi, B.; Jahanbakht, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, two stream instability in a metallic waveguide with elliptical cross-section and with a hollow annular dielectric layer is studied for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves. Dispersion relation of waves and their dependents to geometric dimensions and characteristics of the electron beam are analyzed. In continuation, the diagrams of growth rate for some operating frequencies are presented, so that effective factors on the growth rates, such as geometrical dimensions, dielectric constant of dielectric layer, accelerating voltage, and applied current intensity are analyzed. It is shown that while an electron beam is responsible for instability, another electron beam plays a stabilizing role.

  9. DROMO propagator revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutxua, Hodei; Sanjurjo-Rivo, Manuel; Peláez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    In the year 2000 an in-house orbital propagator called DROMO (Peláez et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97:131-150, 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10569-006-9056-3) was developed by the Space Dynamics Group of the Technical University of Madrid, based in a set of redundant variables including Euler-Rodrigues parameters. An original deduction of the DROMO propagator is carried out, underlining its close relation with the ideal frame concept introduced by Hansen (Abh der Math-Phys Cl der Kon Sachs Ges der Wissensch 5:41-218, 1857). Based on the very same concept, Deprit (J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect B Math Sci 79B(1-2):1-15, 1975) proposed a formulation for orbit propagation. In this paper, similarities and differences with the theory carried out by Deprit are analyzed. Simultaneously, some improvements are introduced in the formulation, that lead to a more synthetic and better performing propagator. Also, the long-term effect of the oblateness of the primary is studied in terms of DROMO variables, and new numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the method.

  10. Rift propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Schubert, G.

    1989-01-01

    A model for rift propagation which treats the rift as a crack in an elastic plate which is filled from beneath by upwelling viscous asthenosphere as it lengthens and opens. Growth of the crack is driven by either remotely applied forces or the pressure of buoyant asthenosphere in the crack and is resisted by viscous stresses associated with filling the crack. The model predicts a time for a rift to form which depends primarily on the driving stress and asthenosphere viscosity. For a driving stress on the order of 10 MPa, as expected from the topography of rifted swells, the development of rifts over times of a few Myr requires an asthenosphere viscosity of 10 to the 16th Pa s (10 to the 17th poise). This viscosity, which is several orders of magnitude less than values determined by postglacial rebound and at least one order of magnitude less than that inferred for spreading center propagation, may reflect a high temperature or large amount of partial melting in the mantle beneath a rifted swell.

  11. On the structure of the two-stream instability-complex G-Hamiltonian structure and Krein collisions between positive- and negative-action modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-07-01

    The two-stream instability is probably the most important elementary example of collective instabilities in plasma physics and beam-plasma systems. For a warm plasma with two charged particle species, the instability diagram of the two-stream instability based on a 1D warm-fluid model exhibits an interesting band structure that has not been explained. We show that the band structure for this instability is the consequence of the Hamiltonian nature of the warm two-fluid system. Interestingly, the Hamiltonian nature manifests as a complex G-Hamiltonian structure in wave-number space, which directly determines the instability diagram. Specifically, it is shown that the boundaries between the stable and unstable regions are locations for Krein collisions between eigenmodes with different Krein signatures. In terms of physics, this rigorously implies that the system is destabilized when a positive-action mode resonates with a negative-action mode, and that this is the only mechanism by which the system can be destabilized. It is anticipated that this physical mechanism of destabilization is valid for other collective instabilities in conservative systems in plasma physics, accelerator physics, and fluid dynamics systems, which admit infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian structures.

  12. A time dependent difference theory for sound propagation in ducts with flow. [characteristic of inlet and exhaust ducts of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    A time dependent numerical solution of the linearized continuity and momentum equation was developed for sound propagation in a two dimensional straight hard or soft wall duct with a sheared mean flow. The time dependent governing acoustic difference equations and boundary conditions were developed along with a numerical determination of the maximum stable time increments. A harmonic noise source radiating into a quiescent duct was analyzed. This explicit iteration method then calculated stepwise in real time to obtain the transient as well as the steady state solution of the acoustic field. Example calculations were presented for sound propagation in hard and soft wall ducts, with no flow and plug flow. Although the problem with sheared flow was formulated and programmed, sample calculations were not examined. The time dependent finite difference analysis was found to be superior to the steady state finite difference and finite element techniques because of shorter solution times and the elimination of large matrix storage requirements.

  13. Power requirements for cosmic ray propagation models involving re-acceleration and a comment on second-order Fermi acceleration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornbury, Andrew; Drury, Luke O'C.

    2014-08-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the power transferred from interstellar turbulence to the Galactic cosmic rays in propagation models which include re-acceleration. This is used to estimate the power required in such models and the relative importance of the primary acceleration as against re-acceleration. The analysis provides a formal mathematical justification for Fermi's heuristic account of second-order acceleration in his classic 1949 paper.

  14. A new sawtooth control mechanism relying on toroidally propagating ion cyclotron resonance frequency waves: Theory and Joint European Torus tokamak experimental evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J. P.; Coda, S.; Chapman, I. T.; Lennholm, M.

    2010-05-15

    The sawtooth control mechanism in plasmas employing toroidally propagating ion cyclotron resonance waves is extended. The asymmetrically distributed energetic passing ions are shown to modify the ideal internal kink mode when the position of the minority ion cyclotron resonance resides within a narrow region close to the q=1 surface. An analytical treatment of the internal kink mode in the presence of model distribution function with parallel velocity asymmetry is developed. The fast ion mechanism explains the strong sensitivity of sawteeth to resonance position, and moreover is consistent with dedicated Joint European Torus [F. Romanelli, Nucl. Fusion 49, 104006 (2009)] experiments which controlled sawteeth despite negligible current drive.

  15. Mode couplings in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect

    Mohsenpour, Taghi Alirezaee, Hajar

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the method of perturbation has been applied to obtain the dispersion relation (DR) of a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel with all relativistic effects on waves. This DR has been solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. Numerical solutions of DR show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream free-electron laser. In group II orbits, with relatively large wiggler induced velocities, new couplings are found. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the instabilities has also been investigated in this study. Moreover, the effect of the ion-channel density on the maximum growth rate of FEL resonance has been analyzed.

  16. Propagation through a stratified ocean wave guide with random volume and surface inhomogeneities, Part I. Theory: Attenuation, dispersion, and acoustic mirages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C.

    2002-11-01

    Analytic expressions for the mean field propagated through a stratified ocean with random volume or sufrace inhomogeneities of arbitrary size compared to the wavelength are derived from a wave guide scattering model stemming from Green's theorem. It is found that multiple scattering through inhomogeneities in the forward direction can be succinctly expressed in terms of modal attenuation and dispersion coefficients under widely satisfied conditions. The inhomogeneities can have an arbitrary distribution in depth so that the model can realistically apply to scattering from internal waves, bubbles, fish, seafloor and seasurface roughness as well as sub-bottom anomalies. An understanding of the coherence of the forward scattered field can be gained by analogy with the formation of optical mirages in low-grazing angle forward scatter from random surfaces.

  17. Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shieldings of rare-gas atoms and halogen in hydrogen halides within relativistic polarization propagator theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sergio S.; Maldonado, Alejandro; Aucar, Gustavo A.

    2005-12-01

    In this work an analysis of the electronic origin of relativistic effects on the isotropic dia- and paramagnetic contributions to the nuclear magnetic shielding σ(X ) for noble gases and heavy atoms of hydrogen halides is presented. All results were obtained within the 4-component polarization propagator formalism at different level of approach [random-phase approximation (RPA) and pure zeroth-order approximation (PZOA)], by using a local version of the DIRAC code. From the fact that calculations of diamagnetic contributions to σ within RPA and PZOA approaches for HX(X =Br,I,At) and rare-gas atoms are quite close each to other and the finding that the diamagnetic part of the principal propagator at the PZOA level can be developed as a series [S(Δ)], it was found that there is a branch of negative-energy "virtual" excitations that contribute with more than 98% of the total diamagnetic value even for the heavier elements, namely, Xe, Rn, I, and At. It contains virtual negative-energy molecular-orbital states with energies between -2mc2 and -4mc2. This fact can explain the excellent performance of the linear response elimination of small component (LR-ESC) scheme for elements up to the fifth row in the Periodic Table. An analysis of the convergency of S(Δ ) and its physical implications is given. It is also shown that the total contribution to relativistic effects of the innermost orbital (1s1/2) is by far the largest. For the paramagnetic contributions results at the RPA and PZOA approximations are similar only for rare-gas atoms. On the other hand, if the mass-correction contributions to σp are expressed in terms of atomic orbitals, a different pattern is found for 1s1/2 orbital contributions compared with all other s-type orbitals when the whole set of rare-gas atoms is considered.

  18. First-order Fermi acceleration in the two-stream limit. [for cosmic rays at relativistic and non-relativistic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, T. J.; Webb, G. M.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the first-order Fermi mechanism for accelerating cosmic-rays at relativistic and nonrelativistic shocks is carried out by using the two-stream approximation. Exact steady-state analytic solutions illustrating the shock acceleration process in the test-particle limit in which monoenergetic (relativistic) seed particles enter the shock through an upstream free-escape boundary are obtained. The momentum spectrum of the shock accelerated particles consists of a series of Dirac delta distributions corresponding to particles that have undergone an integral number of acceleration cycles. Since particles in the model have a finite fixed escape probability from the shock and the particle momenta p are equally spaced in log p, the envelope of the delta functions series is a power law in momentum. The solutions are used to discuss time-dependent aspects of the shock acceleration process in terms of the finite cycle time, escape probability, and momentum change per cycle that can be deduced from the steady-state model. The length-scale over which the accelerated particles extend upstream of the shock is shown to depend upon the particle energy, with the higher energy particles extending further upstream. This effect is shown to be intimately related to the kinematic threshold requirement that the particle speed exceed the fluid speed in order for particles to swim upstream of the shock and participate in the shock acceleration process.

  19. Research in LMSS propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barts, R. M.; Stutzman, W. L.; Pratt, T.

    1989-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Satellite Communications Group has participated in the Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) program through JPL sponsorship since 1985. Involvement has mainly been in modeling and simulation of propagation characteristics and effects. Models developed to predict cummulative fade distributions for fading LMSS signals include LMSSMOD and the Simple Models which approximate LMSSMOD. Models to predict the mean and standard deviation of signal attenuation through roadside vegetation, namely the Average Path Model, were developed. In the area of simulation, efforts have centered around the development of a software simulator that uses data bases derived from experimental data to generate simulated data with arbitrary statistical behavior. This work has progressed to the development of an integrated analysis and simulation package, LIPS. The basic theory and results for the models and simulator have been previously documented in reports and papers. All LMSS activities are summarized and details of this year's efforts are given.

  20. Coupled-mode theory for electromagnetic pulse propagation in dispersive media undergoing a spatiotemporal perturbation: Exact derivation, numerical validation, and peculiar wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present an extension of the canonical coupled-mode theory of electromagnetic waves to the case of pulses and spatiotemporal perturbations in complex media. Unlike previous attempts to derive such a model, our approach involves no approximation, and it does not impose any restriction on the spatiotemporal profile. Moreover, the effect of modal dispersion on mode evolution and on the coupling to other modes is fully taken into account. Thus, our approach can yield any required accuracy by retaining as many terms in the expansion as needed. It also avoids various artifacts of previous derivations by introducing the correct form of the solution. We then validate the coupled-mode equations with exact numerical simulations, and we demonstrate the wide range of possibilities enabled by spatiotemporal perturbations of pulses, including pulse shortening or broadening or more complex shaping. Our formulation is valid across the electromagnetic spectrum, and it can be applied directly also to other wave systems.

  1. Energy Transfer via Ion-Beam Driven Weibel and Two-stream instabilities in Two-Temperature Electron-Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehong; Ren, Chuang; Blackman, Eric; Kong, Xianglong

    2009-11-01

    Whether a collisionless faster-than-Coulomb energy transfer mechanism exists in two-temperature accretion flows is an open question. Using 2D PIC simulations, we generalize Ren et al.2007 (Phy.Plasmas 012901) into counter-streaming ion beam-driven oblique instabilities where Weibel, two-stream, and oblique modes coexist. We explain in detail the evolution patterns in both linear and non-linear regimes, and how to reach saturation. To compare with simulations, we solve a set of 1+1D quasi-linear calculations. In a real mass ratio, M/m=1836, we estimate that electrons gain 3.2% of initial ion energy for the case, Te=0.2KeV, Ti=375KeV, and vid=0.7c. While this gain of 3.2% does not threaten the existence of two-temperature accretion flow models per se, one might ask whether it threatens the subset of models (Narayan et al.1998 (ApJ492,554)) which employ less than this percentage of energy to be transferred from ions to electrons on an infall time scales. However, in the solution of Narayan et al.1998, the electron and ion temperature are much larger than ours and ion beam drifts as high as 0.7c would probably occur at most in localized regions. As a result, the electron-ion coupling could be smaller than 3.2%. At present, our results do not therefore definitively rule out existing two-temperature accretion solutions.

  2. The role of the benthic-hyporheic zone in controlling nitrous oxide emissions along two stream networks draining watersheds with contrasting land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzadri, Alessandra; Dee, Martha M.; Tonina, Daniele; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas responsible of stratospheric ozone destruction. Denitrification in stream ecosystems occurs within the benthic layer at the sediment-water interface and within subsurface environments such as the hyporheic zone and results in N2O production that could be eventually emitted to the atmosphere. Here, we quantify the role of benthic and hyporheic zones as sources of N2O gas and explore the dependence of emissions from stream morphology, flow hydraulics, land use and climate using a recently-developed fully analytical framework. Variations in N2O emissions within and among catchments of contrasting land use can be explained with a new denitrification Damköhler number (DaD) that accounts for denitrification processes within both benthic and hyporheic zones. For initial model development, we found a strong relationship between DaD and stream N2O emissions using field data collected from multiple headwater streams (i.e., LINXII project) from different biomes draining contrasting land use. We then tested its generality by comparing N2O emissions predicted with DaD to those measured using a synoptic sampling campaign in two stream networks draining contrasting land use: Manistee R (Michigan, USA) and Tippecanoe R (Indiana, USA). Our dimensionless analysis shows that the effect of land use disappears after making the emissions dimensionless with respect to the nitrogen load. Reliable predictions of N2O emissions at the stream network scale can be obtained from a limited amount of information, consisting in relatively easy to obtain biogeochemical and hydromorphological quantities.

  3. Wave propagation in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.

  4. Fick's Law Assisted Propagation for Semisupervised Learning.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chen; Tao, Dacheng; Fu, Keren; Yang, Jie

    2015-09-01

    How to propagate the label information from labeled examples to unlabeled examples is a critical problem for graph-based semisupervised learning. Many label propagation algorithms have been developed in recent years and have obtained promising performance on various applications. However, the eigenvalues of iteration matrices in these algorithms are usually distributed irregularly, which slow down the convergence rate and impair the learning performance. This paper proposes a novel label propagation method called Fick's law assisted propagation (FLAP). Unlike the existing algorithms that are directly derived from statistical learning, FLAP is deduced on the basis of the theory of Fick's First Law of Diffusion, which is widely known as the fundamental theory in fluid-spreading. We prove that FLAP will converge with linear rate and show that FLAP makes eigenvalues of the iteration matrix distributed regularly. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on synthetic and practical datasets reveal that FLAP obtains encouraging results in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:25532192

  5. The universal propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1993-01-01

    For a general Hamiltonian appropriate to a single canonical degree of freedom, a universal propagator with the property that it correctly evolves the coherent-state Hilbert space representatives for an arbitrary fiducial vector is characterized and defined. The universal propagator is explicitly constructed for the harmonic oscillator, with a result that differs from the conventional propagators for this system.

  6. Photon propagator in light-shell gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, Howard; Kestin, Greg; Sajjad, Aqil

    2016-05-01

    We derive the photon propagator in light-shell gauge (LSG) vμAμ=0 , where vμ=(1,r ^ ) μ . This gauge is an important ingredient of the light-shell effective theory—an effective theory for describing high energy jet processes on a 2-dimensional spherical shell expanding at the speed of light around the point of the initial collision producing the jets. Since LSG is a noncovariant gauge, we cannot calculate the LSG propagator by using the standard procedure for covariant gauges. We therefore employ a new technique for computing the propagator, which we hope may be of relevance in other gauges as well.

  7. Propagation Speed in Myelinated Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (H.H.) equations modified by Dodge for Rana pipiens myelinated nerve have been solved to determine how well the theory predicts the effects of changes of temperature and [Na+]0 on propagation. Conduction speed θ was found to have an approximately exponential dependence on temperature as was found experimentally, but the theoretical temperature coefficient (Q10) was low; 1.5 compared with the experimental finding of 2.95. θ was found to be a linear function of log ([Na+]0) in contrast to the experimental finding of a square root dependence on [Na+]0. θ is 50% greater at one-fourth normal [Na+]0 than the theory predicts. The difference between the theoretical θ([Na+]0) and the experimental θ([Na+]0) is probably due to an imprecisely known variation of parameters and not to a fundamental inadequacy of the theory. PMID:4542941

  8. Linear and nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Yu, Ping

    1988-01-01

    The investigation of the acoustic wave propagation theory and numerical implementation for the situation of an isothermal atmosphere is described. A one-dimensional model to validate an asymptotic theory and a 3-D situation to relate to a realistic situation are considered. In addition, nonlinear wave propagation and the numerical treatment are included. It is known that the gravitational effects play a crucial role in the low frequency acoustic wave propagation. They propagate large distances and, as such, the numerical treatment of those problems become difficult in terms of posing boundary conditions which are valid for all frequencies.

  9. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA propagation studies objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite communication systems and services by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals through the intervening environment and to support NASA missions. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages unique NASA assets (currently Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through referred journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  10. Electromagnetic wave propagation characteristics in unimolecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingpeng; Huang, Kama

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical reactions have attracted interests because of their benefits for enhancement of reaction rates. However, the problems, such as hot spots and thermal runaway, limit the application of microwaves in the chemical industry. To study the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in a chemical reaction is critical to solve the problems. The research on the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in the unimolecular reaction that is a simple model reaction, can be generalized to the research in a chemical reaction. The approximate expressions of the attenuation and dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in the unimolecular reaction are derived by the nonlinear propagation theory. Specially, when the reaction rate is zero, the derived approximate expressions can be reduced to the formulas in low-loss dispersive media. Moreover, a 1D mold is used to validate the feasibility of the approximate expressions. The influences of the reaction rate and initial reactant concentration on the characteristics are obtained.

  11. Analytic Structure of the Landau-Gauge Gluon Propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Stefan; Fischer, Christian S.; Kellermann, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The analytic structure of the nonperturbative gluon propagator contains information on the absence of gluons from the physical spectrum of the theory. We study this structure from numerical solutions in the complex momentum plane of the gluon and ghost Dyson-Schwinger equations in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. The resulting ghost and gluon propagators are analytic apart from a distinct cut structure on the real, timelike momentum axis. The propagator violates the Osterwalder-Schrader positivity condition, confirming the absence of gluons from the asymptotic spectrum of the theory.

  12. Analytic structure of the Landau-gauge gluon propagator.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Stefan; Fischer, Christian S; Kellermann, Christian

    2012-12-21

    The analytic structure of the nonperturbative gluon propagator contains information on the absence of gluons from the physical spectrum of the theory. We study this structure from numerical solutions in the complex momentum plane of the gluon and ghost Dyson-Schwinger equations in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. The resulting ghost and gluon propagators are analytic apart from a distinct cut structure on the real, timelike momentum axis. The propagator violates the Osterwalder-Schrader positivity condition, confirming the absence of gluons from the asymptotic spectrum of the theory. PMID:23368451

  13. Limitations in scatter propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, E. W.

    1982-04-01

    A short description of the main scatter propagation mechanisms is presented; troposcatter, meteor burst communication and chaff scatter. For these propagation modes, in particular for troposcatter, the important specific limitations discussed are: link budget and resulting hardware consequences, diversity, mobility, information transfer and intermodulation and intersymbol interference, frequency range and future extension in frequency range for troposcatter, and compatibility with other services (EMC).

  14. Propagation research in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakana, Hiromitsu

    1991-01-01

    L-band propagation measurements for land-mobile, maritime, and aeronautical satellite communications have been carried out by using the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-Five (ETS-5) which was launched in Aug. 1987. This paper presents propagation characteristics for each of the mobile satellite communication channels.

  15. NASA Propagation Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Information Center became formally operational in July 1988. It is located in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The Center is several things: a communications medium for the propagation with the outside world, a mechanism for internal communication within the program, and an aid to management.

  16. NASA propagation information center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Information Center became formally operational in July 1988. It is located in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The center is several things: a communications medium for the propagation with the outside world, a mechanism for internal communication within the program, and an aid to management.

  17. Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Sane, Ashok D.; Drago, Raymond J.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional crack growth simulation was performed on a split-tooth gear design using boundary element modeling and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth simulation was performed on a case study to evaluate crack propagation paths. Tooth fracture was predicted from the crack growth simulation for an initial crack in the tooth fillet region. Tooth loads on the uncracked mesh of the split-tooth design were up to five times greater than those on the cracked mesh if equal deflections of the cracked and uncracked teeth were considered. Predicted crack shapes as well as crack propagation life are presented based on calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack growth theories.

  18. Wave propagation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenenboom, P. H. L.

    The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.

  19. Cosmic ray sources, acceleration and propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptuskin, V. S.

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of selected papers on the theory of cosmic ray (CR) propagation and acceleration. The high isotropy and a comparatively large age of galactic CR are explained by the effective interaction of relativistic particles with random and regular electromagnetic fields in interstellar medium. The kinetic theory of CR propagation in the Galaxy is formulated similarly to the elaborate theory of CR propagation in heliosphere. The substantial difference between these theories is explained by the necessity to take into account in some cases the collective effects due to a rather high density of relativisitc particles. In particular, the kinetic CR stream instability and the hydrodynamic Parker instability is studied. The interaction of relativistic particles with an ensemble of given weak random magnetic fields is calculated by perturbation theory. The theory of CR transfer is considered to be basically completed for this case. The main problem consists in poor information about the structure of the regular and the random galactic magnetic fields. An account is given of CR transfer in a turbulent medium.

  20. Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.

  1. Gear crack propagation investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.

  2. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  3. Propagation of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Solutions for environmental noise pollution lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. Noise propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)

  4. Modeling Light Propagation in Luminescent Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Derya

    This study presents physical, computational and analytical modeling approaches for light propagation in luminescent random media. Two different approaches are used, namely (i) a statistical approach: Monte-Carlo simulations for photon transport and (ii) a deterministic approach: radiative transport theory. Both approaches account accurately for the multiple absorption and reemission of light at different wavelengths and for anisotropic luminescence. The deterministic approach is a generalization of radiative transport theory for solving inelastic scattering problems in random media. We use the radiative transport theory to study light propagation in luminescent media. Based on this theory, we also study the optically thick medium. Using perturbation methods, a corrected diffusion approximation with asymptotically accurate boundary conditions and a boundary layer solution are derived. The accuracy and the efficacy of this approach is verified for a plane-parallel slab problem. In particular, we apply these two approaches (MC and radiative transport theory) to model light propagation in semiconductor-based luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The computational results for both approaches are compared with each other and found to agree. The results of this dissertation present practical and reliable techniques to use for solving forward/inverse inelastic scattering problems arising in various research areas such as optics, biomedical engineering, nuclear engineering, solar science and material science.

  5. Application of a two-stream radiative transfer model for leaf lignin and cellulose concentrations from spectral reflectance measurements, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Grove, Cindy I.

    1993-01-01

    We used the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse spectral reflectance in layers to analyze influences of multiple chemical components in leaves. As opposed to empirical approaches to estimation of plant chemistry, the full spectral resolution of laboratory reflectance data was retained in an attempt to estimate lignin or other constituent concentrations from spectral band positions. A leaf water reflectance spectrum was derived from theoretical mixing rules, reflectance observations, and calculations from theory of intrinsic k- and s-functions. Residual reflectance bands were then isolated from spectra of fresh green leaves. These proved hard to interpret for composition in terms of simple two component mixtures such as lignin and cellulose. We next investigated spectral and dilution influences of other possible components (starch, protein). These components, among others, added to cellulose in hypothetical mixtures, produce band displacements similar to lignin, but will disguise by dilution the actual abundance of lignin present in a multicomponent system. This renders interpretation of band positions problematical. Knowledge of end-members and their spectra, and a more elaborate mixture analysis procedure may be called for. Good observational atmospheric and instrumental conditions and knowledge thereof are required for retrieval of expected subtle reflectance variations present in spectra of green vegetation.

  6. Database for propagation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1991-01-01

    A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.

  7. Wave Propagation Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-01-08

    WPP is a massively parallel, 3D, C++, finite-difference elastodynamic wave propagation code. Typical applications for wave propagation with WPP include: evaluation of seismic event scenarios and damage from earthquakes, non-destructive evaluation of materials, underground facility detection, oil and gas exploration, predicting the electro-magnetic fields in accelerators, and acoustic noise generation. For more information, see User’s Manual [1].

  8. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an Internet website which provides information to enable the development of new commerical satellite systems and services by providing timely data and models about the propagation of satellite radio signals. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages NASA assets, currently the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through refereed journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  9. Propagating torsion in the Einstein frame

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Nikodem J.

    2006-11-15

    The Einstein-Cartan-Saa theory of torsion modifies the spacetime volume element so that it is compatible with the connection. The condition of connection compatibility gives constraints on torsion, which are also necessary for the consistence of torsion, minimal coupling, and electromagnetic gauge invariance. To solve the problem of positivity of energy associated with the torsionic scalar, we reformulate this theory in the Einstein conformal frame. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the Hojman-Rosenbaum-Ryan-Shepley theory of propagating torsion with a different factor in the torsionic kinetic term.

  10. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Kirill A.

    2016-04-01

    Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.

  11. Flame propagation and extinction in particle clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Joshi, N. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two phase flame propagation and extinction theory required to support the corresponding experiments planned for the space shuttle is being developed. Also being planned are specialized collaborative, experimental and theoretical NASA UCSD studies needed to support the ongoing definition of needed experimental hardware, experimental procedures, data acquisition philosophy, and other ground based support activities required to assure the success of space shuttle based experiments concerned with combustion of clouds of particulates at reduced gravitational conditions. The further development of relations delineating premixed particle cloud and premixed gaseous systems as well as burner stabilized and freely propagating flame systems is considered.

  12. Against dogma: On superluminal propagation in classical electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2014-11-01

    It is deeply entrenched dogma that relativity theory prohibits superluminal propagation. It is also experimentally well-established that under some circumstances, classical electromagnetic fields propagate through a dielectric medium with superluminal group velocities and superluminal phase velocities. But it is usually claimed that these superluminal velocities do not violate the relativistic prohibition. Here I analyze electromagnetic fields in a dielectric medium within a framework for understanding superluminal propagation recently developed by Geroch (1996, 2011) and elaborated by Earman (2014). I will argue that for some parameter values, electromagnetic fields do propagate superluminally in the Geroch-Earman sense.

  13. Radio propagation through solar and other extraterrestrial ionized media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. K.; Edelson, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The present S- and X-band communications needs in deep space are addressed to illustrate the aspects which are affected by propagation through extraterrestrial plasmas. The magnitude, critical threshold, and frequency dependence of some eight propagation effects for an S-band propagation path passing within 4 solar radii of the Sun are described. The theory and observation of propagation in extraterrestrial plasmas are discussed and the various plasma states along a near solar propagation path are illustrated. Classical magnetoionic theory (cold anisotropic plasma) is examined for its applicability to the path in question. The characteristics of the plasma states found along the path are summarized and the errors in some of the standard approximations are indicated. Models of extraterrestrial plasmas are included. Modeling the electron density in the solar corona and solar wind, is emphasized but some cursory information on the terrestrial planets plus Jupiters is included.

  14. Propagation of polarized waves in inhomogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    A parabolic equation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium is extended to include the depolarization effects in the narrow-angle, forward-scattering setting. Closed-form parabolic equations for propagation of the coherence tensor are derived under a Markov approximation model. For a general partially coherent and partially polarized beam wave, this equation can be reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations, allowing a simple numeric solution. An analytical solution exists for statistically homogeneous waves. Estimates based on the perturbation solution support the common knowledge that the depolarization at the optical frequencies is negligible for atmospheric turbulence propagation. These results indicate that the recently published theory [Opt. Lett.40, 3077 (2015)10.1364/OL.40.003077] is not valid for atmospheric turbulence. PMID:27409697

  15. Propagation of shock waves through petroleum suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuk, K. V.; Makhkamov, S. M.; Azizov, K. K.

    1986-01-01

    Anomalous shock wave propagation through petroleum with a high paraffin content was studied in an attempt to confirm the theoretically predicted breakdown of a forward shock wave into oscillating waves and wave packets as well as individual solitons. Tests were performed in a shock tube at 10, 20, and 50 to 60 C, with pure kerosene as reference and with kerosene + 5, 10, 15, and 20% paraffin. The addition of paraffin was found to radically alter the rheodynamic characteristics of the medium and, along with it, the pattern of shock wave propagation. The integro-differential equation describing a one dimensional hydraulic shock process in viscoelastic fluids is reduced to the Burgers-Korteweg-deVries equation, which is solved numerically for given values of the system parameters. The results indicate that the theory of shock wave propagation through such an anomalous suspension must be modified.

  16. Supershells and propagating star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclow, M. M.; Mccray, R.; Kafatos, M.

    1986-01-01

    Correlated supernovae from an OB association can carve large cavities (greater than 100 pc) in the interstellar medium (ISM), and can punch holes completely through the disk of a spiral galaxy. Supernova remnant energy within such a cavity is thermalized before the shock reaches the supershell. Thus stellar wind theory may be used to model these superbubbles. We describe how the evolution of the superbubble depends on the density distribution of the galactic disk gas and the rate of supernovae in the OB association. At a radius of 100 to 300 pc, the supershell becomes gravitationally unstable, forming giant molecular clouds which are the sites for new star formation. This gravitational instability of the supershells provides a physical mechanism for propagating star formation and may account for the observation of bursts of star formation in galaxies.

  17. Progress in front propagation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  18. Line of sight microwave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohbehn, J. W.

    1969-01-01

    A review of the uses of microwave line-of-sight propagation in remote atmospheric probing is given. The review concentrates on use of the following types of measurements: (1) the use of total electrical path length for measuring average density and water vapor content; (2) the use of amplitude and phase fluctuations over a single path for determining the form of the turbulence spectrum; (3) the use of angle-of-arrival data for measuring the decrease in refractivity; and (4) the use of multiple-element receiving antennas in determining wind speed, atmospheric parameters, and atmospheric models. A review is given of the connection between microwave measurements and meteorological parameters, and the basic electromagnetic theory on which the analyses are made. A few suggestions for future work in these areas is given.

  19. Elevated Temperature Crack Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  20. Crack propagation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budarapu, P. R.; Javvaji, B.; Sutrakar, V. K.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Zi, G.; Rabczuk, T.

    2015-08-01

    The crack initiation and growth mechanisms in an 2D graphene lattice structure are studied based on molecular dynamics simulations. Crack growth in an initial edge crack model in the arm-chair and the zig-zag lattice configurations of graphene are considered. Influence of the time steps on the post yielding behaviour of graphene is studied. Based on the results, a time step of 0.1 fs is recommended for consistent and accurate simulation of crack propagation. Effect of temperature on the crack propagation in graphene is also studied, considering adiabatic and isothermal conditions. Total energy and stress fields are analyzed. A systematic study of the bond stretching and bond reorientation phenomena is performed, which shows that the crack propagates after significant bond elongation and rotation in graphene. Variation of the crack speed with the change in crack length is estimated.

  1. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  2. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  3. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  4. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation

    PubMed

    Wang; Kuzmich; Dogariu

    2000-07-20

    Einstein's theory of special relativity and the principle of causality imply that the speed of any moving object cannot exceed that of light in a vacuum (c). Nevertheless, there exist various proposals for observing faster-than-c propagation of light pulses, using anomalous dispersion near an absorption line, nonlinear and linear gain lines, or tunnelling barriers. However, in all previous experimental demonstrations, the light pulses experienced either very large absorption or severe reshaping, resulting in controversies over the interpretation. Here we use gain-assisted linear anomalous dispersion to demonstrate superluminal light propagation in atomic caesium gas. The group velocity of a laser pulse in this region exceeds c and can even become negative, while the shape of the pulse is preserved. We measure a group-velocity index of n(g) = -310(+/- 5); in practice, this means that a light pulse propagating through the atomic vapour cell appears at the exit side so much earlier than if it had propagated the same distance in a vacuum that the peak of the pulse appears to leave the cell before entering it. The observed superluminal light pulse propagation is not at odds with causality, being a direct consequence of classical interference between its different frequency components in an anomalous dispersion region. PMID:10917523

  5. Cosmic ray propagation in galactic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Evoli, Carmelo; Yan, Huirong E-mail: hryan@pku.edu.cn

    2014-02-10

    We revisit propagation of galactic cosmic rays (CRs) in light of recent advances in CR diffusion theory in realistic interstellar turbulence. We use a tested model of turbulence in which it has been shown that fast modes dominate scattering of CRs. As a result, propagation becomes inhomogeneous and environment dependent. By adopting the formalism of the nonlinear theory developed by Yan and Lazarian, we calculate the diffusion of CRs self-consistently from first principles. We assume a two-phase model for the Galaxy to account for different damping mechanisms of the fast modes, and we find that the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient is mainly affected by medium properties. We show that it gives a correct framework to interpret some of the recent CR puzzles.

  6. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  7. GRC RF Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in the characterization of atmospheric effects on space communications links operating at Ka-band and above for the past 20 years. This presentation reports out on the most recent activities of propagation characterization that NASA is currently involved in.

  8. Meson-meson interactions and Regge propagators

    SciTech Connect

    Beveren, Eef van Rupp, George

    2009-08-15

    By a reformulation of the loop expansion in the Resonance-Spectrum Expansion amplitude for meson-meson scattering, in terms of s-channel exchange of families of propagator modes, we obtain a formalism which allows for a wider range of applications. The connection with the unitarized amplitudes employed in some chiral theories is discussed. We also define an alternative for the Regge spectra and indicate how this may be observed in experiment.

  9. Propagation Of Sound In Curved Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, Wojciech

    1992-01-01

    Monograph presents concise, comprehensive summary of knowledge of propagation of acoustic waves in ducts and pipes including bends. Pulls together information from Lord Rayleigh's book Theory Of Sound, published in 1878, and from 33 papers scattered throughout various scientific journals published between 1945 and 1989. Monograph useful to scientists and engineers interested in such diverse topics as musical instruments, air-conditioning ducts, and jet engines. Material not available in current texts.

  10. Overview of theory and modeling in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Tzenov, S.; Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Celata, C.M.; de Hoon, M.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Vay, J-L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents analytical and simulation studies of intense heavy ion beam propagation, including the injection, acceleration, transport and compression phases, and beam transport and focusing in background plasma in the target chamber. Analytical theory and simulations that support the High Current Experiment (HCX), the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and the advanced injector development program, are being used to provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear beam dynamics and collective processes, and to develop design concepts for the next-step Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE), and a heavy ion fusion driver. 3-D nonlinear perturbative simulations have been applied to collective instabilities driven by beam temperature anisotropy, and to two-stream interactions between the beam ions and any unwanted background electrons; 3-D particle-in-cell simulations of the 2 MV Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector have clarified the influence of pulse rise time; analytical studies and simulations of the drift compression process have been carried out; syntheses of a 4-D particle distribution function from phase-space projections have been developed; and studies of the generation and trapping of stray electrons in the beam self fields have been performed. Particle-in-cell simulations, involving pre-formed plasma, are being used to study the influence of charge and current neutralization on the focusing of the ion beam in NTX and in a fusion chamber.