Science.gov

Sample records for properties retention mechanisms

  1. Gas bubble retention and its effect on waste properties: Retention mechanisms, viscosity, and tensile and shear strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Powell, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Several of the underground nuclear storage tanks at Hanford have been placed on a flammable gas watch list, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. Because retention and episodic release of flammable gases from these tanks containing radioactive waste slurries are critical safety concerns, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the episodic gas release from these storage tanks. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNL Flammable Gas project. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry or sludge that has settled at the bottom of the tanks; however, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. Understanding the rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles and the dynamics of how these bubbles are released from the waste. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, specifically its viscosity and tensile and shear strengths, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. The objectives of this study were to conduct experiments and develop theories to understand better how bubbles are retained by slurries and sludges, to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of simulated slurries, and to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the tensile and shear strengths of simulated slurries and sludges. In addition to accomplishing these objectives, this study developed correlations, based on the new experimental data, that can be used in large-scale computations of waste tank physical phenomena.

  2. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  3. Mechanical properties and area retention of leather dried with biaxial stretching under vacuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of animal hides to leather involves many complicated chemical and mechanical operations. Drying is one of the mechanical operations, and plays a key role in determining the physical properties of leather. It is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. ...

  4. Assessment of the physical, mechanical, and moisture-retention properties of pullulan-based ternary co-blended films.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-11-01

    Multi-component substances made through direct blending or blending with co-drying can form films on the surfaces of intermediate moisture foods (IMFs), which help retain moisture and protect food texture and flavor. An IMF film system based on pullulan, with glycerol serving as the plasticizer, was studied using alginate and four different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate, pectin, carrageenan, and aloe polysaccharide) as the blend-modified substances. The physical, mechanical, color, transparency, and moisture-retention properties of the co-blended films with the polysaccharides were assessed. A new formula was established for the average moisture retention property, water barrier, tensile strength, elongation at break, and oxygen barrier property of the ternary co-blended films using the Design Expert software. The new model established for moisture content measurement used an indirect method of film formation on food surfaces by humectants, which should expedite model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films. PMID:25129721

  5. Retention of mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of a phosphate-based glass fiber/polylactic acid composite.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Cronin, P S; Abou Neel, E A; Parsons, A J; Knowles, J C; Rudd, C D

    2009-04-01

    Polymers prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) have found a multitude of uses as medical devices. The main advantage of having a material that degrades is so that an implant would not necessitate a second surgical event for removal. In addition, the biodegradation may offer other advantages. In this study, fibers produced from a quaternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) in the system 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Na(2)O-5Fe(2)O(3) (nontreated and heat-treated) were used to reinforce the biodegradable polymer, PLA. Fiber properties were investigated, along with the mechanical and degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the composites produced. Retention of mechanical properties overtime was also evaluated. The mean fiber strength for the phosphate glass fibers was 456 MPa with a modulus value of 51.5 GPa. Weibull analysis revealed a shape and scale parameter value of 3.37 and 508, respectively. The flexural strength of the composites matched that for cortical bone; however, the modulus values were lower than those required for cortical bone. After 6 weeks of degradation in deionized water, 50% of the strength values obtained was maintained. The composite degradation properties revealed a 14% mass loss for the nontreated and a 10% mass loss for the heat-treated fiber composites. It was also seen that by heat-treating the fibers, chemical and physical degradation occurred much slower. The pH profiles also revealed that nontreated fibers degraded quicker, thus correlating well with the degradation profiles. The in vitro cell culture experiments revealed both PLA (alone) and the heat-treated fiber composites maintained higher cell viability as compared to the nontreated fiber composites. This was attributed to the slower degradation release profiles of the heat-treated composites as compared to the nontreated fiber composites. SEM analyses revealed a porous structure after degradation, and it is clear that there are possibilities here to tailor the distribution of porosity

  6. Water Retention Characteristics and State-Dependent Mechanical and Petro-Physical Properties of a Clay Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Katrin M.; Wymann, Linda P.; Zimmer, Sebastian; Thoeny, Reto; Amann, Florian

    2015-03-01

    A series of clay shale specimens in equilibrium with various humidity conditions were used to establish the water retention characteristics, the influence of suction on ultrasonic p-wave velocity and rock mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, onset of dilatancy, unconfined compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength. Opalinus Clay, a clay shale considered as host rock for the disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland was utilized. The results showed that the p-wave velocity normal to bedding ( v p,n) dropped sharply upon desaturation until suction approached the air-entry value. The sharp decrease was associated with desiccation cracks solely oriented parallel to bedding. For suction in excess of the air-entry value, v p,n was constant, indicating no further desiccation damage. The suction at the shrinkage limit and at the air-entry point is similar in magnitude. The p-wave velocity parallel to bedding ( v p,p) remained constant in the entire range of suction investigated in this study. The constant v p,p with increasing suction might be associated with the disproportional decrease in the Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus and its opposing effect on p-wave velocity. An almost linear increase in unconfined compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, stress at the onset of dilatancy and Young's modulus with increasing suction was observed up to a suction of 56.6 MPa. For suction larger than 56.6 MPa, relatively constant strength and stiffness was observed. The increase is associated with the net contribution of suction to strength/stiffness, which decreases nonlinearly with decreasing volumetric water content. The rate of increase in tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength with increasing suction is different depending on the rock anisotropy. Compared to the strength values (Brazilian tensile and uniaxial compressive strength) obtained from specimens loaded parallel to bedding, the tensile strength parallel to

  7. Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Blevins, W E; Park, H; Park, K

    2000-02-14

    In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The mechanical strength of the highly swollen SPHs was increased by adding a composite material during the synthesis. The composite material used in the synthesis of SPH composites was Ac-Di-Sol((R)) (croscarmellose sodium). The gastric retention property of the prepared SPH composites was tested in dogs both in fasted and fed conditions. The SPH composites were placed in a hard gelatin capsule (size 000) for oral administration. All dogs tested were fasted for 36 h before experiments. Under the fasted condition, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for 2-3 h after before breaking into two pieces and being emptied. When food was given before the experiment just once following 36 h of fasting, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for more than 24 h, even though the fed condition was maintained only for the first few hours. Our study indicated that SPH composites possessed three properties necessary for gastric retention: fast swelling; superswelling; and high mechanical strength. While more improvements need to be made, the SPH composites provide the basis for the development of effective long-term gastric retention devices. PMID:10640644

  8. The influence of coupling agents on mechanical property retention and long-term cytocompatibility of phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA composites.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M S; Ahmed, I; Parsons, A J; Walker, G S; Scotchford, C A

    2013-12-01

    Completely resorbable composites are an attractive alternative for metallic bone-fracture fixation devices. However, failure of their interfacial integrity within aqueous environments, which can lead to a rapid loss of overall mechanical properties, has been reported in the literature. In this study coupling agents were investigated for phosphate glass fibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites. Three coupling agents with varying wettability were employed to improve initial mechanical properties and their retention in vitro via improvement of the interfacial bond between polymer matrix and fibres. Coupling agents were grafted onto the glass fibres by dip-coating in coupling agent solution at optimised concentrations. Three-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and sorbitol ended PLA oligomer treatments improved the initial flexural properties (27% strength with APS and 17% modulus via SPLA treatment) of the composites and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) treatments also decreased the loss of flexural strength and modulus during degradation. HDI treated samples retained 57.2% and 64.7% of their initial strength and modulus, respectively compared to control where only 34% of initial strength and 52% of initial modulus was retained after 28 days of degradation in PBS solution. Initial improvements in flexural properties were associated with improved shear bond strength at the interface due to covalent bonding between the glass fibres and polymer matrix provided by the coupling agents. Delay in mechanical property loss with degradation was suggested to be due to the hydrophobicity at the interface, which could have hindered the interfacial integrity loss and consequently loss of mechanical integrity of the composites. All coupling agent treated and control composites were tested for cytocompatibility using a primary human osteoblast cell line. A comparable response to the control, in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation

  9. Effect of Intercritical Thermomechanical Processing on Austenite Retention and Mechanical Properties in a Multiphase TRIP-Assisted Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamadizadeh, Alireza; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Mehtonen, Saara; Porter, David; Moallemi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dynamic microstructural evolution on austenite retention was investigated in a transformation-induced plasticity-assisted multiphase steel by compressive deformation between 993 K and 1233 K (720 °C and 960 °C) covering the intercritical two-phase region. Based on optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction observations, extensive dynamic recovery of ferrite occurred below 1113 K (840 °C), i.e., lower part of two-phase region, due to strain concentration in the ferrite. Deformation-induced ferrite formation occurred at temperatures between 1113 K and 1153 K (840 °C to 880 °C), i.e., upper part of two-phase region, providing up to 27 pct additional fine ferrite grains compared to the undeformed state. Dynamic recrystallization of austenite took place at temperatures above 1173 K (900 °C), above Ac3. The dynamic restoration phenomena were found to have no positive influence on austenite retention; however, shear punch test results indicated that the specimens processed at 1113 K to 1153 K (840 °C to 880 °C) had a very good combination of strength and elongation, which was attributed to the synergic effects of the transformation of retained austenite and the fine ferrite structure generated through deformation-induced ferrite formation. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy showed that deformation-induced ferrite might have rejected the excess carbon to the boundaries, thereby promoting the austenite formation in these regions. The present findings suggest that austenite can be dynamically stabilized as the result of deformation-induced ferrite formation. The effect is referred to as dynamic transformation-assisted austenite retention.

  10. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  11. Water retention curves and thermal insulating properties of Thermosand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibniz, Otto; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    The heat loss and the efficiency of isolating material surrounding heat supply pipes are essential issues for the energy budget of heat supply pipe lines. Until now heat loss from the pipe is minimized by enlarging the polyurethane (PU) - insulation thickness around the pipe. As a new approach to minimize the heat loss a thermally insulating bedding material was developed and investigated. Conventional bedding sands cover all necessary soil mechanical properties, but have a high thermal conductivity from λ =1,5 to 1,7 W/(m K). A newly developed embedding material 'Thermosand' shows thermal properties from λ=0,18 W/(m K) (dry) up to 0,88 W/(m K) (wet). The raw material originates from the waste rock stockpiles of a coal mine near Fohnsdorf, Austria. With high temperatures up to nearly 1000 ° C and a special mineral mixture, a natural burned reddish material resembling clinker arises. The soilmechanical properties of Thermosand has been thoroughly investigated with laboratory testing and in situ investigations to determine compaction-, permeability- and shear-behaviour, stiffness and corresponding physical parameters. Test trenches along operational heat pipes with temperature-measurement along several cross-sections were constructed to compare conventional embedding materials with 'Thermosand'. To investigate the influence of varying moisture content on thermal conductivity a 1:1 large scale model test in the laboratory to simulate real insitu-conditions was established. Based on this model it is planned to develop numerical simulations concerning varying moisture contents and unsaturated soil mechanics with heat propagation, including the drying out of the soil during heat input. These simulations require the knowledge about the water retention properties of the material. Thus, water retention curves were measured using both steady-state tension and pressure techniques and the simplified evaporation method. The steady-state method employs a tension table (sand

  12. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  13. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  14. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  15. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  16. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  17. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  18. Helium retention properties of plasma facing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, H.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamashina, T.

    1997-02-01

    In a fusion reactor, the continuous removal of helium from the core plasma is needed in order to sustain the ignition condition. For this purpose, it has been proposed to place helium selective pumping metals, which can trap more helium than hydrogen, in the vicinity of the divertor. In this study, the helium and hydrogen trapping properties of nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, SS 304 and Inconel 625 were examined. Namely, the dependencies of irradiation temperature on the amount of trapped helium and hydrogen were obtained by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), after helium or hydrogen plasma irradiation. In those metals, nickel showed the most suitable selective pumping capability. Nickel had the helium selective pumping property above 100°C. The maximum amount of trapped helium was (2-3) × 10 16He/ cm2 at an irradiation temperature of 200°C and 600°C. The optimum temperature becomes about 600°C when nickel is used for a selective pumping material.

  19. Influence of sodium chloride and pH during acidic marination on water retention and mechanical properties of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Goli, T; Ricci, J; Bohuon, P; Marchesseau, S; Collignan, A

    2014-03-01

    Turkey breast cubes underwent acidic marination in the presence of salt. The transfer of water, salt and acid was measured, and texture was assessed on the cooked meat. While significant mass gains were observed during marination, from 20 minutes of immersion onwards, only long durations produced an overall matter balance greater than that of non-marinated meat. From the first minutes of immersion, these transfers caused hardening, regardless of the presence of salt in the marinade. For longer durations, only in the absence of salt was significant tenderizing seen in comparison to the non-marinated control. This effect appears to be due on the one hand to passing the isoelectric pH of the meat during acidification, and on the other hand to setting up antagonistic mechanisms breaking down or reinforcing connective tissues by acid and salt respectively. The high degree of tenderization observed in a water-acid solution can be explained partly by dilution of the fiber load per section unit due to protein solubilization. PMID:24334031

  20. Praying Mantis Bending Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lindermann, Randel A.

    2011-01-01

    Sampling cores requires the controlled breakoff of the core at a known location with respect to the drill end. An additional problem is designing a mechanism that can be implemented at a small scale, yet is robust and versatile enough to be used for a variety of core samples. The new design consists of a set of tubes (a drill tube, an outer tube, and an inner tube) and means of sliding the inner and outer tubes axially relative to each other. Additionally, a sample tube can be housed inside the inner tube for storing the sample. The inner tube fits inside the outer tube, which fits inside the drill tube. The inner and outer tubes can move axially relative to each other. The inner tube presents two lamellae with two opposing grabbing teeth and one pushing tooth. The pushing tooth is offset axially from the grabbing teeth. The teeth can move radially and their motion is controlled by the outer tube. The outer tube presents two lamellae with radial extrusions to control the inner tube lamellae motion. In breaking the core, the mechanism creates two support points (the grabbing teeth and the bit tip) and one push point. The core is broken in bending. The grabbing teeth can also act as a core retention mechanism. The praying mantis that is disclosed herein is an active core breaking/retention mechanism that requires only one additional actuator other than the drilling actuator. It can break cores that are attached to the borehole bottom as

  1. Characterization and radionuclide retention properties of heat-treated concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Finck, N.; Heck, S.; Hilpp, S.; Schlieker, M.; Metz, V.; Plaschke, M.; Soballa, E.; Cron, T.; Miassoedov, A.

    This study was performed to obtain insight into the characteristics of contaminated cementitious materials which may result from a light water reactor core melt down accident. Such material arose in a huge amount from the Fukushima disaster. We analyzed the elemental and mineralogical composition of similar, heat-treated material and investigated its radionuclide retention properties. We present the radionuclide retention properties of concrete samples which originally were part of an experiment using a thick-walled concrete recipient that had been heated by simulating a reactor melt down. Batch sorption experiments have been performed with the elements Cs(I), Co(II), and Eu(III) in seawater under aerobic conditions. Sorption coefficients were measured: Rs(Eu) ∼5800 ml g-1 and Rs(Co) ∼110 ml g-1. A tentative value for Cs was determined, adulterated by the relatively high release of Cs from the concrete itself.

  2. Mechanical retention versus bonding of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Staninec, M; Yip, R L; Chavez, M A

    1994-10-01

    The retention of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations in proximal box forms was measured in vitro, and three different adhesives to conventional undercuts were compared. For control, restorations were placed without undercuts or adhesives. No significant difference was found between amalgam and gallium alloys with each of the five methods of retention used. Alloys placed without retention or adhesives were significantly less retentive than all other groups. When Tytin alloy was used, no difference was found in retention among the restorations retained with Panavia or All-Bond adhesive or an occlusal dovetail and retention grooves, but Amalgambond adhesive was less retentive than all three of these methods. When gallium alloy was used, both Panavia and All-Bond adhesive were more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was comparable to that of undercuts. The results of this study indicate that adhesives could be used in place of traditional undercuts to retain amalgam and gallium alloys, thus saving a considerable amount of tooth structure. PMID:7990038

  3. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [retention of flavor during freeze drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The retention of flavor during freeze drying was studied with model systems. Mechanisms by which flavor retention phenomena is explained were developed and process conditions specified so that flavor retention is optimized. The literature is reviewed and results of studies of the flavor retention behavior of a number of real food products, including both liquid and solid foods are evaluated. Process parameters predicted by the mechanisms to be of greatest significance are freezing rate, initial solids content, and conditions which result in maintenance of sample structure. Flavor quality for the real food showed the same behavior relative to process conditions as predicted by the mechanisms based on model system studies.

  4. Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2012-02-24

    The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy's River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments began with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments. The most significant results from the current experiments are that progressively lower gas retention occurs in tests with progressively deeper sediment layers and that the method of gas generation also affects the maximum retention. Based on the results of this study, it is plausible that relatively low gas retention could occur in sufficiently deep tank waste in DSTs. The current studies and previous work, however, have not explored how gas retention and release will behave when two or more layers with different properties are present.

  5. Rolling-Tooth Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bickler, Donald B.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hudson, Nicolas H.

    2011-01-01

    Sampling cores requires the controlled breakoff of the core at a known location with respect to the drill end. An additional problem is designing a mechanism that can be implemented at a small scale that is robust and versatile enough to be used for a variety of core samples. This design consists of a set of tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube) and a rolling element (rolling tooth). An additional tube can be used as a sample tube. The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal holes with the axes offset from the axis of each tube. The two eccentricities are equal. The inner tube fits inside the drill tube, and the sample tube fits inside the inner tube. While drilling, the two tubes are positioned relative to each other such that the sample tube is aligned with the drill tube axis and core. The drill tube includes teeth and flutes for cuttings removal. The inner tube includes, at the base, the rolling element implemented as a wheel on a shaft in an eccentric slot. An additional slot in the inner tube and a pin in the drill tube limit the relative motion of the two tubes. While drilling, the drill assembly rotates relative to the core and forces the rolling tooth to stay hidden in the slot along the inner tube wall. When the drilling depth has been reached, the drill bit assembly is rotated in the opposite direction, and the rolling tooth is engaged and penetrates into the core. Depending on the strength of the created core, the rolling tooth can score, lock the inner tube relative to the core, start the eccentric motion of the inner tube, and break the core. The tooth and the relative position of the two tubes can act as a core catcher or core-retention mechanism as well. The design was made to fit the core and hole parameters produced by an existing bit; the parts were fabricated and a series of demonstration tests were performed. This invention is potentially applicable to sample return and in situ missions to planets such as Mars and Venus, to moons such

  6. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmenter, Kelly E.; Milstein, Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Aerogels are extremely low density solids that are characterized by a high porosity and pore sizes on the order of nanometers. Their low thermal conductivity and sometimes transparent appearance make them desirable for applications such as insulation in cryogenic vessels and between double paned glass in solar architecture. An understanding of the mechanical properties of aerogels is necessary before aerogels can be used in load bearing applications. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of various types of fiber-reinforced silica aerogels was investigated with hardness, compression, tension and shear tests. Particular attention was paid to the effects of processing parameters, testing conditions, storage environment, and age on the aerogels' mechanical response. The results indicate that the addition of fibers to the aerogel matrix generally resulted in softer, weaker materials with smaller elastic moduli. Furthermore, the testing environment significantly affected compression results. Tests in ethanol show an appreciable amount of scatter, and are not consistent with results for tests in air. In fact, the compression specimens appeared to crack and begin to dissolve upon exposure to the ethanol solution. This is consistent with the inherent hydrophobic nature of these aerogels. In addition, the aging process affected the aerogels' mechanical behavior by increasing their compressive strength and elastic moduli while decreasing their strain at fracture. However, desiccation of the specimens did not appreciably affect the mechanical properties, even though it reduced the aerogel density by removing trapped moisture. Finally, tension and shear test results indicate that the shear strength of the aerogels exceeds the tensile strength. This is consistent with the response of brittle materials. Future work should concentrate on mechanical testing at cryogenic temperatures, and should involve more extensive tensile tests. Moreover, before the mechanical response

  8. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  9. Determining parameters and mechanisms of colloid retention and release in porous media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A framework is presented to determine fundamental parameters and mechanisms controlling colloid (including microbes and nanoparticles) retention and release on hypothetical porous medium surfaces that exhibit distributions of nanoscale chemical heterogeneity, nano- to microscale roughness, and spati...

  10. Magnitude and distribution of stresses in composite resin and sound dentine interface with mechanical retentions

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara-Augusta; Del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Background Adhesive systems are constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stresses that negatively impact the integrity and durability of the dentine-adhesive interface. Despite the lack of evidence to support or reject the clinical indication for mechanical retention, the potential further contribution of these preparations to the behavior of the composite resin-sound dentine bond has been rarely addressed. The authors evaluated by finite element analysis the effect of mechanical retention on the magnitude and distribution of stresses in a composite resin-sound dentin bonding interface when subjected to tensile and shear forces. Material and Methods A three-dimensional model was created based on three cylindrical volumes representing the sound dentin, adhesive system, and composite resin. From this main model, two models were designed to simulate dentine bonding: 1) a model with no mechanical retention, which considered flat adhesion; and 2) a model with retention, which considered four hemispherical holes on the dentine surface. Both groups were subjected to linear static analysis under tensile and shear loading of 200N. Results At the model with retentions’ bonding interface under tensile and shear loading, a concentration of Von Mises equivalent stress was observed within the retentions, with a reduction of those stresses on the bonding boundary surface. Conclusions Additional mechanical retention increases the tensile strength of the sound dentin-composite resin bonding interface, promoting a decrease in the magnitude of the stresses and their redistribution under tensile and shear loading. Key words:Adhesion, composite resins, dentine, finite element analysis. PMID:26155338

  11. The mechanism of polyelectrolyte-assisted retention of TiO2 filler particles during paper formation.

    PubMed

    Gesenhues, Ulrich

    2011-02-17

    The mechanism of the retention of TiO(2) filler particles on cellulose fibers has been under discussion for several decades; the diverse models, and the properties of the components relevant to retention, are critically reviewed in the first part of this study. In addition, two new quantitative models of detachment of polyelectrolyte-bonded colloidal particles from the fiber are also examined; one of these is based on DLVO theory for description of the influence of particle charge and polyelectrolyte amount, and should hold true at low shear rates and high bond strengths. The other model applies Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence in order to relate the work necessary for particle detachment to the turbulent energy of pulp in paper machines, i.e., under high shear rate and low bond-strength conditions. The second model is based on analysis of fluid dynamics in paper machines, and is formulated here for laboratory tests using the Dynamic Drainage Jar (DDJ). A series of laboratory-prepared TiO(2) fillers covering a range of isoelectric points (ieps) from pH 4.4 to pH 7.5, additionally with poly-(aminoamide)-epichlorohydrin (PAE) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) as retention aids, and commercially milled cellulose, were used in the experimental part of the study. The retention-aid demand of fillers and cellulose for surface neutralization was determined using electrokinetic methods. Filler retention on cellulose was measured in the DDJ for various stirrer speeds and amounts of retention aid, with the amount of filler not exceeding that for a monolayer on the fiber. Without retention aids, neutral filler particles are accordingly completely retained on the negative fiber, whereas negatively charged particles are not. The retention of the latter can, however, be steadily improved by increasing polyelectrolyte concentration. Retention of colloidal particles in paper manufacturing is therefore determined by a delicate balance between H-bridging and van der Waals forces

  12. Critical contribution of nonlinear chromatography to the understanding of retention mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-11-01

    The retention of most compounds in RPLC proceeds through a combination of several independent mechanisms. We review a series of recent studies made on the behavior of several commercial C{sub 18}-bonded stationary phases and of the complex, mixed retention mechanisms that were observed in RPLC. These studies are essentially based on the acquisition of adsorption isotherm data, on the modeling, and on the interpretation of these data. Because linear chromatography deals only with the initial slope of the global, overall, or apparent isotherm, it is unable fully to describe the complete adsorption mechanism. It cannot even afford clues as to the existence of several overlaid retention mechanisms. More specifically, it cannot account for the consequences of the surface heterogeneity of the packing material. The acquisition of equilibrium data in a wide concentration range is required for this purpose. Frontal analysis (FA) of selected probes gives data that can be modeled into equilibrium isotherms of these probes and that can also be used to calculate their adsorption or affinity energy distribution (AED). The combination of these data, the detailed study of the best constants of the isotherm model, the determination of the influence of experimental parameters (e.g., buffer pH and pI, temperature) on the isotherm constants provide important clues regarding the heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and the main properties of the adsorption mechanisms. The comparison of similar data obtained for the adsorption of neutral and ionizable compounds, treated with the same approach, and the investigation of the influence on the thermodynamics of phase equilibrium of the experimental conditions (temperature, average pressure, mobile phase composition, nature of the organic modifier, and, for ionizable compounds, of the ionic strength, the nature, the concentration of the buffer, and its pH) brings further information. This review provides original conclusions regarding

  13. Detailed insights into the retention mechanism of caffeine metabolites on the amide stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Shah, Rajan

    2016-09-01

    The amide phase was investigated using a wide range of acetonitrile content in the mobile phase in both the HILIC and RPLC modes. Using caffeine metabolites as the model compounds, the retention, thermodynamic and kinetic data was obtained under various mobile phase conditions and supported the previous postulation that there might be a transition of the predominant retention mechanism in relation to the acetonitrile content in HILIC. On the amide phase, hydrophilic partitioning seemed to be the predominant retention mechanism below 85% acetonitrile; and a different retention mechanism (presumably surface adsorption) made more and more significant contributions to the overall retention when the acetonitrile content reached above 85%. This study also provided more direct evidences to explain the effect of salt concentration on the retention of non-charged solutes in HILIC. In addition, the retention, thermodynamic and kinetic data suggest that the amide phase behaved very differently from the conventional C18 phase in the RPLC mode. PMID:27522153

  14. Analysis of properties of synthetic mineral microparticles for retention and drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sa Yong

    Over the past 20 years there has been a revolution involving the use of nano- or macro-sized particles as a component of drainage and retention systems during the manufacture of paper. More recently a group of patented technologies called Synthetic Mineral Microparticles (SMM) has been invented and developed. This system has potential to further promote the drainage of water and retention of fine particles during papermaking. Prior research, as well as our own preliminary research showed that the SMM system has advantages in both of drainage and retention, compared with montmorillonite (bentonite), which is one of the most popular materials presently used in this kind of application. In spite of the demonstrated advantages of this SMM system, the properties and activity of SMM particles in the aqueous state have not been elucidated yet. To help understand the molecular mechanisms involved in SMM technology, streaming current and potentiometric titration were employed to characterize the charge behavior of SMM, depending on the synthetic conditions, which included variation of the Al/Si ratio, partial neutralization of Al species, salt addition and shear rate. Surface area of SMM and the distribution of SMM particle size were investigated with scanning electron microscopy in order to elucidate the relationship between the morphology and coagulation behavior of SMM, versus the pre-stated synthetic conditions, as well as to estimate the optimal conditions to produce SMM as a retention and drainage aid for use during papermaking. Through the streaming current titration experiments it was found that pH variation, caused by the change of Al/Si ratio and partial neutralization of aluminum's acidity, profoundly affects the charge properties of SMM. These effects can be attributed to the variation of Al-ion speciation and the influence ionizable groups on the Si-containing particle surfaces. The relationship between Al/Si ratio and isoelectric pH, measured by potentiometric

  15. E. coli RS2GFP Retention Mechanisms in Laboratory-Scale Fractured Rocks: A Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. N.; Qu, J.; Dickson, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    With billions of gallons of groundwater being withdrawn every day in the US and Canada, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms which jeopardize this resource and the health of those who rely on it. Porous media aquifers have typically been considered to provide significant filtration of particulate matter (e.g. microorganisms), while the fractures in fractured rock aquifers and aquitards are considered to act as contaminant highways allowing a large fraction of pathogens to travel deep into an aquifer relatively quickly. Recent research results indicate that fractured rocks filter out more particulates than typically believed. The goal of the research presented here is to quantify the number of E. coli RS2GFP retained in a single, saturated, laboratory-scale fracture, and to relate the retention of E. coli RS2GFP to the aperture field characteristics and groundwater flow rate. To achieve this goal, physical experiments were conducted at the laboratory-scale to quantify the retention of E. coli RS2GFP through several single, saturated, dolomitic limestone fractures under a range of flow rates. These fractures were also cast with a transparent epoxy in order to visualize the transport mechanisms in the various different aperture fields. The E. coli RS2GFP is tagged with a green-fluorescent protein (GFP) that is used to obtain visualization data when excited by ultraviolet light. A series of experiments was conducted, each of which involved the release of a known number of E. coli RS2GFP at the upstream end of the fracture and measuring the effluent concentration profile. These experiments were conducted using both the natural rock and transparent cast of several different aperture fields, under a range of flow rates. The effects of different aperture field characteristics and flow rates on the retention of E. coli RS2GFP will be determined by conducting a statistical analysis of the retention data under different experimental conditions. The images captured

  16. A biomimetic microfluidic chip to study the circulation and mechanical retention of red blood cells in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Picot, Julien; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Lefevre, Sophie D; El Nemer, Wassim; Tawfik, Harvey; Galimand, Julie; Da Costa, Lydie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; de Montalembert, Mariane; Brousse, Valentine; Le Pioufle, Bruno; Buffet, Pierre; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Français, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are deformable and flow through vessels narrower than their own size. Their deformability is most stringently challenged when they cross micrometer-wide slits in the spleen. In several inherited or acquired RBC disorders, blockade of small vessels by stiff RBCs can trigger organ damage, but a functional spleen is expected to clear these abnormal RBCs from the circulation before they induce such complications. We analyzed flow behavior of RBCs in a microfluidic chip that replicates the mechanical constraints imposed on RBCs as they cross the human spleen. Polymer microchannels obtained by soft lithography with a hydraulic diameter of 25 μm drove flow into mechanical filtering units where RBCs flew either slowly through 5- to 2-μm-wide slits or rapidly along 10-μm-wide channels, these parallel paths mimicking the splenic microcirculation. Stiff heated RBCs accumulated in narrow slits seven times more frequently than normal RBCs infused simultaneously. Stage-dependent retention of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs was also observed in these slits. We also analyzed RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and observed retention for those having the most altered mechanical properties as determined by ektacytometry. Thus, in keeping with previous observations in vivo and ex vivo, the chip successfully discriminated poorly deformable RBCs based on their distinct mechanical properties and on the intensity of the cell alteration. Applications to the exploration of the pathogenesis of malaria, hereditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease and other RBC disorders are envisioned. PMID:25641515

  17. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  18. Nanoabrasives retention and removal mechanisms in polyurethane pads for copper CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul-Hasan, Iftikhar

    The continued reduction in integrated circuit (IC) feature size requires similar reductions in surface defectivity. A key source of surface defects in IC fabrication processes stems from nanoabrasives used in chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) processing. During CMP processing, polished surfaces are more vulnerable to defects including scratching, nanoabrasive particle adhesion and nanoabrasive agglomerate adhesion. The removal of these nano-sized particles is a priority for the IC fabrication industry and is reflected in the 2008 ITRS defect budget. However, there is insufficient technical understanding regarding the retention of residual nanoabrasives on the surfaces of the CMP pad following a CMP process and how they can be removed. Particularly, there are no systematic quantitative studies regarding nanoabrasive transport - specifically, nanoabrasive retention, agglomeration and removal mechanisms at pad surfaces (including micro-pores and asperities) that have been exposed (or not exposed) to polishing. In this dissertation research regarding the residual nanoabrasive transport in IC1000/SubaIV polyurethane pads following a Cu CMP process is presented. Removal mechanisms of residual nanoabrasive resident at CMP pad pores and asperities via a diamond pad conditioning disk is investigated for a range of conditioning parameters, nanoabrasive particles, and slurry formulations. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of nanoabrasive retention was carried out via conventional and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ESEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SEM-based energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). To quantitatively describe the spectroscopic nanoabrasive retention data a semi-empirical model was developed. Quantitative spectroscopic and microscopic analyses on IC1000 CMP pads revealed considerable CMP slurry nanoabrasive retention at pad asperities and open pores that contacted the wafer during Cu CMP. Some of this residual

  19. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release and water-retention urea fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Liu, Mingzhu

    2006-02-22

    A double-coated, slow-release, and water-retention urea fertilizer (DSWU) was prepared by cross-linked poly(acrylic acid)-containing urea (PAAU) (the outer coating), polystyrene (PS) (the inner coating), and urea granule (the core). Elemental analysis results showed that the nitrogen content of the product was 33.6 wt %. The outer coating (PAAU) regulated the nitrogen release rate and protected the inner coating from damage. The slow-release property of the product was investigated in water and in soil. The possible mechanism of nitrogen release was proposed. The influences of PS coating percentage, temperature, water absorbency, and pH on the release of nitrogen were also investigated. It was found that PS coating percentage, temperature, and water absorbency had a significant influence on the release of nitrogen. However, the pH had no effect. The water-retention property of the product was also investigated. The results showed that the product not only had a good slow-release property but also excellent water-retention capacity, which could effectively improve the utilization of fertilizer and water resources. The results of the present work indicated that the DSWU would find good application in agriculture and horticulture, especially in drought-prone areas where the availability of water is insufficient. PMID:16478265

  20. Investigation of retention mechanism of resorcinarene based cavitands by linear and nonlinear chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bartó, Endre; Prauda, Ibolya; Kilár, Ferenc; Kiss, Ibolya; Felinger, Attila

    2016-07-22

    Cavitands are cavity-shaped cyclic oligomers and they can create host-guest interactions with various analytes, therefore they have applications in supramolecular chemistry, nanoscale reactions, chromatographic separations, drug encapsulation and delivery, biochemistry. The investigation of the chromatographic behavior of large molecules, such as resorcinarenes and cavitands is meager up to now. To understand the retention of resorcinarenes and cavitands in liquid chromatography, we studied their retention mechanism by the thermodynamic parameters calculated from the van't Hoff equation and by generation of an adsorption isotherm, which can describe the adsorption of the solute on the stationary phase surface. We compared the thermodynamics of the retention for cyclic oligomers in acetonitrile:water and methanol:water mobile phases. Furthermore, we determined the equilibrium adsorption isotherm by inverse method and we made an error analysis of the estimation obtained with the inverse method to ascertain the validity of the obtained isotherm parameters over a broader concentration range. PMID:27317005

  1. Transport of Sulfide-Reduced Graphene Oxide in Saturated Quartz Sand: Cation-Dependent Retention Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tianjiao; Fortner, John D; Zhu, Dongqiang; Qi, Zhichong; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    We describe how the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) via environmentally relevant pathways affects its transport behavior in porous media. A pair of sulfide-reduced GOs (RGOs), prepared by reducing 10 mg/L GO with 0.1 mM Na2S for 3 and 5 days, respectively, exhibited lower mobility than did parent GO in saturated quartz sand. Interestingly, decreased mobility cannot simply be attributed to the increased hydrophobicity and aggregation upon GO reduction because the retention mechanisms of RGOs were highly cation-dependent. In the presence of Na(+) (a representative monovalent cation), the main retention mechanism was deposition in the secondary energy minimum. However, in the presence of Ca(2+) (a model divalent cation), cation bridging between RGO and sand grains became the most predominant retention mechanism; this was because sulfide reduction markedly increased the amount of hydroxyl groups (a strong metal-complexing moiety) on GO. When Na(+) was the background cation, increasing pH (which increased the accumulation of large hydrated Na(+) ions on grain surface) and the presence of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) significantly enhanced the transport of RGO, mainly due to steric hindrance. However, pH and SRHA had little effect when Ca(2+) was the background cation because neither affected the extent of cation bridging that controlled particle retention. These findings highlight the significance of abiotic transformations on the fate and transport of GO in aqueous systems. PMID:26348539

  2. Homeostatic and toxic mechanisms regulating manganese uptake, retention, and elimination.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jerome A

    2006-01-01

    This review attempts to summarize and clarify our basic knowledge as to the various factors that potentially influence the risks imposed from chronic exposure to high atmospheric levels of manganese (Mn). The studies describe the interrelationship of the different systems in the body that regulate Mn homeostasis by characterizing specific, biological components involved in its systemic and cellular uptake and its elimination from the body. A syndrome known as manganism occurs when individuals are exposed chronically to high levels of Mn, consisting of reduced response speed, intellectual deficits, mood changes, and compulsive behaviors in the initial stages of the disorder to more prominent and irreversible extrapyramidal dysfunction resembling Parkinson's disease upon protracted exposure. Mn intoxication is most often associated with occupations in which abnormally high atmospheric concentrations prevail, such as in welding and mining. There are three potentially important routes by which Mn in inspired air can gain access the body to: 1) direct uptake into the CNS via uptake into the olfactory or trigeminal presynaptic nerve endings located in the nasal mucosa and the subsequent retrograde axonal transport directly into the CNS; 2) transport across the pulmonary epithelial lining and its subsequent deposition into lymph or blood; and/or 3) mucocilliary elevator clearance from the lung and the subsequent ingestion of the metal in the gastrointestinal tract. Each of these processes and their overall contribution to the uptake of Mn in the body is discussed in this review as well as a description of the various mechanisms that have been proposed for the transport of Mn across the bloodbrain barrier which include both a transferrin-dependent and a transferrin-independent process that may involve store-operated Ca channels. PMID:16629164

  3. Mechanical properties of nanophase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.; Fougere, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has become possible in recent years to synthesize new materials under controlled conditions with constituent structures on a nanometer size scale (below 100 nm). These novel nanophase materials have grain-size dependent mechanical properties significantly different than those of their coarser-grained counterparts. For example, nanophase metals are much stronger and apparently less ductile than conventional metals, while nanophase ceramics are more ductile and more easily formed than conventional ceramics. The observed mechanical property changes are related to grain size limitations and/or the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments; they can also be affected by such features as flaw populations, strains and impurity levels that can result from differing synthesis and processing methods. An overview of what is presently known about the mechanical properties of nanophase materials, including both metals and ceramics, is presented. Some possible atomic mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior in these materials are considered in light of their unique structures.

  4. Mechanisms affecting the transport and retention of bacteria, bacteriophage and microspheres in laboratory-scale saturated fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, G.; Dickson, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is becoming an increasingly important water source due to the ever-increasing demands from agricultural, residential and industrial consumers. In search of more secure sources, wells are routinely finished over large vertical depths in bedrock aquifers, creating new hydraulic pathways and thus increasing the risk of cross contamination. Moreover, hydraulic pathways are also being altered and created by increasing water withdrawal rates from these wells. Currently, it is not well understood how biological contaminants are transported through, and retained in, fractured media thereby making risk assessment and land use decisions difficult. Colloid transport within fractured rock is a complex process with several mechanisms affecting transport and retention, including: advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, diffusion, size exclusion, adsorption, and decay. Several researchers have investigated the transport of bacteria, bacteriophage, and microspheres (both carboxylated and plain) to evaluate the effects of surface properties and size on transport and retention. These studies have suggested that transport is highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the particle, the fracture, and the carrying fluid. However, these studies contain little detail regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for transport beyond speculating about their existence. Further, little work has been done to compare the transport of these particulate materials through the same fracture, allowing for direct observations based on particulate size and surface properties. This research examines the similarities and differences in transport and retention between four different particles through two different laboratory-scale, saturated fractures. This work is designed to explore the effects of particle size, surface properties, ionic strength of the carrying solution, and aperture field characteristics on transport and retention in single, saturated fractures. The particulates

  5. Correlation between structure, retention, property, and activity of biologically relevant 1,7-bis(aminoalkyl)diazachrysene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Šegan, Sandra; Trifković, Jelena; Verbić, Tatjana; Opsenica, Dejan; Zlatović, Mario; Burnett, James; Šolaja, Bogdan; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, retention parameters (R(M)(0)), partition coefficients (logP(OW)), and pK(a) values for a series of thirteen 1,7-bis(aminoalkyl) diazachrysene (1,7-DAAC) derivatives were determined in order to reveal the characteristics responsible for their biological behavior. The investigated compounds inhibit three unrelated pathogens (the Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A LC), Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and Ebola filovirus) via three different mechanisms of action. To determine the most influential factors governing the retention and activities of the investigated diazachrysenes, R(M)(0), logP(OW), and biological activity values were correlated with 2D and 3D molecular descriptors, using a partial least squares regression. The resulting quantitative structure-retention (property) relationships indicate the importance of descriptors related to the hydrophobicity of the molecules (e.g., predicted partition coefficients and hydrophobic surface area). Quantitative structure-activity relationship models for describing biological activity against the BoNT/A LC and malarial strains also include overall compound polarity, electron density distribution, and proton donor/acceptor potential. Furthermore, models for Ebola filovirus inhibition are presented qualitatively to provide insights into parameters that may contribute to the compounds' antiviral activities. Overall, the models form the basis for selecting structural features that significantly affect the compound's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profiles. PMID:22985530

  6. Refractance Window™ drying of haskap berry--preliminary results on anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Khattab, Rabie; Ghanem, Amyl; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties of haskap powder prepared by Refractance Window™ (RW) drying. In general, the RW-dried powder particles had a smooth surface with similar thickness, consistent with the preparation method, and had a solubility of 75.63% in water. The RW-dried powder (consisting of 98% haskap berries) retained approximately 93.8% of anthocyanins from the original frozen fruits, as assessed by the pH-differential method. This result is in good agreement with HPLC analysis that indicated 92.9% retention. Three anthocyanins were identified in frozen berries and RW-dried powder: cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside. Surprisingly, cyanidin 3-rutinoside exhibited the lowest retention. PMID:26471547

  7. A Discussion of SY-101 Crust Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    SD Rassat; PA Gauglitz; SM Caley; LA Mahoney; DP Mendoza

    1999-02-23

    The flammable gas hazard in Hanford waste tanks was made an issue by the behavior of double-shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Shortly after SY-101 was filled in 1980, the waste level began rising periodically, due to the generation and retention of gases within the slurry, and then suddenly dropping as the gases were released. An intensive study of the tank's behavior revealed that these episodic releases posed a safety hazard because the released gas was flammable, and, in some cases, the volume of gas released was sufficient to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL) in the tank headspace (Allemann et al. 1993). A mixer pump was installed in SY-101 in late 1993 to prevent gases from building up in the settled solids layer, and the large episodic gas releases have since ceased (Allemann et al. 1994; Stewart et al. 1994; Brewster et al. 1995). However, the surface level of SY-101 has been increasing since at least 1995, and in recent months the level growth has shown significant and unexpected acceleration. Based on a number of observations and measurements, including data from the void fraction instrument (VFI), we have concluded that the level growth is caused largely by increased gas retention in the floating crust. In September 1998, the crust contained between about 21 and 43% void based on VFI measurements (Stewart et al. 1998). Accordingly, it is important to understand the dominant mechanisms of gas retention, why the gas retention is increasing, and whether the accelerating level increase will continue, diminish or even reverse. It is expected that the retained gas in the crust is flammable, with hydrogen as a major constituent. This gas inventory would pose a flammable gas hazard if it were to release suddenly. In May 1997, the mechanisms of bubble retention and release from crust material were the subject of a workshop. The evaluation of the crust and potential hazards assumed a more typical void of roughly 15% gas. It could be similar to percolati

  8. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention and release: results for Hanford Waste Tanks 241-S-102 and 241-SY-103 and single-shell tank simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Konynenbelt, J.H.; Tingey, S.M.; Mendoza, D.P.

    1996-09-01

    Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has probed the physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the retention and release of flammable gases from radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford. This study was conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. The wastes contained in the tanks are mixes of radioactive and chemical products, and some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable, their retention and episodic release pose a number of safety concerns.

  9. Motor learning in childhood reveals distinct mechanisms for memory retention and re-learning.

    PubMed

    Musselman, Kristin E; Roemmich, Ryan T; Garrett, Ben; Bastian, Amy J

    2016-05-01

    Adults can easily learn and access multiple versions of the same motor skill adapted for different conditions (e.g., walking in water, sand, snow). Following even a single session of adaptation, adults exhibit clear day-to-day retention and faster re-learning of the adapted pattern. Here, we studied the retention and re-learning of an adapted walking pattern in children aged 6-17 yr. We found that all children, regardless of age, showed adult-like patterns of retention of the adapted walking pattern. In contrast, children under 12 yr of age did not re-learn faster on the next day after washout had occurred-they behaved as if they had never adapted their walking before. Re-learning could be improved in younger children when the adaptation time on day 1 was increased to allow more practice at the plateau of the adapted pattern, but never to adult-like levels. These results show that the ability to store a separate, adapted version of the same general motor pattern does not fully develop until adolescence, and furthermore, that the mechanisms underlying the retention and rapid re-learning of adapted motor patterns are distinct. PMID:27084930

  10. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  11. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Reid, Michael B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  12. Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimpoor, Amir A.; Erb, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    Due to their excellent wear and corrosion properties, nanocrystalline cobalt and several cobalt alloys made by electrodeposition are currently being developed as environmentally benign replacement coatings for hard chromium electrodeposits. The focus of this study is on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline cobalt, which are currently not well understood. A comparison is presented for hardness, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties and fracture surface analysis of both nanocrystalline (grain size: 12 nm) and conventional polycrystalline (grain size: 4.8 m) cobalt. It is shown that the hardness and tensile strength of nanocrystalline cobalt is 2-3 times higher than for polycrystalline cobalt. However, in contrast to other nanocrystalline materials tested previously, nanocrystalline cobalt retains considerable ductility with elongation to fracture values up to 7%.

  13. Analysis of read disturbance mechanism in retention of sub-20 nm NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Duckseoung; Lee, Kyunghwan; Kwon, Sangjin; Kim, Shinhyung; Hwang, Yuchul; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2015-04-01

    We observed an increase of Vth by read disturbance mechanism at programmed threshold voltage state (PV1) and erase state (ERS) states in retention characteristics of sub-20 nm NAND flash main-chip. We also confirmed that the charge gain behavior by read disturbance has dependency on the number of read and cycling operations. As a result, we quantitatively modeled read disturbance mechanism by the amount of final ΔVth and deterioration coefficient α which is related to the number of read operation times. It was also observed that those parameters increase with increasing cycling times and have larger value at ERS state than that at PV1 state.

  14. Characterization of Fly Ash from Coal-Fired Power Plant and Their Properties of Mercury Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Jiang, Xiumin; Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Ren, Jianxing

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown that fly ash may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its removal. However, the nature of mercury-fly ash interaction is still unknown, and the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, a fly ash from a coal-fired power plant is used to characterize the inorganic and organic constituents and then evaluate its mercury retention capacities. The as-received fly ash sample is mechanically sieved to obtain five size fractions. Their characteristics are examined by loss on ignition (LOI), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra. The results show that the unburned carbon (UBC) content and UBC structural ordering decrease with a decreasing particle size for the five ashes. The morphologies of different size fractions of as-received fly ash change from the glass microspheres to irregular shapes as the particle size increases, but there is no correlation between particle size and mineralogical compositions in each size fraction. The adsorption experimental studies show that the mercury-retention capacity of fly ash depends on the particle size, UBC, and the type of inorganic constituents. Mercury retention of the types of sp2 carbon is similar to that of sp3 carbon.

  15. Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Patural, Laetitia; Korb, Jean-Pierre; Govin, Alexandre; Grosseau, Philippe; Ruot, Bertrand; Deves, Olivier

    2012-10-15

    We show how nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of proton-water (NMRD) can be used to elucidate the effect of cellulose ethers on water retention and hydration delay of freshly-mixed white cement pastes. NMRD is useful to determine the surface diffusion coefficient of water, the specific area and the hydration kinetics of the cement-based material. In spite of modifications of the solution's viscosity, we show that the cellulosic derivatives do not modify the surface diffusion coefficient of water. Thus, the mobility of water present inside the medium is not affected by the presence of polymer. However, these admixtures modify significantly the surface fraction of mobile water molecules transiently present at solid surfaces. This quantity measured, for the first time, for all admixed cement pastes is thus relevant to explain the water retention mechanism.

  16. On the inherent data fitting problems encountered in modeling retention behavior of analytes with dual retention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Desmet, Gert

    2015-07-17

    Some valuable insights have been obtained in the inherent fitting problems when trying to predict the retention time of complex, multi-modal retention modes such as encountered in HILIC and SFC. In this study, we used mathematical models with known input parameters to generate different sets of numerical test curves representative for systems exhibiting a complex, non-LSS dual retention behavior. Subsequently, we tried to fit these data sets using some popular (non-linear) literature models. Even in cases where a physical fitting model exists (e.g., the mixed model in case of pure additive adsorptive and partitioning retention), the fitting quality can only be expected to be relatively good (prediction errors expressed in terms of a normalized resolution error ɛRs) when carefully selecting the scouting runs and the appropriate starting values for the fitting algorithm. The latter can best be done using a comprehensive grid search scanning a wide range of different starting values. This becomes even more important when no good physical model is available and one has to use a non-physical fitting model, such as the empirical Neue-model. The use of higher-order models is found to be quasi indispensable to keep the prediction errors on the order of some ΔRs=0.05. Also, the choice of the scouting runs becomes even more important using these higher-order models. For highly retained compounds we recommend using scouting runs with long tG/t0-values or to include a run with a higher fraction of eluting solvent at the start of the gradient. When trying to predict gradient retention, errors with which the isocratic retention behavior is fitted are much less important for high retention factors k than errors made in the range of k near the one at the point of elution. The results obtained with a so-called segmented Neue-model (containing 7 parameters) were less good and thus practically not interesting (because of the high number of initial runs). PMID:26044381

  17. Peat properties and water retention in boreal forested peatlands subject to wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Dan K.; Waddington, James M.

    2013-06-01

    Peat cores from a recently burned peatland and one over 75 years since fire in Alberta, Canada were analyzed for physical properties and water retention. Wildfire exposed denser peat at the peat surface, more so in hollow than hummock microforms. Water retention in peat has implications for postfire Sphagnum regeneration, as this more dense peat requires smaller volumes of water loss before a critical growth-inhibiting pore-water pressure of -100 mb is reached. Simulations of water retention after fire showed that hollow microforms are at a higher risk of losing low-density surface peat, which moderates water table (WT) declines via high specific yield. Exposure of dense peat to the surface after fire increases surface moisture under a constant WT. The net effect of decreasing specific yield and increasing water retention at the surface has implications on hydrologic stability and resilience of boreal peatlands to future wildfire risk under a changing climate. Earth system models incorporating wildfire disturbance in boreal peatlands would benefit from the inclusion of these hydrological feedbacks in this globally significant carbon reservoir.

  18. Intron retention is a widespread mechanism of tumor-suppressor inactivation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Jongkeun; Park, Donghyun; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Woong-Yang; Hong, Dongwan; Park, Peter J; Lee, Eunjung

    2015-11-01

    A substantial fraction of disease-causing mutations are pathogenic through aberrant splicing. Although genome profiling studies have identified somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in cancer, the extent to which these variants trigger abnormal splicing has not been systematically examined. Here we analyzed RNA sequencing and exome data from 1,812 patients with cancer and identified ∼900 somatic exonic SNVs that disrupt splicing. At least 163 SNVs, including 31 synonymous ones, were shown to cause intron retention or exon skipping in an allele-specific manner, with ∼70% of the SNVs occurring on the last base of exons. Notably, SNVs causing intron retention were enriched in tumor suppressors, and 97% of these SNVs generated a premature termination codon, leading to loss of function through nonsense-mediated decay or truncated protein. We also characterized the genomic features predictive of such splicing defects. Overall, this work demonstrates that intron retention is a common mechanism of tumor-suppressor inactivation. PMID:26437032

  19. Nitrogen retention mechanisms in tokamaks with beryllium and tungsten plasma-facing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberkofler, M.; Meisl, G.; Hakola, A.; Drenik, A.; Alegre, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Craven, R.; Dittmar, T.; Keenan, T.; Romanelli, S. G.; Smith, R.; Douai, D.; Herrmann, A.; Krieger, K.; Kruezi, U.; Liang, G.; Linsmeier, Ch; Mozetic, M.; Rohde, V.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Global gas balance experiments at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and JET have shown that a considerable fraction of nitrogen injected for radiative cooling is not recovered as N2 upon regeneration of the liquid helium cryo pump. The most probable loss channels are ion implantation into plasma-facing materials, co-deposition and ammonia formation. These three mechanisms are investigated in laboratory and tokamak experiments and by numerical simulations. Laboratory experiments have shown that implantation of nitrogen ions into beryllium and tungsten leads to the formation of surface nitrides, which may decompose under thermal loads. On beryllium the presence of nitrogen at the surface has been seen to reduce the sputtering yield. On tungsten surfaces it has been observed that the presence of nitrogen can increase hydrogen retention. The global nitrogen retention in AUG by implantation into the tungsten surfaces saturates. At JET the steady state nitrogen retention is increased by co-deposition with beryllium. The tokamak experiments are interpreted in detail by simulations of the global migration with WallDYN. Mass spectrometry of the exhaust gas of AUG and JET has revealed the conversion of nitrogen to ammonia at percent-levels. Conclusions are drawn on the potential implications of nitrogen seeding on the operation of a reactor in a deuterium-tritium mix.

  20. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite are the body's responses to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both the brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new therapeutic options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  1. Mineralocorticoid-induced sodium appetite and renal salt retention: Evidence for common signaling and effector mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker

    2014-01-01

    An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899

  2. Thiazolidinedione-Induced Fluid Retention: Recent Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Rachańczyk, Jolanta; Włodarczyk, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are used to improve insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, thiazolidinediones induce fluid retention, edema, and sometimes precipitate or exacerbate heart failure in a subset of patients. The mechanism through which thiazolidinediones induce fluid retention is controversial. Most studies suggest that this effect results from the increase in tubular sodium and water reabsorption in the kidney, but the role of specific nephron segments and sodium carriers involved is less clear. Some studies suggested that PPARγ agonist stimulates Na+ reabsorption in the collecting duct by activating epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), either directly or through serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK-1). However, other studies did not confirm this mechanism and even report the suppression of ENaC. Alternative mechanisms in the collecting duct include stimulation of non-ENaC sodium channel or inhibition of chloride secretion to the tubular lumen. In addition, thiazolidinediones may augment sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule by stimulating the expression and activity of apical Na+/H+ exchanger-3 and basolateral Na+-HCO3 − cotransporter as well as of Na+,K+-ATPase. These effects are mediated by PPARγ-induced nongenomic transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). PMID:23577024

  3. Woven TPS Mechanical Property Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Gregory Lewis; Kao, David Jan-Woei; Stackpoole, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Woven Thermal Protection Systems (WTPS) is a relatively new program funded by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The WTPS approach to producing TPS architectures uses precisely engineered 3-D weaving techniques that allow tailoring material characteristics needed to meet specific mission requirements. A series of mechanical tests were performed to evaluate performance of different weave types, and get a better understanding of failure modes expected in these three-dimensional architectures. These properties will aid in material down selection and guide selection of the appropriate WTPS for a potential mission.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  5. Mechanical properties of metal dihydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Peter A.; Snow, Clark S.

    2016-03-01

    First-principles calculations are used to characterize the bulk elastic properties of cubic and tetragonal phase metal dihydrides, \\text{M}{{\\text{H}}2} {\\text{M}   =  Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, lanthanides} to gain insight into the mechanical properties that govern the aging behavior of rare-earth di-tritides as the constituent 3H, tritium, decays into 3He. As tritium decays, helium is inserted in the lattice, the helium migrates and collects into bubbles, that then can ultimately create sufficient internal pressure to rupture the material. The elastic properties of the materials are needed to construct effective mesoscale models of the process of bubble growth and fracture. Dihydrides of the scandium column and most of the rare-earths crystalize into a cubic phase, while dihydrides from the next column, Ti, Zr, and Hf, distort instead into the tetragonal phase, indicating incipient instabilities in the phase and potentially significant changes in elastic properties. We report the computed elastic properties of these dihydrides, and also investigate the off-stoichiometric phases as He or vacancies accumulate. As helium builds up in the cubic phase, the shear moduli greatly soften, converting to the tetragonal phase. Conversely, the tetragonal phases convert very quickly to cubic with the removal of H from the lattice, while the cubic phases show little change with removal of H. The source and magnitude of the numerical and physical uncertainties in the modeling are analyzed and quantified to establish the level of confidence that can be placed in the computational results, and this quantified confidence is used to justify using the results to augment and even supplant experimental measurements.

  6. Mechanical properties of metal dihydrides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schultz, Peter A.; Snow, Clark S.

    2016-02-04

    First-principles calculations are used to characterize the bulk elastic properties of cubic and tetragonal phase metal dihydrides,more » $$\\text{M}{{\\text{H}}_{2}}$$ {$$\\text{M}$$ = Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, lanthanides} to gain insight into the mechanical properties that govern the aging behavior of rare-earth di-tritides as the constituent 3H, tritium, decays into 3He. As tritium decays, helium is inserted in the lattice, the helium migrates and collects into bubbles, that then can ultimately create sufficient internal pressure to rupture the material. The elastic properties of the materials are needed to construct effective mesoscale models of the process of bubble growth and fracture. Dihydrides of the scandium column and most of the rare-earths crystalize into a cubic phase, while dihydrides from the next column, Ti, Zr, and Hf, distort instead into the tetragonal phase, indicating incipient instabilities in the phase and potentially significant changes in elastic properties. We report the computed elastic properties of these dihydrides, and also investigate the off-stoichiometric phases as He or vacancies accumulate. As helium builds up in the cubic phase, the shear moduli greatly soften, converting to the tetragonal phase. Conversely, the tetragonal phases convert very quickly to cubic with the removal of H from the lattice, while the cubic phases show little change with removal of H. Finally, the source and magnitude of the numerical and physical uncertainties in the modeling are analyzed and quantified to establish the level of confidence that can be placed in the computational results, and this quantified confidence is used to justify using the results to augment and even supplant experimental measurements.« less

  7. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  8. Exploring particulate retention mechanisms through visualization of E. coli transport through a single, saturated fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Dickson, S. E.; Schutten, M.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource; a large body of work has been conducted towards remediating, tracking and reducing its contamination. Even so, there are large gaps within the current understanding of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, particularly within fractured media. Fractured media has the ability transport contaminants over longer distances in less time relative to porous media. Furthermore, colloids display unique transport characteristics in comparison to dissolved constituents, including the fact that they typically exhibit earlier initial arrival times. Of particular concern to human health are pathogenic microorganisms, which often originate from fecal contamination. Escherichia coli is a common indicator for fecal contamination; some strains are pathogenic, causing acute illness and sometimes death, in humans. A comprehensive understanding of the transport and retention of E. coli in fractured media will improve our ability to accurately assess whether a site is at risk of becoming contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the goal of this work is to expand our mechanistic understanding particulate retention, specifically E. coli, in fractures, and the influence of flow rate on these mechanisms. In order to achieve this goal, clear epoxy casts were fabricated of two dolomitic limestone fractures retrieved from a quarry in Guelph, Ontario. Each aperture field was characterized through hydraulic and tracer tests, and measured directly using the light transmission technique. E. coli RS2-GFP, which is a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli that has been tagged with a green fluorescent protein, was injected into the cast under three separate specific discharges ranging from 5 - 30 m/d. These experiments were conducted on an ultraviolet light source, and a high resolution charged-couple device (CCD) camera was employed to take photos at regular intervals in order to capture the dominant flow paths and the areas of retention

  9. Development of the Orion Crew-Service Module Umbilical Retention and Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delap, Damon C.; Glidden, Joel Micah; Lamoreaux, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Crew-Service Module umbilical retention and release mechanism supports, protects and disconnects all of the cross-module commodities between the spacecraft's crew and service modules. These commodities include explosive transfer lines, wiring for power and data, and flexible hoses for ground purge and life support systems. Initial development testing of the mechanism's separation interface resulted in binding failures due to connector misalignments. The separation interface was redesigned with a robust linear guide system, and the connector separation and boom deployment were separated into two discretely sequenced events. Subsequent analysis and testing verified that the design changes corrected the binding. This umbilical separation design will be used on Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) as well as all future Orion flights. The design is highly modular and can easily be adapted to other vehicles/modules and alternate commodity sets.

  10. Chromatographic Retention Times of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: from Structural Information to Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboacă, Sorana D.; Diudea, Mircea V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a unitary approach of the use of a Molecular Descriptors Family in structure-property/activity relationships, particularly in modelling the chromatographic retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls. Starting from molecular structure, viewed as a graph, and considering the bonds and bond types, atom types and often the 3D geometry of the molecule, a huge family of molecular descriptors called MDF was calculated. A preliminary selection of MDF members was done by simple linear regression (LR) against the measured property. The best fitted MDF subset is then submitted to multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis in order to find the best pairs of MDF members that produce a reliable QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) model. The predictive capability was finally tested by randomly splitting of data into training and test sets. The best obtained models are presented and the results are discussed.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystal Supercrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Enrico; Podsiadlo, Paul; Shevchenko, Elena; Ogletree, D. Frank; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Ashby, Paul D.

    2009-12-30

    Colloidal nanocrystals attract significant interest due to their potential applications in electronic, magnetic, and optical devices. Nanocrystal supercrystals (NCSCs) are particularly appealing for their well ordered structure and homogeneity. The interactions between organic ligands that passivate the inorganic nanocrystal cores critically influence their self-organization into supercrystals, By investigating the mechanical properties of supercrystals, we can directly characterize the particle-particle interactions in a well-defined geometry, and gain insight into both the self-assembly process and the potential applications of nanocrystal supercrystals. Here we report nanoindentation studies of well ordered lead-sulfide (Pbs) nanocrystal supercrystals. Their modulus and hardness were found to be similar to soft polymers at 1.7 GPa and 70 MPa respectively and the fractures toughness was 39 KPa/m1/2, revealing the extremely brittle nature of these materials.

  12. Mechanical properties of titanium connectors.

    PubMed

    Neo, T K; Chai, J; Gilbert, J L; Wozniak, W T; Engelman, M J

    1996-01-01

    The tensile mechanical properties of welded titanium joints were studied, and intact titanium was used as controls. Welded joints were fabricated with either a stereographic laser-welding technique or a gas tungsten arc welding technique. The effect of heat treatment following a simulated porcelain application was also investigated. Heat-treated laser welds had significantly lower ultimate tensile strengths. Heat treatment had no effect on the modulus of elasticity or elongation, but generally significantly decreased the yield strength of the titanium specimens. The gas tungsten are welding specimens had significantly higher yield strengths and elastic moduli than the other two groups. The elongation of the control specimens was significantly greater than the elongation of the gas tungsten arc welding specimens, which was in turn significantly higher than that of the laser-welded specimens. PMID:8957877

  13. Tritium well depth, tritium well time and sponge mechanism for reducing tritium retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. Q.; Li, Z. X.; Li, C. Y.; Feng, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    and theoretical studies, some new mechanisms are proposed for reducing the tritium retention in PFC and structure materials of tritium-breeding blanket. In this paper, a qualitative analysis of the 'sponge effect' is carried out. The 'sponge effect' may help us to reduce tritium retention by ~20% in the PFC.

  14. Differential gene retention as an evolutionary mechanism to generate biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Guillaume; Sterck, Lieven; Swennen, Dominique; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Onesime, Djamila; Levasseur, Anthony; Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Couloux, Arnaux; Labadie, Karine; Amselem, Joëlle; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Henrissat, Bernard; Van de Peer, Yves; Wincker, Patrick; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Gabaldón, Toni; Tinsley, Colin R.; Casaregola, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the characters underlying the adaptation of microorganisms to food and biotechnological uses is poorly understood. We undertook comparative genomics to investigate evolutionary relationships of the dairy yeast Geotrichum candidum within Saccharomycotina. Surprisingly, a remarkable proportion of genes showed discordant phylogenies, clustering with the filamentous fungus subphylum (Pezizomycotina), rather than the yeast subphylum (Saccharomycotina), of the Ascomycota. These genes appear not to be the result of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), but to have been specifically retained by G. candidum after the filamentous fungi–yeasts split concomitant with the yeasts’ genome contraction. We refer to these genes as SRAGs (Specifically Retained Ancestral Genes), having been lost by all or nearly all other yeasts, and thus contributing to the phenotypic specificity of lineages. SRAG functions include lipases consistent with a role in cheese making and novel endoglucanases associated with degradation of plant material. Similar gene retention was observed in three other distantly related yeasts representative of this ecologically diverse subphylum. The phenomenon thus appears to be widespread in the Saccharomycotina and argues that, alongside neo-functionalization following gene duplication and HGT, specific gene retention must be recognized as an important mechanism for generation of biodiversity and adaptation in yeasts. PMID:26108467

  15. Mechanical Properties of Primary Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battle, Christopher; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that the primary cilium, long thought to be a vestigial cellular appendage with no function, is involved in a multitude of sensory functions. One example, interesting from both a biophysical and medical standpoint, is the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells, which acts as a mechanosensitive flow sensor. Genetic defects in ciliary function can cause, e.g., polycystic kidney disease (PKD). The material properties of these non-motile, microtubule-based 9 +0 cilia, and the way they are anchored to the cell cytoskeleton, are important to know if one wants to understand the mechano-electrochemical response of these cells, which is mediated by their cilia. We have probed the mechanical properties, boundary conditions, and dynamics of the cilia of MDCK cells using optical traps and DIC/fluorescence microscopy. We found evidence for both elastic relaxation of the cilia themselves after bending and for compliance in the intracellular anchoring structures. Angular and positional fluctuations of the cilia reflect both thermal excitations and cellular driving forces.

  16. Water-retentive and anti-inflammatory properties of organic and inorganic substances from Korean sea mud.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmi; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-03-01

    Sea mud has been popularly used as an effective base in cosmetic preparations although its biologically-active materials and mechanisms on skin have not yet been fully determined. We isolated humic substances as the major organic substance of the sea mud from a tidal flat in Korea, and investigated their water-retentive properties. Among the three isolated humic substances, humic acid (HA) showed the highest water retentive property (approximately 50 % mass increase from water uptake). Based on the observations that mud pack therapy has been traditionally used to soothe UV-irradiated skin, we examined the antiinflammatory property of the sea mud on UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by measuring PGE2 levels produced by keratinocytes in the presence of either the total water or methanol extracts of the mud. The water extract showed higher inhibition of PGE2 production from HaCaT cells (30% inhibition) than the methanol extract at 200 ppm (microg/g). We further fractionated the water extract to determine the major components responsible for its anti-inflammatory effect. It was found that the minerals in the mud inhibited PGE2 production by 83 % at 200 ppm, which is comparable with the inhibitory effect of 1 microM indomethacin. No mud extract showed cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. The mineral compositions of the mineral extract were determined by ICP-MS, revealing that the sea mud consisted of more than 19 different mineral components, rich in Na+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. These results imply that the anti-inflammatory effect of the sea mud is largely due to the minerals in the mud. Our research suggests the potential use of the organic and inorganic substances from the sea mud in various skin products as safe biological substances for skin protective purposes. PMID:20420315

  17. Alternative splicing mechanisms orchestrating post-transcriptional gene expression: intron retention and the intron-rich genome of apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Matteo; Spano, Furio; Magini, Alessandro; Emiliani, Carla; Carruthers, Vern B; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2016-02-01

    Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species have complex life cycles that include multiple hosts and differentiation through several morphologically distinct stages requiring marked changes in gene expression. This review highlights emerging evidence implicating regulation of mRNA splicing as a mechanism to prime these parasites for rapid gene expression upon differentiation. We summarize the most important insights in alternative splicing including its role in regulating gene expression by decreasing mRNA abundance via 'Regulated Unproductive Splicing and Translation'. As a related but less well-understood mechanism, we discuss also our recent work suggesting a role for intron retention for precluding translation of stage specific isoforms of T. gondii glycolytic enzymes. We additionally provide new evidence that intron retention might be a widespread mechanism during parasite differentiation. Supporting this notion, recent genome-wide analysis of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium suggests intron retention is more pervasive than heretofore thought. These findings parallel recent emergence of intron retention being more prevalent in mammals than previously believed, thereby adding to the established roles in plants, fungi and unicellular eukaryotes. Deeper mechanistic studies of intron retention will provide important insight into its role in regulating gene expression in apicomplexan parasites and more general in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:26194054

  18. Seasonal Evolution of Surface Detention and Retention Properties with Rain Erosivity, at the Interill Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielders, C.; Antoine, M.; Javaux, M.

    2009-12-01

    Micro-topography, in interaction with the global slope, triggers and directs surface runoff. By concentrating the overland flow, it can promote the development of eroded pathways, while, by delimiting depressions where water accumulates, it can favor sedimentation. These erosion-deposition processes will in turn modify the micro-topography. The erosion-deposition processes depend on the runoff velocity field. Locally, velocity is a function of the water depth, of the local slope, of the friction of the bed and of backwater effects due to constrictions by obstacles. All those factors will evolve with the history of a particular site, favoring the connectivity of the runoff. According to the spatial patterns of the micro-topography, the runoff may conceptually be distributed among two compartments, each influencing the runoff connectivity: the surface retention and the surface detention. The surface retention (also called depression storage or dead storage) is the amount of water stored in surface pits and depressions. This water will subsequently infiltrate or evaporate. On the contrary, the surface detention corresponds to the water storage in excess of depression storage. It is due to the presence of flowing water and is proportional to the discharge itself. This amount of water will deplete as discharge decreases, and flow away at the end of the rain event. The velocity of the runoff is highly variable in space and particularly between the surface retention zones and the surface detention zones. In order to understand the connectivity evolution of a soil surface subjected to rainfall and runoff, we studied the seasonal evolution of the surface detention and retention hydrologic properties, for a bare soil just after tillage. Since surface detention and retention are not easily measured in situ due to the perturbing effect of the infiltration that occurs simultaneously during a rain event, we developed a fast and cheap in situ molding method (+/- 80 euros/m2) that

  19. Volatile Retention and Morphological Properties of Microencapsulated Tributyrin Varied by Wall Material and Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Joseph D; Cadwallader, Keith R; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Butyric acid is an important short-chain fatty acid for intestinal health and has been shown to improve certain intestinal disease states. A triglyceride containing 3 butyric acid esters, tributyrin (TB) can serve as a source of butyric acid; however, the need to target intestinal delivery and mitigate unpleasant sensory qualities has limited its use in food. Microencapsulation, the entrapment of one or more cores within a matrix, may provide a solution to the aforementioned challenge. This research primarily focused on the influence of (1) wall material: whey and soy protein isolate (WPI and SPI, respectively) and gamma-cyclodextrin (GCD), (2) wall additives: inulin of varying chain length, and (3) processing method: spray or oven drying (SD or OD, respectively) on the morphological properties and volatile retention of TB within microcapsules. SPI-based microcapsules retained significantly less (P < 0.001) TB compared to WPI-based microcapsules as measured by gas chromatography. The inclusion of inulin in the SD WPI-based microcapsules increased (P < 0.001) TB retention over WPI-based microcapsules without inulin. Inulin inclusion into WPI-based microcapsules resulted in a smoother, minimally-dented, circular morphology as compared to noninulin containing WPI-based microcapsules as shown by scanning electron microscopy. GCD and TB OD microcapsules retained more (P < 0.001) TB (94.5% ± 1.10%) than all other WPI, WPI-inulin, and GCD TB SD microcapsules. When spray dried, the GCD-based microcapsules exhibited (P < 0.001) TB retention than all other microcapsules, indicating the GCD may be unsuitable for spray drying. These findings demonstrate that microencapsulated TB in GCD can lead to minimal TB losses during processing that could be utilized in functional food applications for intestinal health. PMID:26878682

  20. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  1. Development of the Orion Crew-Service Module Umbilical Retention and Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delap, Damon C.; Glidden, Joel Micah; Lamoreaux, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Orion CSM umbilical retention and release mechanism supports and protects all of the cross-module commodities between the spacecrafts crew and service modules. These commodities include explosive transfer lines, wiring for power and data, and flexible hoses for ground purge and life support systems. The mechanism employs a single separation interface which is retained with pyrotechnically actuated separation bolts and supports roughly two dozen electrical and fluid connectors. When module separation is commanded, either for nominal on-orbit CONOPS or in the event of an abort, the mechanism must release the separation interface and sever all commodity connections within milliseconds of command receipt. There are a number of unique and novel aspects of the design solution developed by the Orion mechanisms team. The design is highly modular and can easily be adapted to other vehiclesmodules and alternate commodity sets. It will be flight tested during Orions Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) in 2014, and the Orion team anticipates reuse of the design for all future missions. The design packages fluid, electrical, and ordnance disconnects in a single separation interface. It supports abort separations even in cases where aerodynamic loading prevents the deployment of the umbilical arm. Unlike the Apollo CSM umbilical which was a destructive separation device, the Orion design is resettable and flight units can be tested for separation performance prior to flight.Initial development testing of the mechanisms separation interface resulted in binding failures due to connector misalignments. The separation interface was redesigned with a robust linear guide system, and the connector separation and boom deployment were separated into two discretely sequenced events. These changes addressed the root cause of the binding failure by providing better control of connector alignment. The new design was tuned and validated analytically via Monte Carlo simulation. The

  2. Retention property of deuterium for fuel recovery in divertor by using hydrogen storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, Saori; Tonegawa, Akira; Matsumura, Yoshihito; Sato, Kohnosuke; Kawamura, Kazutaka

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic confinement fusion reactor by using Deuterium and Tritium of hydrogen isotope as fuels is suggested as one of the future energy source. Most fuels don't react and are exhausted out of fusion reactor. Especially, Tritium is radioisotope and rarely exists in nature, so fuels recovery is necessary. This poster presentation will explain about research new fuel recovery method by using hydrogen storage materials in divertor simulator TPD-Sheet IV. Samples are tungsten coated with titanium; tungsten of various thickness, and titanium films deposited by ion plating on tungsten substrates. The sample surface temperature is measured by radiation thermometer. Retention property of deuterium after deuterium plasma irradiation was examined with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). As a result, the TDS measurement shows that deuterium is retained in titanium. Therefore, Titanium as a hydrogen storage material expects to be possible to use separating and recovering fuel particles in divertor.

  3. Motor Learning in Childhood Reveals Distinct Mechanisms for Memory Retention and Re-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselman, Kristin E.; Roemmich, Ryan T.; Garrett, Ben; Bastian, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    Adults can easily learn and access multiple versions of the same motor skill adapted for different conditions (e.g., walking in water, sand, snow). Following even a single session of adaptation, adults exhibit clear day-to-day retention and faster re-learning of the adapted pattern. Here, we studied the retention and re-learning of an adapted…

  4. Suppression of blister formation and deuterium retention on tungsten surface due to mechanical polishing and helium pre-exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, D.; Iwakiri, H.; Amano, K.; Ye, M. Y.; Ohno, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Takamura, S.

    2005-07-01

    Low-energy deuterium (D) plasma exposure on tungsten (W), which is an important material for ITER, results in blister formation on the surface. Blister formation increases both micron-sized dust production and D retention. Blister formation depends greatly on surface pre-treatment. Deuterium plasma exposure on mirror-finished powder metallurgy W at 500 K for 3 h forms a blister with a diameter of a few hundred micrometres on the surface. Blister formations on the mechanically-polished and helium-pre-exposed surfaces are drastically suppressed. Deuterium retention is also reduced on both the mechanically-polished surface and the helium-pre-exposed surface compared with that on the mirror-finished surface. The suppressive effect of blister formation on the mechanically-polished surface is maintained for 50 h. The size of blisters and D retention on mirror-finished surface exposed for 50 h increases by some degrees (<~500 µm, 7 × 1020 m-2) compared with that on mirror-finished surface exposed for 3 h (<~200 µm, 5 × 1020 m-2), but is not proportional to the exposure time. The saturation level of D retention even on blister-rich surfaces seems to be lower than an order of 1021 D2 m-2.

  5. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1995-01-01

    A composition and method of preparing YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T.sub.c. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  6. Enhancement of mechanical properties of 123 superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.

    1995-04-25

    A composition and method are disclosed of preparing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superconductor. Addition of tin oxide containing compounds to YBCO superconductors results in substantial improvement of fracture toughness and other mechanical properties without affect on T{sub c}. About 5-20% additions give rise to substantially improved mechanical properties.

  7. Preliminary Study of Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T.

    2010-10-12

    The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy’s River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize initial progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The work is ongoing; this report provides a summary of the initial findings. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments will begin with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments.

  8. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Iudicone, Daniele; Bozec, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world’s most valued fish species. Here we develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan Sea. The model reproduced the drift and growth of anchovy larvae as they drifted along the Catalan coast and yielded similar patterns as those observed in the field. We then applied the model to investigate transport and retention processes affecting the spatial distribution of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae during 1999-2003, and we compared modelled distributions with available field data collected in 2001 and 2003. Modelled and field distributions generally coincided and were patchy at mesoscales (10s-100s km); larvae were most abundant in eddies and along frontal zones. We also identified probable locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale processes are responsible for the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms in the area and showed that these processes were significantly correlated to atmospheric forcing processes over the NW Mediterranean Sea. Interannual variations in average summer air temperature can reduce the intensity of ocean mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and

  9. RENAL RETENTION OF LIPID MICROBUBBLES: A POTENTIAL MECHANISM FOR FLANK DISCOMFORT DURING ULTRASOUND CONTRAST ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya Ni; Khangura, Jaspreet; Xie, Aris; Belcik, J. Todd; Qi, Yue; Davidson, Brian P.; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Inaba, Yoichi; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The etiology for flank pain sometimes experienced during administration of ultrasound contrast agents is unknown. We investigated whether microbubble ultrasound contrast agents are retained within the renal microcirculation which could lead to either flow disturbance or local release of vasoactive and pain mediators downstream from complement activation. Methods Retention of lipid-shelled microbubbles in the renal microcirculation of mice was assessed by confocal fluorescent microscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging with dose-escalating intravenous injection. Studies were performed with size-segregated microbubbles to investigate physical entrapment, after glycocalyx degradation, and in wild-type and C3-deficient mice to investigate complement-mediated retention. Urinary bradykinin was measured before and after microbubbles. Renal CEU in human subjects (n=13) was performed 7–10 min after completion of lipid microbubble administration. Results In both mice and humans, microbubble retention was detected in the renal cortex by persistent CEU signal enhancement. Microbubble retention in mice was linearly related to dose and occurred almost exclusively in cortical glomerular microvessels. Microbubble retention did not affect microsphere-derived renal blood flow. Microbubble retention was not influenced by glycocalyx degradation nor by microbubble size, thereby excluding lodging, but was reduced by 90% (p<0.01) in C3-deficient mice. Urinary bradykinin increased by 65% five minutes after microbubble injection. Conclusion Lipid-shelled microbubbles are retained in the renal cortex due to complement-mediated interactions with glomerular microvascular endothelium. Microbubble retention does not adversely affect renal perfusion but does generate complement-related intermediates that are known to mediate nociception and could be responsible for flank pain. PMID:24035699

  10. EVALUATION OF SOIL WATER RETENTION MODELS BASED ON BASIC SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algorithms to model soil water retention are needed to study the response of vegetation and hydrologic systems to climate change. he objective of this study was to evaluate some soil water retention models to identify minimum input data requirements. ix models that function with ...

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27184115

  12. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation of the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix hybridized with secondary S-glass or Kevlar 49 fiber composites is presented. The specimen stress-strain behavior was determined, showing that mechanical properties of intraply hybrid composites can be measured with available methods such as the ten-degree off-axis test for intralaminar shear, and conventional tests for tensile, flexure, and Izod impact properties. The results also showed that combinations of high modulus graphite/S-glass/epoxy matrix composites exist which yield intraply hybrid laminates with the best 'balanced' properties, and that the translation efficiency of mechanical properties from the constituent composites to intraply hybrids may be assessed with a simple equation.

  13. Mechanical properties of low tantalum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortovich, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical property behavior of equiaxed cast B-1900 + Hf alloy as a function of tantalum content was studied. Tensile and stress rupture characterization was conducted on cast to size test bars containing tantalum at the 4.3% (standard level), 2.2% and 0% levels. Casting parameters were selected to duplicate conditions used to prepare test specimens for master metal heat qualification. The mechanical property results as well as results of microstructural/phase analysis of failed test bars are presented.

  14. Thigmomorphogenesis: on the mechanical properties of mechanically perturbed bean plants.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, M J; Telewski, F W; Cooke, P W

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical properties of control and mechanically perturbed (MP) bean stems (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Cherokee wax) were compared. The rubbed plants were greatly hardened against mechanical rupture by previous MP. This hardening was due to a dramatic increase in the flexibility of the stems, but not in their stiffness. The MP-plants were able to bend more than 90 degree without breaking, whereas the control plants broke after just slight bending. A comparison with other work reveals that different species utilize different tactics for achieving similar resistance to rupture due to mechanical stress. PMID:11540788

  15. Mechanical properties of mesoporous ceria nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Sayle, Thi X T; Inkson, Beverley J; Möbus, Günter; Parker, Stephen C; Seal, Sudipta; Sayle, Dean C

    2014-12-01

    Architectural constructs are engineered to impart desirable mechanical properties facilitating bridges spanning a thousand meters and buildings nearly 1 km in height. However, do the same 'engineering-rules' translate to the nanoscale, where the architectural features are less than 0.0001 mm in size? Here, we calculate the mechanical properties of a porous ceramic functional material, ceria, as a function of its nanoarchitecture using molecular dynamics simulation and predict its yield strength to be almost two orders of magnitude higher than the parent bulk material. In particular, we generate models of nanoporous ceria with either a hexagonal or cubic array of one-dimensional pores and simulate their responses to mechanical load. We find that the mechanical properties are critically dependent upon the orientation between the crystal structure (symmetry, direction) and the pore structure (symmetry, direction). PMID:25322448

  16. Effect of temperature on microstructures and retention properties in tungsten exposed to D + He + Be mixture plasmas in PISCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, N.; Miyamoto, M.; Nishijima, D.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Ueda, Y.; Sagara, A.; Höschen, T.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of temperature on microstructures and D retention properties in tungsten exposed to D + He + Be mixture plasmas is investigated. For the low temperature exposure case at 573 K, the Be seeding to D + He mixture plasmas results in the suppression of high density He nano-bubbles, which are distinctive internal defects observed in He irradiated/exposed metals. In contrast, fine and high-density He bubbles appear for W exposed to D + He + Be mixture plasmas at higher temperatures of >773 K. TDS measurements also show that the influence of Be seeding to D + He mixture plasmas, which counteracts the significant reduction in D retention, becomes weak with increasing temperature. From XPS analyses, it is considered that Be2W is formed by interdiffusion and solid-state-reaction at the high temperature exposure case, and the influence of the metallic Be on surface properties gradually disappears with increasing temperature.

  17. Preparation and properties of a coated slow-release and water-retention biuret phosphoramide fertilizer with superabsorbent.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shuping; Yue, Guoren; Feng, Lei; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Xinghai; Zhang, Zenghu

    2011-01-12

    In this investigation, a novel water-insoluble slow-release fertilizer, biuret polyphosphoramide (BPAM), was formulated and synthesized from urea, phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), and ferric oxide (Fe(2)O(3)). The structure of BPAM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, a coated slow-release BPAM fertilizer with superabsorbent was prepared by ionic cross-linked carboxymethylchitosan (the core), acrylic acid, acrylamide, and active carbon (the coating). The variable influences on the water absorbency were investigated and optimized. Component analysis results showed that the coated slow-release BPAM contained 5.66% nitrogen and 11.7% phosphorus. The property of water retention, the behavior of slow release of phosphorus, and the capacity of adsorption of cations were evaluated, and the results revealed that the product not only had good slow-release property and excellent water retention capacity but also higher adsorption capacities of cations in saline soil. PMID:21155599

  18. Behavior of PAH/mineral associations during thermodesorption: impact for the determination of mineral retention properties towards PAHs.

    PubMed

    Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saada, Alain; Faure, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with two minerals (silica sand and bentonite) presenting opposite retention properties were analyzed with a thermodesorption (Td)-GC-MS coupling in order to validate this technique as a new and rapid way to evaluate the solid sorption properties. Two analysis modes were used, evolved gas analysis (EGA) and Td with cryo-trap. EGA allowed a real-time monitoring of the compounds desorbed during a temperature program and gave a first screening of the samples while Td gave more precise indications on compound abundances for selected temperature ranges. When associated with silica sand, PAHs were released at relatively low temperatures (<300 °C) close to corresponding boiling point, whereas for the PAH/bentonite mixture, PAHs were desorbed at much higher temperatures; they were also present in much lower abundance and were associated with mono-aromatic compounds. With bentonite, the PAH abundances decreased and the mono-aromatics increased with the increasing PAH molecular weight. These results indicated a clear PAH retention by the bentonite due to polymerization, followed by a thermal cracking at higher temperatures. The Td-GC-MS was proven to efficiently underline differences in retention properties of two minerals, and this study highlights the great potential of this technique to evaluate compound/matrix bond strength and interaction. PMID:25772555

  19. The mechanical properties of FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Analysis of residual products in triethylbenzylammonium chloride by HPLC. Study of the retention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2006-04-01

    The control of industrial products for minimization of their impact on the environment and human health requires the development of specific analysis methods. Information provided by these methods about toxic components, by-products, and other derivatives may also be useful to reduce the possible impact of industrial products. The studied compound in this paper, triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBA), is mainly used in industrial synthesis. This quaternary compound and its residual products coming from quaternization reaction (benzyl chloride, benzaldehyde, and benzyl alcohol) are analyzed by HPLC. The separation is based on control of the silanophilic contribution to TEBA retention because of the quaternary nature of this compound. The effect of the three buffers (sodium acetate, ammonium acetate, and sodium formate) and their concentrations in the chromatographic behavior of the quaternary compound is examined. The buffer cation and anion regulate TEBA retention. Also, the concentration of the quaternary compound is another parameter that had influence in some aspects of its chromatographic behavior (e.g., retention and symmetry). The proposed method is applied to TEBA synthesis along, with the formation and removal of impurities with the results compared with those obtained for the quaternary compound benzalkonium chloride. PMID:16620516

  1. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention properties across a soil-slope transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Mousli, Zak

    2000-11-01

    The hydraulic properties of soil and their spatial structures are important for understanding soil moisture dynamics, land surface and subsurface hydrology, and contaminant transport. We investigated whether landscape features, including relative position on a slope, contribute to the variability of soil hydraulic properties in a complex terrain of a glacial till material. Using 396 undisturbed soil cores collected along two orthogonal transects, we measured saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and soil water retention functions at two (15 and 30 cm) depths across a glacial till landscape in central Iowa that encompassed two soil types (Nicollet loam with 1-3% slope on the hilltop position and Clarion loam with 2-5% slope on the shoulder position). The van Genuchten-Mualem model was fitted to the experimental data using the RETC optimization computer code. At the 15 cm depth a statistical comparison indicated significant differences in Ksat, saturated water content (θs), water content at permanent wilting point (θ15,000) and van Genuchten fitting parameters (α and n) between soil types and landscape positions. At the 30 cm depth, θs, θ15,000, and residual water content (θr) were found to be significantly different across the soil-slope transition. Available water content (θ333-15,000) did not show any significant difference across the soil-slope transition for either depth. No clear directional trend was observed, with some exceptions for Ksat, θs, and α on specific transect limbs and depths. Drifts in the soil hydraulic parameters due to soil-slope transition were removed using a mean-polishing approach. Geostatistical analyses of these parameters showed several important characteristics including the following: (1) The spatial correlation lengths and semivariogram patterns of the independently measured (or estimated) loge Ksat and θs at 30-cm depth matched extremely well; (2) better spatial structures with large correlation lengths were observed for

  2. Mechanisms for dose retention in conformal arsenic doping using a radial line slot antenna microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hirokazu; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Oka, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Topographic structures such as Fin FETs and silicon nanowires for advanced gate fabrication require ultra-shallow high dose infusion of dopants into the silicon subsurface. Plasma doping meets this requirement by supplying a flux of inert ions and dopant radicals to the surface. However, the helium ion bombardment needed to infuse dopants into the fin surface can cause poor dose retention. This is due to the interaction between substrate damage and post doping process wet cleaning solutions required in the front end of line large-scale integration fabrication. We present findings from surface microscopy experiments that reveal the mechanism for dose retention in arsenic doped silicon fin samples using a microwave RLSA™ plasma source. Dilute aqueous hydrofluoric acid (DHF) cleans by themselves are incompatible with plasma doping processes because the films deposited over the dosed silicon and ion bombardment damaged silicon are readily removed. Oxidizing wet cleaning chemistries help retain the dose as silica rich over-layers are not significantly degraded. Furthermore, the dosed retention after a DHF clean following an oxidizing wet clean is unchanged. Still, the initial ion bombardment energy and flux are important. Large ion fluxes at energies below the sputter threshold and above the silicon damage threshold, before the silicon surface is covered by an amorphous mixed phase layer, allow for enhanced uptake of dopant into the silicon. The resulting dopant concentration is beyond the saturation limit of crystalline silicon.

  3. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  4. Mechanical properties of Silicon Carbide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhateeb, Abdullah; Zhang, Daqing; McIlroy, David; Aston, David Eric

    2004-05-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires could be potentially useful for high strength materials which lead to the interest in understanding their mechanical properties. In this report we use the digital pulse force microscopy to analyze the mechanical properties of SiC nanowires .Stiffness and adhesion images of SiC nanowires on silicon grating were obtained and calibrated force-distance curves were plotted along the wire which spans on a 1.5 micron trench. Moreover, spring constant and Young's modules have been calculated from the linear part of the force-distance curves.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Ingot Nb Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Matalevich, Joseph; Rao Myneni, Ganapati

    2014-07-01

    This contribution presents the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and of strain along the contour of a single-cell cavity made of ingot Nb subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. The data were used to infer mechanical properties of this material after cavity fabrication, by comparison with the results from simulation calculations done with ANSYS. The objective is to provide useful information about the mechanical properties of ingot Nb cavities which can be used in the design phase of SRF cavities intended to be built with this material.

  6. Mechanical Properties Of Large Sodium Iodide Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents data on mechanical properties of large crystals of thallium-doped sodium iodide. Five specimens in shape of circular flat plates subjected to mechanical tests. Presents test results for each specimen as plots of differential pressure versus center displacement and differential pressure versus stress at center. Also tabulates raw data. Test program also developed procedure for screening candidate crystals for gamma-ray sensor. Procedure eliminates potentially weak crystals before installed and ensures material yielding kept to minimum.

  7. Mechanical properties of polygonal carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; Cao, Dapeng

    2012-08-01

    A group of polygonal carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) have been designed and their mechanical behavior was investigated by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The research aimed at exploring the effects of structure, temperature, and strain rate on the mechanical properties. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of P-CNTs is lower than those of circumcircle carbon nanotubes (C-CNT). Moreover, with an increase in the number of sides to the polygons, the Young's modulus increases and is much closer to that of C-CNT. The effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of P-CNTs show that the higher temperature and slower strain rate result in a lower critical strain and weaker tensile strength. In addition, it was found that the critical strains of P-CNTs are dependent on the tube size. Finally, we used the transition-state theory model to predict the critical strain of P-CNTs at given experimental conditions. It is expected that this work could provide feasible means to manipulate the mechanical properties of novel P-CNTs and facilitate the mechanical application of nanostructures as potential electronic devices.A group of polygonal carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) have been designed and their mechanical behavior was investigated by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The research aimed at exploring the effects of structure, temperature, and strain rate on the mechanical properties. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of P-CNTs is lower than those of circumcircle carbon nanotubes (C-CNT). Moreover, with an increase in the number of sides to the polygons, the Young's modulus increases and is much closer to that of C-CNT. The effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of P-CNTs show that the higher temperature and slower strain rate result in a lower critical strain and weaker tensile strength. In addition, it was found that the critical strains of P-CNTs are dependent on the tube size. Finally, we used the

  8. Laminar Tendon Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Kyle A.; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Illeperuma, Widusha R.; Suo, Zhigang; Xu, Qiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A strong isotropic material that is both biocompatible and biodegradable is desired for many biomedical applications, including rotator cuff repair, tendon and ligament repair, vascular grafting, among others. Recently, we developed a technique, called “bioskiving” to create novel 2D and 3D constructs from decellularized tendon, using a combination of mechanical sectioning, and layered stacking and rolling. The unidirectionally aligned collagen nanofibers (derived from sections of decellularized tendon) offer good mechanical properties to the constructs compared with those fabricated from reconstituted collagen. Methods In this paper, we studied the effect that several variables have on the mechanical properties of structures fabricated from tendon slices, including crosslinking density and the orientation in which the fibers are stacked. Results We observed that following stacking and crosslinking, the strength of the constructs is significantly improved, with crosslinked sections having an ultimate tens ile strength over 20 times greater than non-crosslinked samples, and a modulus nearly 50 times higher. The mechanism of the mechanical failure mode of the tendon constructs with or without crosslinking was also investigated. Conclusions The strength and fiber organization, combined with the ability to introduce transversely isotropic mechanical properties makes the laminar tendon composites a biocompatiable material that may find future use in a number of biomedical and tissue engineering applications. PMID:25691802

  9. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites.

    PubMed

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C&B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R(a) and R(y) values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  10. Surface mechanical properties - effects of ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herbert

    1981-05-01

    Ion implantation has been used to modify the mechanical properties of a wide range of metals and alloys. The affected properties which have been studied include friction and wear, erosion and fatigue. Both BCC and FCC systems have been examined, with the major effort being directed at the former, due to the strong influence of interstitial implantants on mechanical properties of BCC and because of the industrial utility of these alloys. In seeking the microstructural origins of these sometimes dramatic effects, researchers have employed numerous surface analysis techniques, including backscattering and electron spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, X-ray and Mössbauer analysis and internal friction measurements. The interactions of surface dislocation structures with implantation-induced imperfections, surface alloying, and precipitation phenomena are discussed. A review is given of the current status of activities as represented by a number of research groups.

  11. Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Joseph; Perriot, Romain; Oleynik, Ivan

    Large-scale growth of graphene using chemical vapor deposition produces polycrystalline material containing grain boundaries. Recent experiments demonstrate that polycrystalline graphene is nearly as strong as pristine. In this work, the mechanical properties of bi-crystal and polycrystalline graphene samples are investigated by simulating nano-indentation of a circular membrane using classical molecular dynamics and a novel Screened Environment Dependent Reactive Bond Order (SED-REBO) potential. The failure mechanisms and crack propagation in graphene samples containing grain boundaries are also discussed.

  12. Isotropic microscale mechanical properties of coral skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Luca; Molinari, Alan; Fantazzini, Paola; Dauphen, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Caroselli, Erik; Prada, Fiorella; Goffredo, Stefano; Di Giosia, Matteo; Reggi, Michela; Falini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Scleractinian corals are a major source of biogenic calcium carbonate, yet the relationship between their skeletal microstructure and mechanical properties has been scarcely studied. In this work, the skeletons of two coral species: solitary Balanophyllia europaea and colonial Stylophora pistillata, were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness HIT and Young's modulus EIT were determined from the analysis of several load–depth data on two perpendicular sections of the skeletons: longitudinal (parallel to the main growth axis) and transverse. Within the experimental and statistical uncertainty, the average values of the mechanical parameters are independent on the section's orientation. The hydration state of the skeletons did not affect the mechanical properties. The measured values, EIT in the 76–77 GPa range, and HIT in the 4.9–5.1 GPa range, are close to the ones expected for polycrystalline pure aragonite. Notably, a small difference in HIT is observed between the species. Different from corals, single-crystal aragonite and the nacreous layer of the seashell Atrina rigida exhibit clearly orientation-dependent mechanical properties. The homogeneous and isotropic mechanical behaviour of the coral skeletons at the microscale is correlated with the microstructure, observed by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the longitudinal and transverse sections. PMID:25977958

  13. Improvement of mechanical properties of glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbay, Ismail Hakki Cengizhan; Budakoglu, Refika; Zayim, Esra Ozkan

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to enhance the mechanical and optical properties of glass substrates with thin films by the sol-gel method. TiO2-SiO2 binary system and Ta2O5 were deposited on glass substrates with high transparency. Ring-on-ring flexure and scratch tests were the main mechanical characterization tests. Herein, we report that the thin films can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of the glass substrates efficiently and effectively. TiO2-SiO2 binary system shows more than two times and Ta2O5 thin films show nearly three times better ultimate strength in the ring-on-ring flexure test. Besides, Ta2O5 thin film samples show superior scratch resistance. Additionally, the finite element method was also used to check the conformity in the application of mechanical properties of composite materials. It is also worth noting that, the finite element method can be used to accurately analyze the mechanical stability of composite materials. The use of the finite element method can reduce the total number of experimental trials without losing reliability.

  14. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  15. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is

  16. Food mechanical properties and dietary ecology.

    PubMed

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research has benefitted the fields of anthropology and engineering for decades: a classic example being the application of material science to the field of feeding biomechanics. However, after decades of research, discordances have developed in how mechanical properties are defined, measured, calculated, and used due to disharmonies between and within fields. This is highlighted by "toughness," or energy release rate, the comparison of incomparable tests (i.e., the scissors and wedge tests), and the comparison of incomparable metrics (i.e., the stress and displacement-limited indices). Furthermore, while material scientists report on a myriad of mechanical properties, it is common for feeding biomechanics studies to report on just one (energy release rate) or two (energy release rate and Young's modulus), which may or may not be the most appropriate for understanding feeding mechanics. Here, I review portions of materials science important to feeding biomechanists, discussing some of the basic assumptions, tests, and measurements. Next, I provide an overview of what is mechanically important during feeding, and discuss the application of mechanical property tests to feeding biomechanics. I also explain how 1) toughness measures gathered with the scissors, wedge, razor, and/or punch and die tests on non-linearly elastic brittle materials are not mechanical properties, 2) scissors and wedge tests are not comparable and 3) the stress and displacement-limited indices are not comparable. Finally, I discuss what data gathered thus far can be best used for, and discuss the future of the field, urging researchers to challenge underlying assumptions in currently used methods to gain a better understanding between primate masticatory morphology and diet. PMID:26808100

  17. Mechanisms of nearshore retention and offshore export of mussel larvae over the Agulhas Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidberg, Nicolás; Porri, Francesca; Von der Meden, Charles E. O.; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Goschen, Wayne; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2015-04-01

    Ecological connectivity is critical for population dynamics but in many benthic species it is complicated by a planktonic larval phase, whose dispersal remains poorly understood. Using a plankton pump, we examine the distribution of intertidal mussel larvae along three axes: alongshore, cross-shelf and by depth during a large scale (600 km) cruise over the Agulhas Bank off southern Africa in August/September 2010. As a general pattern, higher veliger abundances were found close to the coast. Our analyses of the nearshore flow, estimated from ADCP data and the vertical distribution of larvae, show that onshore larval retention may be mediated by active vertical swimming through the water column guided by light and wind-induced turbulence. A massive offshore export of larvae off St Francis Bay was, however, observed during an Agulhas Current meander which influenced inner shelf waters. We hypothesize that, by increasing and homogenizing flow, the Agulhas Current may erase the effects of larval vertical positioning on onshore retention and transport larvae offshore. Our study highlights the need to integrate the effects of complex, region-specific physical dynamics with the swimming behaviour of larvae in order to explain their spatial distribution, population connectivity and the consequences for population dynamics.

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Porous Mullite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Chwan-Hai Harold

    Mullite (3 Al2O3 : 2 SiO2) is a technologically important ceramic due to its thermal stability, corrosion resistance, and mechanical robustness. One variant, porous acicular mullite (ACM), has a unique needle-like microstructure and is the material platform for The Dow Chemical Company's diesel particulate filter AERIFY(TM). The investigation described herein focuses on the microstructure-mechanical property relationships in acicular mullites as well as those with traditional porous microstructures with the goal of illuminating the critical factors in determining their modulus, strength, and toughness. Mullites with traditional pore morphologies were made to serve as references via slipcasting of a kaolinite-alumina-starch slurry. The starch was burned out to leave behind a pore network, and the calcined body was then reaction-sintered at 1600C to form mullite. The samples had porosities of approximately 60%. Pore size and shape were altered by using different starch templates, and pore size was found to influence the stiffness and toughness. The ACM microstructure was varied along three parameters: total porosity, pore size, and needle size. Total porosity was found to dominate the mechanical behavior of ACM, while increases in needle and pore size increased the toughness at lower porosities. ACM was found to have much improved (˜130%) mechanical properties relative to its non-acicular counterpart at the same porosity. A second set of investigations studied the role of the intergranular glassy phase which wets the needle intersections of ACM. Removal of the glassy phase via an HF etch reduced the mechanical properties by ˜30%, highlighting the intergranular phase's importance to the enhanced mechanical properties of ACM. The composition of the glassy phase was altered by doping the ACM precursor with magnesium and neodymium. Magnesium doping resulted in ACM with greatly reduced fracture strength and toughness. Studies showed that the mechanical properties of the

  19. Mechanical Properties of Fe-Ni Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberta, Mulford; El Dasher, B.

    2010-10-01

    Iron-nickel meteorites exhibit a unique lamellar microstructure, Widmanstatten patterns, consisting of small regions with steep-iron-nickel composition gradients.1,2 The microstructure arises as a result of extremely slow cooling in a planetary core or other large mass. Mechanical properties of these structures have been investigated using microindentation, x-ray fluorescence, and EBSD. Observation of local mechanical properties in these highly structured materials supplements bulk measurements, which can exhibit large variation in dynamic properties, even within a single sample. 3 Accurate mechanical properties for meteorites may enable better modeling of planetary cores, the likely origin of these objects. Appropriate values for strength are important in impact and crater modeling and in understanding the consequences of observed impacts on planetary crusts. Previous studies of the mechanical properties of a typical iron-nickel meteorite, a Diablo Canyon specimen, indicated that the strength of the composite was higher by almost an order of magnitude than values obtained from laboratory-prepared specimens.4 This was ascribed to the extreme work-hardening evident in the EBSD measurements. This particular specimen exhibited only residual Widmanstatten structures, and may have been heated and deformed during its traverse of the atmosphere. Additional specimens from the Canyon Diablo fall (type IAB, coarse octahedrite) and examples from the Muonionalusta meteorite and Gibeon fall ( both IVA, fine octahedrite), have been examined to establish a range of error on the previously measured yield, to determine the extent to which deformation upon re-entry contributes to yield, and to establish the degree to which the strength varies as a function of microstructure. 1. A. Christiansen, et.al., Physica Scripta, 29 94-96 (1984.) 2. Goldstein and Ogilvie, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 29 893-925 (1965.) 3. M. D. Furnish, M.B. Boslough, G.T. Gray II, and J.L. Remo, Int. J. Impact Eng

  20. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

    2008-02-01

    A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:17320380

  1. Mechanical properties of crosslinked polymer coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csernica, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment are to: fabricate and test thin films to explore relations between a polymer's structure and its mechanical properties; expose students to testing methods for hardness and impact energy that are simple to perform and which have results that are easy to comprehend; show importance of polymer properties in materials that students frequently encounter; illustrate a system which displays a tradeoff between strength and impact resistance, the combination of which would need to be optimized for a particular application; and to expose students to coatings technology and testing.

  2. Analysis of multiple instructional techniques on the understanding and retention of select mechanical topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetsco, Sara Elizabeth

    There are several topics that introductory physics students typically have difficulty understanding. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if multiple instructional techniques will help students to better understand and retain the material. The three units analyzed in this study are graphing motion, projectile motion, and conservation of momentum. For each unit students were taught using new or altered instructional methods including online laboratory simulations, inquiry labs, and interactive demonstrations. Additionally, traditional instructional methods such as lecture and problem sets were retained. Effectiveness was measured through pre- and post-tests and student opinion surveys. Results suggest that incorporating multiple instructional techniques into teaching will improve student understanding and retention. Students stated that they learned well from all of the instructional methods used except the online simulations.

  3. Mechanical properties of intra-ocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Klaus; Kim, Eon; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Cataract surgery usually involves the replacement of the natural crystalline lens with a rigid or foldable intraocular lens to restore clear vision for the patient. While great efforts have been placed on optimising the shape and optical characteristics of IOLs, little is know about the mechanical properties of these devices and how they interact with the capsular bag once implanted. Mechanical properties measurements were performed on 8 of the most commonly implanted IOLs using a custom build micro tensometer. Measurement data will be presented for the stiffness of the haptic elements, the buckling resistance of foldable IOLs, the dynamic behaviour of the different lens materials and the axial compressibility. The biggest difference between the lens types was found between one-piece and 3-piece lenses with respect to the flexibility of the haptic elements

  4. Rhenium Mechanical Properties and Joining Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Biaglow, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) provides thermal margin for high performance and long life radiation cooled rockets. Two issues that have arisen in the development of flight Ir/Re engines are the sparsity of rhenium (Re) mechanical property data (particularly at high temperatures) required for engineering design, and the inability to directly electron beam weld Re chambers to C103 nozzle skirts. To address these issues, a Re mechanical property database is being established and techniques for creating Re/C103 transition joints are being investigated. This paper discusses the tensile testing results of powder metallurgy Re samples at temperatures from 1370 to 2090 C. Also discussed is the evaluation of Re/C103 transition pieces joined by both, explosive and diffusion bonding. Finally, the evaluation of full size Re transition pieces, joined by inertia welding, as well as explosive and diffusion bonding, is detailed.

  5. The influence of salt chaotropicity, column hydrophobicity and analytes' molecular properties on the retention of pramipexole and its impurities.

    PubMed

    Vemić, Ana; Kalinić, Marko; Erić, Slavica; Malenović, Anđelija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2015-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of the chaotropic salts of different position in Hofmeister series (CF3COONa, NaClO4, NaPF6) added to the mobile phase with the stationary phases of different hydrophobicity (C8 and C18 XTerra(®) columns), as well as their common influence on the retention behavior of pramipexole and its structurally related impurities. The extended thermodynamic approach enabled the understanding of the underlying separation mechanism. Comparing six different column-salt systems it was observed that general system hydrophobicity presented by salt chaotropicity and column hydrophobicity favors stationary phase ion-pairing over the ion-pair formation in the eluent. Further, an attempt was made to describe the influence of analytes' nature on their retention behavior in such chromatographic systems. An analysis is performed in order to select and elucidate the molecular descriptors (electrostatical, quantum-chemical, geometrical, topological, and constitutional) that best explain the experimental evidence and findings obtained by the thermodynamic approach. The results of this analysis suggest that analytes' charge distribution and its complementarity to the structure of the electric double layer formed on the surface of the stationary phase upon the addition of chaotropic additives can be useful for understanding the differences in retention of structurally related analytes. These findings provide a novel understanding of the interactions between all the components of the chromatographic system containing chaotropic additive and a good basis for further investigations suggesting the development of generally applicable predictors in structure-retention relationship studies in related chromatographic systems. PMID:25681830

  6. Visualization of micro-scale phase displacement processes in retention and outflow experiments: Non-uniqueness of unsaturated flow properties

    SciTech Connect

    MORTENSEN,ANNETTE P.; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; HOLLENBECK,KARL; JENSEN,KARSTEN H.

    2000-03-09

    Methods to determine unsaturated hydraulic properties can exhibit random and non-unique behavior. The authors assess the causes for these behaviors by visualizing micro-scale phase displacement processes during equilibrium retention and transient outflow experiments. They observe that the drainage process is composed of a fast fingering followed by a slower backfilling. The influence of each these processes is controlled by the size and the speed of the applied boundary step, the initial saturation and its structure and by small-scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these micro-scale processes yields macro-scale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. These results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties.

  7. Determinants of the mechanical properties of bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bones are governed by the same principles as those of man-made load-bearing structures, but the organism is able to adapt its bone structure to changes in skeletal loading. In this overview of the determinants of the strength and stiffness of bone, a continuum approach has been taken, in which the behavior of a macroscopic structure depends on its shape and size, and on the mechanical properties of the material within. The latter are assumed to depend on the composition (porosity and mineralization) and organization (trabecular or cortical bone architecture, collagen fiber orientation, fatigue damage) of the bone. The effects of each of these factors are reviewed. Also, the possible means of non-invasively estimating the strength or other mechanical properties of a bone are reviewed, including quantitative computed tomography, photon absorptiometry, and ultrasonic measurements. The best estimates of strength have been obtained with photon absorptiometry and computed tomography, which at best are capable of accounting for 90% of the strength variability in a simple in vitro test, but results from different laboratories have been highly variable.

  8. Tensile mechanical properties of human forearm tendons.

    PubMed

    Weber, J F; Agur, A M R; Fattah, A Y; Gordon, K D; Oliver, M L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies of the mechanical properties of tendons in the upper limb have used embalmed specimens or sub-optimal methods of measurement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of all tendons from five fresh frozen cadaveric forearms using updated methodology. The cross-sectional area of tendons was accurately measured using a laser reflectance system. Tensile testing was done in a precision servo-hydraulic device with cryo-clamp fixation. We determined that the cross-sectional area of some tendons is variable and directly influences the calculated material properties; visual estimation of this is unreliable. Data trends illustrate that digital extensor tendons possess the greatest tensile strength and a higher Young's modulus than other tendon types. PMID:25940499

  9. Obtaining railpad properties via dynamic mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oregui, M.; de Man, A.; Woldekidan, M. F.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose combining dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and the time-temperature superposition principle to determine various railpad dynamic properties. Having accurate information regarding the dynamic properties of a railpad is a fundamental requirement for designing tracks and understanding track deterioration. By testing three different railpad types, we demonstrate that the dynamic behavior of railpads over a wide frequency range can be successfully obtained under different preloads and temperatures if time-temperature superposition can be applied. To investigate railpad aging, worn railpads taken from a mainline in the Netherlands are tested. In this case, worn railpads are softer and possess a lower damping capacity than new railpads. In addition to performing these measurements, a Prony series material model is proposed to reproduce the dynamic behavior of railpads. The Prony series model is in good agreement with the measurements. Measured railpad dynamic properties and the corresponding Prony series numerical model provide valuable information for track design and modeling.

  10. Database of Mechanical Properties of Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delbrey, Jerry

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the approach followed to develop a database for mechanical properties of textile composites. The data in this database is assembled from NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) programs and from data in the public domain. This database meets the data documentation requirements of MIL-HDBK-17, Section 8.1.2, which describes in detail the type and amount of information needed to completely document composite material properties. The database focuses on mechanical properties of textile composite. Properties are available for a range of parameters such as direction, fiber architecture, materials, environmental condition, and failure mode. The composite materials in the database contain innovative textile architectures such as the braided, woven, and knitted materials evaluated under the NASA ACT programs. In summary, the database contains results for approximately 3500 coupon level tests, for ten different fiber/resin combinations, and seven different textile architectures. It also includes a limited amount of prepreg tape composites data from ACT programs where side-by-side comparisons were made.

  11. Kinetics and mechanisms of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    'Remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals is a major challenge facing the nation. This is especially so at many DOE facilities and other superfund sites. In many cases, speciation of the metals is inaccurate and difficult and the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over long times are poorly understood. Consequently, the long-term fate of metals in soils cannot be precisely predicted and often, the remediation recommendations and techniques that are employed to clean up soils may be ineffective or unnecessary. Accordingly, the authors are proposing work to generate basic knowledge on the kinetics and mechanism(s) of heavy metal retention/release by soil mineral colloids as affected by inorganic anion. The nature of the interaction of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) with pure soil minerals and extracted soil clays will be investigated. The colloids will be characterized in terms of surface area, surface charge and surface site density. They will be used to study the effect(s) of pH, phosphate rate, and temperature on metals retention/release. The experiments will involve using various kinetic and isothermic sorption equations as models to describe the data thus acquired. The spectroscopic methods will involve using extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data generated from the proposed study will assist in designing better remediation strategies to effectively clean up toxic heavy metal contaminated soils at DOE facilities and other superfund sites.'

  12. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1) Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2) developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3) evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N). We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°). All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1) Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2) EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3) and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3) all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold. PMID:26702209

  13. Machining as a mechanical property test revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.

    There is much need for data on mechanical behavior of metals at high strains and strain rates. This need is dictated by modeling of processes like forming and machining, wherein the material in the deformation zone is subjected to severe deformation conditions atypical of conventional material property tests such as tension and torsion. Accurate flow stress data is an essential input for robust prediction of process outputs. Similar requirements arise from applications in high speed ballistic penetration and design of materials for armor. Since the deformation zone in cutting of metals is characterized by unique and extreme combinations of strain, strain rate and temperature, an opportunity exists for using plane-strain cutting as a mechanical property test for measuring flow properties of metals. The feasibility of using plane-strain cutting to measure flow properties of metals is revisited in the light of recent data showing controllability of the deformation conditions in chip formation by systematic variation of process input parameters. A method is outlined as to how the deformation conditions can be varied by changing the process parameters. The method is applied to cutting of commercially pure copper (FCC), iron (BCC) and zinc (HCP). Forces and chip geometries are measured, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry characterization of the deformation using high speed image sequences. The flow stresses are estimated from these measurements. The measured flow stress and its dependence on strain are shown to agree well with prior measurements of these parameters using conventional tests, and flow stress inferred from hardness characterization. The method is also demonstrated to be able to measure properties of metals that recrystallize at room temperature (zinc), wherein quasi-static tests predict much lower strength. Sources of variability and uncertainty in the application of this measurement technique are discussed. Future work in the context of further

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of floc morphology: role of changing hydraulic retention time under flocculation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jun; Yao, Meng; Chen, Ting; Wang, Zhenbei; Li, Qinggui; Zhan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    The formation, breakage, and re-growth of flocs were investigated by using modified flocculation tests and numerical simulation to explore the evolution of floc morphology for different hydraulic retention times. The shorter the aggregation time was, the smaller the flocs produced for the same hydraulic conditions were. Another interesting discovery was that broken flocs that formed in shorter aggregation time had the capacity to completely recover, whereas those formed in a longer amount of time had rather worse reversibility of broken flocs. With the addition of the maximum motion step in the representative two-dimensional diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model, there was a transition for flocs from isotropic to anisotropic as the maximum motion step increased. The strength of flocs was mainly affected by the distribution of particles near the aggregated core rather than distant particles. A simplified breakage model, which found that broken flocs provided more chances for diffused particles to access the inner parts of flocs and to be uniformly packed around the aggregated core, was first proposed. Moreover, an important result showed that the floc fragments formed with a larger value of the maximum motion step had more growing sites than did those with a smaller msa value, which was a benefit of following the re-forming procedure. PMID:26490940

  15. Mechanical properties of stapedial annular ligament.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rong Z; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangming; Nakmali, Don

    2011-04-01

    Stapedial annular ligament (SAL) provides a sealed but mobile boundary between the stapes footplate and oval window bony wall. Mechanical properties of the SAL affect the transmission of ossicular movement into the cochlea in sound conduction. However, the mechanical properties of this tissue have never been investigated due to its complexity. In this paper, we report measurement of the viscoelastic properties of SAL on human cadaver temporal bones using a micro-material testing system with digital image correlation analysis. The measured load-deformation relations of SAL samples were converted into shear stress-shear strain relationship, stress relaxation function, and ultimate shear stress and shear strain of the SAL. The hyperelastic Ogden model was used to describe constitutive behavior of the SAL and a 3D finite element model of the experimental setup with SAL was created for assessing the effects of loading variation and measurement errors on results. The study demonstrates that the human SAL is a typical viscoelastic material with hysteresis, nonlinear stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation function. The shear modulus changes from 3.6 to 220 kPa when the shear stress increases from 2 to 140 kPa. These results provide useful information on quasi-static behavior of the SAL. PMID:21112232

  16. Aggregate of nanoparticles: rheological and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Wei; Zhai, Yuanming; Xie, Banghu; Yang, Mingbo

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of the rheological and mechanical properties of nanoparticle aggregates is important for the application of nanofillers in nanocompoistes. In this work, we report a rheological study on the rheological and mechanical properties of nano-silica agglomerates in the form of gel network mainly constructed by hydrogen bonds. The elastic model for rubber is modified to analyze the elastic behavior of the agglomerates. By this modified elastic model, the size of the network mesh can be estimated by the elastic modulus of the network which can be easily obtained by rheology. The stress to destroy the aggregates, i.e., the yield stress ( σ y ), and the elastic modulus ( G') of the network are found to be depended on the concentration of nano-silica ( ϕ, wt.%) with the power of 4.02 and 3.83, respectively. Via this concentration dependent behavior, we can extrapolate two important mechanical parameters for the agglomerates in a dense packing state ( ϕ = 1): the shear modulus and the yield stress. Under large deformation (continuous shear flow), the network structure of the aggregates will experience destruction and reconstruction, which gives rise to fluctuations in the viscosity and a shear-thinning behavior.

  17. Nonsurgical approach to Class I open-bite malocclusion with extrusion mechanics: a 3-year retention case report.

    PubMed

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Hohlt, William; Evans, Carla A

    2015-04-01

    Anterior open bite is one of the most challenging malocclusions for orthodontic treatment. The high incidence of relapse is a major concern. Therefore, accurate initial examination, diagnosis, treatment plan, and consideration of habitual risk factors are crucial for a successful outcome without unwanted sequelae. Excellent patient compliance for retainer wear is also a critical factor. This case report shows the 3-year stability of a nonsurgical and nonextraction orthodontic treatment of a 5-mm anterior open-bite malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl with extrusion mechanics and habit modification. After 2 years of orthodontic treatment, excellent outcomes were achieved. With an appropriate retention protocol, the long-term stability of the treatment was favorable. PMID:25836010

  18. Verification of redox-processes as switching and retention failure mechanisms in Nb:SrTiO3/metal devices.

    PubMed

    Baeumer, C; Raab, N; Menke, T; Schmitz, C; Rosezin, R; Müller, P; Andrä, M; Feyer, V; Bruchhaus, R; Gunkel, F; Schneider, C M; Waser, R; Dittmann, R

    2016-08-01

    Nanoscale redox reactions in transition metal oxides are believed to be the physical foundation of memristive devices, which present a highly scalable, low-power alternative for future non-volatile memory devices. The interface between noble metal top electrodes and Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals may serve as a prominent but not yet well-understood example of such memristive devices. In this report, we will present experimental evidence that nanoscale redox reactions and the associated valence change mechanism are indeed responsible for the resistance change in noble metal/Nb-doped SrTiO3 junctions with dimensions ranging from the micrometer scale down to the nanometer regime. Direct verification of the valence change mechanism is given by spectromicroscopic characterization of switching filaments. Furthermore, it is found that the resistance change over time is driven by the reoxidation of a previously oxygen-deficient region. The retention times of the low resistance states, accordingly, can be dramatically improved under vacuum conditions as well as through the insertion of a thin Al2O3 layer which prevents this reoxidation. These insights finally confirm the resistive switching mechanism at these interfaces and are therefore of significant importance for the study and application of memristive devices based on Nb-doped SrTiO3 as well as systems with similar switching mechanisms. PMID:27089047

  19. Polymer nanocomposites: permeability, chain dynamics, mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Laxmi

    2005-03-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on dispersion of surfactant treated expandable smectite clays such as montmorillonite layered silicates (MLS) have shown promise as organic-inorganic hybrids with the potential to improve barrier properties. Separately, flexible displays based on plastic substrates have reduced lifetimes tied to the low barrier properties. While there has been a general attribution of improved barrier properties to the tortuous path, this does not consider the influence the introduction of a secondary filler has on the morphology of the host polymer. Here we examine the influence of MLS nanoplatelets on the barrier properties and chain dynamics of polymers. We investigate the potential for host polymer modification by comparing two crystallizable polymers nylon and PET and resulting well dispersed nanocomposites. We study mechanical, cyclic fatigue and permeability of films. Permeability of the biaxially stretched film and when the film undergoes fatigue of 50 and 10000 cycles are also measured. Chain dynamics were modeled based on the Burger model fit to creep-recovery data. A systematic approach to predict the permeability considering amorphous, crystalline and MLS content and comparison with experimental values were done. We also conducted water absorption measurements to highlight the water absorption differences in the two polymers. Dimensional stability of PET was studied by measuring coefficient of thermal expansion of thin film on Si substrate by ellipsometry method.

  20. PICA Variants with Improved Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Jeremy; Ghandehari, Ehson M.; Fan, Wenhong; Stackpoole, Margaret; Chavez-Garcia, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) is a member of the family of Lightweight Ceramic Ablators (LCAs) and was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a thermal protection system (TPS) material for the Stardust mission probe that entered the Earth s atmosphere faster than any other probe or vehicle to date. PICA, carbon fiberform base and phenolic polymer, shows excellent thermal insulative properties at heating rates from about 250 W/sq cm to 1000 W/sq cm. The density of standard PICA - 0.26 g/cu cm to 0.28 g/cu cm - can be changed by changing the concentration of the phenolic resin. By adding polymers to the phenolic resin before curing it is possible to significantly improve the mechanical properties of PICA without significantly increasing the density.

  1. Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenzhong

    Graphene is an exciting new atomically-thin two-dimensional (2D) system of carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal lattice structure. This "wonder material" has been extensively studied in the last few years since it's first isolation in 2004. Its rapid rise to popularity in scientific and technological communities can be attributed to a number of its exceptional properties. In this thesis I will present several topics including fabrication of graphene devices, electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. I will start with a brief introduction of electronic transport in nanosclae system including quantum Hall effect, followed by a discussion of fundamental electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. Next I will describe how graphene devices are produced: from the famous "mechnical exfoliation" to our innovative "scratching exfoliation" method, together with the traditional lithography fabrication for graphene devices. We also developed a lithography-free technique for making electrical contacts to suspended graphene devices. Most of the suspended devices presented in this thesis are fabricated by this technique. Graphene has remarkable electrical properties thanks to its crystal and band structures. In Chapter 3, I will first focus on proximity-induced superconductivity in graphene Josephson transistors. In this section we investigate electronic transport in single layer graphene coupled to superconducting electrodes. We observe significant suppression in the critical current I c and large variation in the product IcR n in comparison to theoretic prediction; both phenomena can be satisfactorily accounted for by premature switching in underdamped Josephson junctions. Another focus of our studies is quantum Hall effect and many body physics in graphene in suspended bilayer and trilayer graphene. We demonstrate that symmetry breaking of the first 3 Landau levels and fractional quantum Hall states are observed in both bilayer and trilayer suspended graphene

  2. Helium irradiation effects on tritium retention and long-term tritium release properties in polycrystalline tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuta, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Matsuyama, M.; Abe, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hino, T.

    2015-08-01

    DT+ ion irradiation with energy of 0.5 and 1.0 keV was performed on helium pre-irradiated tungsten and the amount of retained tritium and the long-term release of retained tritium in vacuum was investigated using an IP technique and BIXS. Tritium retention and long-term tritium release were significantly influenced by helium pre-irradiation. The amount of retained tritium increased until it reached 1 × 1017 He/cm2, and at 1 × 1018 He/cm2 it became smaller compared to 1 × 1017 He/cm2. The amount of retained tritium in tungsten without helium pre-irradiation largely decreased after several weeks preservation in vacuum, and the long-term release rate during vacuum preservation was retarded by helium pre-irradiation. The results indicate that the long-term tritium release and the helium irradiation effect on it should be taken into account for more precise estimation of tritium retention in the long-term use of tungsten in fusion devices.

  3. Mechanical Properties from PBX 9501 Pressing Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff Thompson, Darla; Wright, Walter J.

    2004-07-01

    A PBX 9501 pressing study was conducted by researchers in ESA-WMM, LANL, to identify the hydrostatic pressing parameters most important in fabricating high-density parts with uniform density. In this study, 31 charges were pressed using a full permutation of six pressing parameters. Five charges from the set of 31 were selected for an evaluation of their mechanical properties, specifically uniaxial compression and tension. Charges were selected to 1) span the density range of the study, and 2) allow two direct comparisons of pressing parameters independent of bulk density (density has a well-established affect on some material properties). Three PBX 9501 charges pressed isostatically at Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX were also included in the study. The tensile properties of the 8 charges varied significantly. Careful evaluation of the results suggests that an increase in pressing temperature may correlate with an increase in tensile stress (strength) and a decrease in strain (ductility). Trends in compression exist but are less pronounced. In an effort to explore the relationship between pressing temperature and tensile strength, four sheets of Estane polymer (a component of the PBX 9501 binder) were compression molded at 70, 90, 110 and 130°C. The tensile strength of Estane was observed to increase by a factor of nearly 20 when the molding temperature was increased from 70 to 90°C (strength increase was negligible beyond 90°C). We present an outline of ongoing work that will irrefutably quantify the mechanical property affects of both pressing temperature and dwell time on PBX 9501.(LA-UR 03-4842).

  4. Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Feng; Chen, Xi

    2015-12-21

    Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides are investigated by using density functional theory. It is found that the ideal strength of nanoribbon decreases in comparison with that of 2D phosphorene. The Young's modulus of armchair nanoribbon has a remarkable size effect because of the edge relaxations. The analysis of the stress-strain relation indicates that, owing to chemisorbed oxygen atoms, the ideal strength and Young's modulus of 2D phosphorene oxide are greatly reduced along the zigzag direction, especially upon high oxidation ratios. In addition, strain and oxidation have significant impacts on phonon dispersion.

  5. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Deepika

    Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear

  6. Linking properties to microstructure through multiresolution mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVeigh, Cahal James

    The macroscale mechanical and physical properties of materials are inherently linked to the underlying microstructure. Traditional continuum mechanics theories have focused on approximating the heterogeneous microstructure as a continuum, which is conducive to a partial differential equation mathematical description. Although this makes large scale simulation of material much more efficient than modeling the detailed microstructure, the relationship between microstructure and macroscale properties becomes unclear. In order to perform computational materials design, material models must clearly relate the key underlying microstructural parameters (cause) to macroscale properties (effect). In this thesis, microstructure evolution and instability events are related to macroscale mechanical properties through a new multiresolution continuum analysis approach. The multiresolution nature of this theory allows prediction of the evolving magnitude and scale of deformation as a direct function of the changing microstructure. This is achieved via a two-pronged approach: (a) Constitutive models which track evolving microstructure are developed and calibrated to direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the microstructure. (b) The conventional homogenized continuum equations of motion are extended via a virtual power approach to include extra coupled microscale stresses and stress couples which are active at each characteristic length scale within the microstructure. The multiresolution approach is applied to model the fracture toughness of a cemented carbide, failure of a steel alloy under quasi-static loading conditions and the initiation and velocity of adiabatic shear bands under high speed dynamic loading. In each case the multiresolution analysis predicts the important scale effects which control the macroscale material response. The strain fields predicted in the multiresolution continuum analyses compare well to those observed in direct numerical simulations of the

  7. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  8. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  9. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  10. A bioactive dental luting cement--its retentive properties and 3-year clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Steven R; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Appleby, David C; Boston, Daniel; Lööf, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    A clinical validation study was conducted to determine the performance of a new bioactive dental cement (Ceramir C&B, Doxa Dental AB) for permanent cementation. The cement is a new formulation class, which is a hybrid material comprised of calcium aluminate and glass-ionomer components. A total of 38 crowns and bridges were cemented in 17 patients; 31 of the abutment teeth were vital and seven were non-vital. Six restorations were bridges with a total of 14 abutment teeth (12 vital/ two non-vital). One fixed splint comprising two abutment teeth was also included. Preparation parameters were recorded, as well as cement characteristics such as working time, setting time, seating characteristics, and ease of cement removal. Baseline data were recorded for the handling of the cement, gingival inflammation, and pre-cementation sensitivity. Post-cementation parameters included post-cementation sensitivity, gingival tissue reaction, marginal integrity, and discoloration. All patients were seen for recall examinations at 30 days and 6 months. Fifteen of 17 subjects and 13 of 17 patients were also available for subsequent comprehensive 1- and 2-year recall examination, and 13 patients were available for a 3-year recall examination. Restorations available for the 3-year recall examination included 14 single-unit full-coverage crown restorations, four three-unit bridges comprising eight abutments, and one two-unit splint. Three-year recall data yielded no loss of retention, no secondary caries, no marginal discolorations, and no subjective sensitivity. All restorations rated excellent for marginal integrity. Average visual analogue scale (VAS) score for tooth sensitivity decreased from 7.63 mm at baseline to 0.44 mm at 6-month recall, 0.20 mm at 1-year recall, and 0.00 mm at 2- and 3-year recall. Average gingival index (GI) score for gingival inflammation decreased from 0.56 at baseline to 0.11 at 6-month recall, 0.16 at 1-year recall, 0.21 at 2-year recall, and 0.07 at 3

  11. Planar defects as Ar traps in trioctahedral micas: A mechanism for increased Ar retentivity in phlogopite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, A.; Lee, J. K. W.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.; Zhao, J.; Abdu, Y. A.; Jenkins, D. M.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Kyser, T. K.; Creaser, R. A.; Armstrong, R.; Heaman, L. W.

    2012-08-01

    propose that these defect structures, which are enclosed entirely within the mineral grain may serve as Ar traps and effectively increase the Ar retentivity of the mineral. As this phenomenon has not been previously documented in micas, this may have significant implications for the interpretation of 40Ar/39Ar ages of minerals which have similar defect structures.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Nanoceramic Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, Ipidapo; Abunaemeh, Malek; Smith, Cydale; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2009-03-01

    Generation IV nuclear reactors will use the TRISO fuels, a type of micro fuel particle. It consists of a fuel kernel coated with four layers of isotropic material. One of the materials considered for these layers is silicon carbide ceramic. This lightweight material can maintain chemical and dimensional stability in adverse environments at very high temperatures up to 3000 C, and it is chemically inert. It is widely used as a semiconductor material in electronics because of its high thermo conductivity, high electric field break down strength, and high maximum current density, which makes it more desirable than silicon. Silicon carbide has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and has no phase transition that would discontinue its thermal expansion. At the Center for Irradiation of Materials (C.I.M.) we are developing a new fabrication process for nanopowdered silicon carbide for TRISO fuel coating purposes. We also study the mechanical properties of the material produced. Among the different test being performed are particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) an Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The mechanical properties of interest are hardness (measured by Vickers Hardness machine), toughness (measured by the Anstis equation, KIC= 1.6 x 10-2(E/H)^1/2(P/C0^3/2, where P=load, C0=crack length, E=Young's modulus and H=Vickers Hardness), tensile strength and flexural strength (measured by a three point bend test). Results will be presented during the meeting.

  13. Mechanical properties of 3D ceramic nanolattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Lucas

    Developments in advanced nanoscale fabrication techniques have allowed for the creation of 3-dimensional hierarchical structural meta-materials that can be designed with arbitrary geometry. These structures can be made on length scales spanning multiple orders of magnitude, from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. The smallest features are controllable on length scales where materials have been shown to exhibit size effects in their mechanical properties. Combining novel nanoscale mechanical properties with a 3-dimensional architecture enables the creation of new classes of materials with tunable and unprecedented mechanical properties. We present the fabrication and mechanical deformation of hollow tube alumina nanolattices that were fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing (DLW), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and oxygen plasma etching. Nanolattices were designed in a number of different geometries including octet-truss, octahedron, and 3D Kagome. Additionally, a number of structural parameters were varied including tube wall thickness (t) , tube major axis (a) , and unit cell size (L) . The resulting nanolattices had a range of densities from ρ = 4 to 250 mg/cm3. Uniaxial compression and cyclic loading tests were performed on the nanolattices to obtain the yield strength and modulus. In these tests, a marked change in the deformation response was observed when the wall thickness was reduced below 20nm; thick-walled nanolattices (t>20nm) underwent catastrophic, brittle failure, which transitioned to a gradual, ductile-like deformation as wall thickness was reduced. Thick-walled nanolattices also exhibited no recovery after compression, while thin-walled structures demonstrated notable recovery, with some recovering by 98% after compression to 50% strain and by 80% when compressed to 90% strain. Across all geometries, unit cell sizes, and wall thicknesses, we found a consistent power law relation between strength and modulus with

  14. A quantitative structure- property relationship of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric retention data of 85 volatile organic compounds as air pollutant materials by multivariate methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study is suggested for the prediction of retention times of volatile organic compounds. Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structure of compounds. Modeling of retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). The stepwise regression was used for the selection of the variables which gives the best-fitted models. After variable selection ANN, MLR methods were used with leave-one-out cross validation for building the regression models. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental values. MLR as the linear regression method shows good ability in the prediction of the retention times of the prediction set. This provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatography retention index for the volatile organic compounds. PMID:22594439

  15. Quantitative structure-property relationship analysis for the retention index of fragrance-like compounds on a polar stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Cristian; Duchowicz, Pablo R; Tripaldi, Piercosimo; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2015-11-27

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was developed for modeling the retention index of 1184 flavor and fragrance compounds measured using a Carbowax 20M glass capillary gas chromatography column. The 4885 molecular descriptors were calculated using Dragon software, and then were simultaneously analyzed through multivariable linear regression analysis using the replacement method (RM) variable subset selection technique. We proceeded in three steps, the first one by considering all descriptor blocks, the second one by excluding conformational descriptor blocks, and the last one by analyzing only 3D-descriptor families. The models were validated through an external test set of compounds. Cross-validation methods such as leave-one-out and leave-many-out were applied, together with Y-randomization and applicability domain analysis. The developed model was used to estimate the I of a set of 22 molecules. The results clearly suggest that 3D-descriptors do not offer relevant information for modeling the retention index, while a topological index such as the Randić-like index from reciprocal squared distance matrix has a high relevance for this purpose. PMID:26521096

  16. Investigation into the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of basic analytes in chaotropic chromatography: Joint effects of the most relevant chromatographic factors and analytes' molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Čolović, Jelena; Kalinić, Marko; Vemić, Ana; Erić, Slavica; Malenović, Anđelija

    2015-12-18

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of structurally diverse basic drugs in ion-interaction chromatographic systems with chaotropic additives. To this end, the influence of three factors was studied: pH value of the aqueous phase, concentration of sodium hexafluorophosphate, and content of acetonitrile in the mobile phase. Mobile phase pH was found to affect the thermodynamic equilibria in the studied system beyond its effects on the analytes' ionization state. Specifically, increasing pH from 2 to 4 led to longer retention times, even with analytes which remain completely protonated. An explanation for this phenomenon was sought by studying the adsorption behavior of acetonitrile and chaotropic additive onto stationary phase. It was shown that the magnitude of the developed surface potential, which significantly affects retention - increases with pH, and that this can be attributed to the larger surface excess of acetonitrile. To study how analytes' structural properties influence their retention, quantitative structure-retention modeling was performed next. A support vector machine regression model was developed, relating mobile phase constituents and structural descriptors with retention data. While the ETA_EtaP_B_RC and XlogP can be considered as molecular descriptors which describe factors affecting retention in any RP-HPLC system, TDB9p and RDF45p are molecular descriptors which account for spatial arrangement of polarizable atoms and they can clearly relate to analytes' behavior on the stationary phase surface, where the electrostatic potential develops. Complementarity of analytes' structure with that of the electric double layer can be seen as a key factor influencing their retention behavior. Structural diversity of analytes and good predictive capabilities over a range of experimental conditions make the established model a useful tool in predicting retention behavior in the studied

  17. KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF METAL RETENTION/RELEASE IN GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals is a major challenge facing our nation. This is especially so at many DOE facilities and other superfund sites. In many cases, speciation of the metals is inaccurate and difficult and the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/...

  18. Mechanical properties of monolayer graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ji Won; Piner, Richard D; An, Jinho; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2010-11-23

    Mechanical properties of ultrathin membranes consisting of one layer, two overlapped layers, and three overlapped layers of graphene oxide platelets were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in contact mode. In order to evaluate both the elastic modulus and prestress of thin membranes, the AFM measurement was combined with the finite element method (FEM) in a new approach for evaluating the mechanics of ultrathin membranes. Monolayer graphene oxide was found to have a lower effective Young's modulus (207.6 ± 23.4 GPa when a thickness of 0.7 nm is used) as compared to the value reported for "pristine" graphene. The prestress (39.7-76.8 MPa) of the graphene oxide membranes obtained by solution-based deposition was found to be 1 order of magnitude lower than that obtained by others for mechanically cleaved graphene. The novel AFM imaging and FEM-based mapping methods presented here are of general utility for obtaining the elastic modulus and prestress of thin membranes. PMID:20942443

  19. A Physiochemical Analysis of the Mechanisms for Transport and Retention of Technetium (Tc-99) in Hanford Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansik, D. P.; Wellman, D. M.; Istok, J. D.; Cordova, E.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of technetium (Tc-99), like many other radionuclides, is of interest due to the potential for human exposure and impact on ecosystems. Technetium has been released to the environment through nuclear power production and nuclear fuel processing; as a result, further spreading of Tc-99 is a concern at DOE sites across the US. Specifically, technetium is a contaminant of concern at Hanford and Savannah River. The current body of work conducted on Tc-99 has provided a wealth of information regarding the redox relationships, sorption, solubility, and stability of the mineral phases (Artinger et al., 2003; Beals and Hayes, 1995; Cui and Eriksen, 1996b; Gu and Schulz, 1991; Jaisi et al., 2009; Keith-Roach et al., 2003; Kumar et al., 2007), however little work has been conducted on the physical transport of the highly soluble pertechnetate oxyanion (TcO4-), in the subsurface. Current conceptual models do not explain the persistence and presence of technetium in deep vadose zone environments such as the Hanford site. In an oxic reducing environment with low organic content the residence time of technetium is the soil would be expected to be low, due to its low sorption and high solubility. Surprisingly, nearly 50 years following the release of contamination into the site, much of the element has persisted in the subsurface in the 200 Area. In these experiments we combined a variety of techniques to examine the mechanisms for physical and chemical retention and transport of technetium in Hanford sediments. We first determined the aqueous leachability with regard to sediment pore size in sediments containing technetium contamination from the 200 area of the Hanford Site. Using a series of sequential extractions, we then evaluated the mineral association of technetium. In a second series of tests we then used an Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) to evaluate breakthrough curve behavior and the impact of immobile domains on the transport and retention of technetium

  20. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography in analysis of granisetron HCl and its related substances. Retention mechanisms and method development.

    PubMed

    Maksić, Jelena; Tumpa, Anja; Stajić, Ana; Jovanović, Marko; Rakić, Tijana; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana

    2016-05-10

    In this paper separation of granisetron and its two related substances in HILIC mode is presented. Separation was done on silica column derivatized with sulfoalkylbetaine groups (ZIC-HILIC). Firstly, retention mechanisms were assessed whereby retention factors of substances were followed in wide range of acetonitrile content (80-97%), at constant concentration of aqueous buffer (10mM) as well as at constant pH value of 3.0. Further, in order to developed optimal HILIC method, Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology was applied. For optimization full factorial design 3(2) was employed. Influence of acetonitrile content and ammonium acetate concentration were investigated while pH of the water phase was kept at 3.3. Adequacy of obtained mathematical models was confirmed by ANOVA. Optimization goals (α>1.15 and minimal run time) were accomplished with 94.7% of acetonitrile in mobile phase and 70mM of ammonium acetate in water phase. Optimal point was in the middle of defined Design Space. In the next phase, robustness was experimetally tested by Rechtschaffen design. The investigated factors and their levels were: acetonitrile content (±1%), ammonium acetate molarity in water phase (±2mM), pH value of water phase (±0.2) and column temperature (±4°C). The validation scope included selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision as well as determination of limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the related substances. Additionally, the validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Finally, the proposed method could be successfully utilized for estimation of granisetron HCl and its related substances in tablets and parenteral dosage forms, as well as for monitoring degradation under various stress conditions. PMID:26895494

  1. Environmental properties set cell mechanics and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many cell types are sensitive to mechanical signals that are produced either by application of exogenous force to their surfaces, or by the resistance that their surroundings place on forces generated by the cells themselves. Cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and protein expression all change in response to substrate stiffness. Changing the elastic moduli of substrates alters the formation of focal adhesions, the assembly of actin filaments into bundles, and the stability of intermediate filaments. The range of stiffness over which different primary cell types respond can vary over a wide range and generally reflects the elastic modulus of the tissue from which these cells were isolated. Mechanosensing depends on the type of adhesion receptor by which the cell binds, and therefore on both the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix and the nature of its link to the cytoskeleton. Many cell types can alter their own stiffness to match that of the substrate to which they adhere. The maximal elastic modulus that cells such as fibroblasts can attain is similar to that of crosslinked actin networks at the concentrations in the cell cortex. The precise mechanisms of mechanosensing are not well defined, but they presumably require an elastic connection between cell and substrate, mediated by transmembrane proteins. The viscoelastic properties of different extracellular matrices and cytoskeletal elements strongly influence the response of cells to mechanical signals, and the unusual non-linear elasticity of many biopolymer gels, characterized by strain-stiffening, leads to novel mechanisms by which cells alter their stiffness by engagement of molecular motors that produce internal stresses. Cell cortical elasticity is dominated by cytoskeletal polymer networks and can be modulated by internal tension. Simultaneous control of substrate stiffness and adhesive patterns suggests that stiffness sensing occurs on a length scale much larger than single molecular

  2. Mechanical properties of low-nickel stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Demand for improved corrosion-resistant steels, coupled with increased emphasis on conserving strategic metals, has led to development of family of stainless steels in which manganese and nitrogen are substituted for portion of usual nickel content. Advantages are approximately-doubled yield strength in annealed condition, better resistance to stress-corrosion cracking, retention of low magnetic permeability even after severe cold working, excellent strength and ductility at cryogenic temperatures, superior resistance to wear and galling, and excellent high-temperature properties.

  3. Verification of redox-processes as switching and retention failure mechanisms in Nb:SrTiO3/metal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeumer, C.; Raab, N.; Menke, T.; Schmitz, C.; Rosezin, R.; Müller, P.; Andrä, M.; Feyer, V.; Bruchhaus, R.; Gunkel, F.; Schneider, C. M.; Waser, R.; Dittmann, R.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoscale redox reactions in transition metal oxides are believed to be the physical foundation of memristive devices, which present a highly scalable, low-power alternative for future non-volatile memory devices. The interface between noble metal top electrodes and Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals may serve as a prominent but not yet well-understood example of such memristive devices. In this report, we will present experimental evidence that nanoscale redox reactions and the associated valence change mechanism are indeed responsible for the resistance change in noble metal/Nb-doped SrTiO3 junctions with dimensions ranging from the micrometer scale down to the nanometer regime. Direct verification of the valence change mechanism is given by spectromicroscopic characterization of switching filaments. Furthermore, it is found that the resistance change over time is driven by the reoxidation of a previously oxygen-deficient region. The retention times of the low resistance states, accordingly, can be dramatically improved under vacuum conditions as well as through the insertion of a thin Al2O3 layer which prevents this reoxidation. These insights finally confirm the resistive switching mechanism at these interfaces and are therefore of significant importance for the study and application of memristive devices based on Nb-doped SrTiO3 as well as systems with similar switching mechanisms.Nanoscale redox reactions in transition metal oxides are believed to be the physical foundation of memristive devices, which present a highly scalable, low-power alternative for future non-volatile memory devices. The interface between noble metal top electrodes and Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystals may serve as a prominent but not yet well-understood example of such memristive devices. In this report, we will present experimental evidence that nanoscale redox reactions and the associated valence change mechanism are indeed responsible for the resistance change in noble metal/Nb-doped Sr

  4. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is negligible, (2) polycarbonate brackets having a stainless steel slot show significantly smaller displacement than other plastic brackets, and (3) there is a significant difference between plastic brackets and ceramic and stainless steel brackets in terms of the displacement of the bracket wing. PMID:25755677

  5. Mechanical properties of icosahedral virus capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegenthart, G. A.; Gompper, G.

    2007-12-01

    Virus capsids are self-assembled protein shells in the size range of 10 to 100 nanometers. The shells of DNA-viruses have to sustain large internal pressures while encapsulating and protecting the viral DNA. We employ computer simulations to study the mechanical properties of crystalline shells with icosahedral symmetry that serve as a model for virus capsids. The shells are positioned on a substrate and deformed by a uni-axial force excerted by a small bead. We predict the elastic response for small deformations, and the buckling transitions at large deformations. Both are found to depend strongly on the number N of elementary building blocks (capsomers), and the Föppl-von Kármán number γ which characterizes the relative importance of shear and bending elasticity.

  6. Tension-induced mechanical properties of stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lele; Yang, Chuanghua; Wu, Liyuan; Han, Lihong; Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Lu, Pengfei

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, elastic properties of stanene under equiaxial or uniaxial tensions along armchair and zigzag directions are investigated by first-principles calculations. The stress-strain relation is calculated and the relaxation of the internal atom positions is analyzed. The high-order elastic constants are calculated by fitting the polynomial expressions. The Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio of the stanene is calculated to be 24.14 N/m and 0.39 N/m, respectively. The stanene exhibits lower Young’s modulus than those of the proceeding group IV elements, which is attributed to the smaller sp2-sp3 bond energy in stanene than those of silicene and germanene. Calculated values of ultimate stresses and strains, second-order elastic constants (SOCEs) and the in-plane Young’s modulus are all positive. It proves that stanene is mechanically stable.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin

    2003-02-01

    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  8. Signaling Mechanisms that Link Salt Retention to Hypertension: Endogenous Ouabain, the Na+ Pump, the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and TRPC Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Blaustein, Mordecai P.; Hamlyn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Salt retention as a result of chronic, excessive dietary salt intake, is widely accepted as one of the most common causes of hypertension. In a small minority of cases, enhanced Na+ reabsorption by the kidney can be traced to specific genetic defects of salt transport, or pathological conditions of the kidney, adrenal cortex, or pituitary. Far more frequently, however, the salt retention may be the result of minor renal injury or small genetic variation in renal salt transport mechanisms. How the salt retention actually leads to the increase in peripheral vascular resistance (the hallmark of hypertension) and the elevation of blood pressure remain an enigma. Here we review the evidence that endogenous ouabain (an adrenocortical hormone), arterial smooth muscle α2 Na+ pumps, type-1 Na/Ca exchangers, and receptor- and store-operated Ca2+ channels play key roles in the pathway that links salt to hypertension. We discuss cardenolide structure-function relationships in an effort to understand why prolonged administration of ouabain, but not digoxin, induces hypertension, and why digoxin is actually anti-hypertensive. Finally, we summarize recent observations which indicate that ouabain upregulates arterial myocyte Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction, while simultaneously downregulating endothelial vasodilator mechanisms. In sum, the reports reviewed here provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms by which salt retention leads to hypertension. PMID:20211726

  9. Transport and Retention of TiO2 Rutile Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media at Low-Ionic-Strength Conditions: Measurements and Mechanisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms governing the transport and retention kinetics of titanium dioxide (TiO2, rutile) nanoparticle (NP) aggregates were investigated in saturated porous media. Experiments were carried out under a range of well-controlled ionic strength (from DI water up to 1 mM) and...

  10. Rationally designing the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi

    Naturally occurring biomaterials possess diverse mechanical properties, which are critical to their unique biological functions. However, it remains challenging to rationally control the mechanical properties of synthetic biomaterials. Here we provide a bottom-up approach to rationally design the mechanical properties of protein-based hydrogels. We first use atomic fore microscope (AFM) based single-molecule force spectroscopy to characterize the mechanical stability of individual protein building blocks. We then rationally design the mechanical properties of hydrogels by selecting different combination of protein building blocks of known mechanical properties. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate the engineering of hydrogels of distinct extensibility and toughness. This simple combinatorial approach allows direct translation of the mechanical properties of proteins from the single molecule level to the macroscopic level and represents an important step towards rationally designing the mechanical properties of biomaterials.

  11. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  12. Photopatterning the mechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, D. P. J.; Popel, A.; Graz, I. M.; Lacour, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Silicone rubber films with graded and localized mechanical properties are prepared using two-part polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer, photoinhibitor compounds and conventional photolithography. First the un-cross-linked PDMS is mixed with benzophenone. The resulting positive photosensitive material is then exposed through a mask to UV light from a conventional mask aligner. Cross-linking of the UV exposed elastomer is inhibited, leading to softer regions than the surrounding unexposed matrix. By empirically fitting the nonlinear, hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model to experimentally measured stress-strain curves we determine the equivalent tensile modulus (E) of the rubber film. We show the PDMS tensile modulus can then be adjusted in the 0.65-2.9 MPa range by decreasing the UV exposure dose (from 24 000 to 0 mJ cm-2). Further, using a patterned UV mask, we can locally define differential regions of tensile modulus within a single PDMS rubber film. We demonstrate that "hard islands" (E ≈ 2.9 MPa) of 100 μm minimum diameter can be patterned within a 100-μm-thick, single "soft" PDMS rubber membrane (E ≈ 0.65 MPa) cured at 150 °C for 24 h. Thin gold film conductors patterned directly onto the photopatterned PDMS are stretchable and withstand uniaxial cycling to tens of percent strain. The mechanically "pixellated" PDMS rubber film provides an improved substrate with built-in strain relief for stretchable electronics.

  13. Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Countermeasures for reducing bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to the microgravity environment of space are continuing to be developed and improved. An important component of this effort is finite element modeling of the lower extremity and spinal column. These models will permit analysis and evaluation specific to each individual and thereby provide more efficient and effective exercise protocols. Inflight countermeasures and post-flight rehabilitation can then be customized and targeted on a case-by-case basis. Recent Summer Faculty Fellowship participants have focused upon finite element mesh generation, muscle force estimation, and fractal calculations of trabecular bone microstructure. Methods have been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of the femur from serial section magnetic resonance images (MRI). The use of MRI as an imaging modality avoids excessive exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based methods. These images can also detect trabecular bone microstructure and architecture. The goal of the current research is to determine the degree to which the fractal dimension of trabecular architecture can be used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. The elastic modulus and the ultimate strength (or strain) can then be estimated from non-invasive, non-radiating imaging and incorporated into the finite element models to more accurately represent the bone tissue of each individual of interest. Trabecular bone specimens from the proximal tibia are being studied in this first phase of the work. Detailed protocols and procedures have been developed for carrying test specimens through all of the steps of a multi-faceted test program. The test program begins with MRI and X-ray imaging of the whole bones before excising a smaller workpiece from the proximal tibia region. High resolution MRI scans are then made and the piece further cut into slabs (roughly 1 cm thick). The slabs are X-rayed again

  14. The mechanical properties of polyimide films after exposure to high pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croall, Catharine I.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Wiring failures linked to insulation damage have drawn much attention in the aerospace industry and concerns have developed regarding the stability and safety of polyimide insulated electrical wire. Several polyimides were selected for evaluation for resistance to degradation by various aqueous alkaline solutions. The polyimides under evaluation include commercially available films such as Kapton (tk), Apical (tk), LaRC(tk)-TPI, and Upilex(tk)R and S, as well as a number of experimental films prepared by NASA Langley. Thermally imidized films were studied for their retention of mechanical properties after exposure to high pH solutions under stressed conditions.

  15. Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Retention/Release in Geochemical Processes in Soil - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Robert W.

    2000-12-29

    Effective, remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over a long period of time. Studies on reaction of Cr(VI) with iron-rich clays indicated that structural iron (II) in these surfaces is capable of reducing chromate to chromium (III). We found that iron (II) either found naturally or produced by treatment of clay with sodium dithionite, effectively reduced Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Thus, in situ remediation of chromium combines reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) and immobilization of chromium on mineral surfaces. During this study, lead sorption on a kaolin surface was found to be a rapid and a pH dependant process in which lead sorption significantly increased with the amount of phosphate on the clay surface. This study verifies that methylmercury cation remains intact when it binds to humic acids, forming a monodentate complex with some sub-population of humic thiol ligands .

  16. Mechanism of altruism approach to blood donor recruitment and retention: a review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E

    2015-08-01

    Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society. A MOA approach so far shows that blood donors are a mixture of (i) warm-glow givers (donation is emotionally rewarding) and (ii) reluctant altruists (cooperate rather than defect when free-riding is high). Donors also show 'saintly sinning' with the extra 'moral currency' form blood donation allowing them to be less generous in other contexts. The MOA approach suggests why financial incentives, in terms of gifts/lottery tickets, are effective and suggests a number of novel interventions for donor recruitment: 'voluntary reciprocal altruism' and 'charitable incentivisation'. The MOA approach also highlights the need for an intervention developed specifically for recipients to allow them to show their gratitude to donors and for society to celebrate blood donation. It is suggests a 'Monument to Blood Donors' will achieve this. The approach suggests a number of novel research questions into (i) donor self-selection effects, (ii) conditional cooperation and (iii) construct overlap with Theory of Planned Behaviour (e.g. affective attitudes and warm-glow). The MOA offers a powerful way to understand blood donor motivations around altruism and develop theoretically driven interventions. PMID:26311129

  17. Retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione

    SciTech Connect

    Neirinckx, R.D.; Burke, J.F.; Harrison, R.C.; Forster, A.M.; Andersen, A.R.; Lassen, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs.

  18. Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells. NIST support under grant MML12-1053-N00

  19. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Nb-1Zr Weldments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, Michael; McNabb, Jeffery; Frederick, Alan

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this work was to measure the mechanical properties of Nb-1Zr weldments, and, more specifically, to evaluate whether Charpy V-notch impact testing may be a more meaningful indication of weld deposit ductility than the slow bend testing. Manual gas-tungsten-arc welds were made in Mb-1Zr plates using 4 beads of filler wire from the same heat. The cold-rolled plates were recrystallized by heat treatment at 1773 K for 1 hour prior to welding. Welded plates were made in a stainless steel welding glove box backfilled with either argon or helium. Two plates were made with each gas, with one plate post-weld heat treated at 1373 K. Weld metal from each of the four welded plates was subjected to chemical analysis, tensile testing at room temperature, and Charpy V-notch testing at 93-473 K. Also, microhardness testing was used to evaluate property gradients in the weldments. Impurity concentrations in the weld deposits compared well with the base metal concentrations and were within the limits of the relevant ASTM specification, B393 Type 3. All specimens with one minor exception had yield strengths, tensile strengths, and ductilities that exceeded the ASTM specified minimums. The Charpy V-notch specimens from the as-welded He weld deposit, and from both post-weld-heat-treated weld deposits showed similar behavior with upper shelf energies of 9.7-10 J and ductile-brittle transition temperatures of 85-100 K. These Charpy V-notch properties were comparable to those of the unwelded plate. The as-welded Ar weld deposit had a slightly higher ductile-brittle transition temperature near 150 K. Microhardness testing indicated that in the as-welded conditions the average hardness of the weld deposit made in Ar was higher than that made in He. Post-weld heat treatment reduced the average hardnesses of base metal and weld metal. The range of hardnesses in the weld deposits was increased by the post weld heat treatment.

  1. Mechanical properties of a filament-wound aramid fiber/epoxy composite for flywheel application

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.T.; Chin, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this program was to determine the mechanical properties of a filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy composite in a simulated flywheel service environment. The temperature and vacuum chosen were 75/sup 0/C and 1 Pa, respectively. Specimens were preconditioned in the test environment for periods of 1 to 5 months before mechanical tests. The simulated service environment of 75/sup 0/C in vacuum has been found to have little effect on static and fatigue properties of the composite. The excellent retention of strength by individual fibers in the same environment provides added confidence. The composite is stable for a period of two years studied so far in the 75/sup 0/C/vacuum environment. However, the moisture desorption increases residual sresses and causes ply cracking in laminates. The composite is less sensitive to the environment than the fibers and the matrix by themselves. 53 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates using Picosecond Laser Ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    David Hurley; Marat Khafizov; Farhad Farzbod; Eric Burgett

    2013-05-01

    Detailed understanding between microstructure evolution and mechanical properties is important for designing new high burnup nuclear fuels. In this presentation we discuss the use of picosecond ultrasonics to measure localize changes in mechanical properties of fuel surrogates. We develop measurement techniques that can be applied to investigate heterogeneous elastic properties caused by localize changes in chemistry, grain microstructure caused by recrystallization, and mechanical properties of small samples prepared using focused ion beam sample preparation. Emphasis is placed on understanding the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties

  3. Mechanical properties of hybrid polymer nanotube systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan N.; Cadek, Martin; Dalton, Alan B.; Munoz, Edgar; Razal, Joselito; Baughman, Ray H.; Blau, Werner J.

    2003-04-01

    In this work, mechanical properties of hybrid materials fabricated from nanotubes and commercially available polymers were investigated. It was found that, by adding various concentrations of arc discharge multiwall nanotubes, both Young"s modulus and hardness increased by factors of 1.8 and 1.6 at 1wt% in PVA and 2.8 and 2.0 at 8wt% in PVK, in reasonable agreement with the Halpin-Tsai theory. Furthermore, the presence of the nanotubes was found to nucleate crystallization of the PVA. This crystal growth is thought to enhance matrix-nanotube stress transfer. In addition, microscopy studies suggest extremely strong interfacial bonding in the PVA-based composite. This is manifested by the fracture of the polymer rather that the polymer-nanotube interface. The dependence of the polymer nanotube interfacial interaction on host polymer was studied by intercalating various polymers (PVA, PVP and PS) into single wall nanotube buckypaper. Even for short soak times, significant polymer intercalation into existing free volume was observed. Depending on the polymer and the level of intercalation tensile tests on intercalated sheets showed that the Young"s modulus, strength and toughness increased by factors of 3, 9 and 28, respectively. This indicates that the intercalated polymer enhances load transmission between nanotubes due the significant stress transfer. The level of stress transfer was observed to scale with polymer hydrophobicity as expected.

  4. Nonlinear NDE of Concrete Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Iosif E.

    2006-05-01

    Obtained theoretical relationship shows that the strength of concrete increases if the nonlinear parameter decreases. Experimental data proved that modulus of elasticity, ultrasound pulse velocity and nonlinear parameter are independent characteristics of concrete. Two nondestructive patent methods based on the measurement of resonant frequency shift and phase shift are described. These nonlinear nondestructive methods can be used when conventional acoustic methods are not applicable for evaluating strength of concrete. The relationship between static and dynamic modulus is obtained from the thermofluctuation theory and nonlinear equation of state of concrete. Corresponding relationship shows that the ratio of the static to the dynamic modulus of elasticity depends on the strength of concrete, its temperature, ratio and rate of loading, and that dynamic modulus is greater than static modulus of elasticity. Comparative study illustrates substantial agreement between obtained relationships and existing experimental results as well as general equations given in standards. Presented data illustrate the potential of the nonlinear approach, and indicate a new direction for nonlinear nondestructive methods of evaluating mechanical properties of concrete.

  5. Mechanical properties of lattice grid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hualin; Fang, Daining; Jin, Fengnian

    2008-08-01

    An equivalent continuum method only considering the stretching deformation of struts was used to study the in-plane stiffness and strength of planar lattice grid composite materials. The initial yield equations of lattices were deduced. Initial yield surfaces were depicted separately in different 3D and 2D stress spaces. The failure envelope is a polyhedron in 3D spaces and a polygon in 2D spaces. Each plane or line of the failure envelope is corresponding to the yield or buckling of a typical bar row. For lattices with more than three bar rows, subsequent yield of the other bar row after initial yield made the lattice achieve greater limit strength. The importance of the buckling strength of the grids was strengthened while the grids were relative sparse. The integration model of the method was used to study the nonlinear mechanical properties of strain hardening grids. It was shown that the integration equation could accurately model the complete stress-strain curves of the grids within small deformations.

  6. Fluid Mechanical Properties of Silkworm Fibroin Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akira

    2005-11-01

    The aqueous solution behavior of silk fibroin is of interest due to the assembly and processing of this protein related to the spinning of protein fibers that exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. To gain insight into the origins of this functional feature, it is desired to determine how the protein behaves under a range of solution conditions. Pure fibroin at different concentrations in water was studied for surface tension, as a measure of surfactancy. In addition, shear induced changes on these solutions in terms of structure and morphology was also determined. Fibroin solutions exhibited shear rate-sensitive viscosity changes and precipitated at a critical shear rate where a dramatic increase of 75-150% of the initial value was observed along with a decrease in viscosity. In surface tension measurements, critical micelle concentrations were in the range of 3-4% w/v. The influence of additional factors, such as sericin protein, divalent and monovalent cations, and pH on the solution behavior in relation to structural and morphological features will also be described.

  7. Tuning the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; D'Acunzi, Maria; Kappl, Michael; Imhof, Arnout; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Graf, Robert; Vollmer, Doris

    2010-12-21

    Heat treatment is a standard method to increase the hardness of silica in various applications. Here, we tested the effect of high temperature annealing on the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules by force spectroscopy under point loads applied to the particle shell. The Young's modulus of the shells moderately increases after annealing at temperatures above 500 °C. Temperatures over 850 °C result in a much stronger increase and the Young's modulus is close to that of fused silica after annealing at 1100 °C. NMR analysis revealed that in untreated microcapsules synthesized by seeded growth using the Stöber method only 55% of the silicon atoms form siloxane bonds with four neighbors, whereas the remaining ones only form three or less siloxane bonds each and, thus, a large number of ethoxy and silanol groups still exist. During annealing at 500 °C, these are successively transformed into siloxane bonds through condensation reactions. This process correlates with only a moderate increase in Young's modulus. The strong increase at temperatures above 850 °C was associated with a densification which was associated by a decrease in capsule size and shell thickness while the shells remained homogenous and of spherical shape. The main strengthening of the shells is thus mainly due to compaction by sintering at length scales significantly larger than that of local siloxane bonds. PMID:20963236

  8. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Kingman P.; Butler, James P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the upper airway (nose, pharynx, and larynx) in health and in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, asthma, and other airway diseases, discussed elsewhere in the Comprehensive Physiology series, prompts this review of the biomechanical properties and functional aspects of the upper airway. There is a literature based on anatomic or structural descriptions in static circumstances, albeit studied in limited numbers of individuals in both health and disease. As for dynamic features, the literature is limited to studies of pressure and flow through all or parts of the upper airway and to the effects of muscle activation on such features; however, the links between structure and function through airway size, shape, and compliance remain a topic that is completely open for investigation, particularly through analyses using concepts of fluid and structural mechanics. Throughout are included both historically seminal references, as well as those serving as signposts or updated reviews. This article should be considered a resource for concepts needed for the application of biomechanical models of upper airway physiology, applicable to understanding the pathophysiology of disease and anticipated results of treatment interventions. PMID:23723026

  9. Mechanisms of Docosahexaenoic and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Loss from Pacific Saury and Comparison of Their Retention Rates after Various Cooking Methods.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lennie K Y; Tomita, Haruo; Takemori, Toshikazu

    2016-08-01

    The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), a fatty fish and staple of the Japanese diet, have been reported to decrease after cooking. This study compared the DHA and EPA contents remaining in saury after grilling, pan-frying or deep-frying to center temperatures of 75, 85, or 95 °C, and examined physical loss, lipid oxidation, and thermal degradation as mechanisms of DHA and EPA loss. Temperature changes inside the saury were monitored using thermocouples, while DHA and EPA contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and measurements of lipid oxidation (that is, carbonyl value and thiobarbituric acid value) were determined chemically. Visualization of temperature distribution inside fish samples during cooking revealed large differences in heat transfer among cooking methods. True retention rates in grilled (DHA: 84 ± 15%; EPA: 87 ± 14%) and pan-fried samples (DHA: 85 ± 16%; EPA: 77 ± 17%) were significantly higher than deep-fried samples (DHA: 58 ± 17%; EPA: 51 ± 18%), but were not affected by final center temperatures despite differences in cooking times. Physical loss via cooking losses (grilling and pan-frying) or migration into frying oil (deep-frying) accounted for large quantities of DHA and EPA loss, while lipid oxidation and thermal degradation did not appear to be major mechanisms of loss. The antioxidant capacity of saury was not significantly affected by cooking treatments. The results of this study suggest that minimization of physical losses during cooking may increase DHA and EPA contents retained in cooked Pacific saury. PMID:27305642

  10. Retention mechanisms of citric acid in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate acid systems using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-23

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L-3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/ormore » coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤ 0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. In conclusion, these findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.« less

  11. Cell Mechanosensitivity: Mechanical Properties and Interaction with Gravitational Field

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addressed the possible mechanisms of primary reception of a mechanical stimulus by different cells. Data concerning the stiffness of muscle and nonmuscle cells as measured by atomic force microscopy are provided. The changes in the mechanical properties of cells that occur under changed external mechanical tension are presented, and the initial stages of mechanical signal transduction are considered. The possible mechanism of perception of different external mechanical signals by cells is suggested. PMID:23509748

  12. Auxetic oesophageal stents: structure and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Busfield, James J C; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2014-02-01

    Oesophageal cancer is the ninth leading cause of malignant cancer death and its prognosis remains poor, ranking as the sixth most frequent cause of death in the world. This research work aims to adopt an Auxetic (rotating-squares) geometry device, that had previously been examined theoretically and analysed by Grima and Evans (J Mater Sci Lett 19(17):1563-1565, 2000), to produce a novel Auxetic oesophageal stent and stent-grafts relevant to the palliative treatment of oesophageal cancer and also for the prevention of dysphagia. This paper discusses the manufacture of a small diameter Auxetic oesophageal stent and stent-graft. The oral deployment of such an Auxetic stent would be simplest if a commercial balloon dilatational catheter was used as this obviates the need for an expensive dedicated delivery system. A novel manufacturing route was employed in this research to develop both Auxetic films and Auxetic oesophageal stents, which ranged from conventional subtractive techniques to a new additive manufacturing method. Polyurethane was selected as a material for the fabrication of Auxetic films and Auxetic oesophageal stents because of its good biocompatibility and non-toxicological properties. The Auxetic films were later used for the fabrication of seamed Auxetic oesophageal stents. The flexible polyurethane tubular grafts were also attached to the inner luminal side of the seamless Auxetic oesophageal stents, in order to prevent tumour in-growth. Scanning electron microscopy was used to conduct surface morphology study by using different Auxetic specimens developed from different conventional and new additive manufacturing techniques. Tensile testing of the Auxetic films was performed to characterise their mechanical properties. The stent expansion tests of the Auxetic stents were done to analyse the longitudinal extension and radial expansion of the Auxetic stent at a range of radial pressures applied by the balloon catheter, and to also identify the pressure

  13. Modification on liquid retention property of cassava starch by radiation grafting with acrylonitrile. I. Effect of γ-irradiation on grafting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, S.; Chvajarernpun, J.; Nakason, C.

    1993-07-01

    Radiation modification on liquid retention properties of native cassava starch, gelatinized at 85°C, by graft copolymerization with acrylonitrile was carried out by mutual irradiation to gamma-rays. A thin aluminum foil was used to cover the inner wall of the reaction vessel, so that the homopolymer concentration was reduced to be less than 1.0% with a distilled water retention value of 665 g/g of the dry weight of the saponified grafted product. Confirmation of graft copolymerization and saponification reactions was made by the infrared spectrophotometric technique. The combined effect of radiation parameters in terms of an irradiation time and a dose rate to the total dose on the extent of the grafting reaction expressed in terms of grafting parameters which directly influenced liquid retention values was evaluated in conjunction with statistical analysis.

  14. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, microstructure, and mechanical property interrelations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques for mechanical property characterizations are reviewed and conceptual models are advanced for explaining and interpreting the empirically based results. At present, the technology is generally empirically based and is emerging from the research laboratory. Advancement of the technology will require establishment of theoretical foundations for the experimentally observed interrelations among ultrasonic measurements, mechanical properties, and microstructure. Conceptual models are applied to ultrasonic assessment of fracture toughness to illustrate an approach for predicting correlations found among ultrasonic measurements, microstructure, and mechanical properties.

  15. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mian; Zhang, Erlin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti-Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti-Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti-Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti2Ag was synthesized in Ti-Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti-Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti-Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti2Ag and its distribution. PMID:26952433

  16. Retention and loss of water extractable carbon in soils: effect of clay properties.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung-Ta; Marschner, Petra

    2014-02-01

    Clay sorption is important for organic carbon (C) sequestration in soils, but little is known about the effect of different clay properties on organic C sorption and release. To investigate the effect of clay content and properties on sorption, desorption and loss of water extractable organic C (WEOC), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a loamy sand alone (native) or mixed with clay isolated from a surface or subsoil (78 and 96% clay) resulting in 90, 158 and 175 g clay kg(-1) soil. These soil treatments were leached with different WEOC concentrations, and then CO2 release was measured for 28 days followed by leaching with reverse osmosis water at the end of experiment. The second experiment was conducted to determine WEOC sorption and desorption of clays isolated from the loamy sand (native), surface soil and subsoil. Addition of clays isolated from surface and subsoil to sandy loam increased WEOC sorption and reduced C leaching and cumulative respiration in percentage of total organic C and WEOC added when expressed per g soil and per g clay. Compared to clays isolated from the surface and subsoil, the native clay had higher concentrations of illite and exchangeable Ca(2+), total organic C and a higher CEC but a lower extractable Fe/Al concentration. This indicates that compared to the clay isolated from the surface and the subsoil, the native clay had fewer potential WEOC binding sites because it had lower Fe/Al content thus lower number of binding sites and the existing binding sites are already occupied native organic matter. The results of this study suggest that in the soils used here, the impact of clay on WEOC sorption and loss is dependent on its indigenous organic carbon and Fe and/or Al concentrations whereas clay mineralogy, CEC, exchangeable Ca(2+) and surface area are less important. PMID:24144942

  17. Biaxial Stretch Improves Elastic Fiber Maturation, Collagen Arrangement, and Mechanical Properties in Engineered Arteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela H; Balestrini, Jenna L; Udelsman, Brooks V; Zhou, Kevin C; Zhao, Liping; Ferruzzi, Jacopo; Starcher, Barry C; Levene, Michael J; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEVs) are typically produced using the pulsatile, uniaxial circumferential stretch to mechanically condition and strengthen the arterial grafts. Despite improvements in the mechanical integrity of TEVs after uniaxial conditioning, these tissues fail to achieve critical properties of native arteries such as matrix content, collagen fiber orientation, and mechanical strength. As a result, uniaxially loaded TEVs can result in mechanical failure, thrombus, or stenosis on implantation. In planar tissue equivalents such as artificial skin, biaxial loading has been shown to improve matrix production and mechanical properties. To date however, multiaxial loading has not been examined as a means to improve mechanical and biochemical properties of TEVs during culture. Therefore, we developed a novel bioreactor that utilizes both circumferential and axial stretch that more closely simulates loading conditions in native arteries, and we examined the suture strength, matrix production, fiber orientation, and cell proliferation. After 3 months of biaxial loading, TEVs developed a formation of mature elastic fibers that consisted of elastin cores and microfibril sheaths. Furthermore, the distinctive features of collagen undulation and crimp in the biaxial TEVs were absent in both uniaxial and static TEVs. Relative to the uniaxially loaded TEVs, tissues that underwent biaxial loading remodeled and realigned collagen fibers toward a more physiologic, native-like organization. The biaxial TEVs also showed increased mechanical strength (suture retention load of 303 ± 14.53 g, with a wall thickness of 0.76 ± 0.028 mm) and increased compliance. The increase in compliance was due to combinatorial effects of mature elastic fibers, undulated collagen fibers, and collagen matrix orientation. In conclusion, biaxial stretching is a potential means to regenerate TEVs with improved matrix production, collagen organization, and mechanical

  18. Wave-Mechanical Properties of Stationary States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Alan

    This monograph is a review of the quantum mechanical concepts presented in two other monographs, "The Nature of Atoms" and "Bonds Between Atoms," by the same author. It is assumed the reader is familiar with these ideas. The monograph sketches only those aspects of quantum mechanics that are of most direct use in picturing and calculating the…

  19. Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuji, Luis C.; McManus, Hugh L.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative aging produces a non-uniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed to separate the properties of the oxidized surface layer from the properties of interior material. Test specimens were aged at 316 C in either air or nitrogen, for durations of up to 800 hours. The thickness of the oxidized surface layer in air aged specimens, and the shrinkage and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of nitrogen aged specimens were measured directly. Four-point-bend tests were performed to determine modulus of both the oxidized surface layer and the interior material. Bimaterial strip specimens consisting of oxidized surface material and unoxidized interior material were constructed and used to determine surface layer shrinkage and CTE. Results confirm that the surface layer and core materials have substantially different properties.

  20. Kinetics and mechanisms of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term fate of toxic metals in soils cannot be precisely predicted, and often remediation recommendations and techniques may be ineffective or unnecessary. This work will generate basic knowledge on the kinetics and mechanism(s) of heavy metal retention/release by soil mineral colloids. The information should assist in improving remediation strategies for toxic heavy metal contaminated soils. The objectives are: (1) To determine the effects of residence time on the mechanisms of Cr(VI), Cu(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) sorption/release on Fe and Al oxide and clay mineral surfaces using kinetic studies coupled to extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. (2) To study the effect of temperature, pH, and phosphate on metal sorption by oxides, and derive thermodynamic parameters to describe the sorption process. As of June, 16, 1997 several clay minerals were tested for their efficiency of removing Cr from aqueous systems. The materials tested--smectite, vermiculites, illites, and kaolinite--represent the natural clay minerals that are abundant in soils and sediments. The clays were used in either their original or reduced (reduced with sodium dithionite) forms. The experimental result indicate that the reduced clays acted as an efficient remover of Cr(VI) from an aqueous system. The XANES spectra of Cr-treated clays provided evidence that the clays reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and immobilized Cr in the clays at the same time. Sodium dithionite applied directly into aqueous systems reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), but could not immobilize Cr even in the presence of the clays. The Cr(VI) removal capacity varied with the clay mineral type and the structural Fe content. For the clays used in this study, the removal capacity follows the orders of smectites > vermiculites and illites > kaolinite. Within the same type of clay minerals, reduction of Cr(VI) is highly related to the ferrous iron

  1. Mechanical properties of UV irradiated rat tail tendon (RTT) collagen.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Wess, Tim

    2004-04-01

    The mechanical properties of RTT collagen tendon before and after UV irradiation have been investigated by mechanical testing (Instron). Air-dried tendon were submitted to treatment with UV irradiation (wavelength 254 nm) for different time intervals. The changes in such mechanical properties as breaking strength and percentage elongation have been investigated. The results have shown, that the mechanical properties of the tendon were greatly affected by time of UV irradiation. Ultimate tensile strength and ultimate percentage elongation decreased after UV irradiation of the tendon. Increasing UV irradiation leads to a decrease in Young's modulus of the tendon. PMID:15178003

  2. Mechanical and physical properties of plasma-sprayed stabilized zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. A.; Mehan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for plasma-sprayed MgO- or Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings. Properties were determined for the ceramic coating in both the freestanding condition and as-bonded to a metal substrate. The properties of the NiCrAlY bond coating were also investigated.

  3. Phonon spectrum, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we study, by means of density functional perturbation theory and the pseudopotential method, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide. These properties are derived from the lattice dynamics in the quasi-harmonic approximation. The phonon spectrum of ThC presented in this article, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been studied, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. We compare mechanical properties, volume thermal expansion and molar specific capacities with previous results and find a very good agreement.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuji, Luis C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative aging produces a nonuniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed to separate the properties of the oxidized surface layer from the properties of interior material. Test specimens were aged at 316 C in either air or nitrogen, for durations of up to 800 hr. The thickness of the oxidized surface layer in air aged specimens, and the shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of nitrogen aged specimens were measured directly. The nitrogen-aged specimens were assumed to have the same properties as the interior material in the air-aged specimens. Four-point-bend tests were performed to determine modulus of both the oxidized surface layer and the interior material. Bimaterial strip specimens consisting of oxidized surface material and unoxidized interior material were constructed and used to determine surface layer shrinkage and CTE. Results confirm that the surface layer and core materials have substantially different properties.

  5. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford single-shell waste tanks 241-A-101, 241-S-106, and 241-U-103

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, S.D.; Caley, S.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Rinehart, D.E.; Forbes, S.V.

    1998-09-01

    The 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site contain millions of gallons of radioactive waste resulting from the purification of nuclear materials and related processes. Through various mechanisms, flammable gas mixtures of hydrogen, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide are generated and retained in significant quantities within the waste in many ({approximately}25) of these tanks. The potential for large releases of retained gas from these wastes creates a flammability hazard. It is a critical component of the effort to understand the flammability hazard and a primary goal of this laboratory investigation to establish an understanding of the mechanisms of gas retention and release in these wastes. The results of bubble retention experimental studies using waste samples from several waste tanks and a variety of waste types support resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. Gas bubble retention information gained in the pursuit of safe storage will, in turn, benefit future waste operations including salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing/retrieval.

  6. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.

    1974-01-01

    The long-range objectives were to develop methods of experimentation and analysis for the determination of the physical properties and engineering behavior of lunar surface materials under in situ environmental conditions. Data for this purpose were obtained from on-site manned investigations, orbiting and softlanded spacecraft, and terrestrial simulation studies. Knowledge of lunar surface material properties are reported for the development of models for several types of lunar studies and for the investigation of lunar processes. The results have direct engineering application for manned missions to the moon.

  7. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of icebergs

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, P.H.; Bobby, W.; Gagnon, R.E.; Russell, W.E.

    1983-05-01

    Physical and mechanical characteristics of iceberg ice were studied from samples collected near the shores of eastern Newfoundland. Although the physical characteristics show considerable diversity, iceberg ice has some common features and is generally porous, lacks significant concentrations of dissolved materials, contains internal cracks and has an irregular interlocking grain structure. A review of mechanical testing of ice was carried out and an experimental setup was devised to reduce effects of improper contact between specimen and loading apparatus. Uniaxial compressive strength for iceberg ice was determined and compared with that for lake ice. The strength of iceberg ice was higher than that of lake ice but Young's Modulus for lake ice was higher.

  9. Supramolecular Polymer Nanocomposites - Improvement of Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinricher, Jesse; Neikirk, Colin; Priestley, Rodney

    2015-03-01

    Supramolecular polymers differ from traditional polymers in that their repeat units are connected by hydrogen bonds that can reversibly break and form under various stimuli. They can be more easily recycled than conventional materials, and their highly temperature dependent viscosities result in reduced energy consumption and processing costs. Furthermore, judicious selection of supramolecular polymer architecture and functionality allows the design of advanced materials including shape memory and self-healing materials. Supramolecular polymers have yet to see widespread use because they can't support much weight due to their inherent mechanical weakness. In order to address this issue, the mechanical strength of supramolecular polymer nanocomposites based on ureidopyrmidinone (UPy) telechelic poly(caprolactone) doped with surface activated silica nanoparticles was investigated by tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. The effects of varying amounts and types of nanofiller surface functionality were investigated to glean insight into the contributions of filler-filler and filler-matrix interactions to mechanical reinforcement in supramolecular polymer nanocomposites. MRSEC NSF DMR 0819860 (PI: Prof. N. Phuan Ong) REU Site Grant: NSF DMR-1156422 (PI: Prof. Mikko Haataja)

  10. Composite propellant technology research: Mechanical property characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1991-01-01

    Proof for the existence of a single Poisson's ratio function in isotropic linear viscoelastic materials is presented. An in-depth discussion is given of three dimensional viscoelastic material properties and their relationships to linear isotropic and orthotropic viscoelastic materials. A discussion of the alternate invariant definition as used by Abaqus and how it relates to the form used by Dr. S. Peng is presented.

  11. [Estimations of mechanical properties of bones using nanoindentation].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Nanoindentation has been applied in recent years to measure the mechanical properties of bone tissues at a microscopic scale, overcoming the limitations of traditional mechanical testing techniques for small samples. This method is precise and accurate and appears well suited for measuring mechanical properties in bone. Dynamic nanoindentation is also a promising method of measuring the viscoelastic properties of bone tissues at smaller length and load scales than allowed by other testing methods, thus allowing individual constituents and local regions of inhomogeneous tissues to be characterized individually. This article describes our nanoindentation studies of bone tissues with recent studies. PMID:26728534

  12. Retention of alkali ions by hydrated low-pH cements: Mechanism and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, T.T.H.; Chabas, E.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Frizon, F.

    2013-09-15

    Low-pH cements, also referred to as low-alkalinity cements, can be designed by replacing significant amounts of Portland cement by pozzolanic materials. Their pore solution is characterized by a pH near 11, and an alkali concentration much lower than that of Portland cement. This work investigates the retention of sodium and potassium by a hydrated low-pH cement comprising 60% Portland cement and 40% silica fume. It is shown that sorption of potassium is higher than that of sodium and mainly results from counterion charge balancing of the C-S-H negative surface charge. To explain the greater retention of potassium compared to sodium, it is postulated that potassium, unlike sodium, may enter the interlayer of C-S-H to compensate the negative charges in the interlayer, in addition to the external surfaces. This assumption is supported by structural characterization of C-S-H using X-ray diffraction.

  13. Mechanical properties and morphology of polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliozberg, Yelena; Sirk, Timothy; Brennan, John; Andzelm, Jan; Mrozek, Randy; Lenhart, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Understanding morphology and mechanical response of polymeric gels is of particular importance to design materials with required energy dissipation characteristics. We will present our latest results for polymer gels based on 1) self-assembled block copolymers and 2) chemically cross-linked polymers. The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was used to predict morphology in good agreement with atomic force microscopy. We have performed DPD non-equilibrium oscillatory shear calculations predicting elastic modulus of unentangled gels that correlates well with experimental rheology data. However, this methodology fails to predict mechanics of entangled polymer networks due to unphysical chain crossing brought by the soft potentials used in DPD simulations. Recently, we have introduced an improved segmental repulsion potential that removes the bond crossing allowing for reptation dynamics. The improved DPD method was used in simulations for entangled gels to explore impact of branched architecture of solvent on the mechanical response to the tensile deformation. Novel architectures of solvent resulting in a dramatic increase of the elastic modulus were identified. The topological analysis was applied to understand contributions of chemical cross-links and entanglements to the stress.

  14. Mechanical properties of intermediate filament proteins

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Elisabeth E.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filament form viscoelastic gels. The crosslinks holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking non-linear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large stains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual Ifs can be stretched to more than 2 or 3 times their resting length without breaking. At least ten different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of IF on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations. PMID:26795466

  15. Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Elisabeth E; Janmey, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament (IF) proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filaments form viscoelastic gels. The cross-links holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking nonlinear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large strains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual IFs can be stretched to more than two or three times their resting length without breaking. At least 10 different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of cytoplasmic IFs on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations. PMID:26795466

  16. Mechanical properties of alumina porcelain during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šín, Peter; Podoba, Rudolf; ŠtubÅa, Igor; Trník, Anton

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical strength and Young's modulus of green alumina porcelain (50 wt. % of kaolin, 25 wt. % of Al2O3, and 25 wt. % of feldspar) were measured during heating up to 900 °C and 1100 °C, respectively. To this end, we used the three point-bending method and modulated force thermomechanical analysis (mf-TMA). The loss liberation - of the physically bound water (20 - 250 °C) strengthens the sample and Young's modulus increases its values significantly. The dehydroxylation that takes place in the range of 400 - 650 °C causes a slight decrease in Young's modulus. On the other hand, the mechanical strength slightly increases in this temperature range, although it has a sudden drop at 420 °C. Beyond the dehydroxylation range, above 650 °C, both Young's modulus and mechanical strength increase. Above 950 °C, a sharp increase of Young's modulus is caused by the solid-state sintering and the new structure created by the high-temperature reactions in metakaolinite.

  17. Mechanical, degradation and cytocompatibility properties of magnesium coated phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Hasan, Muhammad S; Grant, David M; Harper, Lee T; Parsons, Andrew J; Palmer, Graham; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Retention of mechanical properties of phosphate glass fibre reinforced degradable polyesters such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid in aqueous media has been shown to be strongly influenced by the integrity of the fibre/polymer interface. A previous study utilising 'single fibre' fragmentation tests found that coating with magnesium improved the fibre and matrix interfacial shear strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a magnesium coating on the manufacture and characterisation of a random chopped fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composite. Short chopped strand non-woven phosphate glass fibre mats were sputter coated with degradable magnesium to manufacture phosphate glass fibre/polycaprolactone composites. The degradation behaviour (water uptake, mass loss and pH change of the media) of these polycaprolactone composites as well as of pure polycaprolactone was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The Mg coated fibre reinforced composites revealed less water uptake and mass loss during degradation compared to the non-coated composites. The cations released were also explored and a lower ion release profile for all three cations investigated (namely Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) was seen for the Mg coated composite samples. An increase of 17% in tensile strength and 47% in tensile modulus was obtained for the Mg coated composite samples. Both flexural and tensile properties were investigated and a higher retention of mechanical properties was obtained for the Mg coated fibre reinforced composite samples up to 10 days immersion in PBS. Cytocompatibility study showed both composite samples (coated and non-coated) had good cytocompatibility with human osteosarcoma cell line. PMID:25028389

  18. Mechanical Properties of the Frog Sarcolemma

    PubMed Central

    Fields, R. Wayne

    1970-01-01

    The elastic properties of cylindrical segments of sarcolemma were studied in single striated fibers of the frog semitendinosus muscle. All measurements were made on membranes of retraction zones, cell segments from which the sarcoplasm had retracted. Quantitative morphological studies indicated that three deforming forces interact with the intrinsic elastic properties of the sarcolemma to determine membrane configuration in retraction zone segments. The three deforming forces, namely intrazone pressure, axial fiber loads, and radial stresses introduced by retracted cell contents, could all be experimentally removed, permitting determination of the “undeformed” configuration of the sarcolemma. Analysis of these results indicated that membrane of intact fibers at rest length is about four times as wide and two-thirds as long as undeformed membrane. Membrane geometry was also studied as a function of internal hydrostatic pressure and axial loading to permit calculation of the circumferential and longitudinal tension-strain (T-S) diagrams. The sarcolemma exhibited nonlinear T-S properties concave to the tension axis in both directions. Circumferential T-S slopes (measures of membrane stiffness) ranged from 1500 to greater than 50,000 dynes/cm over the range of deformations investigated, while longitudinal T-S slopes varied from 23,000 to 225,000 dynes/cm. Thus, the membrane is anisotropic, being much stiffer in the longitudinal direction. Certain ramifications of the present results are discussed in relation to previous biomechanical studies of the sarcolemma and of other tissues. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:5439320

  19. The mechanical and strength properties of diamond.

    PubMed

    Field, J E

    2012-12-01

    Diamond is an exciting material with many outstanding properties; see, for example Field J E (ed) 1979 The Properties of Diamond (London: Academic) and Field J E (ed) 1992 The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (London: Academic). It is pre-eminent as a gemstone, an industrial tool and as a material for solid state research. Since natural diamonds grew deep below the Earth's surface before their ejection to mineable levels, they also contain valuable information for geologists. The key to many of diamond's properties is the rigidity of its structure which explains, for example, its exceptional hardness and its high thermal conductivity. Since 1953, it has been possible to grow synthetic diamond. Before then, it was effectively only possible to have natural diamond, with a small number of these found in the vicinity of meteorite impacts. Techniques are now available to grow gem quality synthetic diamonds greater than 1 carat (0.2 g) using high temperatures and pressures (HTHP) similar to those found in nature. However, the costs are high, and the largest commercially available industrial diamonds are about 0.01 carat in weight or about 1 mm in linear dimension. The bulk of synthetic diamonds used industrially are 600 µm or less. Over 75% of diamond used for industrial purposes today is synthetic material. In recent years, there have been two significant developments. The first is the production of composites based on diamond; these materials have a significantly greater toughness than diamond while still maintaining very high hardness and reasonable thermal conductivity. The second is the production at low pressures by metastable growth using chemical vapour deposition techniques. Deposition onto non-diamond substrates was first demonstrated by Spitsyn et al 1981 J. Cryst. Growth 52 219-26 and confirmed by Matsumoto et al 1982 Japan J. Appl. Phys. 21 L183-5. These developments have added further to the versatility of diamond. Two other groups of

  20. The mechanical and strength properties of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Diamond is an exciting material with many outstanding properties; see, for example Field J E (ed) 1979 The Properties of Diamond (London: Academic) and Field J E (ed) 1992 The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (London: Academic). It is pre-eminent as a gemstone, an industrial tool and as a material for solid state research. Since natural diamonds grew deep below the Earth's surface before their ejection to mineable levels, they also contain valuable information for geologists. The key to many of diamond's properties is the rigidity of its structure which explains, for example, its exceptional hardness and its high thermal conductivity. Since 1953, it has been possible to grow synthetic diamond. Before then, it was effectively only possible to have natural diamond, with a small number of these found in the vicinity of meteorite impacts. Techniques are now available to grow gem quality synthetic diamonds greater than 1 carat (0.2 g) using high temperatures and pressures (HTHP) similar to those found in nature. However, the costs are high, and the largest commercially available industrial diamonds are about 0.01 carat in weight or about 1 mm in linear dimension. The bulk of synthetic diamonds used industrially are 600 µm or less. Over 75% of diamond used for industrial purposes today is synthetic material. In recent years, there have been two significant developments. The first is the production of composites based on diamond; these materials have a significantly greater toughness than diamond while still maintaining very high hardness and reasonable thermal conductivity. The second is the production at low pressures by metastable growth using chemical vapour deposition techniques. Deposition onto non-diamond substrates was first demonstrated by Spitsyn et al 1981 J. Cryst. Growth 52 219-26 and confirmed by Matsumoto et al 1982 Japan J. Appl. Phys. 21 L183-5. These developments have added further to the versatility of diamond. Two other groups of materials

  1. Lysozyme adsorption onto a cation-exchanger: mechanism of interaction study based on the analysis of retention chromatographic data.

    PubMed

    Marques, F S; Silva, G L; Thrash, M E; Dias-Cabral, A C

    2014-10-01

    In this study, based on the analysis of retention chromatographic data, we examined the adsorption of lysozyme onto carboxymethyl cellulose. Lysozyme retention data was collected at pH 5 and pH 8. The sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in the mobile phase ranged from 300mM to 500mM and the temperature for this study varied from 288K to 308K. The retention measurements generated from these experimental conditions were analyzed with the Van't Hoff method, the preferential interaction model and the stoichiometric displacement model. Endothermic heats-of-adsorption and increases in entropy were observed under certain experimental conditions. These data suggest the presence of entropic driving forces such as the release of water and/or possibly structural changes in lysozyme molecules adsorbed to the surface of carboxymethyl cellulose. The modest observed exergonic adsorption ΔG° and the preferential interaction analysis corroborate the presence of water-release for this study. Additional analysis with the stoichiometric displacement model method revealed negligible changes in the structure of lysozyme molecules in contact with the surface of carboxymethyl cellulose. PMID:25193151

  2. Effect of soil properties and a synthetic municipal landfill leachate on the retention of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil and sediment materials

    SciTech Connect

    LaBauve, J.M.; Kotuby-Amacher, J.; Gambrell, R.P.

    1988-03-01

    Batch equilibrium metal immobilization studies were conducted using seven soils and sediment materials spiked with varying concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The objective was to examine the potential mobility of metals in subsoils of metals-contaminated sites. Soil pH influenced metal immobilization more than other properties. The inclusion of other property values improved correlation of retention and concentration. Among the metals, Pb was most strongly retained, while Ni was the most mobile. The presence of a synthetic municipal landfill leachate enhanced the dissolved levels of two metals studied (Cd, Ni) in all soil materials.

  3. Rapid quantification of imidazolium-based ionic liquids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography: Methodology and an investigation of the retention mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Cory A; Rud, Anna; Guthrie, Margaret L; Dietz, Mark L

    2015-06-26

    The separation of nine N,N'-dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) by an isocratic hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatographic method using an unmodified silica column was investigated. The chosen analytical conditions using a 90:10 acetonitrile-ammonium formate buffer mobile phase on a high-purity, unmodified silica column were found to be efficient, robust, and sensitive for the determination of ILs in a variety of solutions. The retention window (k' = 2-11) was narrower than that of previous methods, resulting in a 7-min runtime for the nine IL homologues. The lower limit of quantification of the method, 2-3 μmol L(-1), was significantly lower than those reported previously for HPLC-UV methods. The effects of systematically modifying the IL cation alkyl chain length, column temperature, and mobile-phase water and buffer content on solute retention were examined. Cation exchange was identified as the dominant retention mechanism for most of the solutes, with a distinct (single methylene group) transition to a dominant partitioning mode at the highest solute polarity. PMID:25979537

  4. Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Made by Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Luecke, William E; Slotwinski, John A

    2014-01-01

    Using uniaxial tensile and hardness testing, we evaluated the variability and anisotropy of the mechanical properties of an austenitic stainless steel, UNS S17400, manufactured by an additive process, selective laser melting. Like wrought materials, the mechanical properties depend on the orientation introduced by the processing. The recommended stress-relief heat treatment increases the tensile strength, reduces the yield strength, and decreases the extent of the discontinuous yielding. The mechanical properties, assessed by hardness, are very uniform across the build plate, but the stress-relief heat treatment introduced a small non-uniformity that had no correlation to position on the build plate. Analysis of the mechanical property behavior resulted in four conclusions. (1) The within-build and build-to-build tensile properties of the UNS S17400 stainless steel are less repeatable than mature engineering structural alloys, but similar to other structural alloys made by additive manufacturing. (2) The anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the UNS S17400 material of this study is larger than that of mature structural alloys, but is similar to other structural alloys made by additive manufacturing. (3) The tensile mechanical properties of the UNS S17400 material fabricated by selective laser melting are very different from those of wrought, heat-treated 17-4PH stainless steel. (4) The large discontinuous yielding strain in all tests resulted from the formation and propagation of Lüders bands. PMID:26601037

  5. Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Made by Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Luecke, William E; Slotwinski, John A

    2014-01-01

    Using uniaxial tensile and hardness testing, we evaluated the variability and anisotropy of the mechanical properties of an austenitic stainless steel, UNS S17400, manufactured by an additive process, selective laser melting. Like wrought materials, the mechanical properties depend on the orientation introduced by the processing. The recommended stress-relief heat treatment increases the tensile strength, reduces the yield strength, and decreases the extent of the discontinuous yielding. The mechanical properties, assessed by hardness, are very uniform across the build plate, but the stress-relief heat treatment introduced a small non-uniformity that had no correlation to position on the build plate. Analysis of the mechanical property behavior resulted in four conclusions. (1) The within-build and build-to-build tensile properties of the UNS S17400 stainless steel are less repeatable than mature engineering structural alloys, but similar to other structural alloys made by additive manufacturing. (2) The anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the UNS S17400 material of this study is larger than that of mature structural alloys, but is similar to other structural alloys made by additive manufacturing. (3) The tensile mechanical properties of the UNS S17400 material fabricated by selective laser melting are very different from those of wrought, heat-treated 17-4PH stainless steel. (4) The large discontinuous yielding strain in all tests resulted from the formation and propagation of Lüders bands. PMID:26601037

  6. Mechanical property characterization of polymeric composites reinforced by continuous microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubayar, Ali

    Innumerable experimental works have been conducted to study the effect of polymerization on the potential properties of the composites. Experimental techniques are employed to understand the effects of various fibers, their volume fractions and matrix properties in polymer composites. However, these experiments require fabrication of various composites which are time consuming and cost prohibitive. Advances in computational micromechanics allow us to study the various polymer based composites by using finite element simulations. The mechanical properties of continuous fiber composite strands are directional. In traditional continuous fiber laminated composites, all fibers lie in the same plane. This provides very desirable increases in the in-plane mechanical properties, but little in the transverse mechanical properties. The effect of different fiber/matrix combinations with various orientations is also available. Overall mechanical properties of different micro continuous fiber reinforced composites with orthogonal geometry are still unavailable in the contemporary research field. In this research, the mechanical properties of advanced polymeric composite reinforced by continuous micro fiber will be characterized based on analytical investigation and FE computational modeling. Initially, we have chosen IM7/PEEK, Carbon Fiber/Nylon 6, and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy as three different case study materials for analysis. To obtain the equivalent properties of the micro-hetero structures, a concept of micro-scale representative volume elements (RVEs) is introduced. Five types of micro scale RVEs (3 square and 2 hexagonal) containing a continuous micro fiber in the polymer matrix were designed. Uniaxial tensile, lateral expansion and transverse shear tests on each RVE were designed and conducted by the finite element computer modeling software ANSYS. The formulae based on elasticity theory were derived for extracting the equivalent mechanical properties (Young's moduli, shear

  7. Quantifying tissue mechanical properties using photoplethysmography

    SciTech Connect

    Akl, Tony; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Cote, Gerard L.

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical method that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. The PPG signal comprises two components; a pulsatile waveform (AC) attributed to changes in the interrogated blood volume with each heartbeat, and a slowly varying baseline (DC) combining low frequency fluctuations mainly due to respiration and sympathetic nervous system activity. In this report, we investigate the AC pulsatile waveform of the PPG pulse for ultimate use in extracting information regarding the biomechanical properties of tissue and vasculature. By analyzing the rise time of the pulse in the diastole period, we show that PPG is capable of measuring changes in the Young s Modulus of tissue mimicking phantoms with a resolution of 4 KPa in the range of 12 to 61 KPa. In addition, the shape of the pulse can potentially be used to diagnose vascular complications by differentiating upstream from downstream complications. A Windkessel model was used to model changes in the biomechanical properties of the circulation and to test the proposed concept. The modeling data confirmed the response seen in vitro and showed the same trends in the PPG rise and fall times with changes in compliance and vascular resistance.

  8. Quantifying tissue mechanical properties using photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Akl, Tony J; Wilson, Mark A; Ericson, M Nance; Coté, Gerard L

    2014-07-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical method that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. The PPG signal comprises two components; a pulsatile waveform (AC) attributed to changes in the interrogated blood volume with each heartbeat, and a slowly varying baseline (DC) combining low frequency fluctuations mainly due to respiration and sympathetic nervous system activity. In this report, we investigate the AC pulsatile waveform of the PPG pulse for ultimate use in extracting information regarding the biomechanical properties of tissue and vasculature. By analyzing the rise time of the pulse in the diastole period, we show that PPG is capable of measuring changes in the Young's Modulus of tissue mimicking phantoms with a resolution of 4 KPa in the range of 12 to 61 KPa. In addition, the shape of the pulse can potentially be used to diagnose vascular complications by differentiating upstream from downstream complications. A Windkessel model was used to model changes in the biomechanical properties of the circulation and to test the proposed concept. The modeling data confirmed the response seen in vitro and showed the same trends in the PPG rise and fall times with changes in compliance and vascular resistance. PMID:25071970

  9. Quantifying tissue mechanical properties using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical method that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. The PPG signal comprises two components; a pulsatile waveform (AC) attributed to changes in the interrogated blood volume with each heartbeat, and a slowly varying baseline (DC) combining low frequency fluctuations mainly due to respiration and sympathetic nervous system activity. In this report, we investigate the AC pulsatile waveform of the PPG pulse for ultimate use in extracting information regarding the biomechanical properties of tissue and vasculature. By analyzing the rise time of the pulse in the diastole period, we show that PPG is capable of measuring changes in the Young’s Modulus of tissue mimicking phantoms with a resolution of 4 KPa in the range of 12 to 61 KPa. In addition, the shape of the pulse can potentially be used to diagnose vascular complications by differentiating upstream from downstream complications. A Windkessel model was used to model changes in the biomechanical properties of the circulation and to test the proposed concept. The modeling data confirmed the response seen in vitro and showed the same trends in the PPG rise and fall times with changes in compliance and vascular resistance. PMID:25071970

  10. Porosity and mechanical properties of zirconium ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalatur, Ekaterina Narikovich, Anton; Buyakova, Svetlana E-mail: kulkov@ispms.tsc.ru; Kulkov, Sergey E-mail: kulkov@ispms.tsc.ru

    2014-11-14

    The article studies the porous ceramics consisting of ultra-fine ZrO{sub 2} powders. The porosity of ceramic samples varied from 15% to 80%. The structure of the ceramic materials had a cellular configuration. The distinctive feature of all experimentally obtained strain diagrams is their nonlinearity at low deformations characterized by the parabolic law. It was shown that the observed nonlinear elasticity for low deformations shown in strain diagrams is due to the mechanical instability of cellular elements of the ceramic framework.

  11. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  12. Interfaces with Tunable Mechanical and Radiosensitizing Properties.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nora G; Pearce, Brady L; Snyder, Patrick J; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Nolan, Michael W; Adhikari, Prajesh; Khan, Saad A; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2016-08-31

    We report the fabrication of a composite containing nanostructured GaOOH and Matrigel with tunable radiosensitizing and stiffness properties. Composite characterization was done with microscopy and rheology. The utility of the interface was tested in vitro using fibroblasts. Cell viability and reactive oxygen species assays quantified the effects of radiation dosages and GaOOH concentrations. Fibroblasts' viability decreased with increasing concentration of GaOOH and composite stiffness. During ionizing radiation experiments the presence of the scintillating GaOOH triggered a different cellular response. Reactive oxygen species data demonstrated that one can reduce the amount of radiation needed to modulate the behavior of cells on interfaces with different stiffness containing a radiosensitizing material. PMID:26882455

  13. Characterising Mechanical Properties of Braided and Woven Textile Composite Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauda, Benjamin; Oyadiji, S. Olutunde; Potluri, Prasad

    2009-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the manufacture of textile composite beams and on the determination of their mechanical properties. This includes investigating the effects of fibre orientation on the mechanical properties of braided and woven textile composites. Composites were manufactured from nominally identical constituents and identical consolidation processes, leaving as the only variables, variations caused by the different fibre architecture of the preform. The repeatability and, hence, reliability of this approach is demonstrated. Results obtained show that fibre architecture affects composite strength and extensibility. Composites with woven preforms are practically linear up to catastrophic failure while composites with braided preforms exhibit non-linearity prior to failure. Also the mechanical properties of the textile composite beams were determined. Results show that by tailoring the braid angle and pick density of braided and woven composite performs, the mechanical properties of the composite beams can be controlled to suit end-use requirement.

  14. Tailoring of mechanical properties of hydroformed aluminum tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Lavender, Curt A.

    2007-07-06

    Tailoring of the mechanical properties of hydroformed aluminum 6063-T4 tubes to those of aluminum 6063-T6 was performed by heat treatment. Quasi-static tensile tests and a SEM analysis were conducted to evaluate the change of the mechanical properties. The experimental results of the hydroformed tubes in T4 condition (before the heat treatment) show significant variations of the mechanical properties along the length due to the different extents of work hardening by hydroforming. The experimental results of the hydroformed tubes in T6 condition (after the heat treatment) show that the precipitation hardening successfully removed the effects of the non-uniform work hardening and resulted in the uniform mechanical properties in the tube.

  15. Effect of glycerol on retention time and electrical properties of polymer bistable memory devices based on glycerol-modified PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Junhwan; Kim, Ohyun

    2012-01-01

    The addition of glycerol to Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films affected the bipolar switching characteristics of nonvolatile polymer memory devices (PMDs). Increasing the glycerol/PEDOT:PSS ratio caused increase in the OFF-current of the PMDs, but did not affect the ON-current levels. This result demonstrates that highly-conductive current paths occur in the ON-state. The write-read-erase-read cycle test was operated > 10(5) times. And, the ON-retention time is largely dependent on the glycerol to PEDOT:PSS ratio and annealing temperature. In addition, AFM analysis on the G-PEDOT:PSS films to see how the surface morphology of G-PEDOT:PSS layer influences the retention time properties was carried out. PMID:22524004

  16. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/mica composite.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E G; Herø, H; Jørgensen, R B

    1994-01-01

    Bend specimens of the inorganic synthetic materials hydroxyapatite (HA) and a composite of hydroxyapatite/muscovite mica have been prepared and tested mechanically. Sintering followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) without encapsulation gave an increased strength for HA alone, but no significant increase in strength compared with sintering alone for HA/mica composites. The bend strength of the HA/mica composite was inferior to that of HA alone, the reason being inadequate bonding between HA and mica. HIP in glass capsules and an increased cold compaction pressure tended to improve the bend strength of the composite. Corrosion in tris for 7 d did not affect the bend strength of the investigated materials significantly. PMID:7950878

  17. Processing effects on the mechanical properties of tungsten heavy alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishi, Toshihito; German, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys exhibit significant mechanical property sensitivities to the fabrication variables. These sensitivities are illustrated in this examination of vacuum sintering and the effects of composition, sintering temperature, and sintering time on the mechanical properties of tungsten heavy alloys. Measurements were conducted to assess the density, strength, hardness, and elongation dependencies. A detrimental aspect of vacuum sintering is matrix phase evaporation, although vacuum sintering does eliminate the need for postsintering heat treatments.

  18. Structure, mechanical properties, and fracture of 20GL cast steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Klyueva, S. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of 20GL steel are studied. It is shown that a significant decrease in the ductility and impact toughness of the steel is caused by intercrystalline fracture, which is induced by a weakening of the intercrystallite bonds due to the existence of coarse lamellar pearlite and nonmetallic inclusions, namely, film inclusions and eutectic-type oxysulfides, at the boundaries of primary crystals. Annealing from a temperature in the intercritical range is found to improve the mechanical properties.

  19. Primate dietary ecology in the context of food mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Coiner-Collier, Susan; Scott, Robert S; Chalk-Wilayto, Janine; Cheyne, Susan M; Constantino, Paul; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Elgart, Alison A; Glowacka, Halszka; Loyola, Laura C; Ossi-Lupo, Kerry; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Talebi, Mauricio G; Sala, Enrico A; Sieradzy, Pawel; Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wright, Barth W; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lucas, Peter W; Vogel, Erin R

    2016-09-01

    Substantial variation exists in the mechanical properties of foods consumed by primate species. This variation is known to influence food selection and ingestion among non-human primates, yet no large-scale comparative study has examined the relationships between food mechanical properties and feeding strategies. Here, we present comparative data on the Young's modulus and fracture toughness of natural foods in the diets of 31 primate species. We use these data to examine the relationships between food mechanical properties and dietary quality, body mass, and feeding time. We also examine the relationship between food mechanical properties and categorical concepts of diet that are often used to infer food mechanical properties. We found that traditional dietary categories, such as folivory and frugivory, did not faithfully track food mechanical properties. Additionally, our estimate of dietary quality was not significantly correlated with either toughness or Young's modulus. We found a complex relationship among food mechanical properties, body mass, and feeding time, with a potential interaction between median toughness and body mass. The relationship between mean toughness and feeding time is straightforward: feeding time increases as toughness increases. However, when considering median toughness, the relationship with feeding time may depend upon body mass, such that smaller primates increase their feeding time in response to an increase in median dietary toughness, whereas larger primates may feed for shorter periods of time as toughness increases. Our results emphasize the need for additional studies quantifying the mechanical and chemical properties of primate diets so that they may be meaningfully compared to research on feeding behavior and jaw morphology. PMID:27542555

  20. Alterations in mechanical properties are associated with prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejian; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Yingxi; Zong, Huafeng; Che, Xiangyu; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Zheng; Yang, Deyong; Song, Xishuang

    2014-03-01

    Cancer progression and metastasis have been shown to be accompanied by alterations in the mechanical properties of tissues, but the relationship between the mechanical properties and malignant behavior in prostate cancer (Pca) is less clear. The aims of this study were to detect the mechanical properties of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and Pca tissues on both the macro- and micro-scales, to explore the relationships between mechanical properties and malignant behavior and, finally, to identify the important molecules in the mechanotransduction signaling pathway. We demonstrated that the strain index of Pca tissue was significantly higher than that of BPH tissue on the macro-scale but the Young's modulus of the Pca tissues, especially in advanced Pca, was lower than that of BPH tissues on the micro-scale. These two seemingly contradictory results can be explained by the excessive proliferation of tumor cells (Ki-67) and the degradation of scaffold proteins (collagens). These data indicate that alterations of the macro- and micro-mechanical properties of Pca tissues with malignant behavior are contradictory. The mechanical properties of tissues might be useful as a new risk factor for malignancy and metastasis in Pca. Furthermore, collagens, matrix metalloproteinase, fibronectin, and integrins might be the important molecules in the mechanotransduction signaling pathway. PMID:24504844

  1. Understanding and Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of LIGA Fabricated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Lavan, D.A.; Schmale, D.T.

    1999-01-25

    LIGA fabricated materials and components exhibit several processing issues affecting their metallurgical and mechanical properties, potentially limiting their usefulness for MEMS applications. For example, LIGA processing by metal electrodeposition is very sensitive to deposition conditions which causes significant processing lot variations of mechanical and metallurgical properties. Furthermore, the process produces a material with a highly textured lenticular rnicrostructural morphology suggesting an anisotropic material response. Understanding and controlling out-of-plane anisotropy is desirable for LIGA components designed for out-of-plane flexures. Previous work by the current authors focused on results from a miniature servo-hydraulic mechanical test frame constructed for characterizing LIGA materials. Those results demonstrated microstructural and mechanical properties dependencies with plating bath current density in LIGA fabricated nickel (LIGA Ni). This presentation builds on that work and fosters a methodology for controlling the properties of LIGA fabricated materials through processing. New results include measurement of mechanical properties of LIGA fabricated copper (LIGA Cu), out-of-plane and localized mechanical property measurements using compression testing and nanoindentation of LIGA Ni and LIGA Cu.

  2. In Vitro Tissue Differentiation using Dynamics of Tissue Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Chiang; Phillips, Paul J.

    2002-03-01

    Dynamics of tissue mechanical properties of various human tissue types were studied at macroscopic as well as microscopic level in vitro. This study was conducted to enable the development of a feedback system based on dynamics of tissue mechanical properties for intraoperative guidance for tumor treatment (e.g., RF ablation of liver tumor) and noninvasive tumor localization. Human liver tissues, including normal, cancerous, and cirrhotic tissues, were obtained from patients receiving liver transplant or tumor resection at Vanderbilt University Medical Center with the approval of the Vanderbilt Institutional Review Board. Tissue samples, once resected from the patients, were snap-frozen using liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 oC. Measurements of the mechanical properties of these tissue samples were conducted at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. Dynamics of tissue mechanical properties were measured from both native and thermally coagulated tissue samples at macroscopic and microscopic level. Preliminary results suggest the dynamics of mechanical properties of normal liver tissues are very different from those of cancerous liver tissues. The correlation between the dynamics of mechanical properties at macroscopic level and those at microscopic level is currently under investigation.

  3. Mechanical properties of iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Sikka, V.K.

    1993-07-01

    Tensile and impact tests have been conducted on specimens for a series of five heats of iron-aluminum alloys. These results have been compared to data for the iron aluminide alloy FA-129. The first of the new alloys was a simple ternary alloy with iron, aluminum, and chromium contents that matched the FA-129 composition. The second was similar but with additions of zirconium and carbon. Three heats were produced with reduced aluminum contents so that a disordered body-centered cubic structure would be present. Additions of titanium or yttrium were included. The ductile-to brittle transition temperatures of all of the Fe{sub 3}Al alloys were similar, but the simple ternary alloy had a much higher upper-shelf energy levels than the Fe{sub 3}Al type alloys. The reduced aluminum alloy with the yttrium addition showed excellent tensile properties, with a room temperature total elongation of over 40%, and a very high upper-shelf energy level. Despite the high tensile ductility at room temperature, the transition temperature of the yttrium-containing alloy was still about 150{degrees}C, compared to approximately 300{degrees}C for FA-129.

  4. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length. PMID:26040560

  5. Mechanical properties of porcine intralobar pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, H; Hogg, J C; Moreno, R H; Paré, P D; Schellenberg, R R

    1988-04-01

    The isobaric and isovolumetric properties of intrapulmonary arteries were evaluated by placing a highly compliant balloon inside arterial segments. The passive pressure-volume (P-V) curve was obtained by changing volume (0.004 ml/s) and measuring pressure. The isobaric active volume change (delta V) or isovolumetric active pressure change (delta P) generated by submaximal histamine was measured at four different transmural pressures (Ptm's) reached by balloon inflation. The maximal delta P = 11.2 +/- 0.6 cmH2O (mean +/- SE) was achieved at 30.8 +/- 1.2 cmH2O Ptm and maximal delta V = 0.20 +/- 0.02 ml at 16.7 +/- 1.7 cmH2O Ptm. The P-V relationships were similar when volume was increased after either isobaric or isovolumetric contraction. The calculated length-tension (L-T) relationship showed that the active tension curve was relatively flat and that the passive tension at the optimal length was 149 +/- 11% of maximal active tension. These data show that 1) a large elastic component operates in parallel with the smooth muscle in intralobar pulmonary arteries, and 2) the change in resistance associated with vascular expansion of the proximal arteries is independent of the type of contraction that occurs in the more distal arterial segments. PMID:3378988

  6. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length.

  7. STARCH FILLED TERNARY POLYMER COMPOSITES I: DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been shown that the dynamic mechanical properties of starch filled blends of polyethylene (PE) and poly (hydroxy ester ether) (PHEE) are strongly dependent on the properties and distribution of the minor component of the blend (PHEE). The effect of this minor component on the viscoelastic pr...

  8. Porosity and mechanical properties of zirconium ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Buyakova, S. Kulkov, S.; Sablina, T.

    2015-11-17

    Has been studied a porous ceramics obtained from ultra-fine powders. Porous ceramic ZrO{sub 2}(MgO), ZrO{sub 2}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder was prepared by pressing and subsequent sintering of compacts homologous temperatures ranging from 0.63 to 0.56 during the isothermal holding duration of 1 to 5 hours. The porosity of ceramic samples was from 15 to 80%. The structure of the ceramic materials produced from plasma-sprayed ZrO{sub 2} powder was represented as a system of cell and rod structure elements. Cellular structure formed by stacking hollow powder particles can be easily seen at the images of fracture surfaces of obtained ceramics. There were three types of pores in ceramics: large cellular hollow spaces, small interparticle pores which are not filled with powder particles and the smallest pores in the shells of cells. The cells generally did not have regular shapes. The size of the interior of the cells many times exceeded the thickness of the walls which was a single-layer packing of ZrO{sub 2} grains. A distinctive feature of all deformation diagrams obtained in the experiment was their nonlinearity at low deformations which was described by the parabolic law. It was shown that the observed nonlinear elasticity for low deformation on deformation diagrams is due to mechanical instability of the cellular elements in the ceramic carcass.

  9. Mechanical properties of lanthanum and yttrium chromites

    SciTech Connect

    Paulik, S.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    In an operating high-temperature (1000{degrees}C) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the interconnect separates the fuel (P(O{sub 2}){approx}10{sup -16} atm) and the oxidant (P(O2){approx}10{sup 0.2} atm), while being electrically conductive and connecting the cells in series. Such severe atmospheric and thermal demands greatly reduce the number of viable candidate materials. Only two materials, acceptor substituted lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite, meet these severe requirements. In acceptor substituted chromites (Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} for La{sup 3+}), charge compensation is primarily electronic in oxidizing conditions (through the formation of Cr{sup 4+}). Under reducing conditions, ionic charge compensation becomes significant as the lattice becomes oxygen deficient. The formation of oxygen vacancies is accompanied by the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} ions to Cr{sup 3+} and a resultant lattice expansion. The lattice expansion observed in large chemical potential gradients is not desirable and has been found to result in greatly reduced mechanical strength.

  10. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cerium Monopnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Vyoma; Singh, Devraj; Jain, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction, thermoelastic relaxation and dislocation damping mechanisms has been investigated in cerium monopnictides CeX (X: N, P, As, Sb and Bi) for longitudinal and shear waves along {< }100{rangle }, {< }110{rangle } and {< }111{rangle } directions. The second- and third-order elastic constants of CeX have also been computed in the temperature range 0 K to 500 K using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential upto second nearest neighbours. The computed values of these elastic constants have been applied to find out Young's moduli, bulk moduli, Breazeale's non-linearity parameters, Zener anisotropy, ultrasonic velocity, ultrasonic Grüneisen parameter, thermal relaxation time, acoustic coupling constants and ultrasonic attenuation. The fracture/toughness ratio is less than 1.75, which shows that the chosen materials are brittle in nature as found for other monopnictides. The drag coefficient acting on the motion of screw and edge dislocations due to shear and compressional phonon viscosities of the lattice have also been evaluated for both the longitudinal and shear waves. The thermoelastic loss and dislocation damping loss are negligible in comparison to loss due to Akhieser damping (phonon-phonon interaction). The obtained results for CeX are in qualitative agreement with other semi-metallic monopnictides.

  11. Porosity and mechanical properties of zirconium ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyakova, S.; Sablina, T.; Kulkov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Has been studied a porous ceramics obtained from ultra-fine powders. Porous ceramic ZrO2(MgO), ZrO2(Y2O3) powder was prepared by pressing and subsequent sintering of compacts homologous temperatures ranging from 0.63 to 0.56 during the isothermal holding duration of 1 to 5 hours. The porosity of ceramic samples was from 15 to 80%. The structure of the ceramic materials produced from plasma-sprayed ZrO2 powder was represented as a system of cell and rod structure elements. Cellular structure formed by stacking hollow powder particles can be easily seen at the images of fracture surfaces of obtained ceramics. There were three types of pores in ceramics: large cellular hollow spaces, small interparticle pores which are not filled with powder particles and the smallest pores in the shells of cells. The cells generally did not have regular shapes. The size of the interior of the cells many times exceeded the thickness of the walls which was a single-layer packing of ZrO2 grains. A distinctive feature of all deformation diagrams obtained in the experiment was their nonlinearity at low deformations which was described by the parabolic law. It was shown that the observed nonlinear elasticity for low deformation on deformation diagrams is due to mechanical instability of the cellular elements in the ceramic carcass.

  12. Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.

    2015-01-01

    Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules. PMID:26388232

  13. Fluid mechanical properties of flames in enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Pindera, M.Z.; Oppenheim, A.K.

    1988-07-01

    In an enclosure where the reacting medium is initially at rest, the flame first generates a flowfield that then gets stretched, i.e., its front is pulled along the surface by the flowfield in which it then finds itself residing. A methodology developed for numerical modeling of such fields is described. Of key significance in this respect is the zero Mach number model/endash/a reasonable idealization in view of the relatively high temperature, and hence sound speed, that exists, concomitantly with a comparatively low particle velocity, in the confinement of a combustion chamber. According to this model, the density gradient in the field is nullified, while across the flame front it approaches infinity. One has thus two regimes: one of the unburned medium and the other of the burned gas, each of spatially uniform density, separated by a flame front interface. The latter is endowed with four properties, of which the first two are purely kinematic and the others dynamic in nature, namely: 1) it is advected at the local velocity of flow; 2) it self-advances at the normal burning speed, the eigenvalue of the system; 3) it acts as the velocity source due to the exothermicity of the combustion process; and 4) it acts as the vorticity source due to the baroclinic effect generated by the pressure gradient along its surface and the density gradient across it. A solution obtained for a flame propagating in an oblong rectangular enclosure demonstrates that the latter has a significant influence upon the formation of the well known tulip shape. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Terminal sterilization of alginate hydrogels: efficacy and impact on mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Stoppel, Whitney L; White, Joseph C; Horava, Sarena D; Henry, Anna C; Roberts, Susan C; Bhatia, Surita R

    2014-05-01

    Terminal, or postprocessing, sterilization of composite biomaterials is crucial for their use in wound healing and tissue-engineered devices. Recent research has focused on optimizing traditional biomaterial formulations to create better products for commercial and academic use which incorporate hydrophobic compounds or secondary gel networks. To use a hydrogel in a clinical setting, terminal sterilization is necessary to ensure patient safety. Lyophilization, gamma-irradiation, and ethylene oxide treatment all have negative consequences when applied to alginate scaffolds for clinical use. Here, we aim to find alternative terminal sterilization methods for alginate and alginate-based composite hydrogels which maintain the structure of composite alginate networks for use in biomedical applications. A thorough investigation of the effect of common sterilization methods on swollen alginate-based hydrogels has not been reported and therefore, this work examines autoclaving, ethanol washing, and ultraviolet light as sterilization techniques for alginate and alginate/Pluronic® F68 composite hydrogels. Preservation of structural integrity is evaluated using shear rheology and analysis of water retention, and efficacy of sterilization is determined via bacterial persistence within the hydrogel. Results indicate that ethanol sterilization is the best method of those investigated because ethanol washing results in minimal effects on mechanical properties and water retention and eliminates bacterial persistence. Furthermore, this study suggests that ethanol treatment is an efficacious method for terminally sterilizing interpenetrating networks or other composite hydrogel systems. PMID:24259507

  15. Mechanical and biological properties of keratose biomaterials.

    PubMed

    de Guzman, Roche C; Merrill, Michelle R; Richter, Jillian R; Hamzi, Rawad I; Greengauz-Roberts, Olga K; Van Dyke, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    The oxidized form of extractable human hair keratin proteins, commonly referred to as keratose, is gaining interest as a biomaterial for multiple tissue engineering studies including those directed toward peripheral nerve, spinal cord, skin, and bone regeneration. Unlike its disulfide cross-linked counterpart, kerateine, keratose does not possess a covalently cross-linked network structure and consequently displays substantially different characteristics. In order to understand its mode(s) of action and potential for clinical translatability, detailed characterization of the composition, physical properties, and biological responses of keratose biomaterials are needed. Keratose was obtained from end-cut human hair fibers by peracetic acid treatment, followed by base extraction, and subsequent dialysis. Analysis of lyophilized keratose powder determined that it contains 99% proteins by mass with amino acid content similar to human hair cortex. Metallic elements were also found in minute quantities. Protein oxidation led to disulfide bond cleavage and drastic reduction of free thiols due to conversion of sulfhydryl to sulfonic acid, chain fragmentation, and amino acid modifications. Mass spectrometry identified the major protein constituents as a heterogeneous mixture of 15 hair keratins (type I: K31-35 and K37-39, and type II: K81-86) with small amounts of epithelial keratins which exist in monomeric, dimeric, multimeric, and even degraded forms. Re-hydration with PBS enabled molecular assembly into an elastic solid-like hydrogel. Highly-porous scaffolds formed by lyophilization of the gel had the compression behavior of a cellular foam material and reverted back to gel upon wetting. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the EC50 for various cell lines were attained at 8-10 mg/mL keratose, indicating the non-toxic nature of the material. Implantation in mouse subcutaneous tissue pockets demonstrated that keratose resorption follows a rectangular hyperbolic regression

  16. Dynamic monitoring of cell mechanical properties using profile microindentation

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, L.; Babataheri, A.; Puech, P.-H.; Barakat, A. I.; Husson, J.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a simple and relatively inexpensive system to visualize adherent cells in profile while measuring their mechanical properties using microindentation. The setup allows simultaneous control of cell microenvironment by introducing a micropipette for the delivery of soluble factors or other cell types. We validate this technique against atomic force microscopy measurements and, as a proof of concept, measure the viscoelastic properties of vascular endothelial cells in terms of an apparent stiffness and a dimensionless parameter that describes stress relaxation. Furthermore, we use this technique to monitor the time evolution of these mechanical properties as the cells’ actin is depolymerized using cytochalasin-D. PMID:26857265

  17. Mechanical Properties of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Zirconium Diboride Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuffle, Kevin; Creegan, Peter; Nowell, Steven; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Continuous fiber reinforced zirconium diboride matrix composites, SCS-9a-(RBSiCZrB2)matrix, are being developed for leading edge, rocket nozzle and turbine engine applications. Recently, the composite materials have been characterized for tensile properties to 1250 C, the highest temperature tested. The tensile properties are fiber dominated as the matrix is microcracked on fabrication, but favorable failure characteristic are observed. Compression and shear mechanical testing results will be reported if completed. The effects of fiber volume fraction and matrix density on mechanical properties will be discussed. The target applications of the materials will be discussed. Specific testing being performed towards qualification for these applications will be included.

  18. Dynamic monitoring of cell mechanical properties using profile microindentation.

    PubMed

    Guillou, L; Babataheri, A; Puech, P-H; Barakat, A I; Husson, J

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a simple and relatively inexpensive system to visualize adherent cells in profile while measuring their mechanical properties using microindentation. The setup allows simultaneous control of cell microenvironment by introducing a micropipette for the delivery of soluble factors or other cell types. We validate this technique against atomic force microscopy measurements and, as a proof of concept, measure the viscoelastic properties of vascular endothelial cells in terms of an apparent stiffness and a dimensionless parameter that describes stress relaxation. Furthermore, we use this technique to monitor the time evolution of these mechanical properties as the cells' actin is depolymerized using cytochalasin-D. PMID:26857265

  19. Dynamic monitoring of cell mechanical properties using profile microindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, L.; Babataheri, A.; Puech, P.-H.; Barakat, A. I.; Husson, J.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a simple and relatively inexpensive system to visualize adherent cells in profile while measuring their mechanical properties using microindentation. The setup allows simultaneous control of cell microenvironment by introducing a micropipette for the delivery of soluble factors or other cell types. We validate this technique against atomic force microscopy measurements and, as a proof of concept, measure the viscoelastic properties of vascular endothelial cells in terms of an apparent stiffness and a dimensionless parameter that describes stress relaxation. Furthermore, we use this technique to monitor the time evolution of these mechanical properties as the cells’ actin is depolymerized using cytochalasin-D.

  20. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Properties of an Argillaceous Swelling Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Maximiliano R.; Triantafyllidis, Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental investigation aimed to study the effect of water on the mechanical properties of a partially saturated argillaceous swelling rock. The mineralogical composition of the rock, in particular the portion of swelling clays, was determined with X-ray diffraction. The water retention curve was estimated using a dew-point potential meter and the swelling behavior of the studied rock was examined by unconfined and oedometric swelling tests. The influence of water on the rock mechanical properties was assessed by means of triaxial tests. The experimental results indicate a strong decrease of strength and stiffness with increasing saturation or decreasing suction. This occurs only within a certain range of saturation. Degradation of the rock properties can be expected for small increments in the water content within this range. At low suction and close to the air-entry value, the stiffness remained constant. As the rock desaturates, the strength and stiffness increase approaching constant values. For suction greater than about 76 MPa, low increase of strength and stiffness was observed. The specimens in the swelling tests reached a saturation degree of 70 % which corresponds to a decrease of strength and stiffness of approximately 80 %. Rock swelling occurring simultaneously with reduction of strength and stiffness, increases deformations and it is an important issue for the stability of excavations.

  1. Mechanical Properties and Durability of "Waterless Concrete"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toutanji, Houssam; Grugel, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Waterless concrete consists of molten elementary sulfur and aggregate. The aggregates in lunar environment will be lunar rocks and soil. Sulfur is present on the Moon in Troilite soil (FeS) and by oxidation soil iron and sulfur can be produced. Iron can be used to reinforce the sulfur concrete. Sulfur concrete specimens were cycled between liquid nitrogen (approximately 191 C) and room temperature (approximately 21 C) to simulate exposure to a lunar environment. Cycled and control specimens were subsequently tested in compression at room temperatures (approximately 21 C) and approximately 101 C. Test results showed that due to temperature cycling, compressive strength of cycled specimens was 20% of those non-cycled. Microscopic examination of the fracture surfaces from the cycled samples showed clear de-bonding of the sulfur from the aggregate material whereas it was seen well bonded in those non-cycled. This reduction in strength can be attributed to the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion of the materials constituting the concrete which promoted cracking. Similar sulfur concrete mixtures were strengthened with short and long glass fibers. The glass fibers from lunar regolith simulant was melted in a 25 cc Pt-Rh crucible in a Sybron Thermoline high temperature MoSi2 furnace at melting temperatures of 1450 to 1600 C for times of 30 min to 1 hour. Glass fibers were cast from the melt into graphite crucibles and were annealed for a couple of hours at 600 C. Glass fibers and small rods were pulled from the melt. The glass melt wets the ceramic rod and long continuous glass fibers were easily hand drawn. The glass fibers were immediately coated with a protective polymer to maintain the mechanical strength. The glass fibers were used to reinforce sulfur concrete plated to improve the flexural strength of the sulfur concrete. Prisms beams strengthened with glass fibers were tested in 4-point bending test. Beams strengthened with glass fiber showed to

  2. Mechanical properties of metallic thin films: theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong, Duong Dai; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Van Hung, Vu; Khoa, Doan Quoc; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2016-03-01

    The statistical moment method in statistical mechanics was developed to investigate the mechanical properties of free-standing metallic thin films at ambient conditions including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. Analytical expressions of isothermal areal modulus B T , Young's modulus E and shear modulus G were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations have been performed for metallic Ni, Au and Al thin films, and compared with those of bulk metals. This method is physically transparent and it successfully described the temperature effects on mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  3. Lithophysal Rock Mass Mechanical Properties of the Repository Host Horizon

    SciTech Connect

    D. Rigby

    2004-11-10

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop estimates of key mechanical properties for the lithophysal rock masses of the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) within the repository host horizon, including their uncertainties and spatial variability. The mechanical properties to be characterized include an elastic parameter, Young's modulus, and a strength parameter, uniaxial compressive strength. Since lithophysal porosity is used as a surrogate property to develop the distributions of the mechanical properties, an estimate of the distribution of lithophysal porosity is also developed. The resulting characterizations of rock parameters are important for supporting the subsurface design, developing the preclosure safety analysis, and assessing the postclosure performance of the repository (e.g., drift degradation and modeling of rockfall impacts on engineered barrier system components).

  4. A simple auxetic tubular structure with tuneable mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xin; Shen, Jianhu; Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Tian, Hongqi; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-06-01

    Auxetic materials and structures are increasingly used in various fields because of their unusual properties. Auxetic tubular structures have been fabricated and studied due to their potential to be adopted as oesophageal stents where only tensile auxetic performance is required. However, studies on compressive mechanical properties of auxetic tubular structures are limited in the current literature. In this paper, we developed a simple tubular structure which exhibits auxetic behaviour in both compression and tension. This was achieved by extending a design concept recently proposed by the authors for generating 3D metallic auxetic metamaterials. Both compressive and tensile mechanical properties of the auxetic tubular structure were investigated. It was found that the methodology for generating 3D auxetic metamaterials could be effectively used to create auxetic tubular structures as well. By properly adjusting certain parameters, the mechanical properties of the designed auxetic tubular structure could be easily tuned.

  5. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Arash, B; Wang, Q; Varadan, V K

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region. PMID:25270167

  6. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region.

  7. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region. PMID:25270167

  8. Mechanical Properties Comparing Composite Fiber Length to Amalgam

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Photocure fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) with varying chopped quartz-fiber lengths were incorporated into a dental photocure zirconia-silicate particulate-filled composite (PFC) for mechanical test comparisons with a popular commercial spherical-particle amalgam. FRC lengths included 0.5-mm, 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm all at a constant 28.2 volume percent. Four-point fully articulated fixtures were used according to American Standards Test Methods with sample dimensions of 2×2×50 mm3 across a 40 mm span to provide sufficient Euler flexural bending and prevent top-load compressive shear error. Mechanical properties for flexural strength, modulus, yield strength, resilience, work of fracture, critical strain energy release, critical stress intensity factor, and strain were obtained for comparison. Fiber length subsequently correlated with increasing all mechanical properties, p < 1.1×10−5. Although the modulus was significantly statistically higher for amalgam than all composites, all FRCs and even the PFC had higher values than amalgam for all other mechanical properties. Because amalgams provide increased longevity during clinical use compared to the standard PFCs, modulus would appear to be a mechanical property that might sufficiently reduce margin interlaminar shear stress and strain-related microcracking that could reduce failure rates. Also, since FRCs were tested with all mechanical properties that statistically significantly increased over the PFC, new avenues for future development could be provided toward surpassing amalgam in clinical longevity.

  9. Mechanics of intraply hybrid composites - Properties, analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanics theory is developed for predicting the physical thermal, hygral and mechanical properties (including various strengths) of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites (UIHC) based on unidirectional properties of the constituent composites. Procedures are described which can use this theory in conjunction with composite mechanics computer codes and general purpose structural analysis finite element programs for the analysis/design of structural components made from intraply hybrid angleplied laminates (IHAL). Comparisons with limited data show that this theory predicts mechanical properties of UIHC and flexural stiffnesses of IHAL which are in good agreement with experimental data. The theory developed herein makes it possible to design and optimize structural components from IHAL based on a large class of available constituent fibers.

  10. Observations on the relationship of structure to the mechanical properties of thin TD-NiCr sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the relationship between structure and mechanical properties of thin TD-NiCr sheet indicated that the elevated temperature tensile, stress-rupture, and creep strength properties are dependent on grain aspect ratio and sheet thickness. In general, the strength properties increase with increasing grain aspect ratio and sheet thickness. Tensile testing revealed an absence of ductility at elevated temperatures (not less than 1144 K). Significant creep damage as determined by subsequent tensile testing at room temperature occurs after very small amounts (less than 0.1%) of prior creep deformation over the temperature range 1144-1477 K. A threshold stress for creep appears to exist. Creep exposure below the threshold stress at T not less than 1366 K results in almost full retention of room temperature tensile properties.

  11. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  12. Processing, texture and mechanical properties of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landfermann, H.; Hausner, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to its favorable properties, in particular those shown at high temperatures, silicon carbide is of great interest for applications related to the construction of engines and turbines. Thus, silicon carbide could replace heat-resisting alloys with the objective to achieve a further increase in operational temperature. The present investigation is concerned with approaches which can provide silicon carbide material with suitable properties for the intended applications, taking into account the relations between characteristics of the raw material, material composition, sinter conditions, and results of the sintering process. The effects of density and texture formation on the mechanical properties are studied. It is found that a dense material with a fine-grained microstructure provides optimal mechanical properties, while any deviation from this ideal condition can lead to a considerable deterioration with respect to the material properties.

  13. Mechanical properties of jennite: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Juhyuk; Yoon, Seyoon; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of jennite. To date, several hypotheses have been proposed to predict the structural properties of jennite. For the first time as reported herein, the isothermal bulk modulus of jennite was measured experimentally. Synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction experiments were performed to observe the variation of lattice parameters under pressure. First-principles calculations were applied to compare with the experimental results and predict additional structural properties. Accurately measured isothermal bulk modulus herein (K{sub 0} = 64(2) GPa) and the statistical assessment on experimental and theoretical results suggest reliable mechanical properties of shear and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic tensor coefficients. Determination of these fundamental structural properties is the first step toward greater understanding of calcium–silicate–hydrate, as well as provides a sound foundation for forthcoming atomic level simulations.

  14. Retention properties of hydrophobically end-capped poly(ethylene glycol)s on a beta-cyclodextrin support.

    PubMed

    Karakasyan, Carole; Millot, Marie-Claude; Jaulmes, Alain; Vidal-Madjar, Claire

    2006-09-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to examine the retention behavior of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)s bearing one hydrophobic naphthyl end group (Nap-MPEG) on beta-cyclodextrin polymer (poly-beta-CD) immobilized on a silica support, under isocratic elution conditions and using water as mobile phase. Studies of retentions and theoretical plate heights H were conducted at infinite dilution by comparing the behavior of Nap-MPEGs having different molecular weight (750, 1000 and 5000 g/mol). The larger is its molecular size, the lower is the retention of the polymer. The linear increase of H with mobile phase velocity reveals slow mass-transfer kinetics arising from the restricted diffusion into the pores of the support. The complexation constants between the Nap-MPEGs and beta-CD in solution (around 500M(-1)) were determined from the decrease of retention observed by adding increasing concentrations of hydroxypropyl beta-CD into the eluent. The peak profiles in mass-overload conditions were studied by fitting a model based upon bi-Langmuir kinetics which assumes a non-uniform support having two types of binding sites and apparent adsorption rate constants are used to describe mass-transfer kinetics. A three-parameter adsorption equilibrium isotherm was sufficient to account for the modifications of peak shapes observed when increasing amounts of polymer were injected. This result indicates an interaction with a heterogeneous poly-beta-CD support mainly composed of low affinity groups, non-saturable in the range of polymer concentration studied. An upper limit was estimated for the equilibrium constant (<1000 M(-1)) characterizing the affinity of Nap-MPEG for the non-saturable sites of the poly-beta-CD support. Large affinity constants (8-9 x 10(4)M(-1)) were found for the interaction of Nap-MPEGs with a small percentage of active sites. PMID:16828487

  15. Mechanical properties and in vitro degradation of bioresorbable knitted stents.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Juha-Pekka; Välimaa, Tero; Clerc, Claude; Törmälä, Pertti

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and in vitro degradation of bioresorbable knitted stents. Each stent was knitted using a single self-reinforced fibre made out of either PLLA or 96L/4D PLA or 80L/20G PLGA. The mechanical and physical properties of the fibres and stents were measured before and after gamma sterilization, as well as during in vitro degradation. The mechanical properties of the knitted stents made out of bioresorbable fibres were similar to those of commercially available metallic stents. The knitting geometry (loop height) had a marked effect on the mechanical properties of the stents. The rate of in vitro degradation in mechanical and physical properties for the PLLA and 96L/4D PLA stents was similar and significantly lower than that of the 80L/20G PLGA stents. The 80L/20G PLGA stents lost about 35% of their initial weight at 11 weeks. At this time, they had lost all their compression resistance strength. These data can be used as a guideline in planning further studies in vivo. PMID:12555898

  16. Deformation behavior and mechanical properties of amyloid protein nanowires.

    PubMed

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils are most often associated with their pathological role in diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but they are now increasingly being considered for uses in functional engineering materials. They are among the stiffest protein fibers known but they are also rather brittle, and it is unclear how this combination of properties affects the behavior of amyloid structures at larger length scales, such as in films, wires or plaques. Using a coarse-grained model for amyloid fibrils, we study the mechanical response of amyloid nanowires and examine fundamental mechanical properties, including mechanisms of deformation and failure under tensile loading. We also explore the effect of varying the breaking strain and adhesion strength of the constituent amyloid fibrils on the properties of the larger structure. We find that deformation in the nanowires is controlled by a combination of fibril sliding and fibril failure and that there exists a transition from brittle to ductile behavior by either increasing the fibril failure strain or decreasing the strength of adhesion between fibrils. Furthermore, our results reveal that the mechanical properties of the nanowires are quite sensitive to changes in the properties of the individual fibrils, and the larger scale structures are found to be more mechanically robust than the constituent fibrils, for all cases considered. More broadly, this work demonstrates the promise of utilizing self-assembled biological building blocks in the development of hierarchical nanomaterials. PMID:23290516

  17. Measurements and Characterizations of Mechanical Properties of Human Skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Han Wook; Park, Yon Kyu

    A skin is an indispensible organ for humans because it contributes to metabolism using its own biochemical functions and protects the human body from external stimuli. Recently, mechanical properties such as a thickness, a friction and an elastic coefficient have been used as a decision index in the skin physiology and in the skin care market due to the increased awareness of wellbeing issues. In addition, the use of mechanical properties is known to have good discrimination ability in the classification of human constitutions, which are used in the field of an alternative medicine. In this study, a system that measures mechanical properties such as a friction and an elastic coefficient is designed. The equipment consists of a load cell type (manufactured by the authors) for the measurements of a friction coefficient, a decompression tube for the measurement of an elastic coefficient. Using the proposed system, the mechanical properties of human skins from different constitutions were compared, and the relative repeatability error for measurements of mechanical properties was determined to be less than 2%. Combining the inspection results of medical doctors in the field of an alternative medicine, we could conclude that the proposed system might be applicable to a quantitative constitutional diagnosis between human constitutions within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  18. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Seifi, Mohsen

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.

  19. Differential Effects of Polymer-Surface Decoration on Drug Delivery, Cellular Retention, and Action Mechanisms of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanyuan; Hu, Hao; He, Lizhen; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-12-01

    Polymer-surface decoration has been found to be an effective strategy to enhance the biological activities of nanomedicine. Herein, three different types of polymers with a cancer-targeting ligand Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (RGD) have been used to decorate mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and the functionalized nanosystems were used as drug carriers of oxaliplatin (OXA). The results showed that polymer-surface decoration of the MSNs nanosystem by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) significantly enhanced the anticancer efficacy of OXA, which was much higher than that of chitosan (CTS). This effect was closely related to the enhancement of the cellular uptake and cellular drug retention. Moreover, PEI@MSNs-OXA possessed excellent advantages in penetrating ability and inhibitory effects on SW480 spheroids that were used to simulate the in vivo tumor environments. Therefore, this study provides useful information for the rational design of a cancer-targeted MSNs nanosystem with polymer-surface decoration. PMID:26248202

  20. Microstructural influences on the mechanical properties of solder

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Goldstein, J.L.F.; Mei, Z.

    1993-04-01

    Intent of this book is to review analytic methods for predicting behavior of solder joints, based on continuum mechanics. The solder is treated as a continuous, homogeneous body, or composite of such bodies, whose mechanical behavior is uniform and governed by simple constitutive equations. The microstructure of a solder joint influences its mechanical properties in 3 ways: it governs deformation and failure; common solders deform inhomogeneously; and common solders are microstructurally unstable. The variety of microstructures often found in solder joints are briefly reviewed, and some of the ways are discussed in which the microstructure influences the common types of high-temperature mechanical behavior. 25 figs, 40 refs.

  1. Bioinspired Reductionistic Peptide Engineering for Exceptional Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avinash, M. B.; Raut, Devaraj; Mishra, Manish Kumar; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Govindaraju, T.

    2015-11-01

    A simple solution-processing and self-assembly approach that exploits the synergistic interactions between multiple hydrogen bonded networks and aromatic interactions was utilized to synthesize molecular crystals of cyclic dipeptides (CDPs), whose molecular weights (~0.2 kDa) are nearly three orders of magnitude smaller than that of natural structural proteins (50-300 kDa). Mechanical properties of these materials, measured using the nanoindentation technique, indicate that the stiffness and strength are comparable and sometimes better than those of natural fibres. The measured mechanical responses were rationalized by recourse to the crystallographic structural analysis and intermolecular interactions in the self-assembled single crystals. With this work we highlight the significance of developing small molecule based bioinspired design strategies to emulate biomechanical properties. A particular advantage of the successfully demonstrated reductionistic strategy of the present work is its amenability for realistic industrial scale manufacturing of designer biomaterials with desired mechanical properties.

  2. Bioinspired Reductionistic Peptide Engineering for Exceptional Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Avinash, M. B.; Raut, Devaraj; Mishra, Manish Kumar; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Govindaraju, T.

    2015-01-01

    A simple solution-processing and self-assembly approach that exploits the synergistic interactions between multiple hydrogen bonded networks and aromatic interactions was utilized to synthesize molecular crystals of cyclic dipeptides (CDPs), whose molecular weights (~0.2 kDa) are nearly three orders of magnitude smaller than that of natural structural proteins (50–300 kDa). Mechanical properties of these materials, measured using the nanoindentation technique, indicate that the stiffness and strength are comparable and sometimes better than those of natural fibres. The measured mechanical responses were rationalized by recourse to the crystallographic structural analysis and intermolecular interactions in the self-assembled single crystals. With this work we highlight the significance of developing small molecule based bioinspired design strategies to emulate biomechanical properties. A particular advantage of the successfully demonstrated reductionistic strategy of the present work is its amenability for realistic industrial scale manufacturing of designer biomaterials with desired mechanical properties. PMID:26525957

  3. Build-in Electric Field Induced Mechanical Property Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Te-Yu; Liu, Jian; Yost, Andrew J.; Chakhalian, Jacques; Freeland, John W.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    Mechanical properties describe how materials respond to external stress. Microscopically, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as bond length and strength (intrinsic) and grain boundaries (extrinsic), may affect the mechanical property of the materials. In this study, we observed a change of fracturing behavior of Nb-doped SrTiO3 in a Schottky barrier near the interfaces with metallic LaNiO3 films. Through cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (XSTM/S) experiments and theoretical analysis, the observed fractured topography could be explained by the change of the bond length caused alternation of mechanical property inside the Schottky barrier. Same model could also explain the widely observed dielectric dead layer for SrTiO3 in contact with metal electrodes.

  4. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  5. Enhanced retention of polymer physical characteristics and mechanical strength of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) after ethylene oxide sterilization.

    PubMed

    McManus, Anastasia J; Moser, Rodney C; Dabkowski, Rhiannon B; Thomas, Kevin A

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the effect of ethylene oxide (EtO) and electron beam (e-beam) irradiation on the properties of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide). The effects of sterilization upon the polymer physical characteristics and strength retention of the material were examined, both initially and after being subjected to real time ageing. Commercially available 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) material was fabricated into rectangular, cylindrical, screw, and sheet designs, and tested in compression, shear, or tension. Sterilization of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) by ethylene oxide had a nearly negligible effect on the physical properties of the polymer, regardless of specimen size or manufacturing technique. The molecular weight and inherent viscosity of the specimens decreased by approximately 3% after sterilization by EtO. However, sterilization of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) by e-beam irradiation resulted in immediate changes to some of the physical properties of the polymer. Specimens sterilized by e-beam irradiation displayed an immediate decrease in inherent viscosity of approximately 67% as compared to the respective nonsterile samples. The immediate decrease in inherent viscosity and molecular weight with e-beam irradiation required approximately 39 weeks of real time ageing of the EtO sterilized parts. At all time points investigated in the present study, the strength retention of the EtO sterilized devices equaled or exceeded that of the e-beam irradiated samples. PMID:17238162

  6. Punching Deterioration Mechanism of Magnetic Properties of Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaido, Chikara; Mogi, Hisashi; Fujikura, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Jiro

    This paper discusses the deterioration mechanism of magnetic properties of cores due to punching and proposes the modeling, as the best design of motors, considering manufacturing motors, is important in order to improve the high performance of motors corresponding to energy saving. In producing motors, magnetic cores with laminated steel sheets are made of punched sheets, and then the magnetic properties of steel sheets are deteriorated by plastic deformation and the induced residual stress due to punching. In this paper, the punching deterioration mechanism is investigated by observing magnetic domains at steel surfaces near sheared parts. Tensile and compressive stresses induced at cut steel edges deteriorate the magnetic properties of punched steel sheets in high flux densities as the compression deterioration is stronger than the tension improvement, and improve permeabilities at low magnetic field because the increases in permeabilities with tensile stresses are emphasized. Therefore, it is necessary to model the magnetic properties of motor magnetic cores, taking account of these magnetic phenomena.

  7. Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Hydrogen Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Liu; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard L.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examined the electronic and mechanical properties of hydrogen functionalized carbon nanotubes. The functionalization pattern covers two extreme groups. One group has randomly selected functionalization sites including one to twenty percent of the carbon atoms. The other group has regularly patterned functional sites parallel to the tube axis. Metallic, small-gap semiconducting and large-gap semiconducting carbon nanotubes are studied. The results reveal that the electronic properties of the tubes are very sensitive to the degree of functionalization, with even one percent functionalization being enough to render metallic tubes semiconducting. On the other hand, the mechanical properties, like tensile modulus, are much less sensitive to functionalization. For carbon nanotubes functionalized with specific patterns, the electric properties depends strongly on the nature of the functionalization pattern.

  8. Mechanical properties and fiber type composition of chronically inactive muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Monti, R. J.; Vallance, K. A.; Kim, J. A.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    A role for neuromuscular activity in the maintenance of skeletal muscle properties has been well established. However, the role of activity-independent factors is more difficult to evaluate. We have used the spinal cord isolation model to study the effects of chronic inactivity on the mechanical properties of the hindlimb musculature in cats and rats. This model maintains the connectivity between the motoneurons and the muscle fibers they innervate, but the muscle unit is electrically "silent". Consequently, the measured muscle properties are activity-independent and thus the advantage of using this model is that it provides a baseline level (zero activity) from which regulatory factors that affect muscle cell homeostasis can be defined. In the present paper, we will present a brief review of our findings using the spinal cord isolation model related to muscle mechanical and fiber type properties.

  9. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Metals and Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the microstructural evolution of metals and alloys are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of crystal structure, neutron dose and temperature. The corresponding effects of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of metals and alloys are summarized, with particular attention on the phenomena of low temperature radiation hardening and embrittlement. The prospects of developing improved high-performance structural materials with high resistance to radiation-induced property degradation are briefly discussed.

  10. Mechanical property quantification of endothelial cells using scanning acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelke, A.; Brand, S.; Kundu, T.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.; Blase, C.

    2012-04-01

    The mechanical properties of cells reflect dynamic changes of cellular organization which occur during physiologic activities like cell movement, cell volume regulation or cell division. Thus the study of cell mechanical properties can yield important information for understanding these physiologic activities. Endothelial cells form the thin inner lining of blood vessels in the cardiovascular system and are thus exposed to shear stress as well as tensile stress caused by the pulsatile blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction might occur due to reduced resistance to mechanical stress and is an initial step in the development of cardiovascular disease like, e.g., atherosclerosis. Therefore we investigated the mechanical properties of primary human endothelial cells (HUVEC) of different age using scanning acoustic microscopy at 1.2 GHz. The HUVECs are classified as young (tD < 90 h) and old (tD > 90 h) cells depending upon the generation time for the population doubling of the culture (tD). Longitudinal sound velocity and geometrical properties of cells (thickness) were determined using the material signature curve V(z) method for variable culture condition along spatial coordinates. The plane wave technique with normal incidence is assumed to solve two-dimensional wave equation. The size of the cells is modeled using multilayered (solid-fluid) system. The propagation of transversal wave and surface acoustic wave are neglected in soft matter analysis. The biomechanical properties of HUVEC cells are quantified in an age dependent manner.

  11. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, A; Waller, M; Robertson, N A

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:26329213

  12. Effects of humidity on the mechanical properties of gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Puthoff, Jonathan B; Mayer, George; Autumn, Kellar

    2011-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in relative humidity (RH) causes changes in the mechanical properties of the keratin of adhesive gecko foot hairs (setae). We measured the effect of RH on the tensile deformation properties, fracture, and dynamic mechanical response of single isolated tokay gecko setae and strips of the smooth lamellar epidermal layer. The mechanical properties of gecko setae were strongly affected by RH. The complex elastic modulus (measured at 5 Hz) of a single seta at 80% RH was 1.2 GPa, only 39% of the value when dry. An increase in RH reduced the stiffness and increased the strain to failure. The loss tangent increased significantly with humidity, suggesting that water absorption produces a transition to a more viscous type of deformation. The influence of RH on the properties of the smooth epidermal layer was comparable with that of isolated seta, with the exception of stress at rupture. These values were two to four times greater for the setae than for the smooth layer. The changes in mechanical properties of setal keratin were consistent with previously reported increases in contact forces, supporting the hypothesis that an increase in RH softens setal keratin, which increases adhesion and friction. PMID:20920615

  13. Transient dynamic mechanical properties of resilin-based elastomeric hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linqing; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding high-frequency properties of emerging resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have motivated their development for vocal fold tissue regeneration and other applications. Recombinant RLP hydrogels show efficient gelation, tunable mechanical properties, and display excellent extensibility, but little has been reported about their transient mechanical properties. In this manuscript, we describe the transient mechanical behavior of new RLP hydrogels investigated via both sinusoidal oscillatory shear deformation and uniaxial tensile testing. Oscillatory stress relaxation and creep experiments confirm that RLP-based hydrogels display significantly reduced stress relaxation and improved strain recovery compared to PEG-based control hydrogels. Uniaxial tensile testing confirms the negligible hysteresis, reversible elasticity and superior resilience (up to 98%) of hydrated RLP hydrogels, with Young's modulus values that compare favorably with those previously reported for resilin and that mimic the tensile properties of the vocal fold ligament at low strain (<15%). These studies expand our understanding of the properties of these RLP materials under a variety of conditions, and confirm the unique applicability, for mechanically demanding tissue engineering applications, of a range of RLP hydrogels. PMID:24809044

  14. Mechanical properties of the brain-skull interface.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Mohammad Mynuddin Gani; Miller, Karol; Bunt, Stuart; Mostayed, Ahmed; Joldes, Grand; Day, Robert; Hart, Robin; Wittek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanical properties of the brain-skull interface is important for surgery simulation and injury biomechanics. These properties are known only to a limited extent. In this study we conducted in situ indentation of the sheep brain, and proposed to derive the macroscopic mechanical properties of the brain-skull interface from the results of these experiments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever analysis of this kind. When conducting in situ indentation of the brain, the reaction force on the indentor was measured. After the indentation, a cylindrical sample of the brain tissue was extracted and subjected to uniaxial compression test. A model of the brain indentation experiment was built in the Finite Element (FE) solver ABAQUS™. In the model, the mechanical properties of the brain tissue were assigned as obtained from the uniaxial compression test and the brain-skull interface was modeled as linear springs. The interface stiffness (defined as sum of stiffnesses of the springs divided by the interface area) was varied to obtain good agreement between the calculated and experimentally measured indentor force-displacement relationship. Such agreement was found to occur for the brain-skull interface stiffness of 11.45 Nmm⁻¹/mm². This allowed identification of the overall mechanical properties of the brain-skull interface. PMID:23951996

  15. The effect of composition on mechanical properties of brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Engstrand, Johanna; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Due to a fast setting reaction, good biological properties, and easily available starting materials, there has been extensive research within the field of brushite cements as bone replacing material. However, the fast setting of brushite cement gives them intrinsically low mechanical properties due to the poor crystal compaction during setting. To improve this, many additives such as citric acid, pyrophosphates, and glycolic acid have been added to the cement paste to retard the crystal growth. Furthermore, the incorporation of a filler material could improve the mechanical properties when used in the correct amounts. In this study, the effect of the addition of the two retardants, disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate and citric acid, together with the addition of β-TCP filler particles, on the mechanical properties of a brushite cement was investigated. The results showed that the addition of low amounts of a filler (up to 10%) can have large effects on the mechanical properties. Furthermore, the addition of citric acid to the liquid phase makes it possible to use lower liquid-to-powder ratios (L/P), which strongly affects the strength of the cements. The maximal compressive strength (41.8MPa) was found for a composition with a molar ratio of 45:55 between monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and beta-tricalcium phosphate, an L/P of 0.25ml/g and a citric acid concentration of 0.5M in the liquid phase. PMID:24064324

  16. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  17. Rock Mechanical Properties from Logs Petrophysics : Concepts and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Crawford, Brian; Alramahi, Bashar; Karner, Steve

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the "geomechanics from logs" (GML) research project is to develop model-driven predictive software for determining rock mechanical properties (specifically rock strength, compressibility and fracability) from other, more easily measured, rock properties (e.g. lithology, porosity, clay volume, velocity) routinely derived from nuclear, resistivity and acoustic logging tools. To this end, geomechanics from logs seeks to increase fundamental understanding of the primary geologic controls on rock mechanical properties and to translate this new insight into novel predictive tools. In detail, GML predictors rely on (i) the generation of relational rock mechanical properties databases incorporating QC'd core-based laboratory measurements (both in-house and high-precision published data); (ii) the use of established rock physics models (e.g. friable sand, contact cement models) to investigate theoretical relationships between geologic processes, reservoir environment, rock microstructure and elastic, bulk and transport petrophysical attributes/properties; (iii) the subdivision of database rocks into generic lithotypes (e.g. sand, shaly sand, sandy shale, shale) with common petrophysical attributes/properties; (iv) the use of multivariate statistics to generate lithotype-dependent empirical predictive relationships between mechanical properties and log-derived petrophysical attributes/properties; (v) the estimation of uncertainties associated with predictive function parameters; (vi) the application and validation of mechanical properties predictive tools to well-documented case studies (e.g. sand strength for perforation stability, rock compressibility for reservoir simulation) to test overall performance and quantify uncertainty in predictions. This paper presents the results of various rock strength, rock compressibility and rock fracability case studies conducted in wells of different stratigraphic age and depositional environment. Overall, GML (i

  18. Hygrothermal ageing effect on mechanical properties of FRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, S.; Bensaada, R.; Bilek, A.; Djebali, S.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of hygrothermal aging on mechanical properties of two composite materials (carbon fiber / epoxy and glass fiber E / vinylester). Two stratifications are studied for each material. Both materials are exposed to two different environments, the sea water and the deionized water at a temperature of 40°C. The kinetic of material absorption is plotted. We see an irreversible degradation of material caused by exposure time. The characterization of samples in the virgin state and the aged condition is achieved with three points bending tests. We can see significant loss of mechanical properties due to hygrothermal aging.

  19. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    PubMed

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control. PMID:25328228

  20. Thermal Influence on Mechanical Properties of Granite: A Microcracking Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    The particle mechanics method is used to simulate the process of thermally induced micro- and macrocracks in granite, to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for temperature-dependent mechanical properties. The numerical results are quantified and compared with existing results from other experimental data in the literature. The results indicate that heating generally reduces the compressive and tensile strengths of granites, first because of increasing thermal stresses, and second because of the generation of tensile microcracks. Rock mechanical properties are reduced in specimens subjected to heating-cooling cycles, solely because of the increase in density of thermally induced tensile microcracks. The presence of a thermal gradient induces the formation of macrocracks, which propagate from relatively cool to relatively warm areas. It is also observed that the boundary condition of the specimen can also affect the development of microcracks.

  1. Characterization of High Temperature Mechanical Properties Using Laser Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    David Hurley; Stephen Reese; Farhad Farzbod; Rory Kennedy

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical properties are controlled to a large degree by defect structures such as dislocations and grain boundaries. These microstructural features involve a perturbation of the perfect crystal lattice (i.e. strain fields). Viewed in this context, high frequency strain waves (i.e. ultrasound) provide a natural choice to study microstructure mediated mechanical properties. In this presentation we use laser ultrasound to probe mechanical properties of materials. This approach utilizes lasers to excite and detect ultrasonic waves, and as a consequence has unique advantages over other methods—it is noncontacting, requires no couplant or invasive sample preparation (other than that used in metallurgical analysis), and has the demonstrated capability to probe microstructure on a micron scale. Laser techniques are highly reproducible enabling sophisticated, microstructurally informed data analysis. Since light is being used for generation and detection of the ultrasonic wave, the specimen being examined is not mechanically coupled to the transducer. As a result, laser ultrasound can be carried out remotely, an especially attractive characteristic for in situ measurements in severe environments. Several examples involving laser ultrasound to measure mechanical properties in high temperature environments will be presented. Emphasis will be place on understanding the role of grain microstructure.

  2. Mechanical properties of normal versus cancerous breast cells.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Amanda M; Macosko, Jed C; O'Dell, Adam P; Smyre, Scott; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2015-11-01

    A cell's mechanical properties are important in determining its adhesion, migration, and response to the mechanical properties of its microenvironment and may help explain behavioral differences between normal and cancerous cells. Using fluorescently labeled peroxisomes as microrheological probes, the interior mechanical properties of normal breast cells were compared to a metastatic breast cell line, MDA-MB-231. To estimate the mechanical properties of cell cytoplasms from the motions of their peroxisomes, it was necessary to reduce the contribution of active cytoskeletal motions to peroxisome motion. This was done by treating the cells with blebbistatin, to inhibit myosin II, or with sodium azide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, to reduce intracellular ATP. Using either treatment, the peroxisomes exhibited normal diffusion or subdiffusion, and their mean squared displacements (MSDs) showed that the MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly softer than normal cells. For these two cell types, peroxisome MSDs in treated and untreated cells converged at high frequencies, indicating that cytoskeletal structure was not altered by the drug treatment. The MSDs from ATP-depleted cells were analyzed by the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation to estimate the interior viscoelastic modulus G* and its components, the elastic shear modulus G' and viscous shear modulus G", at angular frequencies between 0.126 and 628 rad/s. These moduli are the material coefficients that enter into stress-strain relations and relaxation times in quantitative mechanical models such as the poroelastic model of the interior regions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. PMID:25929519

  3. Hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of remineralized dentin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Jianming; Sun, Jian; Mao, Caiyun; Wang, Wei; Pan, Haihua; Tang, Ruikang; Gu, Xinhua

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the mechanical properties of dentin are significantly determined by its hierarchical structure. The current correlation between the mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure was mainly established by studying altered forms of dentin, which limits the potential outcome of the research. In this study, dentins with three different hierarchical structures were obtained via two different remineralization procedures and at different remineralization stages: (1) a dentin structure with amorphous minerals incorporated into the collagen fibrils, (2) a dentin with crystallized nanominerals incorporated into the collagen fibrils, and (3) a dentin with an out-of-order mineral layer filling the collagen fibrils matrix. Nanoindentation tests were performed to investigate the mechanical behavior of the remineralized dentin slides. The results showed that the incorporation of the crystallized nanominerals into the acid-etched demineralized organic fibrils resulted in a remarkable improvement of the mechanical properties of the dentin. In contrast, for the other two structures, i.e. the amorphous minerals inside the collagen fibrils and the out-of-order mineral layer within the collagen fibrils matrix, the excellent mechanical properties of dentin could not be restored. PMID:25259668

  4. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodali, Padma

    A variety of surface modification and surface coating techniques are currently used in industry to modify the near-surface mechanical properties that influence the friction and wear behavior of metals, metallic alloys, ceramics, and polymers. Near-surface mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness of a coating-substrate system can be tailored economically without changing the bulk properties of the system. The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) Investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation. (2) Characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation. (3) Developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. Wear mechanisms that occurred in implanted and unimplanted surfaces tested against AIS152100

  5. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondiiwas not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates.

  6. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Krusor, Colin; Smith, Woutrina A; Tinker, M Tim; Silver, Mary; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen

    2015-11-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can cause fatal disease in humans, terrestrial warm-blooded animals and aquatic mammals. Although an association between T. gondii exposure and prey specialization on marine snails was identified in threatened California sea otters, the ability of kelp-dwelling snails to transmit terrestrially derived pathogens has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to measure concentration and retention of T. gondii by marine snails in laboratory aquaria, and to test for natural T. gondii contamination in field-collected snails. Following exposure to T. gondii-containing seawater, oocysts were detected by microscopy in snail faeces and tissues for 10 and 3 days respectively. Nested polymerase chain reaction was also applied as a method for confirming putative T. gondii oocysts detected in snail faeces and tissues by microscopy. Toxoplasma gondii was not detected in field-collected snails. Results suggest that turban snails are competent transport hosts for T. gondii. By concentrating oocysts in faecal pellets, snails may facilitate entry of T. gondii into the nearshore marine food web. This novel mechanism also represents a general pathway by which marine transmission of terrestrially derived microorganisms can be mediated via pathogen concentration and retention by benthic invertebrates. PMID:26033089

  7. Effect of alcohol aggregation on the retention factors of chiral solutes with an amylose-based sorbent: modeling and implications for the adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Hung-Wei; Franses, Elias I; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2014-02-01

    Various displacement models in the literature have been widely used for understanding the adsorption mechanisms of solutes in various chromatography systems. The models were used for describing the often-observed linear plots of the logarithms of the retention factor versus the logarithms of the polar modifier concentration CI(0). The slopes of such a plot was inferred to be equal to the number of the displaced modifier molecules upon adsorption of one solute molecule, and were generally found to be greater than 1. In this study, the retention factors of four structurally related chiral solutes, ethyl lactate (EL), methyl mandelate (MM), benzoin (B), and pantolactone (PL), were measured for the amylose tris[(S)-α-methylbenzylcarbamate] sorbent, or AS, as a function of the concentration of isopropanol (IPA) in n-hexane. With increasing IPA concentration CI(0), the slopes increase from less than 1, at a concentration range from 0.13 to 1.3M, to slightly more than 1 at higher concentrations. Such slopes cannot be explained by the conventional retention models. It was found previously for monovalent solutes that such slopes can only be explained when the aggregation of the mobile phase modifier, isopropyl alcohol, was accounted for. A new retention model is presented here, accounting for alcohol aggregation, multivalent solute adsorption, multivalent solute-alcohol complexation, alcohol adsorption, and solute intra hydrogen-bonding, which occur in these four solutes. The slope is found to be controlled by three key dimensionless groups, the fraction of the sorbent binding sites covered by IPA, the fraction of the solute molecules in complex form, and the fraction of the IPA molecules in aggregate form. The limiting slope at a very high IPA concentration is equal to the value of (x+y)/n, where x is the number of the solute-sorbent binding sites and y is the number of the alcohol molecules in the solute-alcohol complex, and n is the alcohol aggregation number. The model

  8. Mechanical properties of the rabbit iris smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Kazutsuna; Yoshitomi, Takeshi; Usui, Shiro; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka

    2003-02-01

    The study focuses on obtaining the visco-elastic properties of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Two kinds of experiments were performed: the isometric contraction experiment and the isotonic quick release experiment. The length-tension relationship was obtained from the former experiment. This relationship clarified the contribution of each muscle in determining the statics of the pupil. The viscous and serial elastic properties were obtained from the latter experiment. The viscosity could be expressed by the expanded Hill's equation as a function of velocity and contractile tension. We argue that serial elasticity is independent of contractile tension. These properties provide insights into the pupillary mechanism. PMID:12536003

  9. Investigation of the mechanical properties of superconducting coils

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, F.W.; Kerby, J.S.

    1990-03-01

    This paper presents data on 3 of the important mechanical properties of SSC type superconducting coils. The measured properties are: (1) The azimuthal elastic modulus of the coil samples made for the stress relaxation tests. (2) The rate of stress --- relaxation of collared SSC outer coils molded to different sizes and (3) The pressures that various insulations can withstand during molding or collaring before turn-to-turn shorts develop. Additional data on these and other properties are available but omitted here because of space limitations. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Designed biomaterials to mimic the mechanical properties of muscles.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shanshan; Dudek, Daniel M; Cao, Yi; Balamurali, M M; Gosline, John; Li, Hongbin

    2010-05-01

    The passive elasticity of muscle is largely governed by the I-band part of the giant muscle protein titin, a complex molecular spring composed of a series of individually folded immunoglobulin-like domains as well as largely unstructured unique sequences. These mechanical elements have distinct mechanical properties, and when combined, they provide the desired passive elastic properties of muscle, which are a unique combination of strength, extensibility and resilience. Single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies demonstrated that the macroscopic behaviour of titin in intact myofibrils can be reconstituted by combining the mechanical properties of these mechanical elements measured at the single-molecule level. Here we report artificial elastomeric proteins that mimic the molecular architecture of titin through the combination of well-characterized protein domains GB1 and resilin. We show that these artificial elastomeric proteins can be photochemically crosslinked and cast into solid biomaterials. These biomaterials behave as rubber-like materials showing high resilience at low strain and as shock-absorber-like materials at high strain by effectively dissipating energy. These properties are comparable to the passive elastic properties of muscles within the physiological range of sarcomere length and so these materials represent a new muscle-mimetic biomaterial. The mechanical properties of these biomaterials can be fine-tuned by adjusting the composition of the elastomeric proteins, providing the opportunity to develop biomaterials that are mimetic of different types of muscles. We anticipate that these biomaterials will find applications in tissue engineering as scaffold and matrix for artificial muscles. PMID:20445626

  11. Measurement and Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Nitinol Stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Josef; Zahora, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The self expandable Nitinol stents or stentgrafts are typically used for miniinvasive treatment of stenosis and aneurysms in the cardiovascular system. The minimal traumatisation of the patient, shorter time of hospitalization are typical advantages of these methods. More than ten years of experience has yielded also important information about the performance of stents in interaction with biological system and the possible problems related with it. The leakage or the shift of stent are some typical disadvantages, that can be related among other in the construction of the stent. The problem is that the mechanical properties, dimensions and the dynamical properties of the stent do not exactly correspond to the properties of the vessel or generally of tissue where this stent is introduced. The measurement, the description and the comparison of the relations between the mechanical properties of stents and tissues can be one of the possible ways to minimize these disadvantages. The developed original computer controlled measuring system allows the measurement of mechanical properties of stents, the measurement of strain-stress curves or simulation of interaction of the stent and vessel for exactly defined hemodynamic conditions. We measured and compared the mechanical parameters of different selfexpandable Nitinol stents, which differed in geometry (radius and length), in the type of construction (number of branches and rising of winding) and in the diameter of used wire. The results of measurements confirmed the theoretical assumptions that just the diameter of the Nitinol wire significantly influences the rigidity and the level of compressibility of the stent as well. A compromise must be found between the required rigidity of the stent and the minimal size of the delivery system. The exact description of the relation between the mechanical properties and geometry and construction of the stents enables to design the stent to fit the patient and it is expected that

  12. The Effect of Excess Carbon on the Crystallographic, Microstructural, and Mechanical Properties of CVD Silicon Carbide Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Marzik, J V; Croft, W J; Staples, R J; MoberlyChan, W J

    2006-12-05

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fibers made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are of interest for organic, ceramic, and metal matrix composite materials due their high strength, high elastic modulus, and retention of mechanical properties at elevated processing and operating temperatures. The properties of SCS-6{trademark} silicon carbide fibers, which are made by a commercial process and consist largely of stoichiometric SiC, were compared with an experimental carbon-rich CVD SiC fiber, to which excess carbon was added during the CVD process. The concentration, homogeneity, and distribution of carbon were measured using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The effect of excess carbon on the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and the crystallographic and microstructural properties of CVD silicon carbide fibers was investigated using tensile testing, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  13. Characterization of mechanical and biochemical properties of developing embryonic tendon

    PubMed Central

    Marturano, Joseph E.; Arena, Jeffrey D.; Schiller, Zachary A.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Tendons have uniquely high tensile strength, critical to their function to transfer force from muscle to bone. When injured, their innate healing response results in aberrant matrix organization and functional properties. Efforts to regenerate tendon are challenged by limited understanding of its normal development. Consequently, there are few known markers to assess tendon formation and parameters to design tissue engineering scaffolds. We profiled mechanical and biological properties of embryonic tendon and demonstrated functional properties of developing tendon are not wholly reflected by protein expression and tissue morphology. Using force volume-atomic force microscopy, we found that nano- and microscale tendon elastic moduli increase nonlinearly and become increasingly spatially heterogeneous during embryonic development. When we analyzed potential biochemical contributors to modulus, we found statistically significant but weak correlation between elastic modulus and collagen content, and no correlation with DNA or glycosaminoglycan content, indicating there are additional contributors to mechanical properties. To investigate collagen cross-linking as a potential contributor, we inhibited lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen cross-linking, which significantly reduced tendon elastic modulus without affecting collagen morphology or DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen content. This suggests that lysyl oxidase-mediated cross-linking plays a significant role in the development of embryonic tendon functional properties and demonstrates that changes in cross-links alter mechanical properties without affecting matrix content and organization. Taken together, these data demonstrate the importance of functional markers to assess tendon development and provide a profile of tenogenic mechanical properties that may be implemented in tissue engineering scaffold design to mechanoregulate new tendon regeneration. PMID:23576745

  14. In-situ polymerisation of fully bioresorbable polycaprolactone/phosphate glass fibre composites: In vitro degradation and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Menghao; Parsons, Andrew J; Felfel, Reda M; Rudd, Christopher D; Irvine, Derek J; Ahmed, Ifty

    2016-06-01

    Fully bioresorbable composites have been investigated in order to replace metal implant plates used for hard tissue repair. Retention of the composite mechanical properties within a physiological environment has been shown to be significantly affected due to loss of the integrity of the fibre/matrix interface. This study investigated phosphate based glass fibre (PGF) reinforced polycaprolactone (PCL) composites with 20%, 35% and 50% fibre volume fractions (Vf) manufactured via an in-situ polymerisation (ISP) process and a conventional laminate stacking (LS) followed by compression moulding. Reinforcing efficiency between the LS and ISP manufacturing process was compared, and the ISP composites revealed significant improvements in mechanical properties when compared to LS composites. The degradation profiles and mechanical properties were monitored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C for 28 days. ISP composites revealed significantly less media uptake and mass loss (p<0.001) throughout the degradation period. The initial flexural properties of ISP composites were substantially higher (p<0.0001) than those of the LS composites, which showed that the ISP manufacturing process provided a significantly enhanced reinforcement effect than the LS process. During the degradation study, statistically higher flexural property retention profiles were also seen for the ISP composites compared to LS composites. SEM micrographs of fracture surfaces for the LS composites revealed dry fibre bundles and poor fibre dispersion with polymer rich zones, which indicated poor interfacial bonding, distribution and adhesion. In contrast, evenly distributed fibres without dry fibre bundles or polymer rich zones, were clearly observed for the ISP composite samples, which showed that a superior fibre/matrix interface was achieved with highly improved adhesion. PMID:26748261

  15. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Agave Americana L. Fibres: Correlation Between Fine Structure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msahli, S.; Chaabouni, Y.; Sakli, F.; Drean, J. Y.

    In this study, results of a mechanical behavior study of fibres extracted from the agave Americana L. plant, the most abundant variety in Tunisia, are presented. These results deal with the principal and mechanical characteristics of these fibres which are the elongation at break, the elasticity modulus and the rupture facture. These results permitted to situate these fibres, compared to the other textile fibres, as materials that can be used in technical applications such as reinforcing composites or geotextile. In order to understand the mechanical properties of these fibres, a correlation study between the properties already cited and the fine structure was done. The obtained results showed that the mechanical properties of agave Americana L. fibres are closely related to the individual fibers deformations and to the natural matrix (lignin and gums) that links these elementary fibres.

  17. High-rate mechanical properties of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walley, S. M.; Siviour, C. R.; Drodge, D. R.; Williamson, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to the many thousands of studies that have been performed on the energy release mechanisms of high energy materials, relatively few studies have been performed (a few hundred) into their mechanical properties. Since it is increasingly desired to model the high rate deformation of such materials, it is of great importance to gather data on their response so that predictive constitutive models can be constructed. This paper reviews the state of the art concerning what is known about the mechanical response of high energy materials. Examples of such materials are polymer bonded explosives (used in munitions), propellants (used to propel rockets), and pyrotechnics (used to initiate munitions and also in flares).

  18. In vivo liver tissue mechanical properties by Transient Elastography: comparison with Dynamic Mechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chatelin, Simon; Oudry, Jennifer; Périchon, Nicolas; Sandrin, Laurent; Allemann, Pierre; Soler, Luc; Willinger, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of human liver is one of the most critical aspects of its numerical modeling for medical applications or impact biomechanics. Generally, model constitutive laws come from in vitro data. However, the elastic properties of liver may change significantly after death and with time. Furthermore, in vitro liver elastic properties reported in the literature have often not been compared quantitatively with in vivo liver mechanical properties on the same organ. In this study, both steps are investigated on porcine liver. The elastic property of the porcine liver, given by the shear modulus G, was measured by both Transient Elastography (TE) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Shear modulus measurements were realized on in vivo and in vitro liver to compare the TE and DMA methods and to study the influence of testing conditions on the liver viscoelastic properties. In vitro results show that elastic properties obtained by TE and DMA are in agreement. Liver tissue in the frequency range from 0.1 to 4 Hz can be modeled by a two-mode relaxation model. Furthermore, results show that the liver is homogeneous, isotropic and more elastic than viscous. Finally, it is shown in this study that viscoelastic properties obtained by TE and DMA change significantly with post mortem time and with the boundary conditions. PMID:21811013

  19. Hyperoxia alters the mechanical properties of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roan, Esra; Wilhelm, Kristina; Bada, Alex; Makena, Patrudu S; Gorantla, Vijay K; Sinclair, Scott E; Waters, Christopher M

    2012-06-15

    Patients with severe acute lung injury are frequently administered high concentrations of oxygen (>50%) during mechanical ventilation. Long-term exposure to high levels of oxygen can cause lung injury in the absence of mechanical ventilation, but the combination of the two accelerates and increases injury. Hyperoxia causes injury to cells through the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species. However, the precise mechanisms that lead to epithelial injury and the reasons for increased injury caused by mechanical ventilation are not well understood. We hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may be more susceptible to injury caused by mechanical ventilation if hyperoxia alters the mechanical properties of the cells causing them to resist deformation. To test this hypothesis, we used atomic force microscopy in the indentation mode to measure the mechanical properties of cultured AECs. Exposure of AECs to hyperoxia for 24 to 48 h caused a significant increase in the elastic modulus (a measure of resistance to deformation) of both primary rat type II AECs and a cell line of mouse AECs (MLE-12). Hyperoxia also caused remodeling of both actin and microtubules. The increase in elastic modulus was blocked by treatment with cytochalasin D. Using finite element analysis, we showed that the increase in elastic modulus can lead to increased stress near the cell perimeter in the presence of stretch. We then demonstrated that cyclic stretch of hyperoxia-treated cells caused significant cell detachment. Our results suggest that exposure to hyperoxia causes structural remodeling of AECs that leads to decreased cell deformability. PMID:22467640

  20. Mechanical properties of Gd123 superconducting bulks at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Murakami, A.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical properties of melt-grown GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd123) large single-domain superconducting bulks with 10 wt% of Ag2O and 0.5 wt% of Pt have been evaluated at 77 K through flexural tests, on specimens cut from the samples, in order to estimate the mechanical properties of the Gd123 material without metal substrates, buffer layers or stabilization layers. The densified bulk was 46 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness, with low void density, and the standard bulk was around the same size, with voids. The results show that the mechanical properties of the densified Gd123 bulk with low void density are better than those of the standard Gd123 bulk with voids. We also compared the mechanical properties of as-grown bulks with those of annealed bulks. The relations between the microstructure and the flexural strength or the fracture toughness of the densified Gd123 bulk have been shown.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Polarization-Maintaining Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Ally, A.; Barnes, S.; Watkins, L.; Cuddihy, E.

    1996-01-01

    Polarization-maintaining optical fibers, referred to as PANDA fibers, were subjected to Cobalt 60 radiation (300,000 Rad). The mechanical properties of the PANDA fibers were measured after exposure to gamma radiation and compared to non-irradiated PANDA fibers.

  2. Mechanical shear and tensile properties of selected biomass stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as big bluestem, corn stalk, intermediate wheat grass and switchgrass stem are abundant and dominant species in the Midwest region of US. There is a need to understand the mechanical properties for these crops for better handling and processing of the biomass feedstocks...

  3. Mechanical properties of single pellets containing acrylic polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Zhang, G; Shah, N H; Infeld, M H; Malick, A W; McGinity, J W

    1996-07-01

    Three aqueous-based acrylic latex dispersions, Eudragit L 30 D, NE 30 D, and RS 30 D, were incorporated as granulating binders into a powder blend of microcrystalline cellulose and anhydrous lactose by wet massing. Spheronized pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and the mechanical properties of single pellets, including the tensile strength at break and the Young's modulus were determined from the stress-strain profiles using a Chatillon TCD-200 tension/compression digital test gauge. The influence of particle size and plasticizer on the mechanical properties of pellets containing Eudragit RS 30 D was investigated. All bead formulations deformed by brittle fracture under a diametral compression force. The mechanical strength was found to be influenced by the adhesive strength between the polymers and the powder particles instead of the cohesive strength of each polymer. The Young's modulus and the tensile strength were also significantly influenced by the type and concentration of polymer, the presence of plasticizer, and the particle size of the beads. The results were related to the properties of the polymers and the fracture mechanisms of the beads. Furthermore, the polymer type and the incorporation of plasticizer influenced the susceptibility of the moistened extruded granules to the shearing forces during the spheronization process, which influenced the surface morphological properties of the pellets. PMID:9552348

  4. Mechanical and physical properties of modern boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of accurate measurements of the modern boron fiber's Young's modulus, flexural modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are reported. Physical property data concerning fiber density, thermal expansion, and resistance obtained during the course of the mechanical studies are also given.

  5. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  6. Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Starch-Clay Nanocomposite Films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poor barrier and mechanical properties of biopolymer-based food packaging can potentially be enhanced by the use of layered silicates (nanoclay) to produce nanocomposites. In this study, starch-clay nano-composites were synthesized by a melt extrusion method. Natural (MMT) and organically modifi...

  7. Thermal treatment and mechanical properties of aluminum-2021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennecke, M. W.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical properties, after thermal treatments, are summarized for sheet and plate of copper-rich, high-strength, heat-treatable aluminum-2021. The alloy is quench sensitive, quench rate and variations in aging affect corrosion behavior. Aging effects on yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation of sheet and plate are compared.

  8. Enhanced Graphene Mechanical Properties through Ultrasmooth Copper Growth Substrates.

    PubMed

    Griep, Mark H; Sandoz-Rosado, Emil; Tumlin, Travis M; Wetzel, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The combination of extraordinary strength and stiffness in conjunction with exceptional electronic and thermal properties in lightweight two-dimensional materials has propelled graphene research toward a wide array of applications including flexible electronics and functional structural components. Tailoring graphene's properties toward a selected application requires precise control of the atomic layer growth process, transfer, and postprocessing procedures. To date, the mechanical properties of graphene are largely controlled through postprocess defect engineering techniques. In this work, we demonstrate the role of varied catalytic surface morphologies on the tailorability of subsequent graphene film quality and breaking strength, providing a mechanism to tailor the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties at the growth stage. A new surface planarization methodology that results in over a 99% reduction in Cu surface roughness allows for smoothness parameters beyond that reported to date in literature and clearly demonstrates the role of Cu smoothness toward a decrease in the formation of bilayer graphene defects, altered domain sizes, monolayer graphene sheet resistance values down to 120 Ω/□ and a 78% improvement in breaking strength. The combined electrical and mechanical enhancements achieved through this methodology allows for the direct growth of application quality flexible transparent conductive films with monolayer graphene. PMID:26882091

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyuta, E. N.

    2014-09-01

    We review the data on the physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil that were acquired in the direct investigations on the lunar surface carried out in the manned and automatic missions and in the laboratory examination of the lunar samples returned to the Earth. In justice to the American manned program Apollo, we show that a large volume of the data on the properties of the lunar soil was also obtained in the Soviet automatic program Lunokhod and with the automatic space stations Luna-16, -20, and -24 that returned the lunar soil samples to the Earth. We consider all of the main physical and mechanical properties of the lunar soil, such as the granulometric composition, density and porosity, cohesion and adhesion, angle of internal friction, shear strength of loose soil, deformation characteristics (the deformation modulus and Poisson ratio), compressibility, and the bearing capacity, and show the change of some properties versus the depth. In most cases, the analytical dependence of the main parameters is presented, which is required in developing reliable engineering models of the lunar soil. The main physical and mechanical properties are listed in the summarizing table, and the currently available models and simulants of the lunar soil are reviewed.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Porcine Cartilage After Uniform RF Heating

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Allison J.; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Thermally mediated modalities of cartilage reshaping utilize localized heating of cartilage combined with mechanical deformation to achieve new geometries. We sought to determine the steady state elastic modulus of thermally modified cartilage without deformation, as this provides a constraint in mechanical models of the shape change process. Study Design/Materials and Methods The main objective of this study was to characterize the steady state elastic modulus of porcine septal cartilage after uniform heating with radiofrequency (RF) to peak temperatures of 50 ± 5, 65 ± 5, and 85 ± 5°C. The cartilage was divided into three equally sized regions, designated as anterior, middle and posterior. Each region was then sectioned into two specimens with the proximal component serving as a paired control. Results The data confirm that there is high baseline variability in control steady state elastic moduli between animals. Also, the control values confirm a decreasing steady state elastic modulus from anterior to posterior. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) found between the elastic moduli of control and treated samples. Conclusions Although shape change and retention have been fairly well characterized, little is known about the specific relation between steady state elastic modulus of cartilage and maximum treatment temperature. We determined that the difference of steady state elastic modulus between control and treated porcine septal samples was not statistically significant after uniform heating with RF to peak temperatures of 50 ± 5, 65 ± 5, and 85 ± 5°C. Ultimately, the results of this study do not pertain to the regions of heated cartilage that are shaped to hold a new form; however, it does show that the regions that are not mechanically deformed do return to the original pre-treatment elastic modulus. This is still useful information that may be used in finite element models to predict changes in internal stress

  11. Brillouin microspectroscopy of nanostructured biomaterials: photonics assisted tailoring mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Jaiswal, Manish K.; Chitrakar, Chandani; Thakur, Teena; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-03-01

    Developing new biomaterials is essential for the next-generation of materials for bioenergy, bioelectronics, basic biology, medical diagnostics, cancer research, and regenerative medicine. Specifically, recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. The physical properties of nanocomposite biomaterials, including elasticity and viscosity, play key roles in controlling cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. Conventional mechanical tests, including uniaxial compression and tension, dynamic mechanical analysis and shear rheology, require mechanical forces to be directly exerted onto the sample and therefore may not be suitable for in situ measurements or continuous monitoring of mechanical stiffness. In this study, we employ spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy as a viscoelasticity-specific probing technique. We utilized a Brillouin spectrometer to characterize biomaterial's microscopic elasticity and correlated those with conventional mechanical tests (e.g., rheology).

  12. Mechanical properties of the bovine claw horn during lactation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B; Margerison, J K

    2012-04-01

    Claw horn disorders are one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cows globally. This study aimed to develop material testing techniques to assess changes in the mechanical properties of bovine claw horn (BCH) and to compare these mechanical properties with existing methods of assessing claw horn disorders during lactation. Lameness was also measured through locomotion scoring to assess the clinical significance of changes observed in the scoring for lesions. Experiment 1 used 8 claws collected from four 12 to 18 mo old beef heifers, to develop BCH sample storage methods and techniques to test the mechanical properties of BCH (puncture resistance and elastic modulus). The increase in the moisture content of BCH had a significant negative exponential effect on the elastic modulus of the sole and white line claw horn and a linear reduction in the puncture resistance of BCH. Placing BCH samples in sealed plastic bags and storing them either at 2°C or by freezing samples at -22°C did not alter the dry matter content and, consequently, the mechanical properties of the claw horn tissue. In experiment 2, BCH was collected from 36 lactating dairy cows and mechanical properties were tested using puncture resistance. Puncture resistance of the sole area of the claw horn decreased significantly when hemorrhages in the tested area increased. The puncture resistance of the sole and white line areas decreased at d 160 postpartum when the cows exhibited higher lesion scores and was lower in hind claws that had higher lesion scores when compared with the fore claws. The highest puncture resistance was found at 270 d postpartum, when the animals were at pasture. Puncture resistance was found to be an effective technique for assessing the effect of period of lactation and increasing hemorrhage levels on the mechanical properties and structural strength of bovine claw horn. It was found to be a good method of comparing changes and differences in mechanical properties and

  13. Relationship of the optical absorption and scattering properties with mechanical and structural properties of apple tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical absorption and scattering properties of fruit change with the physiological and biochemical activities in the tissue during ripening and postharvest storage. But it has not been well understood on how these changes are related to the structural and mechanical properties of fruit. This resear...

  14. Mechanical property determination of high conductivity metals and alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrod, D. L.; Vandergrift, E.; France, L.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent mechanical properties of three high conductivity metals and alloys; namely, vacuum hot pressed grade S-200E beryllium, OFHC copper and beryllium-copper alloy no. 10 were determined. These materials were selected based on their possible use in rocket thrust chamber and nozzle hardware. They were procured in a form and condition similar to that which might be ordered for actual hardware fabrication. The mechanical properties measured include (1) tension and compression stress strain curves at constant strain rate (2) tensile and compressive creep, (3) tensile and compressive stress-relaxation behavior and (4) elastic properties. Tests were conducted over the temperature range of from 75 F to 1600 F. The resulting data is presented in both graphical and tabular form.

  15. Thin film characterization using a mechanical properties microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, W. C.; McHargue, C. J.; Zinkle, S. J.

    A new ultra-low load microindentation system has been acquired in the ORNL Metals and Ceramics Division. The system's spatial resolution and its data acquisition capabilities allow the determination of several mechanical properties from volumes of material with submicron dimension; hence, the term Mechanical Properties Microprobe (MPM). Research with the MPM at Oak Ridge has led to improved techniques for determining the plastic and elastic properties of materials using microindentation experiments. The techniques have been applied to thin films created by ion implanting metals and ceramics, radiation damaged materials, and thin hard coatings of TiN. Changes in the strength (hardness) and modulus have been measured in films as thin as 200 nm.

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of the Czech marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with selected parameters of four marbles with respect to their utilization as building materials. Stones from four function quarries in the Czech Republic were chosen and scopes of physical properties were determined. Basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties belong among studied characteristics. Bulk density of studied marbles is in average 2750 kg/m3, matrix density 2770 kg/m3, open porosity 0.7%. Pore structure show similar distributions. Mechanical properties show more differences; however minimal value of compressive strength was 66.5 MPa, while maximum was 174 MPa. Thermal conductivity of studied marbles was about 2.955 W/mK. Last measured characteristic was specific heat capacity; its average value was 609 J/kgK.

  17. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  18. Processing dependence of mechanical properties of metallic glass nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Mo; Li, Qi-Kai

    2015-02-16

    Compared to their crystalline counterparts, nanowires made of metallic glass have not only superb properties but also remarkable processing ability. They can be processed easily and cheaply like plastics via a wide range of methods. To date, the underlying mechanisms of how these different processing routes affect the wires' properties as well as the atomic structure remains largely unknown. Here, by using atomistic modeling, we show that different processing methods can greatly influence the mechanical properties. The nanowires made via focused ion beam milling and embossing exhibit higher strength but localized plastic deformation, whereas that made by casting from liquid shows excellent ductility with homogeneous deformation but reduced strength. The different responses are reflected sensitively in the underlying atomic structure and packing density, some of which have been observed experimentally. The presence of the gradient of alloy concentration and surface effect will be discussed.

  19. Mechanical properties of silver halide core/clad IR fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalem, Shaul; German, Alla; Moser, Frank; Katzir, Abraham

    1996-04-01

    We have developed core/clad polycrystalline silver halide optical fibers with a loss of roughly 0.3 dB/m at 10.6 micrometers. Such fibers, with core diameters 0.3 - 0.6 mm and lengths of 1 to 2 meters are capable of continuously delivering output power densities as high as 14 KW/cm2. The fibers were repetitively bent in the plastic and elastic regimes and the optical transmission monitored during bending. The mechanical properties of the core/clad fibers and of the core only fibers are similar. It was also demonstrated that the 'bending' properties of the core/clad fibers are determined by the cladding material. Our investigations suggest that proper design of the core/clad structure may give significant improvement in mechanical properties such as more cycles to optical failure. This will be very important especially for endoscopic laser surgery and other medical applications.

  20. Mechanical and wear properties of PMMA/PVDF microfilled systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.L.; Koelling, K.W.; Seghi, R.R.

    1996-12-31

    There is a clinical need in fixed prosthodontics for aesthetic materials that are biologically compatible. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been used extensively in dental applications. Blends of PMMA and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are a new class of materials that might perform as aesthetic restorative materials. The fracture properties of PMMA have been intensively studied because it is an amorphous glass below 110{degrees}C, thus exhibiting brittle fracture under normal testing conditions below about 85{degrees}C. However, this brittle behavior leads to poor wear resistance. The properties of the matrix can be tailored by blending with PVDF. The blends are composed of homogeneous mixtures of the two polymers at the molecular level. Polyvinylidene fluoride molecules do not contribute to the mechanical yield behavior of the blend but do act as plasticizers. Improvements in the mechanical properties may be achieved by incorporating a filler into the polymer matrix.

  1. Determining the Mechanical Properties of Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Lattice block structures and shape memory alloys possess several traits ideal for solving intriguing new engineering problems in industries such as aerospace, military, and transportation. Recent testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center has investigated the material properties of lattice block structures cast from a conventional aerospace titanium alloy as well as lattice block structures cast from nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The lattice block structures for both materials were sectioned into smaller subelements for tension and compression testing. The results from the cast conventional titanium material showed that the expected mechanical properties were maintained. The shape memory alloy material was found to be extremely brittle from the casting process and only compression testing was completed. Future shape memory alloy lattice block structures will utilize an adjusted material composition that will provide a better quality casting. The testing effort resulted in baseline mechanical property data from the conventional titanium material for comparison to shape memory alloy materials once suitable castings are available.

  2. Mechanical properties of graphynes under shearing and bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Lijun; Zhang, Yingyan; Feng, Xiqiao; Chang, Tienchong; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    Graphynes are the allotrope of graphene. In this work, extensive molecular dynamics simulations are performed on four different graphynes ( α - , β - , γ - , and 6,6,12-graphynes) to explore their mechanical properties (shear modulus, shear strength, and bending rigidity) under shearing and bending. While the shearing properties are anisotropic, the bending rigidity is almost independent of the chirality of graphynes. We also find that the shear modulus and shear fracture strength of graphynes decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the percentage of the acetylenic linkages on the shear mechanical properties and bending rigidity is investigated. It is shown that the fracture shear strengths and bending rigidities of the four types of graphynes decrease, while the fracture shear strain increases, with increasing percentages of the acetylenic linkages. Significant wrinkling is observed in graphyne under shear strain. The influence of the temperatures and percentages of the acetylenic linkages on the ratio of amplitude-to-wavelength in the wrinkles are examined.

  3. Mechanical properties of 4d transition metals in molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Deobrat; Sonvane, Yogesh; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical properties of 4d transition metals in molten state have been studied in the present study. We have calculated mechanical properties such as isothermal bulk modulus (B), modulus of rigidity (G), Young's modulus (Y) and Hardness have also been calculated from the elastic part of the Phonon dispersion curve (PDC). To describe the structural information, we have used different structure factor S(q) using Percus-Yevick hard sphere (PYHS) reference systems along with our newly constructed parameter free model potential.To see the influence of exchange and correlation effect on the above said properties of 3d liquid transition metals, we have used Sarkar et al (S)local field correction functions. Present results have been found good in agreement with available experimental data.

  4. The influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties of solder

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Reynolds, H.L.

    1996-06-01

    Solder joints in microelectronics devices consist of low-melting solder compositions that wet and join metal contacts and are, ordinarily, used at high homologous temperatures in the as-solidified condition. Differences in solidification rate and substrate interactions have the consequence that even solder joints of similar compositions exhibit a wide range of microstructures. The variation in microstructure causes a variation in properties; in particular, the high-temperature creep properties that govern much of the mechanical behavior of the solder may differ significantly from joint to joint. The present paper reviews the varieties of microstructure that are found in common solder joints, and describes some of the ways in which microstructural changes affect mechanical properties and joint reliability.

  5. Multiscale Approach to Characterize Mechanical Properties of Tissue Engineered Skin.

    PubMed

    Tupin, S; Molimard, J; Cenizo, V; Hoc, T; Sohm, B; Zahouani, H

    2016-09-01

    Tissue engineered skin usually consist of a multi-layered visco-elastic material composed of a fibrillar matrix and cells. The complete mechanical characterization of these tissues has not yet been accomplished. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiscale approach to perform this characterization in order to link the development process of a cultured skin to the mechanical properties. As a proof-of-concept, tissue engineered skin samples were characterized at different stages of manufacturing (acellular matrix, reconstructed dermis and reconstructed skin) for two different aging models (using cells from an 18- and a 61-year-old man). To assess structural variations, bi-photonic confocal microscopy was used. To characterize mechanical properties at a macroscopic scale, a light-load micro-mechanical device that performs indentation and relaxation tests was designed. Finally, images of the internal network of the samples under stretching were acquired by combining confocal microscopy with a tensile device. Mechanical properties at microscopic scale were assessed. Results revealed that adding cells during manufacturing induced structural changes, which provided higher elastic modulus and viscosity. Moreover, senescence models exhibited lower elastic modulus and viscosity. This multiscale approach was efficient to characterize and compare skin equivalent samples and permitted the first experimental assessment of the Poisson's ratio for such tissues. PMID:26942585

  6. Short-range mechanical properties of skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    Striated muscles are disproportionately stiff for small movements. This facet of their behavior can be demonstrated by measuring the force produced when the muscle is stretched more than about 1% of its initial length. When this is done, it can be seen that force rises rapidly during the initial phases of the movement and much less rapidly during the latter stages of the stretch. Experiments performed using chemically permeabilized skeletal and cardiac muscles show that the initial stiffness of the preparations increases in proportion with isometric force as the free Ca²(+) concentration in the bathing solution is raised from a minimal to a saturating value. This is strong evidence that the short-range mechanical properties of activated muscle result from stretching myosin cross-bridges that are attached between the thick and thin filaments. Relaxed intact muscles also exhibit short-range mechanical properties but the molecular mechanisms underlying this behavior are less clear. This chapter summarizes some of the interesting features of short-range mechanical properties in different types of muscle preparation, describes some of the likely underlying mechanisms and discusses the potential physiological significance of the behavior. PMID:20824529

  7. Influence of sedimentary environments on mechanical properties of clastic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaoping; Zhang, Jincai; Peng, Suping

    2006-10-01

    The sedimentary environments are the intrinsic factor controlling the mechanical properties of clastic rocks. Examining the relationship between rock sedimentary environments and rock mechanical properties gives a better understanding of rock deformation and failure mechanisms. In this study, more than 55 samples in coal measures were taken from seven different lithologic formations in eastern China. Using the optical microscope the sedimentary characteristics, such as components of clastic rocks and sizes of clastic grains were quantitatively tested and analyzed. The corresponding mechanical parameters were tested using the servo-controlled testing system. Different lithologic attributes in the sedimentary rocks sampled different stress-strain behaviors and failure characteristics under different confining pressures, mainly due to different compositions and textures. Results demonstrate that clastic rocks have the linear best-fit for Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The elastic moduli in clastic rocks are highly dependent upon confining pressures, unlike hard rocks. The envelope lines of the mechanical properties versus the contents of quartz, detritus of the grain diameter of more than 0.03 mm, and grain size in clastic rocks are given. The compressive strength or elastic modulus and the grain diameter have a non-monotonic relation and demonstrate the “grain-diameter softening” effect.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Materials with Nanometer Scale Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Nix

    2004-10-31

    We have been engaged in research on the mechanical properties of materials with nanometer-scale microstructural dimensions. Our attention has been focused on studying the mechanical properties of thin films and interfaces and very small volumes of material. Because the dimensions of thin film samples are small (typically 1 mm in thickness, or less), specialized mechanical testing techniques based on nanoindentation, microbeam bending and dynamic vibration of micromachined structures have been developed and used. Here we report briefly on some of the results we have obtained over the past three years. We also give a summary of all of the dissertations, talks and publications completed on this grant during the past 15 years.

  9. Using optical tweezers to study mechanical properties of collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Naghmeh; Downing, Benjamin P. B.; Wieczorek, Andrew; Chan, Clara K. Y.; Welch, Robert Lindsay; Forde, Nancy R.

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical response of biological molecules at the microscopic level contributes significantly to their function. Optical tweezers are instruments that enable scientists to study mechanical properties at microscopic levels. They are based on a highly focused laser beam that creates a trap for microscopic objects such as dielectric spheres, viruses, bacteria, living cells and organelles, and then manipulates them by applying forces in the picoNewton range (a range that is biologically relevant). In this work, mechanical properties of single collagen molecules are studied using optical tweezers. We discuss the challenges of stretching single collagen proteins, whose length is much less than the size of the microspheres used as manipulation handles, and show how instrumental design and biochemistry can be used to overcome these challenges.

  10. Quantitative Characterization of Mechanical Property of Annealed Monolayer Colloidal Crystal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Lu; Wang, Xiuyu; Yan, Qingfeng

    2016-01-19

    Quantitative characterization of the mechanical properties of a polystyrene (PS) monolayer colloidal crystal (MCC) annealed with solvent vapor has been performed for the first time by means of atomic force microscopy nanoindentation. The results showed that both the compressive and bending elastic modulus of PS MCC increased with the prolongation of annealing time from initial to 13 min. When the annealing time reached 15 min or even more, the PS MCC almost deformed to a planar film, and the elastic modulus of the PS MCC presented a drastic increase. These results provide a basis for tailoring the mechanical properties of a polymer colloidal monolayer via solvent vapor annealing. Such self-supported and high-mechanical-strength colloidal monolayers can be transferred to other surfaces for potential and promising applications in the bottom-up fabrication of highly ordered nanostructured materials such as nano dot arrays, photonic crystals, and many others. PMID:26700374

  11. Chirality-Mediated Mechanical and Structural Properties of Oligopeptide Hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Taraban, Marc B.; Feng, Yue; Hammouda, Boualem; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2012-10-29

    The origin and the effects of homochirality in the biological world continuously stimulate numerous hypotheses and much debate. This work attempts to look at the biohomochirality issue from a different angle - the mechanical properties of the bulk biomaterial and their relation to nanoscale structures. Using a pair of oppositely charged peptides that co-assemble into hydrogels, we systematically investigated the effect of chirality on the mechanical properties of these hydrogels through different combinations of syndiotactic and isotactic peptides. It was found that homochirality confers mechanical advantage, resulting in a higher elastic modulus and strain yield value. Yet, heterochirality confers kinetic advantage, resulting in faster gelation. Structurally, both homochiral and heterochiral hydrogels are made of fibers interconnected by lappet-like webs, but the homochiral peptide fibers are thicker and denser. These results highlight the possible role of biohomochirality in the evolution and/or natural selection of biomaterials.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Iron Alumininides Intermetallic Alloy with Molybdenum Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhailawati, H.; Fauzi, M. N. A.

    2010-03-11

    In this work, FeAl-based alloys with and without molybdenum addition were fabricated by sintering of mechanically alloyed powders in order to investigate the effect of molybdenum on iron aluminide mechanical properties. Bulk samples were prepared by mechanical alloying for 4 hours, pressing at 360 MPa and sintering at 1000 deg. C for 2 hours. The specimens were tested in compression at room temperature using Instron machine. The phase identification and microstructure of the consolidated material was examined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope correspondingly. Results show that 2.5 wt%Mo addition significantly increased the ultimate stress and ultimate strain in compressive mode due to solid solution hardening. However, the addition of Mo more than 2.5 wt% was accompanied by a reduction in both properties caused by the presence of Mo-rich precipitate particles.

  13. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization. PMID:18471849

  14. Probing mechanical properties of liposomes using acoustic sensors.

    PubMed

    Melzak, Kathryn A; Bender, Florian; Tsortos, Achilleas; Gizeli, Electra

    2008-08-19

    Acoustic devices were employed to characterize variations in the mechanical properties (density and viscoelasticity) of liposomes composed of 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and cholesterol. Liposome properties were modified in three ways. In some experiments, the POPC/cholesterol ratio was varied prior to deposition on the device surface. Alternatively, the ratio was changed in situ via either insertion of cholesterol or removal of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin. This was done for liposomes adsorbed directly on the device surface and for liposomes attached via a biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) linker. The acoustic measurements make use of two simultaneous time-resolved signals: one signal is related to the velocity of the acoustic wave, while the second is related to dissipation of acoustic energy. Together, they provide information not only about the mass (or density) of the probed medium but also about its viscoelastic properties. The cholesterol-induced increase in the surface density of the lipid bilayer was indeed observed in the acoustic data, but the resulting change in signal was larger than expected from the change in surface density. In addition, increasing the bilayer resistance to stretching was found to lead to a greater dissipation of the acoustic energy. The acoustic response is assessed in terms of the possible distortions of the liposomes and the known effects of cholesterol on the mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer that encloses the aqueous core of the liposome. To aid the interpretation of the acoustic response, it is discussed how the above changes in the lipid bilayer will affect the effective viscoelastic properties of the entire liposome/solvent film on the scale of the acoustic wavelength. It was found that the acoustic device is very sensitive to the mechanical properties of lipid vesicles; the response of the acoustic device is explained, and the basic underlying mechanisms of interaction are

  15. Modeling of mechanical properties in alpha/beta-titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Sujoy Kumar

    2005-11-01

    The accelerated insertion of titanium alloys in component application requires the development of predictive capabilities for various aspects of their behavior, for example, phase stability, microstructural evolution and property-microstructure relationships over a wide range of length and time scales. In this presentation some navel aspects of property-microstructure relationships and microstructural evolution in alpha/beta Ti alloys will be discussed. Neural Network (NN) Models based on a Bayesian framework have been developed to predict the mechanical properties of alpha/beta Ti alloys. The development of such rules-based model requires the population of extensive databases, which in the present case are microstructurally-based. The steps involved in database development include producing controlled variations of the microstructure using novel approaches to heat-treatments, the use of standardized stereology protocols to characterize and quantify microstructural features rapidly, and mechanical testing of the heat-treated specimens. These databases have been used to train and test NN Models for prediction of mechanical properties. In addition, these models have been used to identify the influence of individual microstructural features on the mechanical properties, consequently guiding the efforts towards development of more robust mechanistically based models. In order to understand the property-microstructure relationships, a detailed understanding of microstructure evolution is imperative. The crystallography of the microstructure developing as a result of the solid-state beta → beta+alpha transformation has been studied in detail by employing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Orientation Imaging Microscopy (in a high resolution SEM), site-specific TEM sample preparation using focused ion beam, and TEM based techniques. The influence of variant selection on the evolution of microstructure will be specifically addressed.

  16. In Situ X-ray Diffraction Studies on the Mechanism of Capacity Retention Improvement by Coating at the Surface of Li CoO2

    SciTech Connect

    Chung,K.; Yoon, W.; McBreen, J.; Yang, X.; Oh, S.; Shin, H.; Cho, W.; Cho, B.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron based in situ X-ray diffraction technique has been used to study the mechanism of capacity fading of LiCoO2 cycled to a higher voltage above the normal 4.2 V limit and to investigate the mechanism of capacity retention improvement by ZrO2 surface coating on LiCoO2. It was found that the capacity fading of LiCoO2 cycled at higher voltage limit is closely related to the increased polarization rather than the bulk crystal structure damage. The capacity of uncoated LiCoO2 sample dropped to less than 70 mAh g-1 when charged to 4.8 V after high voltage cycling. However, when the voltage limit was further increased to 8.35 V, the capacity was partially restored and the corresponding structural changes were recovered to the similar level as seen in fresh sample. This indicates that the integrity of the bulk crystal structure of LiCoO2 was not seriously damaged during cycling to 4.8 V. The increased polarization seems to be responsible for the fading capacity and the uncompleted phase transformation of LiCoO2. The polarization-induced capacity fading can be significantly improved by ZrO2 surface coating. It was proposed that the effect of ZrO2-coating layer on the capacity retention during high voltage cycling is through the formation of protection layer on the surface of LiCoO2 particles, which can reduce the decomposition of the electrolyte at higher voltages.

  17. The effect of crystallinity on the deformation mechanism and bulk mechanical properties of PLLA.

    PubMed

    Renouf-Glauser, Annette C; Rose, John; Farrar, David F; Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

    2005-10-01

    Poly (l-lactide) is a widely studied biomaterial, currently approved for use in a range of medical devices, however, most in vitro studies have so far focussed upon either the bulk properties during degradation and/or deformation, or on the microstructure of the unloaded material during degradation. This study aimed to combine these approaches through the technique of simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering and tensile testing at various stages of degradation up to 8 months, on material with a range of induced microstructures. Results showed that the amorphous material deformed by crazing in the dry, wet and degraded states, however, the mechanism by which the craze developed changed significantly on hydration. Despite this difference, there was little change in the bulk mechanical properties. Crystalline materials deformed through crystal-mediated deformation, with contributions from both cavitation and fibrillated shear, but surprisingly, differences in the length scales within the spherulitic structure caused by annealing at different temperatures had very little effect on the mechanism of deformation, though differences were seen in the bulk properties. Furthermore, hydration had little effect on the crystalline materials, though degradation over 8 months resulted in loss of mechanical properties for samples produced at higher annealing temperatures. In conclusion, the introduction of crystallinity had a huge effect on both bulk and microscopic properties of PLLA, but the spherulitic structure of the crystalline material affected the bulk properties significantly more than it did the micromechanism of deformation. PMID:15949544

  18. Structures and Mechanical Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    A revolution in the diamond technology is in progress, as the low-pressure process becomes an industrial reality. It will soon be possible to take advantage of the demanding properties of diamond to develop a myriad of new applications, particularly for self-lubricating, wear-resistant, and superhard coatings. The production of large diamond films or sheets at low cost, a distinct possibility in the not-too-distant future, may drastically change tribology technology, particularly regarding solid lubricants and lubricating materials and systems. This paper reviews the structures and properties of natural and synthetic diamonds to gain a better understanding of the tribological properties of diamond and related materials. Atomic and crystal structure, impurities, mechanical properties, and indentation hardness of diamond are described.

  19. Aging and mechanical properties of NR/BR blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tang; Tsai, Peir-An

    2006-02-01

    The mechanical properties and post-thermal aging properties of natural rubber (NR) and polybutadiene rubber (BR) blends at different blending ratios are investigated herein. The experimental results show that both tensile and tear strengths of NR/BR blends increase with increasing NR content. BR has a higher compression stiffness than NR. The deformation of BR is less than that of NR under the same load conditions. With regard to aging properties, both tensile stress and strain of NR/BR blends decrease after prolonged aging. In addition, the stress loss of BR is lower than that of NR, meaning that the aging resistance property of BR is superior to that of NR. Furthermore, accumulated thermal history has shifted the glass transition temperature (T g) of NR/BR blends toward lower temperatures while the loss tangent (tan δ) value increases with prolonged thermal aging.

  20. Effects of sludge retention time on oxic-settling-anoxic process performance: Biosolids reduction and dewatering properties.

    PubMed

    Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Bustamante, Heriberto; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process was determined using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) attached to external aerobic/anoxic reactors. The SRT of the external reactors was varied from 10 to 40d. Increasing SRT from 10 to 20d enhanced volatile solids destruction in the external anoxic reactor as evidenced by the release of nutrients, however, increasing the SRT to 40d did not enhance volatile solids destruction further. Relatively short SRT (10-20d) favoured the conversion of destroyed solids into inert products. The application of an intermediate SRT (20d) of the external reactor showed the highest sludge reduction performance (>35%). Moreover, at the optimum SRT, OSA improved sludge dewaterability as demonstrated by lower capillary suction time and higher dewatered cake solids content. PMID:27474952

  1. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. PMID:27104932

  2. Mechanical properties and microstructure of centrifugally cast alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, D.J.; Smith, H.H.

    1985-07-01

    The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy 718 was investigate for two discs centrifugally cast at 50 and 200 rpm and given a duplex age heat treatment. The results of mechanical property tests at temperatures from 426 to 649/sup 0/C showed that the tensile, yield and ultimate strength levels of both castings were similar. However, the creep-rupture properties were considerably enhanced for the casting produced at 200 rpm. Comparison of the radial and transverse creep properties of each disc indicated that creep life was generally independent of orientation, but ductility was greatest for specimens oriented transverse to the radial direction of the casting. Fatigue crack propagation performance was not greatly influenced by orientation or mold speed parameters and is comparable to wrought alloy 718 when compared on the basis of stress intensity factor range. The centrifugal casting process was found to produce a homogeneous microstructure free of porosity but with the expected segregation of solute alloying elements to Laves and carbide phases. The effect of the as-cast microstructure on the mechanical behavior and the potential influence of hot isostatic pressing to improve the microstructure are discussed.

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructure of centrifugally cast alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D. J.; Smith, H. H.

    1985-07-01

    The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of alloy 718 was investigated for two discs centrifugally cast at 50 and 200 rpm and given a duplex age heat treatment. The results of mechanical property tests at temperatures from 426 to 649 °C showed that the tensile yield and ultimate strength levels of both castings were similar. However, the creep-rupture properties were considerably enhanced for the casting produced at 200 rpm. Comparison of the radial and transverse creep properties of each disc indicated that creep life was generally independent of orientation, but ductility was greatest for specimens oriented transverse to the radial direction of the casting. Fatigue crack propagation performance was not greatly influenced by orientation or mold speed parameters and was comparable to wrought alloy 718 when compared on the basis of stress intensity factor range. The centrifugal casting process was found to produce a homogeneous microstructure free of porosity but with the expected segregation of solute alloying elements to Laves and carbide phases. The effect of the as-cast microstructure on the mechanical behavior and the potential influence of hot isostatic pressing to improve the microstructure are discussed.

  4. Structure-mechanics property relationship of waste derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-12-15

    The widespread applications of biochar in agriculture and environmental remediation made the scientific community ignore its mechanical properties. Hence, to examine the scope of biochar's structural applications, its mechanical properties have been investigated in this paper through nanoindentation technique. Seven waste derived biochars, made under different pyrolysis conditions and from diverse feedstocks, were studied via nanoindentation, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, thermogravimetry, and electron microscopy. Following this, an attempt was made to correlate the biochars' hardness/modulus with reaction conditions and their chemical properties. The pine wood biochar made at 900°C and 60min residence time was found to have the highest hardness and elastic modulus of 4.29 and 25.01GPa, respectively. It was shown that a combination of higher heat treatment (≥500°C) temperature and longer residence time (~60min) increases the values of hardness and modulus. It was further realized that pyrolysis temperature was a more dominant factor than residence time in determining the final mechanical properties of biochar particles. The degree of aromaticity and crystallinity of the biochar were also correlated with higher values of hardness and modulus. PMID:26322726

  5. Mechanical properties of several iron-nickel meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, Roberta N; El - Dasher, Bassem

    2011-01-06

    Iron-nickel meteorites exhibit a unique lamellar microstructure, consisting of small regions with steep-iron-nickel composition gradients. The microstructure arises as a result of slow cooling in a planetary core or other large mass. The microstructure is further influenced by variable concentrations of other elements such as phosphorous which may have influenced cooling and phase separation. Mechanical properties of these composite structures have been investigated using Vickers and spherical indentation, x-ray fluorescence, and EBSD. Direct observation of mechanical properties in these highly structured materials provides a valuable supplement to bulk measurements, which frequently exhibit large variation in dynamic properties, even within a single sample. Previous studies of the mechanical properties of a typical iron-nickel meteorite, a Diablo Canyon specimen, indicated that the strength of the composite was higher by almost an order of magnitude than values obtained from laboratory-prepared specimens. This was ascribed to the extreme work-hardening evident in the EBSD measurements. Additional specimens from the Canyon Diablo fall (type IAB, coarse octahedrite) and several fine octahedrite meteorites, from the Muonionalusta meteorite (IVA) and Gibeon fall (IVA), have been examined to establish a range of error on the previously measured yield, to determine the extent to which deformation upon reentry contributes to yield, and to establish the degree to which the strength varies as a function of microstructure.

  6. Evolution of mechanical properties in ErT2 films.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, James Frederick; Bond, Gillian Mary; Knapp, James Arthur

    2010-04-01

    The mechanical properties of rare earth tritide films evolve as tritium decays into {sup 3}He, which forms bubbles that influence long-term film stability in applications such as neutron generators. Ultralow load nanoindentation, combined with finite-element modeling to separate the mechanical properties of the thin films from their substrates, has been used to follow the mechanical properties of model ErT{sub 2} films as they aged. The size of the growing {sup 3}He bubbles was followed with transmission electron microscopy, while ion beam analysis was used to monitor total T and {sup 3}He content. The observed behavior is divided into two regimes: a substantial increase in layer hardness but elasticity changed little over {approx}18 months, followed by a decrease in elastic stiffness and a modest decease in hardness over the final 24 months. We show that the evolution of properties is explained by a combination of dislocation pinning by the bubbles, elastic softening as the bubbles occupy an increasing fraction of the material, and details of bubble growth modes.

  7. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube ropes with hierarchical helical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Shan; Zhang, Zhong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-11-01

    Hierarchical helical structures widely exist in both artificial and biological materials. Such nanomaterials as carbon nanotube ropes with hierarchical helical structures hold a promise for potential applications, for instance, in aerospace and medical engineering. In the present paper, a bottom-up theoretical model is established to investigate the mechanical properties of this kind of novel nanomaterials. The geometry of a rope with a hierarchy of chirality is first formulated. On the basis of the analysis of the internal forces and deformations of a single helical ply, a theoretical model is provided to predict the mechanical responses of multi-level helical materials. The effect of hierarchical helical structures is revealed by comparing the properties between a carbon nanotube rope with two-level helical structure and its counterpart bundle consisting of straight carbon nanotubes. The dependence of the mechanical properties of materials on the initial helical angles, fiber numbers, and handednesses at different structural levels are examined. Carbon nanotube ropes are found with higher deformation ability and elastic property which can be easily tuned via their microstructural parameters. This work helps understand the behavior of chiral materials and also provides inspirations for optimal design of advanced nanomaterials with hierarchical helical structures.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

  9. Woven glass fabric reinforced laminates based on polyolefin wastes: Thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pietro; Acierno, Domenico; Simeoli, Giorgio; Lopresto, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Potentialities of polyolefin wastes in place of virgin polypropylene to produce composite laminates have been investigated. Plaques reinforced with a woven glass fabric were prepared by film-stacking technique and systematically analyzed in terms of thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties. In case of PP matrices, the use of a typical compatibilizer to improve the adhesion at the interface has been considered. Thermal properties emphasized the chemical nature of plastic wastes. About mechanical properties, static tests showed an increase of flexural parameters for compatibilized systems due to the coupling effect between grafted maleic anhydride and silane groups on the surface of the glass fabric. These effects, maximized for composites based on car bumper wastes, is perfectly reflected in terms of storage modulus and damping ability of products as determined by single-cantilever bending dynamic tests.

  10. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  11. Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.

    PubMed

    Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

  12. Mechanical properties of murine and porcine ocular tissues in compression.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Kristan S; Wiley, Luke A; Bartlett, Alexandra M; Stone, Edwin M; Mullins, Robert F; Salem, Aliasger K; Guymon, C Allan; Tucker, Budd A

    2014-04-01

    Sub-retinal implantation of foreign materials is becoming an increasingly common feature of novel therapies for retinal dysfunction. The ultimate compatibility of implants depends not only on their in vitro chemical compatibility, but also on how well the mechanical properties of the material match those of the native tissue. In order to optimize the mechanical properties of retinal implants, the mechanical properties of the mammalian retina itself must be carefully characterized. In this study, the compressive moduli of eye tissues, especially the retina, were probed using a dynamic mechanical analysis instrument in static mode. The retinal compressive modulus was lower than that of the sclera or cornea, but higher than that of the RPE and choroid. Compressive modulus remained relatively stable with age. Conversely, apparent retinal softening occurred at an early age in mice with inherited retinal degeneration. Compressive modulus is an important consideration for the design of retinal implants. Polymer scaffolds with moduli that are substantially different than that of the native tissue in which they will ultimately reside will be less likely to aid in the differentiation and development of the appropriate cell types in vitro and will have reduced biocompatibility in vivo. PMID:24613781

  13. Loops determine the mechanical properties of mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2013-03-01

    In mitosis, chromosomes undergo a condensation into highly compacted, rod-like objects. Many models have been put forward for the higher-order organization of mitotic chromosomes including radial loop and hierarchical folding models. Additionally, mechanical properties of mitotic chromosomes under different conditions were measured. However, the internal organization of mitotic chromosomes still remains unclear. Here we present a polymer model for mitotic chromosomes and show how chromatin loops play a major role for their mechanical properties. The key assumption of the model is the ability of the chromatin fibre to dynamically form loops with the help of binding proteins. Our results show that looping leads to a tight compaction and significantly increases the bending rigidity of chromosomes. Moreover, our qualitative prediction of the force elongation behaviour is close to experimental findings. This indicates that the internal structure of mitotic chromosomes is based on self-organization of the chromatin fibre. We also demonstrate how number and size of loops have a strong influence on the mechanical properties. We suggest that changes in the mechanical characteristics of chromosomes can be explained by an altered internal loop structure. YZ gratefully appreciates funding by the German National Academic Foundation (Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes) and support by the Heidelberg Graduate School for Mathematical and Computational Methods in the Sciences (HGS MathComp).

  14. Mechanical Properties of Nanoworm Assembled by DNA and Nanoparticle Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihua; Sohrabi, Salman; Tan, Jifu; Liu, Yaling

    2016-06-01

    Recently, DNA-nanoparticle conjugates have been widely used as building blocks for assembling complex nanostructures, due to their programmable recognitions, high cellular uptake and enhanced binding capabilities. In this study, a nanoworm structure, which can be applied in fields of drug targeting, image probing and thermal therapies, has been assembled by DNA-nanoparticle conjugates. Subsequently, its mechanical properties have been investigated due to their importance on the structural stability, transport and circulations of the nanoworm. Stiffness and strengths of the nanoworm under different deformation types are studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Effects of temperature, DNA coating density and particle size on mechanical properties of nanoworms are also thoroughly investigated. Results show that both resistance and strength of the nanoworm are the weakest along the axial direction, indicating it is more prone to be ruptured by a stretching force. i addition, DNA strands are found to be more important than nanoparticles in determining mechanical properties of the nanoworm. Moreover, both strength and resistance in regardless of directions are proved to be enhanced by decreasing the temperature, raising the DNA coating density and enlarging the particle size. This study is capable of serving as guidance for designing nanoworms with optimal mechanical strengths for applications. PMID:27427583

  15. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yian Chew, Sing; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Teck Lim, Chwee; Leong, Kam W.

    2006-08-01

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, σT. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk (~5 µm) into the nanometre region (200 300 nm). In particular, E and σT of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1 20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10 20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration.

  16. Mechanical properties of fibroblasts depend on level of cancer transformation.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Yu M; Lomakina, M E; Bagrov, D V; Makhnovskiy, P I; Alexandrova, A Y; Kirpichnikov, M P; Shaitan, K V

    2014-05-01

    Recently, it was revealed that tumor cells are significantly softer than normal cells. Although this phenomenon is well known, it is connected with many questions which are still unanswered. Among these questions are the molecular mechanisms which cause the change in stiffness and the correlation between cell mechanical properties and their metastatic potential. We studied mechanical properties of cells with different levels of cancer transformation. Transformed cells in three systems with different transformation types (monooncogenic N-RAS, viral and cells of tumor origin) were characterized according to their morphology, actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion organization. Transformation led to reduction of cell spreading and thus decreasing the cell area, disorganization of actin cytoskeleton, lack of actin stress fibers and decline in the number and size of focal adhesions. These alterations manifested in a varying degree depending on type of transformation. Force spectroscopy by atomic force microscopy with spherical probes was carried out to measure the Young's modulus of cells. In all cases the Young's moduli were fitted well by log-normal distribution. All the transformed cell lines were found to be 40-80% softer than the corresponding normal ones. For the cell system with a low level of transformation the difference in stiffness was less pronounced than for the two other systems. This suggests that cell mechanical properties change upon transformation, and acquisition of invasive capabilities is accompanied by significant softening. PMID:24530505

  17. Mechanical properties of orbital fat and its encapsulating connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kinon; Weiland, James D

    2011-06-01

    There is an increasing need to understand the mechanical properties of human orbital fat and its encapsulating connective tissue (OFCT), but such knowledge is not available in the current literature. The purpose of the present study is to examine the mechanical properties of the OFCT. From 5 pairs of 76- to 92-year-old Caucasian human eyes and 33 5- to 7-month-old porcine eyes, 5 human and 11 porcine OFCT samples were dissected at the posterior pole or adjacent to the pole in the vertical, horizontal, and radial directions. Sample dimensions were fixed or measured. Tensile tests were performed on the samples in body-temperature saline. The stress-strain relationship was first approximately linear and then became nonlinear. The linear, the neo-Hookean, and the Mooney-Rivlin constants are reported in Tables 1 and 2. No statistical difference was found among their properties in the different directions in either the human or the porcine samples. Statistical differences were found between the human and the porcine material constants in the horizontal and radial directions. Among our material models, only the Mooney-Rivlin model was able to capture the mechanical properties of the OFCT in large deformation properly. The Mooney-Rivlin model was especially adaptive to the human data. This is the first time the mechanical properties of the human and porcine OFCT have been examined in the literature. We believe our data will provide valuable information to others regarding designing implant biomaterials in orbital treatments and developing computer models to study orbital biomechanics. PMID:21744934

  18. Characterization of the mechanical properties of freestanding platinum thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Khawar

    Many MEMS devices utilize nanocrystalline thin metallic films as mechanical structures, in particular, micro switching devices where these films are used as Ohmic contacts. But the elastic and plastic properties of these thin films (thickness < 1mum) are significantly different from those of the bulk material. At these scales the volume fraction of material defects such as: grain boundaries, dislocations and interstitials become quite significant and become a chief contributor to the physical and mechanical material properties. In order to effectively design MEMS devices it is important that these material properties are explored and mechanical behavior of the structure they form be characterized. Popular thin film materials used in MEMS devices are Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni) and Gold (Au). Platinum has traditionally gained acceptance into the MEMS industry because of its chemical inertness and high temperature stability. However the mechanical properties of platinum remains the least exploited. Platinum has a high Young's Modulus (164 GPa, for bulk) and high melting temperature (1768 °C) and therefore can be used as a 'thin film' structure (cantilever, a bridge or a membrane) in high temperature environments with high resistance to mechanical failure. The physical size of these thin film structure make it very difficult to handle them and employ traditional mechanical testing methodologies and techniques and therefore require custom test platforms. One such recently developed platform is presented in this dissertation. The test platform is comprised of a microfabricated cascaded thermal actuator system and test specimen. The cascaded thermal actuator system is capable of providing tens of microns of displacement and tens of milli-Newton forces simultaneously while applying a relatively low temperature gradient across the test specimen. The dimensions of the platform make its use possible in both the SEM/TEM environments and on a probe station under

  19. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

  20. Micro-mechanical properties of bio-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakiev, V.; Markovsky, A.; Aznakayev, E.; Zakiev, I.; Gursky, E.

    2005-09-01

    Investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (ceramics for crowns, silver amalgam, cements and materials on a polymeric basis) properties by the modern methods and correspondence their physical-mechanical properties to the physical-mechanical properties of native teeth is represented. The universal device "Micron-Gamma" is built for this purpose. This device allows investigate the physical-mechanical characteristics of stomatologic materials (an elastic modulus, micro-hardness, destruction energy, resistance to scratching) by the methods of continuous indentation, scanning and pricking. A new effective method as well as its device application for the investigation of surface layers of materials and their physical-mechanical properties by means of the constant indenting of an indenter is realized. This method is based on the automatic registration of loading (P) on the indenter with the simultaneous measurement of its indentation depth (h). The results of investigations are presented on a loading diagram P=f(h) and as a digital imaging on the PC. This diagram allows get not only more diverse characteristics in the real time regime but also gives new information about the stomatologic material properties. Therefore, we can to investigate the wide range of the physical-mechanical properties of stomatologic materials. "Micron-alpha" is digital detection device for light imaging applications. It enables to detect the very low material surface relief heights and restoration of surface micro topography by a sequence data processing of interferential data of partially coherent light also. "Micron-alpha" allows: to build 2D and 3D imaging of a material surface; to estimate the quantitatively characteristics of a material surface; to observe the imaging interferential pictures both in the white and in the monochromatic light; to carry out the investigation of blood cells, microbes and biological macromolecules profiles. The method allows

  1. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of six asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation

  2. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Addressed Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. Methodology A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. Results, Significance and Potential Impact The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of 6 asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when

  3. Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.

    1998-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.

  4. Study of mechanical properties of nanomaterials under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Kaur, Namrat; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the study of physical properties and behaviour of nanomaterials i.e. n-γ- Al2O3and n-Si3C4 under high pressure is done. For this purpose Murnaghan equation of state is used. The applicability of Murnaghan equation of state is fully tested by calculating mechanical properties of nano materials i.e. volume compression (V/Vo), bulk modulus (KT) and relative isothermal compression coefficient (α(P)/α0) at different pressures. The present calculated values of compression curve for the cited nanomaterials come out to be in reasonable good agreement with the available experimental data.

  5. The Structure, Functions, and Mechanical Properties of Keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKittrick, J.; Chen, P.-Y.; Bodde, S. G.; Yang, W.; Novitskaya, E. E.; Meyers, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Keratin is one of the most important structural proteins in nature and is widely found in the integument in vertebrates. It is classified into two types: α-helices and β-pleated sheets. Keratinized materials can be considered as fiber-reinforced composites consisting of crystalline intermediate filaments embedded in an amorphous protein matrix. They have a wide variety of morphologies and properties depending on different functions. Here, we review selected keratin-based materials, such as skin, hair, wool, quill, horn, hoof, feather, and beak, focusing on the structure-mechanical property-function relationships and finally give some insights on bioinspired composite design based on keratinized materials.

  6. Workability and mechanical properties of alkali activated slag concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.G.; Sanjayan, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on concrete containing alkali activated slag (AAS) as the binder, with emphasis on achievement of reasonable workability and equivalent one-day strength to portland cement concrete at normal curing temperatures. Two types of activators were used: sodium hydroxide in combination with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate in combination with hydrated lime. The fresh concrete properties reported include slump and slump loss, air content, and bleed. Mechanical properties of AAS concrete, including compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, drying shrinkage, and creep are contrasted with those of portland cement concrete.

  7. Concepts and techniques for ultrasonic evaluation of material mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques discussed in the present paper indicate potentials for material characterization and property prediction. Stress wave interaction and material transfer function concepts are examined as a basis for explaining correlations between material mechanical behavior and ultrasonically measured quantities. It is observed that the effect and criticality of any discrete flaw, such as crack, inclusion, or any other stress raiser, is definable only in terms of its material microstructural environment. This underscores the importance of ultrasonic techniques capable of characterizing the stress wave energy transfer properties of a material.

  8. Simplified composite micromechanics equations for hygral, thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    A unified set of composite micromechanics equations of simple form is summarized and described. This unified set can be used to predict unidirectional composite (ply) geometric, mechanical, thermal and hygral properties using constituent material (fiber/matrix) properties. This unified set also includes approximate equations for predicting (1) moisture absorption; (2) glass transition temperature of wet resins; and (3) hygrothermal degradation effects. Several numerical examples are worked-out to illustrate ease of use and versatility of these equations. These numerical examples also demonstrate the interrelationship of the various factors (geometric to environmental) and help provide insight into composite behavior at the micromechanistic level.

  9. Simplified composite micromechanics equations of hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    A unified set of composite micromechanics equations of simple form is summarized and described. This unified set can be used to predict unidirectional composite (ply) geometric, mechanical, thermal and hygral properties using constituent material (fiber/matrix) properties. This unified set also includes approximate equations for predicting (1) moisture absorption; (2) glass transition temperature of wet resins; and (3) hygrothermal degradation effects. Several numerical examples are worked-out to illustrate ease of use and versatility of these equations. These numerical examples also demonstrate the interrelationship of the various factors (geometric to environmental) and help provide insight into composite behavior at the micromechanistic level.

  10. Mixed 2D molecular systems: Mechanic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beňo, Juraj; Weis, Martin; Dobročka, Edmund; Haško, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Study of Langmuir monolayers consisting of stearic acid (SA) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) molecules was done by surface pressure-area isotherms ( π- A), the Maxwell displacement current (MDC) measurement, X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the selected mechanic, thermodynamic and dielectric properties based on orientational structure of monolayers. On the base of π- A isotherms analysis we explain the creation of stable structures and found optimal monolayer composition. The dielectric properties represented by MDC generated monolayers were analyzed in terms of excess dipole moment, proposing the effect of dipole-dipole interaction. XRR and AFM results illustrate deposited film structure and molecular ordering.

  11. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced By Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Taminger, Karen M. B.; Begley, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties have been demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys that are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit features more typical of cast material. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. In the current study, mechanical properties and resulting microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Material performance was evaluated based on tensile properties and results were compared with properties of Al 2219 wrought products. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains, typically with interior dendritic structures, which were described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  12. Material properties and fracture mechanics in relation to ceramic machining

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, L.V.

    1993-12-02

    Material removal rate, surface finish, and subsurface damage are largely governed by fracture mechanics and plastic deformation, when ceramics are machined using abrasive methods. A great deal of work was published on the fracture mechanics of ceramics in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although this work has never resulted in a comprehensive model of the fixed abrasive grinding process. However, a recently published model describes many of the most important features of the loose abrasive machining process, for example depth of damage, surface roughness, and material removal rate. Many of the relations in the loose abrasive machining model can be readily discerned from fracture mechanics models, in terms of material properties. By understanding the mechanisms of material removal, from a material properties perspective, we can better estimate how one material will machine in relation to another. Although the fracture mechanics models may have been developed for loose abrasive machining, the principles of crack initiation and propagation are equally valuable for fixed abrasive machining. This report provides a brief review of fracture in brittle materials, the stress distribution induced by abrasives, critical indenter loads, the extension of cracks, and the relation of the fracture process to material removal.

  13. Evaluation of the compressive mechanical properties of endoluminal metal stents.

    PubMed

    Schrader, S C; Beyar, R

    1998-06-01

    The mechanical properties of metal stents are important parameters in the consideration of stent design, matched to resist arterial recoil and vascular spasm. The purpose of this study was to develop a system for a standardized quantitative evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of various coronary stents. Several types of stents were compressed by external hydrostatic pressure. The stent diameter was assessed by placing a pair of small ultrasonic sono-crystals on the stent. From pressure-strain diagrams the ultimate strength and radial stiffness for each stent were determined. For all stents, except the MICRO-II and the Wiktor stent, the diameter decreased homogeneously until an ultimate compressive strength was exceeded, causing an abrupt collapse. Expanded to 3 mm, the mechanical behavior of the beStent, the Crown and the Palmaz-Schatz stent (PS153-series) were comparable. The spiral articulated Palmaz-Schatz stent showed twice the strength (1.26 atm) of the PS-153 (0.65 atm). The NIR stent yielded a maximum strength of 1.05 atm. The MICRO-II and the Wiktor stent did not collapse abruptly but rather showed a continuous decline of diameter with increasing external pressure. The Cardiocoil stent behaved in a fully elastic manner and showed the largest radial stiffness. Difference in mechanical properties between stents were documented using a new device specifically developed for that purpose. These mechanical stent parameters may have important clinical implications. PMID:9637441

  14. Mechanical properties testing and results for thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Johnsen, B. P.; Nagy, A.

    1997-03-01

    Mechanical test data for thermal barrier coatings, including modulus, static strength, and fatigue strength data, are reviewed in support of the development of durability models for heat engine applica-tions. The materials include 7 and 8 wt % yttria partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) as well as a cermet ma-terial (PSZ +10 wt % NiCoCrAlY). Both air plasma sprayed and electron beam physical vapor deposited coatings were tested. The data indicate the basic trends in the mechanical properties of the coatings over a wide range of isothermal conditions. Some of the trends are correlated with material density.

  15. Structure and mechanical properties of liquid crystalline filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, Alexey; Nemes, Alexandru; Stannarius, Ralf; Schulz, Mario; Nadasi, Hajnalka; Weissflog, Wolfgang

    2005-03-01

    The formation of stable freely suspended filaments is an interesting peculiarity of some liquid crystal phases. So far, little is known about their structure and stability. Similarly to free-standing smectic films, an internal molecular structure of the mesophase stabilizes these macroscopically well-ordered objects with length to diameter ratios of 10{sup 3} and above. In this paper, we report observations of smectic liquid crystal fibers formed by bent-shaped molecules in different mesophases. Our study, employing several experimental techniques, focuses on mechanical and structural aspects of fiber formation such as internal structure, stability, and mechanical and optical properties.

  16. Time-temperature superposition applied to PBX mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; DeLuca, Racci; Wright, Walter J.

    2012-03-01

    The use of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) in weapon applications requires that they possess and maintain a level of structural/mechanical integrity. Uniaxial tension and compression experiments are typically used to characterize the mechanical response of materials over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, providing the basis for predictive modeling in more complex geometries. After many years of data collection on a variety of PBX formulations, we have here applied the principles of time-temperature superposition to a mechanical properties database which includes PBX 9501, PBX 9502, PBXN-110, PBXN-9, and HPP (propellant). Consistencies are demonstrated between the results of quasi-static tension and compression, dynamic Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) compression, and cantilever Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Timetemperature relationships of maximum stress and corresponding strain values are analyzed, in addition to the more conventional analysis of modulus. The extensive analysis shows adherence to the principles of time-temperature superposition and correlations of mechanical response to binder glasstransition temperature (Tg) and specimen density. Direct ties exist between the time-temperature analysis and the underlying basis of a useful existing PBX mechanical model (ViscoSCRAM). Results give confidence that, with some limitations, mechanical response can be predicted at conditions not explicitly measured.

  17. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  18. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  19. Preparation and mechanical properties of chitosan/carbon nanotubes composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Feng; Shen, Lu; Zhang, Wei-De; Tong, Yue-Jin

    2005-01-01

    Biopolymer chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) nanocomposites have been successfully prepared by a simple solution-evaporation method. The morphology and mechanical properties of the chitosan/MWNTs nanocomposites have been characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical microscopy (OM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tensile as well as nanoindentation tests. The MWNTs were observed to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the chitosan matrix. When compared with neat chitosan, the mechanical properties, including the tensile modulus and strength, of the nanocomposites are greatly improved by about 93% and 99%, respectively, with incorporation of only 0.8 wt % of MWNTs into the chitosan matrix. PMID:16283728

  20. Superior mechanical properties of FeCrMoVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, U.; Mattern, N.; Gemming, T.; Siegel, U.; Werniewicz, K.; Eckert, J.

    2007-06-01

    This work presents results on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steel composition Fe84.3Cr4.3Mo4.6V2.2C4.6 subjected to preparation conditions typically used for manufacturing of bulk metallic glasses. Thermodynamical aspects and kinetic limitations on the specific solidification process of phase formation, particularly those, which are strongly dominated by diffusion controlled mechanisms, promote the formation of nonequilibrium phases, such as martensite and complex carbide structures already in the as-cast state. This combination of high strength phases yields material with highly desirable properties, such as an engineering compression strength of more than 4000MPa surprisingly combined with a fracture strain of about 12%.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Highly Porous NiTi Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bram, Martin; Köhl, Manuel; Buchkremer, Hans Peter; Stöver, Detlev

    2011-07-01

    Highly porous NiTi alloys with pseudoelastic properties are attractive candidates for biomedical implants, energy absorbers, or damping elements. Recently, a new method was developed for net-shape manufacturing of such alloys combining metal injection molding with the application of suitable space-holder materials. A comprehensive study of mechanical properties was conducted on samples with a porosity of 51% and a pore size in the range of 300-500 μm. At low deformations <6%, fully pronounced pseudoelasticity was found. Even at higher strains, a shape recovery of maximum 6% took place, on which the onset of irreversible plastic deformation was superposed. Results of static compression tests were also used to calculate the energy-absorbing capacity. Fatigue of porous NiTi was investigated by cyclic loading up to 230,000 stress reversals. The failure mechanisms responsible for a reduction of shape recovery after an increased number of load cycles are discussed.

  2. [A study of mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension].

    PubMed

    Konstantellos, B; Lagoudakis, M; Toutountzakis, N

    1990-12-01

    Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth basically by means of different types of orthodontic wires. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of such wires are very helpful to the clinician in design and application of optimal force systems during orthodontic treatment. The basic mechanical properties were studied for 17 types of orthodontic wires (all rectangular and of the same size), in tension. Modulus of elasticity (E), yield strength (YS) and maximum elastic strain (Springback) (YS/E) were calculated for each type of wires. Stainless steel wires have demonstrated higher modulus of elasticity (and yield strength) in comparison with wires of nickel-titanium and beta titanium alloys. B-titanium wires showed higher modulus of elasticity than nickel-titanium ones. In addition stainless steel wires were found to have higher values for springback than cobalt-chromium ones and lower values (for the same variable) than nickel-titanium and B-titanium wires. PMID:2129597

  3. Mechanical and hyperthermic properties of magnetic nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Tahlil, Abdullahi; Crosson, David; Yao, Nan; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the properties of multifunctional materials is important for the design of devices for biomedical applications. In this paper, a combination of experiments and models was used to study the mechanical and hyperthermic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP)-filled PDMS composites for biomedical applications. These are studied as a function of the weight of MNP, γ-Fe2O3. The results showed the effects on mechanical behavior, and specific losses in a magnetic field. The measured Young's moduli are in good agreement with the moduli predicted from the Bergström-Boybce model. Specific losses calculated from magnetic measurements are used to predict the thermal dose under in-vivo conditions. The implications of the results were discussed for potential applications in biomedical devices. PMID:26005843

  4. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Brian DeVon; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip

    2010-08-01

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts.

  5. On the mechanical properties of selenite glass nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Arun Kr.; Kundu, Ranadip; Roy, Debasish; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the room temperature micro-hardness of selenite glass-nanocomposites has been measured using a Vickers and Knoop micro hardness tester where the applied load varies from 0.01N to 0.98 N. A significant indentation size effect was observed for each sample at relatively low indentation test loads. The classical Meyer's law and the proportional specimen resistance model were used to analyze the micro-hardness behavior. It was found that the selenite glass-nanocomposite becomes harder with increasing CuI composition and the work hardening coefficient and mechanical properties like Young modulus, E, were also calculated. Our results open the way for the preparation, application and investigation of significant mechanical properties of new type of glass-nanocomposites.

  6. Structure and properties of the glandular surface in the digestive zone of the pitcher in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes ventrata and its role in insect trapping and retention.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena; Kastner, Victoria; Peressadko, Andrei; Arzt, Eduard; Gaume, Laurence; Rowe, Nick; Gorb, Stanislav

    2004-08-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes grow in nutrient-poor habitats and have evolved specialised trapping organs, known as pitchers. These are composed of different surface zones serving the functions of attraction, capture and digestion of insects, which represent a main source of nitrogen. To investigate the role of the glandular digestive zone in the trapping mechanism of the pitcher, structural, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were applied to N. ventrata and combined with insect behavioural experiments. It was found that the glandular surface is microscopically rough since it is regularly structured with multicellular glands situated in epidermal depressions. The presence of downward-directed 'hoods' over the upper part of glands and sloped depressions in the proximal direction of the pitcher causes a marked anisotropy of the surface. The glandular zone surface is composed of relatively stiff material (Young's modulus, 637.19+/-213.44 kPa). It is not homogeneous, in terms of adhesive properties, and contains numerous areas without adhesion as well as adhesive areas differing greatly in tenacity values (range, 1.39-28.24 kPa). The surface is readily wettable with water (contact angle, 31.9-36.0 degrees C) and has a high surface free energy (56.84-61.93 mN m(-1)) with a relatively high polar component (33.09-52.70 mN m(-1)). To examine the effect of the glandular secretion on attachment systems of insects having hairy and smooth adhesive pads, forces generated on different surfaces by Calliphora vicina flies and Pyrrhocoris apterus bugs, respectively, were measured. Flies attached equally well to both fresh and air-dried glandular surfaces whereas bugs generated a significantly lower force on the fresh glandular surface compared with the air-dried one. It is assumed that the contribution of the glandular surface to insect retention, due to its effect on insect attachment, differs depending on insect weight and the type of insect attachment system

  7. Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Polymers With Various Force Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of force field type on the predicted elastic properties of a polyimide is examined using a multiscale modeling technique. Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to predict the atomic structure and elastic properties of the polymer by subjecting a representative volume element of the material to bulk and shear finite deformations. The elastic properties of the polyimide are determined using three force fields: AMBER, OPLS-AA, and MM3. The predicted values of Young s modulus and shear modulus of the polyimide are compared with experimental values. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of the polyimide predicted with the OPLS-AA force field most closely matched those from experiment. The results also indicate that while the complexity of the force field does not have a significant effect on the accuracy of predicted properties, small differences in the force constants and the functional form of individual terms in the force fields determine the accuracy of the force field in predicting the elastic properties of the polyimide.

  8. Predicting the Highly Nonlinear Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, David

    2009-06-01

    Over the past few years, we have developed models that calculate the highly nonlinear mechanical properties of polymers as a function of temperature, strain and strain rate from their molecular and morphological structure. A review of these models is presented here, with emphasis on combining the fundamental aspects of molecular physics that dictate these properties and the pragmatic need to make realistic predictions for our customers; the designer of new materials and the engineers who use these materials. The models calculate the highly nonlinear mechanical properties of polymers as a function of temperature, strain and strain rate from their molecular structure. The model is based upon the premise that mechanical properties are a direct consequence of energy stored and energy dissipated during deformation of a material. This premise is transformed into a consistent set of structure-property relations for the equation of state, EoS, and the engineering constitutive relations in a polymer by quantifying energy storage and loss at the molecular level of interactions between characteristic groups of atoms in a polymer. These relations are derived from a simple volumetric mean field Lennard-Jones potential function for the potential energy of intermolecular interactions in a polymer. First, properties such as temperature-volume relations and glass transition temperature are calculated directly from the potential function. Then, the `shock' EoS is derived simply by differentiating the potential function with respect to volume, assuming that the molecules cannot relax in the time scales of the deformation. The energy components are then used to predict the dynamic mechanical spectrum of a polymer in terms of temperature and rate. This can be transformed directly into the highly nonlinear stress-strain relations through yield. The constitutive relations are formulated as a set of analytical equations that predict properties directly in terms of a small set of

  9. Mechanical and biological properties of oxidized horn keratin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanbin; Shan, Guanghua; Cao, Ping; He, Jia; Lin, Zhongshi; Huang, Yaoxiong; Ao, Ningjian

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanical and biological properties of oxidized keratin materials, which were obtained by using buffalo horns to oxidize. It could provide a way to evaluate their potential for clinical translatability. The characterization on their composition, mechanical properties, and biological responses was performed. It is found that the oxidation process could lead the disulfide bond to break down and then to form sulfonic acid, or even make partial peptide chain to be fragment for the new modification of amino acid. Hence the oxidized horn keratins have lower thermal stability and hydrolytic stability in comparison with horn keratin, but the degradation products of oxidized horn keratins have no significant difference. In addition, the mechanical properties of oxidized horn keratins are poorer than that of horn keratin, but the oxidized horn keratins still have disulfide bonds to form a three-dimensional structure, which benefits for their mechanical properties. The fracture toughness of oxidized horn keratins increases with the increase in the degree of oxidation. After oxidation, the oxidized horn keratins have lower cytotoxicity and lower hemolysis ratio. Moreover, when the oxidized horn keratins, as well as different concentration of degradation products of oxidized horn keratins, are directly in contact with platelet-rich plasma, platelets are not activated. It suggests that the oxidized horn keratins have good hemocompatibility, without triggering blood thrombosis. The implantation experiment in vivo also demonstrates that the oxidized horn keratins are compatible with the tissue, because there are minimal fibrous capsule and less of infiltration of host cells, without causing serious inflammation. In summary, the oxidized horn keratins can act as implanted biomaterial devices that are directly in contact with blood and tissue. PMID:25492180

  10. Mechanical properties of D0 Run IIB silicon detector staves

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-06-01

    A proposed stave design for the D0 Run IIb silicon tracker outer layers featuring central cooling channels and a composite shell mechanical structure is evaluated for self-deflection and deflection due to external loads. This paper contains an introduction to the stave structure, a section devoted to composite lamina and laminate properties and finally a section discussing the beam deflections expected for assembled staves using these laminates.

  11. On-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, B.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1992-12-31

    The measurement of the velocity of ultrasound provides a nondestructive means to characterize the mechanical properties of paper. The objective of this program is to develop sensors capable of making such measurements in the thickness and in-plane directions of paper while the paper is moving at line speed on the paper machine. This would allow continuous monitoring of product quality as well as provide data for controlling the papermaking process.

  12. On-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, B.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop sensors capable of measuring the velocity of ultrasound in the thickness and in-plane directions of paper while the paper is moving at line speed on the paper machine. These measurements would provide a nondestructive characterization of the mechanical properties of paper, allowing continuous monitoring of product quality as well as providing data for controlling the papermaking process.

  13. On-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, B.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the program is to develop sensors capable of measuring the velocity of ultrasound in the thickness and in-plane directions of paper while the paper is moving at line speed on the paper machine. These measurements would provide a nondestructive characterization of the mechanical properties of paper, allowing continuous monitoring of product quality as well as providing data for controlling the papermaking process.

  14. On-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, B.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the velocity of ultrasound provides a nondestructive means to characterize the mechanical properties of paper. The objective of this program is to develop sensors capable of making such measurements in the thickness and in-plane directions of paper while the paper is moving at line speed on the paper machine. This would allow continuous monitoring of product quality as well as provide data for controlling the papermaking process.

  15. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry.

    PubMed

    Aho, Johnathon M; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Urban, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  16. Mechanical and thermophysical properties of hot-pressed SYNROC B

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Otto, R.A.; Brady, R.L.; Brown, A.E.; Ulrich, A.R.; Lum, R.C.

    1981-05-06

    The optimal SYNROC compositons for use with commercial waste are reviewed. Large amounts of powder (about 2.5 kg) were prepared by convention al ceramic operations to test the SYNROC concept on a processing scale. Samples, 15.2 cm in diameter, were hot pressed in graphite, and representative samples were cut for microstructural evaluations. Measured mechanical and thermophysical properties did not vary significantly as a function of sample location and were typical of titanate ceramic materials.

  17. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal–submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa–submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered

  18. Mechanical properties of green composites based on thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornes, F.; Sánchez-Nácher, L.; Fenollar, O.; Boronat, T.; Garcia-Sanoguera, D.

    2010-06-01

    The present work is focused on study of "green composites" elaborated from thermoplastic starch (TPS) as polymer matrix and a fiber from natural origin (rush) as reinforced fiber. The effect of the fiber content has been studied by means of the mechanical properties. The composite resulting presents a lack of interaction between matrix and fiber that represents a performance decrease. However the biodegradability behavior of the resulting composite raise this composite as useful an industrial level.

  19. Mechanical properties and modeling of seal-forming lithologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.; Mazariegos, R.; Shea, W.T.

    1991-03-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the roles of deformation and the occurrence of weak sedimentary lithologies subjected to gravitational loads in shaping conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Two sedimentary lithologies that influence the geometries, physical properties, and heterogeneities of oil and gas reservoirs are shale and rocksalt. Both form effect barriers to the flow and communication of petroleum and gas and, in many cases, form the seals to major reservoirs due to their low permeabilities. Both are actively deformed in depositional environments due to their low strengths relative to gravitational loads applied. Thus, the shapes of seal-forming units, and the nature of fractures and faults that may breach them depend upon either the mechanical properties of shale or those of salt, and the loading histories to which they have been subjected. Deformed shales may, in addition, serve as unconventional reservoirs of gas if open fractures within them provide sufficient porosity. The fracture and flow properties of shales are not well constrained, and the authors are currently investigating these properties experimentally. The rheology of rocksalt, on the other hand, is well known and they believe that the time is right to apply the experimentally constrained constitutive relations for rocksalt to deformations in the Earth. Efforts are continuing on modeling fracture anisotropy and the authors have examined simple, two-mica models to evaluate the mechanical interactions they proposed for gneiss and mica-poor schists. Brief summaries of the progress and results to date for (1) the mechanical properties of schist, (2) a two-mica model of fracture anisotropy, (3) deformation of shale, and (4) modeling of salt and shale tectonics of the northern Gulf of Mexico are given in the following sections. 35 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Exploring the retention properties of CaF2 nanoparticles as possible additives for dental care application with tapping-mode atomic force microscope in liquid.

    PubMed

    Wasem, Matthias; Köser, Joachim; Hess, Sylvia; Gnecco, Enrico; Meyer, Ernst

    2014-01-13

    Amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) is used to determine the retention properties of CaF2 nanoparticles adsorbed on mica and on tooth enamel in liquid. From the phase-lag of the forced cantilever oscillation the local energy dissipation at the detachment point of the nanoparticle was determined. This enabled us to compare different as-synthesized CaF2 nanoparticles that vary in shape, size and surface structure. CaF2 nanoparticles are candidates for additives in dental care products as they could serve as fluorine-releasing containers preventing caries during a cariogenic acid attack on the teeth. We show that the adherence of the nanoparticles is increased on the enamel substrate compared to mica, independently of the substrate roughness, morphology and size of the particles. PMID:24455460

  1. Exploring the retention properties of CaF2 nanoparticles as possible additives for dental care application with tapping-mode atomic force microscope in liquid

    PubMed Central

    Köser, Joachim; Hess, Sylvia; Gnecco, Enrico; Meyer, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) is used to determine the retention properties of CaF2 nanoparticles adsorbed on mica and on tooth enamel in liquid. From the phase-lag of the forced cantilever oscillation the local energy dissipation at the detachment point of the nanoparticle was determined. This enabled us to compare different as-synthesized CaF2 nanoparticles that vary in shape, size and surface structure. CaF2 nanoparticles are candidates for additives in dental care products as they could serve as fluorine-releasing containers preventing caries during a cariogenic acid attack on the teeth. We show that the adherence of the nanoparticles is increased on the enamel substrate compared to mica, independently of the substrate roughness, morphology and size of the particles. PMID:24455460

  2. Modeling the mechanical and aging properties of silicone rubber and foam - stockpile-historical & additively manufactured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Gee, R. H.

    2014-09-30

    M97* and M9763 belong to the M97xx series of cellular silicone materials that have been deployed as stress cushions in some of the LLNL systems. Their purpose of these support foams is to distribute the stress between adjacent components, maintain relative positioning of various components, and mitigate the effects of component size variation due to manufacturing and temperature changes. In service these materials are subjected to a continuous compressive strain over long periods of time. In order to ensure their effectiveness, it is important to understand how their mechanical properties change over time. The properties we are primarily concerned about are: compression set, load retention, and stress-strain response (modulus).

  3. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  4. Enhanced mechanical properties of nanocomposites at low graphene content.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Mohammad A; Rafiee, Javad; Wang, Zhou; Song, Huaihe; Yu, Zhong-Zhen; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-12-22

    In this study, the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites with graphene platelets, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and multi-walled carbon nanotube additives were compared at a nanofiller weight fraction of 0.1 +/- 0.002%. The mechanical properties measured were the Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, and the material's resistance to fatigue crack propagation. The results indicate that graphene platelets significantly out-perform carbon nanotube additives. The Young's modulus of the graphene nanocomposite was approximately 31% greater than the pristine epoxy as compared to approximately 3% increase for single-walled carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of the baseline epoxy was enhanced by approximately 40% with graphene platelets compared to approximately 14% improvement for multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The mode I fracture toughness of the nanocomposite with graphene platelets showed approximately 53% increase over the epoxy compared to approximately 20% improvement for multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The fatigue resistance results also showed significantly different trends. While the fatigue suppression response of nanotube/epoxy composites degrades dramatically as the stress intensity factor amplitude is increased, the reverse effect is seen for graphene-based nanocomposites. The superiority of graphene platelets over carbon nanotubes in terms of mechanical properties enhancement may be related to their high specific surface area, enhanced nanofiller-matrix adhesion/interlocking arising from their wrinkled (rough) surface, as well as the two-dimensional (planar) geometry of graphene platelets. PMID:19957928

  5. Novel F-releasing Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ling, L.; Xu, X.; Choi, G.-Y.; Billodeaux, D.; Guo, G.; Diwan, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the authors have been developing novel fluoride-releasing dental composites containing ternary zirconium fluoride chelates. The aim of this study was to improve the physical and mechanical properties of these composites by improving the formulation of the monomers and photoinitiators. The hypothesis was that reduction of hydrophilic monomers and improvement of the photoinitiators could reduce water sorption and significantly increase the mechanical properties of the composite. The degree of conversion of the composites containing different compositions of photoinitiators was studied by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). Ten experimental composites containing different compositions of ethoxylated bisphenol-A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (BisGMA) were tested for flexural strength, viscosity, and water sorption. The experimental composite containing 20% synthesized fluoride-releasing monomer, 30% BisGMA, 30% EBPADMA, and 20% HDDMA showed significantly higher fluoride release and recharge, but physical and mechanical properties similar to those of the control composite containing 40% BisGMA, 40% EBPADMA, and 20% HDDMA. PMID:19131323

  6. Reconstruction of Sedimentary Rock Based on MechanicalProperties

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guodong; Patzek, Tad W.; Silin, Dmitry B.

    2004-05-04

    We describe a general, physics-based approach to numericalreconstruction of the geometrical structure and mechanical properties ofnatural sedimentary rock in 3D. Our procedure consists of three mainsteps: sedimentation, compaction, and diagenesis, followed by theverification of rock mechanical properties. The dynamic geologicprocesses of grain sedimentation and compaction are simulated by solvinga dimensionless form of Newton's equations of motion for an ensemble ofgrains. The diagenetic rock transformation is modeled using a cementationalgorithm, which accounts for the effect of rock grain size on therelative rate of cement overgrowth. Our emphasis is on unconsolidatedsand and sandstone. The main input parameters are the grain sizedistribution, the final rock porosity, the type and amount of cement andclay minerals, and grain mechanical properties: the inter-grain frictioncoefficient, the cement strength, and the grain stiffness moduli. We usea simulated 2D Fontainebleau sandstone to obtain the grain mechanicalproperties. This Fontainebleau sandstone is also used to study theinitiation, growth, and coalescence of micro-cracks under increasingvertical stress. The box fractal dimension of the micro-crackdistribution, and its variation with the applied stress areestimated.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Particles: Effect of Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Nitzan; Gladnikoff, Micha; Barlam, David; Shneck, Roni Z.; Rein, Alan; Rousso, Itay

    2006-01-01

    After budding from the host cell, retroviruses undergo a process of internal reorganization called maturation, which is prerequisite to infectivity. Viral maturation is accompanied by dramatic morphological changes, which are poorly understood in physical/mechanistic terms. Here, we study the mechanical properties of live mature and immature murine leukemia virus particles by indentation-type experiments conducted with an atomic force microscope tip. We find that both mature and immature particles have an elastic shell. Strikingly, the virus shell is twofold stiffer in the immature (0.68 N/m) than the mature (0.31 N/m) form. However, finite-element simulation shows that the average Young's modulus of the immature form is more than fourfold lower than that of the mature form. This finding suggests that per length unit, the protein-protein interactions in the mature shell are stronger than those in the immature shell. We also show that the mature virus shell is brittle, since it can be broken by application of large loading forces, by firm attachment to a substrate, or by repeated application of force. Our results are the first analysis of the mechanical properties of an animal virus, and demonstrate a linkage between virus morphology and mechanical properties. PMID:16632508

  8. Application of planetary analog mechanical properties to subsurface geological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElShafie, A.; Chevrier, V. F.; Dennis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of the mechanical properties of planetary analog materials are of great importance to improve future mission success and to enhance our understanding of the history and evolution of planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. Determining the stratigraphy of the subsurface using drills and penetrometers implies knowing the mechanical properties of the regolith. Therefore, we investigated the mechanical properties of Martian regolith analogs (JSC Mars-1 and an unaltered basaltic soil from Mojave desert). Penetration force is dependent on the bearing capacity factor (Nq) and the angle of internal friction which is found to be function of the level of compaction and increases with relative density. The bearing capacity factor (Nq) showed an exponential trend with the angle of internal friction. For Mojave soil, (Nq) increased from 64 to 338 with φ increasing from 32 to 41.3° while (Nq) increased from 161 to 3347 with φ increasing from 39.4 to 54.7° for JSC Mars-1. Based on estimation of the bearing capacity factor and the angle of internal friction, we predicted the force of penetration under the Martian gravity using a 1.2 cm diameter penetrometer. Under a bulk density of 1240 and 1500 kg m-3 in JSC Mars-1 and Mojave soil, 460 and 200 N is the estimated force to reach a depth of about 20 cm deep. Based on this investigation, distinguishing between different regolith layers on the subsurface of Mars is possible and observable using penetration force.

  9. Mechanical Properties of a Primary Cilium Measured by Resonant Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Andrew

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous mammalian cellular substructures implicated in an ever-increasing number of regulatory pathways. The well-established `ciliary hypothesis' states that physical bending of the cilium (for example, due to fluid flow) initiates signaling cascades, yet the mechanical properties of the cilium remain incompletely measured, resulting in confusion regarding the biological significance of flow-induced ciliary mechanotransduction. In this work we measure the mechanical properties of a primary cilium by using an optical trap to induce resonant oscillation of the structure. Our data indicate 1), the primary cilium is not a simple cantilevered beam, 2), the base of the cilium may be modeled as a nonlinear rotatory spring, the linear spring constant `k' of the cilium base calculated to be (4.6 +/- 0.62)*10-12 N/rad and nonlinear spring constant ` α' to be (-1 +/- 0.34) *10-10 N/rad2 , and 3) the ciliary base may be an essential regulator of mechanotransduction signalling. Our method is also particularly suited to measure mechanical properties of nodal cilia, stereocilia, and motile cilia, anatomically similar structures with very different physiological functions.

  10. Bulk Mechanical Properties of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarra, Matthew; Landi, Brian; Cress, Cory; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2007-03-01

    The unique properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) make them especially well suited for use as electrodes in power devices such as lithium ion batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, solar cells, and supercapacitors. The performances of such devices are expected to be influenced, at least in part, by the mechanical properties of the SWNTs used in composites or in stand alone ``papers.'' Therefore, the elastic moduli and ultimate tensile strengths of SWNT papers were measured as functions of temperature, SWNT purity, SWNT length, and SWNT bundling. The SWNTs used to produce the papers were synthesized in an alexandrite laser vaporization reactor at 1100^oC and purified using conventional acid-reflux conditions. Characterization of the SWNTs was performed using SEM, BET, TGA, and optical and Raman spectroscopy. The purified material was filtered and dried to yield papers of bundled SWNTs which were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). It was observed that the mechanical properties of acid-refluxed SWNT papers were significantly improved by controlled thermal oxidation and strain-hardening. Elastic moduli of SWNT papers were measured between 3 and 6 GPa. Ultimate (breaking) tensile stresses were measured between 45 and 90 MPa at 1-3% strain. These results and their implications in regard to potential applications in power devices will be discussed.

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers

    PubMed Central

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  12. Some physical and mechanical properties of roasted Zerun wheat.

    PubMed

    Işıklı, Nursel Develi; Senol, Belma; Coksöyler, Nafi

    2014-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of roasted Zerun wheat were investigated in the moisture range from 8.80 % to 23.40 % wet basis. Mechanical properties were evaluated by examining the effect of moisture content upon the grain rupture force, energy and Weibull parameters. Length, width, thickness, porosity and angle of repose increased nonlinearly from 6.09 to 6.36 mm; 4.17 to 4.18 mm; 2.66 to 2.78 mm; 37.71 % to 39.09 % and 33.02° to 37.90°, respectively when moisture content increased. The Weibull distribution fits the data for rupture force and energy. The Weibull modulus and scale parameter for rupture force varied between 3.88 and 6.20; 26.61 and 44.24N, respectively. The Weibull modulus for energy increased from 2.15 to 3.24 with increased in moisture content. Measured mechanical properties of grains showed that the brittleness and fragile structure of the roasted grain gradually lost its characteristic crispiness and become soft and ductile above 13.78 % moisture content. PMID:25190855

  13. Rubber-toughened cyanate composites - Properties and toughening mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. C.; Woo, E. P.; Laman, S. A.; Jakubowski, J. J.; Pickelman, D. M.; Sue, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier work by Young et al. (1990) has shown that Dow experimental cyanate ester resin XU71787.02 is readily toughenable by rubber. A particularly effective rubber for this purpose is an experimental core-shell rubber which toughens the polymer by inducing shear yielding. This paper describes an investigation into the toughening mechanism in the corresponding carbon-fiber composite systems and the effect of fibers on composite properties. Resin-fiber interfacial shear strengths have been successfully correlated to the compressive strengths after impact and other key properties of composites based on rubber-toughened cyanate and several carbon fibers. The differences in the properties are explained by the difference in the functioning of the rubber particles during the fracture process.

  14. Vibrational, mechanical, and thermal properties of III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, John D.

    1989-02-01

    Theories of the mechanical, vibrational, and electronic properties of 3 to 5 semiconductors were developed and applied to: (1) help determine the feasibility of InN-based visible and ultraviolet lasers and light detectors, (2) develop a theory of phonons in semiconductor alloys, (3) understand surface reconstruction of semiconductors, (4) predict the effects of atomic correlations on the light-scattering (Raman) properties of semiconductive alloys, (5) develop a new first principles pseudo-function implementation of local-density theory, (6) study the oxidation of GaAs, (7) develop a theory of scanning tunneling microscope images, and (8) understand the electronic and optical properties of highly strained artificial semiconductors and small semiconductor particles.

  15. Relationship between chemistry, microstructure and mechanical properties of alpha-silicon aluminum oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuba, Roman

    The aim of this thesis was to improve the mechanical properties of Y-alpha-SiAlON ceramics by controlling microstructure and tailoring grain boundary composition. Three properties of importance for engineering applications were targeted: strength retention and oxidation resistance at high temperature, fracture toughness at room temperature, and machinability. As a result of this work, several ceramics with one or more of the above properties optimized have been developed. The performance of Si3N4/SiAlON-based ceramics at high (>1000 degree C) temperature is generally limited by the softening of grain-boundary glass. Refractory alpha-SiAlONs was obtained by three methods: reducing residual liquid by minimizing nitride powder oxidation during processing, promoting liquid/SiAlON conversion by adding excess AlN, and improving refractoriness by incorporating La2O3 into glass. Ceramics thus, obtained featured excellent room-temperature strength (1050 MPa) and high-temperature strength (650 MPa at 1300 degree C), as well as good oxidation resistance. In all cases grain growth was inhibited, which resulted in a relatively low toughness (5--7 MPa x m1/2). In-situ toughened Y-alpha-SiAlON (9 MPa x m1/2) was obtained through growth of large elongated grains with low debonding strength. This was achieved by introducing seed crystals to the starting powder mixtures, in addition to using sintering aids and dopants. Additives modified the properties of grain boundary glass, while dopants lowered the strength of glass/grain interface. Through the use of nanosized turbostratic BN precursor obtained via pyrolysis of melamine borate salt, which yielded finely dispersed hexagonal BN particles in alpha-SiAlON, high-strength (800 MPa) Y-alpha-SiAlON/BN composites, machinable using WC/Co tools, were also fabricated.

  16. Effect of drying conditions on properties, pigments and antioxidant activity retentions of pretreated orange and purple-fleshed sweet potato flours.

    PubMed

    Ruttarattanamongkol, Khanitta; Chittrakorn, Sasivimon; Weerawatanakorn, Monthana; Dangpium, Narong

    2016-04-01

    Pigmented sweet potatoes (SPs) are outstanding sources of anthocyanin, β-carotene and other color-related phytonutrients. However, fresh SP roots are highly perishable and difficult to store. To reduce losses and extend their uses, fresh SP could be converted into flour. SP cultivars with deep purple (Phichit 65-3) and orange-fleshed (T101) colors newly developed in Thailand were studied. The influence of drying methods on physico-chemical properties, anthocyanin, β-carotene and antioxidant activity retentions of purple and orange-fleshed SP flours (SPFs) was investigated. Peeled purple and orange SPs were pretreated by blanching (100 °C, 5 sec) and soaking in 0.5 % (w/v) sodium metabisulphite, then dried in either hot air oven at 50-80 °C or steamed for 10 min and placed to the drum dryer at 80-110 °C and 3-7 rpm drum speed. The drying processes significantly enhanced anthocyanin contents of SPFs by 1.8 to 3.8 times; however, there was a significant loss of β-carotene occurred during drying processes. Drum drying yielded SPFs with better color, higher total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity than the hot air drying. Pasting temperatures of hot air dried orange-fleshed SPFs (84-85 °C) were slightly higher than those of purple-fleshed SPFs (80-83 °C). Drum drying process produced pre-gelatinized (instant) SPFs as indicated by RVA and DSC results. The optimal conditions for drum dried and hot air dried SPF manufactured were 95 °C at 5 rpm and 70 °C, respectively, based on anthocyanin, β-carotene, total phenolic, antioxidant activity, color retentions, and pasting properties. PMID:27413208

  17. Effect of Hydroperoxides on Red Blood Cell Membrane Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hale, John P.; Winlove, C. Peter; Petrov, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of oxidative stress on red blood cell membrane mechanical properties in vitro using detailed analysis of the membrane thermal fluctuation spectrum. Two different oxidants, the cytosol-soluble hydrogen peroxide and the membrane-soluble cumene hydroperoxide, are used, and their effects on the membrane bending elastic modulus, surface tension, strength of confinement due to the membrane skeleton, and 2D shear elastic modulus are measured. We find that both oxidants alter significantly the membrane elastic properties, but their effects differ qualitatively and quantitatively. While hydrogen peroxide mainly affects the elasticity of the membrane protein skeleton (increasing the membrane shear modulus), cumene hydroperoxide has an impact on both membrane skeleton and lipid bilayer mechanical properties, as can be seen from the increased values of the shear and bending elastic moduli. The biologically important implication of these results is that the effects of oxidative stress on the biophysical properties, and hence the physiological functions, of the cell membrane depend on the nature of the oxidative agent. Thermal fluctuation spectroscopy provides a means of characterizing these different effects, potentially in a clinical milieu. PMID:22004746

  18. Do Stretch Durations Affect Muscle Mechanical and Neurophysiological Properties?

    PubMed

    Opplert, J; Genty, J-B; Babault, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether stretching durations influence acute changes of mechanical and neurophysiological properties of plantar flexor muscles. Plantar flexors of 10 active males were stretched in passive conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Different durations of static stretching were tested in 5 randomly ordered experimental trials (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10×30-s). Fascicle stiffness index, evoked contractile properties and spinal excitability (Hmax/Mmax) were examined before (PRE), immediately after (POST0) and 5 min after (POST5) stretching. No stretch duration effect was recorded for any variable. Moreover, whatever the stretching duration, stiffness index, peak twitch torque and rate of force development were significantly lower at POST0 and POST5 as compared to PRE (P<0.05). Electromechanical delay was longer at POST0 and POST5 as compared to PRE (P<0.05). Whatever the stretch duration, no significant changes of Hmax/Mmax ratio were recorded. In conclusion, 30 s of static stretching to maximum tolerated discomfort is sufficient enough to alter mechanical properties of plantar flexor muscles, but 10×30 s does not significantly affect these properties further. Stretching does not impair spinal excitability. PMID:27191211

  19. Mechanical properties of several magnesium and aluminum composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsangarakis, N.; Taleghani, B.

    1992-12-01

    Several composites of magnesium and aluminum alloys were tested in order to assess and evaluate their mechanical properties. The magnesium alloys were AZ91 C, ZE41 A, and commercially pure magnesium, reinforced with 40% by volume continuous graphite fiber. The tensile properties of these composites were not superior to those of unreinforced magnesium and estimates of their fracture toughness were low. The matrices of the aluminum composites were 2124-T6, 6061-T4, 2124-T4, and 2219-T4. The reinforcements were either particulate or whiskers of silicon carbide or boron carbide and their volume content was 15% to 30%. The aluminum composites which were reinforced with silicon carbide particulate exhibited improved yield and ultimate tensile stresses, as well as tensile elastic modulus over the unreinforced aluminum alloys. The 2124-T4/B4C/25p composite exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength which was 511 MPa. The composite which was reinforced with whiskers of silicon carbide exhibited an endurance limit which was 20% higher than that of the matrix alloy. The compressive properties and fracture toughness of some of these aluminum composites were not improved over those of the unreinforced matrix alloy.... Composites, Mechanical properties.

  20. Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Intact Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes, H.; Heim, A.; Matthews, W. G.; Koob, T.

    2006-03-01

    Motivated by the genetic disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), in which proper collagen synthesis is interrupted, we are investigating the structural and mechanical properties of collagen fibrils. The fibrous glycoprotein collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body and plays a key role in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue, the properties of which are altered in EDS. We have selected as our model system the collagen fibrils of the sea cucumber dermis, a naturally mutable tissue. This system allows us to work with native fibrils which have their proteoglycan complement intact, something that is not possible with reconstituted mammalian collagen fibrils. Using atomic force microscopy, we measure, as a function of the concentration of divalent cations, the fibril diameter, its response to force loading, and the changes in its rigidity. Through these experiments, we will shed light on the mechanisms which control the properties of the sea cucumber dermis and hope to help explain the altered connective tissue extracellular matrix properties associated with EDS.

  1. Humidity interaction of lichens under astrobiological aspects: the impact of UVC exposure on their water retention properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, J.; Meeßen, J.; Herzog, T. H.; Feist, M.; de la Torre, R.; Devera, J.-P. P.

    2015-07-01

    We quantitatively studied the hydration and dehydration behaviour of the three astrobiological model lichens Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida and Circinaria gyrosa by thermoanalysis and gravimetric isotherm measurements under close-to-Martian environmental conditions in terms of low temperature and low pressure. Additionally, the impact of UVC exposure on the isolated symbionts of B. frigida and X. elegans was studied by thermoanalysis and mass spectrometry as well as by gravimetric isotherm measurements. The thermal analysis revealed whewellite as a component of C. gyrosa which was not found in B. frigida and X. elegans. Neither the water retention nor the thermal behaviour of symbionts changed when irradiated with UVC under dry conditions. On the other hand, UVC irradiation of the wet mycobiont of B. frigida had a distinct impact on the hydration/dehydration ability which was not observed for the mycobiont of X. elegans. Possibly the melanin of B. frigida's mycobiont, that is not present in X. elegans, or a specifically damaged acetamido group of the chitin of B. frigida may be the sources of additional UVC-induced sorption sites for water associated with the UVC exposure.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Mineralized Collagen Fibrils As Influenced By Demineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Balooch, M.; Habelitz, S.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-05-11

    Dentin and bone derive their mechanical properties from a complex arrangement of collagen type-I fibrils reinforced with nanocrystalline apatite mineral in extra- and intrafibrillar compartments. While mechanical properties have been determined for the bulk of the mineralized tissue, information on the mechanics of the individual fibril is limited. Here, atomic force microscopy was used on individual collagen fibrils to study structural and mechanical changes during acid etching. The characteristic 67 nm periodicity of gap zones was not observed on the mineralized fibril, but became apparent and increasingly pronounced with continuous demineralization. AFM-nanoindentation showed a decrease in modulus from 1.5 GPa to 50 MPa during acid etching of individual collagen fibrils and revealed that the modulus profile followed the axial periodicity. The nanomechanical data, Raman spectroscopy and SAXS support the hypothesis that intrafibrillar mineral etches at a substantially slower rate than the extrafibrillar mineral. These findings are relevant for understanding the biomechanics and design principles of calcified tissues derived from collagen matrices.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Type IV Pili in P. Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shun; Touhami, Ahmed; Scheurwater, Edie; Harvey, Hanjeong; Burrows, Lori; Dutcher, John

    2009-03-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are thin flexible protein filaments that extend from the cell membrane of bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The mechanical properties of Tfp are of great importance since they allow bacteria to interact with and colonize various surfaces. In the present study, we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) for both imaging and pulling on Tfp from P. aeruginosa (PAO1) and from its PilA, PilT, and FliC mutants. A single pilus filament was mechanically stretched and the resulting force-extension profiles were fitted using the worm-like-chain (WLC) model. The statistical distributions obtained for contour length, persistence length, and number of pili per bacteria pole, were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of a single pilus and the biogenesis functions of different proteins (PilA, PilT) involved in its assembly and disassembly. Importantly, the persistence length value of ˜ 1 μm measured in the present study, which is consistent with the curvature of the pili observed in our AFM images, is significantly lower than the value of 5 μm reported earlier by Skerker et al. (1). Our results shed new light on the role of mechanical forces that mediate bacteria-surface interactions and biofilm formation. 1- J.M. Skerker and H.C. Berg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 6901-6904 (2001).

  4. Mechanical properties of layered poly (ethylene glycol) gels.

    PubMed

    Skornia, S L; Bledsoe, J G; Kelso, B; Kuntz Willitz, R

    2007-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels have become a popular material for biomedical applications because of their versatility in use and design. As these gels are readily crosslinked under UV, microfabrication techniques have been investigated to manufacture complex three dimensional structures to better mimic the in vivo environment. This work investigated whether a layering technique to fabricate gels offered sufficient strength between the layers to perform similarly in mechanical testing to unlayered gels. Two mechanical tests were performed: tensile tests and peel tests. The tensile tests, which examined sample gels whose test sections were crosslinked for different durations, demonstrated no statistical differences in elastic modulus between sample and control gels. As expected, a statistical increase in the elastic modulus was found with increased PEG concentration. Comparison of the yield stress between samples and controls illustrated differences with total crosslinking duration, which may be due to the decreased molecular weight of the chains with decreased crosslinking time. In peel tests, no statistical differences of maximum peel force were found between samples and controls. However, an increase in the maximum peel force was found with increasing concentration of PEG. Overall, this study demonstrates that the layering process described for the PEG gels has minimal impact on the tested mechanical properties of the system. As mechanical properties are critical to the design of tissue engineered devices, these results demonstrate that this fabrication method may be appropriate for further study as a scaffold for complex cellular systems. PMID:20799187

  5. Prediction of mechanical properties of trabecular bone using quantitative MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammentausta, E.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.

    2006-12-01

    Techniques for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed for non-invasive estimation of the mineral density and structure of trabecular bone. The R*2 relaxation rate (i.e. 1/T*2) is sensitive to bone mineral density (BMD) via susceptibility differences between trabeculae and bone marrow, and by binarizing MRI images, structural variables, such as apparent bone volume fraction, can be assessed. In the present study, trabecular bone samples of human patellae were investigated in vitro at 1.5 T to determine the ability of MRI-derived variables (R*2 and bone volume fraction) to predict the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate strength). Further, the MRI variables were correlated with reference measurements of volumetric BMD and bone area fraction as determined with a clinical pQCT system. The MRI variables correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with the mechanical variables (r = 0.32-0.46), BMD (r = 0.56) and bone structure (r = 0.51). A combination of R*2 and MRI-derived bone volume fraction further improved the prediction of yield stress and ultimate strength. Although pQCT showed a trend towards better prediction of the mechanical properties, current results demonstrate the feasibility of combined MR imaging of marrow susceptibility and bone volume fraction in predicting the mechanical strength of trabecular bone and bone mineral density.

  6. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  7. Time-Temperature Superposition Applied to PBX Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; Deluca, Racci

    2011-06-01

    The use of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) in weapon applications requires a certain level of structural/mechanical integrity. Uniaxial tension and compression experiments characterize the mechanical response of materials over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, providing the basis for predictive modeling in more complex geometries. After years of data collection on a wide variety of PBX formulations, we have applied time-temperature superposition principles to a mechanical properties database which includes PBX 9501, PBX 9502, PBXN-110, PBXN-9, and HPP (propellant). The results of quasi-static tension and compression, SHPB compression, and cantilever DMA are compared. Time-temperature relationships of maximum stress and corresponding strain values are analyzed in addition to the more conventional analysis of modulus. Our analysis shows adherence to the principles of time-temperature superposition and correlations of mechanical response to the binder glass transition and specimen density. Direct ties relate time-temperature analysis to the underlying basis of existing PBX mechanical models (ViscoSCRAM). Results suggest that, within limits, mechanical response can be predicted at conditions not explicitly measured. LA-UR 11-01096.

  8. Manipulation of individual viruses: friction and mechanical properties.

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, M R; Washburn, S; Superfine, R; Finch, M; Brooks, F P; Chi, V; Taylor, R M

    1997-01-01

    We present our results on the manipulation of individual viruses using an advanced interface for atomic force microscopes (AFMs). We show that the viruses can be dissected, rotated, and translated with great facility. We interpret the behavior of tobacco mosaic virus with a mechanical model that makes explicit the competition between sample-substrate lateral friction and the flexural rigidity of the manipulated object. The manipulation behavior of tobacco mosaic virus on graphite is shown to be consistent with values of lateral friction observed on similar interfaces and the flexural rigidity expected for macromolecular assemblies. The ability to manipulate individual samples broadens the scope of possible studies by providing a means for positioning samples at specific binding sites or predefined measuring devices. The mechanical model provides a framework for interpreting quantitative measurements of virus binding and mechanical properties and for understanding the constraints on the successful, nondestructive AFM manipulation of delicate samples. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 PMID:9138585

  9. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks related to induced seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Gale, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Witherspoon, P.A. and Gale, J.E., 1977. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of rocks related to induced seismicity. Eng. Geol., 11(1): 23-55. The mechanical and hydraulic properties of fractured rocks are considered with regard to the role they play in induced seismicity. In many cases, the mechanical properties of fractures determine the stability of a rock mass. The problems of sampling and testing these rock discontinuities and interpreting their non-linear behavior are reviewed. Stick slip has been proposed as the failure mechanism in earthquake events. Because of the complex interactions that are inherent in the mechanical behavior of fractured rocks, there seems to be no simple way to combine the deformation characteristics of several sets of fractures when there are significant perturbations of existing conditions. Thus, the more important fractures must be treated as individual components in the rock mass. In considering the hydraulic properties, it has been customary to treat a fracture as a parallel-plate conduit and a number of mathematical models of fracture systems have adopted this approach. Non-steady flow in fractured systems has usually been based on a two-porosity model, which assumes the primary (intergranular) porosity contributes only to storage and the secondary (fracture) porosity contributes only to the overall conductivity. Using such a model, it has been found that the time required to achieve quasi-steady state flow in a fractured reservoir is one or two orders of magnitude greater than it is in a homogeneous system. In essentially all of this work, the assumption has generally been made that the fractures are rigid. However, it is clear from a review of the mechanical and hydraulic properties that not only are fractures easily deformed but they constitute the main flow paths in many rock masses. This means that one must consider the interaction of mechanical and hydraulic effects. A considerable amount of laboratory and field data is now

  10. Electronic and mechanical properties of chemically functionalized nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidasaria, Sanjay K.

    2009-12-01

    Organic and inorganic nanostructured materials, nano- and mesoscale objects and devices, and their integration into existing microelectronic technologies have been at the center of recent fundamental and applied research in nanotechnology. One of the critical needs is to develop an enhanced predictive capability of structure-property correlations and enable robust high performance systems by design. My thesis work was concerned with the theoretical and experimental studies of electronic and mechanical properties of chemically functionalized nanowires. I will first describe a theoretical approach for investigating structure-property correlations in atomic-sized metallic wires based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) for structure calculations and the Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) technique for electronic transport properties simulations. This synergistic approach is shown to yield the atomic structure of the smallest niobium nanowires. Furthermore, the method was applied to simulate electronic properties of chemically functionalized graphene nanoribbons. Further, I will demonstrate an experimental technique for simultaneous measurements of force and conductance in atomic-size objects based on quartz tuning fork piezoelectric sensors. A peculiar scaling effect, relevant for a broad range of test and measurement applications, namely the squeeze film effect, was observed during the development of the sensors. Using theoretical analysis based on finite element simulations of the hydrodynamic behavior of the sensors in a broad range of ambient conditions, I explain the observed phenomenon.

  11. Size effects on mechanical and thermal properties of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Tarekul

    Materials, from electronic to structural, exhibit properties that are sensitive to their composition and internal microstructures such as grain and precipitate sizes, crystalline phases, defects and dopants. Therefore, the research trend has been to obtain fundamental understanding in processing-structure-properties to develop new materials or new functionalities for engineering applications. The advent of nanotechnology has opened a new dimension to this research area because when material size is reduced to nanoscale, properties change significantly from the bulk values. This phenomenon expands the problem to 'size-processing-structure-propertiesfunctionalities'. The reinvigorated research for the last few decades has established size dependency of the material properties such as thermal conductivity, Young's modulus and yield strength, electrical resistivity, photo-conductance etc. It is generally accepted that classical physical laws can be used to scale down the properties up to 25-50 nm length-scale, below which their significant deviation or even breakdown occur. This dissertation probes the size effect from a different perspective by asking the question, if nanoscale size influences one physical domain, why it would not influence the coupling between two or more domains? Or in other words, if both mechanical and thermal properties are different at the nanoscale, can mechanical strain influence thermal conductivity? The hypothesis of size induced multi-domain coupling is therefore the foundation of this dissertation. It is catalyzed by the only few computational studies available in the literature while experimental validations have been non-existent owing to experimental challenges. The objective of this research is to validate this hypothesis, which will open a novel avenue to tune properties and functionalities of materials with the size induced multi-domain coupling. Single domain characterization itself is difficult at the nanoscale due to specimen

  12. Morphology, orientation, and mechanical properties of gelatin films

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, T.N.; Tsou, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Gelatin is a polypeptide derived from degradation and disorganization of collagen fibers and is the primary binder in photographic emulsions. Gelatin provides the mechanical integrity and strength to the photographic emulsion allowing for packaging, handling, and photofinishing operations. Gelatin films generated from aqueous-solution casting can exist in a semicrystalline or an amorphous state. When a gelatin solution is cooled below its helix-coil transition temperature, partial renaturation of gelatin to form triple helices can occur. The degree of renaturation in a coated film is dependent upon the drying temperature and the drying rate. During the drying process, gelatin crystals can be formed by lateral association of the triple helices through a mechanism of nucleation and growth of a fringed micelle structure. X-ray scattering techniques have been utilized to examine the morphology and orientation of gelatin films. Based on X-ray diffraction data, it is observed that aggregates of triple-helix rods lie parallel to the film plane but are symmetrically distributed within the film plane. Since a material`s physical and mechanical properties are related to its structure, it is necessary to understand and to characterize the morphological development in gelatin film formation. In this study, an X-ray diffractometer and pole figure goniometer were utilized to examine the structural development and orientation anisotropy in solid-state gelatin films. Also, in this study, the in-plane mechanical properties of a gelatin film were determined from a uniaxial tensile test, and the gelatin film properties in the thickness direction were extracted from an indentation test based on the finite element analysis of the indentation results using a viscoelastic material model.

  13. Effect of diet on mechanical properties of horse's hair.

    PubMed

    Kania, Małgorzata; Mikołajewska, Dorota; Marycz, Krzysztof; Kobielarz, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the effect of diet supplementation with zinc and copper, in different chemical forms (organic and inorganic), on the mechanical properties of the hair of healthy English thoroughbred horses. Hairs were taken from 18 horses which had been fed with oats and hay for a period of 110 days. Twelve of the horses had been additionally given a daily dose of 700 g of highquality 44-ingredients Fohlengold St-Hippolyt muesli made by Muhle Ebert Dilheim. Six of them had received the muesli-containing organic zinc and copper (OS), while the other six horses had received the muesli-containing inorganic zinc and copper (IS). The mechanical properties of the hairs before and after the supplementation period were tested in a Synergie 100 (MTS) testing machine. Each of the hairs was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min until rupture. Young modulus (E), breaking stress (Ru) and yield point (Rs) of the particular hairs were determined. No significant changes in the mechanical parameters were observed in the reference group in which the horses were fed with only oats and hay for the whole experimental period of 110 days. The supplementation of the diet with inorganic zinc and copper resulted in an increase in the elasticity and diameter of the hairs and in a simultaneous reduction in their strength. Whereas organic zinc and copper caused an increase in the elasticity and strength of the hairs and a simultaneous reduction in their diameter. It has been shown that the organic form of the supplemented trace zinc and copper (mainly copper) elements has a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the hairs since it results in an increase in both their elasticity and strength. PMID:20131751

  14. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  15. Bone scaffolds with homogeneous and discrete gradient mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jelen, C; Mattei, G; Montemurro, F; De Maria, C; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Vozzi, G

    2013-01-01

    Bone TE uses a scaffold either to induce bone formation from surrounding tissue or to act as a carrier or template for implanted bone cells or other agents. We prepared different bone tissue constructs based on collagen, gelatin and hydroxyapatite using genipin as cross-linking agent. The fabricated construct did not present a release neither of collagen neither of genipin over its toxic level in the surrounding aqueous environment. Each scaffold has been mechanically characterized with compression, swelling and creep tests, and their respective viscoelastic mechanical models were derived. Mechanical characterization showed a practically elastic behavior of all samples and that compressive elastic modulus basically increases as content of HA increases, and it is strongly dependent on porosity and water content. Moreover, by considering that gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues, we developed discrete functionally graded scaffolds (discrete FGSs) in order to mimic the graded structure of bone tissue. These new structures were mechanically characterized showing a marked anisotropy as the native bone tissue. Results obtained have shown FGSs could represent valid bone substitutes. PMID:25428038

  16. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    PubMed Central

    Finot, Eric; Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young's modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature variations. When appropriate

  17. Investigation on mechanical properties of basalt composite fabrics (experiment study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi, H.; Zamani, H.

    2010-06-01

    To fully appreciate the role and application of composite materials to structures, correct understanding of mechanical behaviors required for selection of optimum material. Fabric reinforced composites are composed of a matrix that is reinforced with pliable fabric, glass fabric is most popular reinforcement for different application specially in aircraft structure, although other fabric material are also used. At this study new fabric material called basalt with epoxy resin introduced and mechanical behaviors of this material investigated from view point of testing. For this study two type of fabric with different thickness used. Comparison between this composite reinforcement with popular reinforcement as carbon, glass, kevlar performed. To determine mechanical properties of epoxy based basalt fabric following test procedure performed : 1). Tensile testing according to ASTM D3039 in 0° and 90° direction to find ultimate strength in tension and shear, modulus of elasticity, elangation and ultimate strain. 2). Compression testing according to EN 2850 ultimate compression strength and maximum deformation under compression loading. 3). Shear testing according to ASTM D3518-94 to find in plane shear response of polymer matrix composites materials. 4). Predict flexural properties of sandwich construction which manufactured from basalt facing with PVC foam core according to ASTM C393-94. Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material to meet the test procedure specifications [1]. For this reason six specimens were manufactured for testing and the tests were performed on them using an INSTRON machine model 5582. In the study, the effect of percent of resin in basalt reinforced composite was investigated. Also the weights of the ballast based composites with different percent of resin were measured with conventional composites. As the weight is an important parameter in aerospace industry when the designer wants to replace one material with

  18. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  19. Mechanical properties of materials with nanometer scale microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, W.D.

    1991-07-01

    For the past two years we have been engaged in a program of research on the mechanical properties of a variety of new materials with nanometer scale microstructures. These materials have been developed recently using vapor phase synthesis techniques and are available in the form of compositionally-modulated (multilayered) thin film materials and ultrafine-grained (nanocrystalline) solids. They have interesting microstructures and mechanical properties that may lead to new applications for these materials. In this report we give a brief summary of some of the results we have obtained to date in the course of this research. Other, more detailed, descriptions of some of this work can be found in the papers that we have published. These are listed at the end of this report along with a listing of the oral presentations we have given. We report briefly on our studies of the elastic properties of metallic multilayered thin films. Using indentation and microbeam deflection techniques, we have found that Au/Ni multilayers do not show supermodulus effects, contrary to some previous reports based on bulge test results. However, we have discovered large and significant substrate interaction stresses in these films which depend systematically on the composition modulation wavelength. We believe that these residual stresses may have led to bulge testing errors which in turn led to erroneous reports of supermodulus effects.

  20. Influence of Ligament Properties on Tibiofemoral Mechanics in Walking.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin R; Lenhart, Rachel L; Kaiser, Jarred; Vignos, Michael F; Thelen, Darryl G

    2016-02-01

    Computational knee models provide a powerful platform to investigate the effects of injury and surgery on functional knee behavior. The objective of this study was to use a multibody knee model to investigate the influence of ligament properties on tibiofemoral kinematics and cartilage contact pressures in the stance phase of walking. The knee model included 14 ligament bundles and articular cartilage contact acting across the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. The knee was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and was used to simulate knee mechanics during the stance phase of normal walking. A Monte Carlo approach was employed to assess the influence of ligament stiffness and reference strain on knee mechanics. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and posterior capsule properties exhibited significant influence on anterior tibial translation at heel strike, with the ACL acting as the primary restraint to anterior translation in mid-stance. The MCL and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) exhibited the greatest influence on tibial rotation from heel strike through mid-stance. Simulated tibial plateau contact location was dependent on the ACL, MCL, and LCL properties, while pressure magnitudes were most dependent on the ACL. A decrease in ACL stiffness or reference strain significantly increased the average contact pressure in mid-stance, with the pressure migrating posteriorly on the medial tibial plateau. These ligament-dependent shifts in tibiofemoral cartilage contact during walking are potentially relevant to consider when investigating the causes of early-onset osteoarthritis following knee ligament injury and surgical treatment. PMID:26408997

  1. Dynamic and mechanical properties of supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsing-Lun; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane

    2016-04-21

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) offer an excellent model system for investigating the physico-chemical properties of the cell membrane. In this work, dynamic and mechanical properties of SLBs are explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for lipids with different architectures (chain length, kink, and asymmetry associated with lipid tails). It is found that the lateral diffusivity (Dx) and flip-flop rate (FF) grow with increasing temperature in both gel and liquid phases and can be described by an Arrhenius-like expression. Three regimes can be clearly identified for symmetric and asymmetric saturated lipids but only two regimes are observed for kinked lipids. Both Dx and FF grow with decreasing tail length and increasing number of kinks. The stretching (KA) and apparent bending (KB) moduli exhibit concave upward curves with temperature and the minima are attained at Tm. In general, the minima of KA and KB decrease with the chain length and increase with number of kinks. The typical relation among the bending modulus, area stretching modulus, and bilayer thickness is still followed, KB = βKAh(2) and β is much smaller in the gel phase. The dynamic and mechanical properties of lipids with asymmetric tails are found to situate between their symmetric counterparts. PMID:27389237

  2. Enhancing the mechanical properties of single-crystal CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Meng, Yufei; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2009-09-01

    Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at high growth rates are described. CVD processes used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal CVD diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness (∼78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal CVD diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond. PMID:21832321

  3. Effects of prestresses on mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, T.; Kurumada, A.; Imamura, Y.; Kawamata, K.; Shiraishi, M.

    1998-10-01

    Graphite materials which are used for plasma facing components and other components are subjected to stresses due to the high heat flux from the fusion plasma. Some mechanical properties of graphite materials can change due to the prestresses. The property changes should be considered for the design of the plasma facing components. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of prestresses on the mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials. Compressive prestresses were applied to two kinds of isotropic fine-grained graphites (IG-430 and IG-11) at 298 K (both), 1873 K (IG-11), 2273 K (IG-11) and 2283 K (IG-430). As a result, the decrease in Young's modulus for IG-430 due to high-temperature prestressing was 56% which was much larger than the 6.4% that was due to prestressing at 298 K. The results for IG-11 were the same as those for IG-430 graphite. This finding was considered to be due primarily to a difference in degree of the preferred orientation of crystallites in the graphite on the basis of the Bacon anisotropy factor (BAF) obtained from X-ray diffraction measurement of the prestressed specimens. Furthermore, high-temperature compressive prestressing produced an increase in the strength of the isotropic graphite, although room temperature prestressing produced no such effect. The results obtained here suggest that the isotropic graphite which is subjected to high-temperature compressive stresses can become anisotropic in service.

  4. Local Mechanical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy Nanoindentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranchida, Davide; Piccarolo, Stefano

    The analysis of mechanical properties on a nanometer scale is a useful tool for combining information concerning texture organization obtained by microscopy with the properties of individual components. Moreover, this technique promotes the understanding of the hierarchical arrangement in complex natural materials as well in the case of simpler morphologies arising from industrial processes. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can bridge morphological information, obtained with outstanding resolution, to local mechanical properties. When performing an AFM nanoindentation, the rough force curve, i.e., the plot of the voltage output from the photodiode vs. the voltage applied to the piezo-scanner, can be translated into a curve of the applied load vs. the penetration depth after a series of preliminary determinations and calibrations. However, the analysis of the unloading portion of the force curves collected for polymers does not lead to a correct evaluation of Young's modulus. The high slope of the unloading curves is not linked to an elastic behavior, as would be expected, but rather to a viscoelastic effect. This can be argued on the basis that the unloading curves are superimposed on the loading curves in the case of an ideal elastic behavior, as for rubbers, or generally in the case of materials with very short relaxation times. In contrast, when the relaxation time of the sample is close to or even much larger than the indentation time scale, very high slopes are recorded.

  5. Multi-scale mechanical and transport properties of a hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, Hossein; Rahbar, Nima

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamic simulation was used to study the effect of water on the equilibrated structure and mechanical properties of cross-linked hydrogel at multiple scales. The hydrogel consisted of Polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as epoxy and the Jeffamine, poly-oxy-alkylene-amines, as curing agent. The results for systems with various water contents indicated that the cross-links were more hydrophilic within the hydrogel structure. Effects of cross-linking on the transport properties were also investigated by computing diffusion coefficients of water molecules. A new Coarse-Grained (CG) scheme for hydrogels is proposed, and validated by comparing the transport properties with the all-atom method, demonstrating the capability of the model to capture the correct dynamic evolution of the system. The all-atom model of the hydrogel was mapped to the CG model using the MARTINI force field. This method resulted in a more realistic representation of the stiffness of the system, compared to the previous experimental studies in the literature. The variation of the stiffness of the hydrogel as a function of the water content showed that 40% water content is the optimal value for mechanical performance of the hydrogel. PMID:24967978

  6. Dynamic and mechanical properties of supported lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsing-Lun; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane

    2016-04-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) offer an excellent model system for investigating the physico-chemical properties of the cell membrane. In this work, dynamic and mechanical properties of SLBs are explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for lipids with different architectures (chain length, kink, and asymmetry associated with lipid tails). It is found that the lateral diffusivity (Dx) and flip-flop rate (FF) grow with increasing temperature in both gel and liquid phases and can be described by an Arrhenius-like expression. Three regimes can be clearly identified for symmetric and asymmetric saturated lipids but only two regimes are observed for kinked lipids. Both Dx and FF grow with decreasing tail length and increasing number of kinks. The stretching (KA) and apparent bending (KB) moduli exhibit concave upward curves with temperature and the minima are attained at Tm. In general, the minima of KA and KB decrease with the chain length and increase with number of kinks. The typical relation among the bending modulus, area stretching modulus, and bilayer thickness is still followed, KB = βKAh2 and β is much smaller in the gel phase. The dynamic and mechanical properties of lipids with asymmetric tails are found to situate between their symmetric counterparts.

  7. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced by Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Tainger, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit cast features. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. Tensile mechanical properties and microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains with interior dendritic structures, described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  8. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behavior of Nanoporous Au

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Wang, Y M; Hayes, J R; Hamza, A V

    2005-06-16

    Nanoporous metals have recently attracted considerable interest fueled by potential sensor and actuator applications. From a material science point of view, one of the key issues in this context is the synthesis of nanoporous metals with both high tensile and compressive strength. Nanoporous gold (np-Au) has been suggested as a candidate material for this application due to its monolithic character. The material can be synthesized by electrochemically-driven dealloying of Ag-Au alloys, and exhibits an open sponge-like structure of interconnecting ligaments with a typical pore size distribution on the nanometer length scale. However, besides the observation of a ductile-brittle transition very little is known about the mechanical behavior of this material. Here, we present our results regarding the mechanical properties and the fracture behavior of np-Au. Depth-sensing nanoindentation reveals that the yield strength of np-Au is almost one order of magnitude higher than the value predicted by scaling laws developed for macroscopic open-cell foams. The unexpectedly high value of the yield strength indicates the presence of a distinct size effect of the mechanical properties due to the sub-micron dimensions of the ligaments, thus potentially opening a door to a new class of high yield strength--low density materials. The failure mechanism of np-Au under tensile stress was evaluated by microscopic examination of fracture surfaces using scanning electron microscopy. On a macroscopic level, np-Au is a very brittle material. However, microscopically np-Au is very ductile as ligaments strained by as much as 200% can be observed in the vicinity of crack tips. Cell-size effects on the microscopic failure mechanism were studied by annealing experiments whereby increasing the typical pore size/ligament diameter from {approx}100 nm to {approx}1{micro}m.

  9. Mechanical Property of HVOF Inconel 718 Coating for Aeronautic Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyphout, Christophe; Fasth, Angelica; Nylen, Per

    2014-02-01

    The module of elasticity is one of the most important mechanical properties defining the strength of a material which is a prerequisite to design a component from its early stage of conception to its field of application. When a material is to be thermally sprayed, mechanical properties of the deposited layers differ from the bulk material, mainly due to the anisotropy of the highly textured coating microstructure. The mechanical response of the deposited layers significantly influences the overall performance of the coated component. It is, therefore, of importance to evaluate the effective module of elasticity of the coating. Conventional experimental methods such as microindentation, nanoindentation and four-point bending tests have been investigated and their results vary significantly, mainly due to inhomogeneous characteristics of the coating microstructure. Synchrotron radiation coupled with a tensile test rig has been proposed as an alternative method to determine the coating anisotropic elastic behavior dependence on crystallographic orientations. The investigation was performed on Inconel 718 (IN718) HVOF coatings sprayed on IN718 substrates. Combining these experimental techniques yield a deeper understanding of the nature of the HVOF coating Young's modulus and thus a tool for Design Practice for repair applications.

  10. Study on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of EPDM Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong-Shui; Xu, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Xiong; Jiang, Jing

    As the most common insulation material of solid rocket motors, thermal and mechanical properties of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) composite are inspected in the study. Referring to the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), composition and morphology of EPDM composite in different thermal degradation degree are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to inspect the mechanism of thermal insulation. Mechanical properties of EPDM composite in the state of pyrolysis are investigated by uniaxial tensile tests. At the state of initial pyrolysis, composite belongs to the category of hyperelastic-viscoelastic material. The tendency of tensile strength increased and elongation decreased with increasing of heating temperature. Composite behaves as the linear rule at the state of late pyrolysis, which belongs to the category of bittle. The elasticity modulus of curves are almost the same while the heating temperature ranges from 200°C to 300°C, and then gradually go down. The tensile strength of pyrolytic material reach the highest at the heating temperature of 300°C, and the virgin material has the largest elongation.

  11. Probing mechanical properties of living cells by magnetopneumography.

    PubMed

    Möller, W; Takenaka, S; Rust, M; Stahlhofen, W; Heyder, J

    1997-01-01

    Magnetopneumography (MPG) has been used to study long-term particle clearance from human lungs as well as cellular motility of pulmonary macrophages (PMs). This study describes an extension of the method enabling the measurement of mechanical properties of PM cells in vivo. Ferromagnetic microparticles are inhaled and then retained in the alveolar region of the lungs, where they are phagocytized within hours by PMs. The magnetic particles can be rotated in weak magnetic fields, and the response to this twisting shear (force) is detected as a macroscopic magnetic field producing a measure of cytoskeletal mechanics. Cytoplasmic viscosity is very high compared with that of water and is strongly non-Newtonian. Under rotational stresses from 0.4 to 6.4 Pa, it acts like a pseudoplastic fluid showing a characteristic shear rate dependence. The viscosity as well as the stiffness of the cytoskeleton increases with increasing shear stress as seems typical for living tissue and evidence for an intact cytoskeletal matrix. The particle recoil as measured by the amount of recoverable strain following a short twisting force describes a cytoplasmic elasticity that depends on both level and duration of stress. These investigations on the mechanical properties of living human cells are promising and should lead to better understanding of cellular dysfunction in disease as well as pathways for drug administration. PMID:10174196

  12. Mechanical properties of thin-wall ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Druschitz, A.P.

    2000-10-01

    The use of cast iron in automotive applications in this era of increasing fuel efficiency requires the ability to cast very thin sections (2-7 mm). Although thin-wall iron castings have been produced, difficulty arises in predicting the mechanical properties of these castings because mechanical behavior is closely related to thickness, which in turn is a direct consequence of the section cooling rate. Experiments relating casting thickness with ultimate tensile strength, elongation, reduction in area, and hardness were performed. An inverse relationship was found between ultimate tensile strength and thickness. Elongation was found to depend only on the thickness of the sample and approached zero as the thickness of the sample decreased below 1.5 mm. Percent reduction in area was found to depend linearly on thickness. Although average hardness also correlated with the inverse of thickness, it was not found to be a useful measure of ultimate tensile strength. The results of this study show that cooling rate of the thin wall casting very much affects the mechanical properties.

  13. Mechanical properties and modeling of seal-forming lithologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.; Ibanez, W.; Mazariegos, R.

    1992-04-01

    Both rocksalt and shale lithologies are actively deformed in response to gravitational loads associated with deposition, and both form effective seals to petroleum and natural gas. Thus, the shapes of seal-forming units, and the nature of fractures and faults that may breach them depend upon either the mechanical properties of salt or those of shale, and the loading histories to which they have been subjected. The objectives of this research include the determination of the mechanical properties under controlled conditions of well-characterized shales, and the numerical modeling of rocksalt (and eventually shale) formations using laboratory-based rheologies. Progress has been made towards these goals over this project period, both in our experimental program on shale deformation and model development for the growth of salt diapirs. The mechanical anisotropy of an illite-bearing shale from Louisiana has been determined and related to the preferred orientation and distribution of clays. Its strength in the absence of pore fluids has been determined at confining pressures of up to 250 MPa and at high pressure we have investigated the effects of deformation rate and temperature. A numerical finite difference code has been developed to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and validated using a two- layer linear viscous model for which analytic solutions are available. Although the code has only been validated for the linear viscous case, it is capable of solving for highly nonlinear constitutive laws as well as solving for arbitrary interfaces between the salt and overburden.

  14. Atomic vacancies significantly degrade the mechanical properties of phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Ying-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Due to low formation energies, it is very easy to create atomic defects in phosphorene during its fabrication process. How these atomic defects affect its mechanical behavior, however, remain unknown. Here, we report on a systematic study of the effect of atomic vacancies on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that atomic vacancies induce local stress concentration and cause early bond-breaking, leading to a significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the material. More specifically, a 2% concentration of randomly distributed mono-vacancies is able to reduce the fracture strength by ∼40%. An increase in temperature from 10 to 400 K can further deteriorate the fracture strength by ∼60%. The fracture strength of defective phosphorene is also found to be affected by defect distribution. When the defects are patterned in a line, the reduction in fracture strength greatly depends on the tilt angle and the loading direction. Furthermore, we find that di-vacancies cause an even larger reduction in fracture strength than mono-vacancies when the loading is in an armchair direction. These findings provide important guidelines for the structural design of phosphorene in future applications.

  15. Mechanical properties for irradiated face-centred cubic nanocrystalline metals

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, X. Z.; Song, D. K.; Chu, H. J.; Xue, J. M.; Duan, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a self-consistent plasticity theory is proposed to model the mechanical behaviours of irradiated face-centred cubic nanocrystalline metals. At the grain level, a tensorial crystal model with both irradiation and grain size effects is applied for the grain interior (GI), whereas both grain boundary (GB) sliding with irradiation effect and GB diffusion are considered in modelling the behaviours of GBs. The elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent method with considering grain size distribution is developed to transit the microscopic behaviour of individual grains to the macroscopic properties of nanocrystals (NCs). The proposed theory is applied to model the mechanical properties of irradiated NC copper, and the feasibility and efficiency have been validated by comparing with experimental data. Numerical results show that: (i) irradiation-induced defects can lead to irradiation hardening in the GIs, but the hardening effect decreases with the grain size due to the increasing absorption of defects by GBs. Meanwhile, the absorbed defects would make the GBs softer than the unirradiated case. (ii) There exists a critical grain size for irradiated NC metals, which separates the grain size into the irradiation hardening dominant region (above the critical size) and irradiation softening dominant region (below the critical size). (iii) The distribution of grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical behaviours of both irradiated and unirradiated NCs. The proposed model can offer a valid theoretical foundation to study the irradiation effect on NC materials. PMID:27547091

  16. Atomic vacancies significantly degrade the mechanical properties of phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Ying-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Due to low formation energies, it is very easy to create atomic defects in phosphorene during its fabrication process. How these atomic defects affect its mechanical behavior, however, remain unknown. Here, we report on a systematic study of the effect of atomic vacancies on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that atomic vacancies induce local stress concentration and cause early bond-breaking, leading to a significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the material. More specifically, a 2% concentration of randomly distributed mono-vacancies is able to reduce the fracture strength by ∼40%. An increase in temperature from 10 to 400 K can further deteriorate the fracture strength by ∼60%. The fracture strength of defective phosphorene is also found to be affected by defect distribution. When the defects are patterned in a line, the reduction in fracture strength greatly depends on the tilt angle and the loading direction. Furthermore, we find that di-vacancies cause an even larger reduction in fracture strength than mono-vacancies when the loading is in an armchair direction. These findings provide important guidelines for the structural design of phosphorene in future applications. PMID:27345189

  17. Brief mechanical ventilation impacts airway cartilage properties in neonatal lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minwook; Pugarelli, Joan; Miller, Thomas L.; Wolfson, Marla R.; Dodge, George R.; Shaffer, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging allows in vivo assessment of tracheal kinetics and cartilage structure. To date, the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) on extracellular matrix (ECM) in airway cartilage is unclear, but an indication of its functional and structural change may support the development of protective therapies. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in mechanical properties of the neonatal airway during MV with alterations in cartilage ECM. Trachea segments were isolated in a neonatal lamb model; ultrasound dimensions and pressure-volume relationships were measured on sham (no MV; n = 6) and MV (n = 7) airways for 4 h. Tracheal cross-sections were harvested at 4 h, tissues were fixed and stained, and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was performed. Over 4 h of MV, bulk modulus (28%) and elastic modulus (282%) increased. The MV tracheae showed higher collagen, proteoglycan content, and collagen integrity (new tissue formation); whereas no changes were seen in the controls. These data are clinically relevant in that airway properties can be correlated with MV and changes in cartilage extracellular matrix. Mechanical ventilation increases the in vivo dimensions of the trachea, and is associated with evidence of airway tissue remodeling. Injury to the neonatal airway from MV may have relevance for the development of tracheomalacia. We demonstrated active airway tissue remodeling during MV using a FT-IRIS technique which identifies changes in ECM. PMID:22170596

  18. Osteonal lamellae elementary units: lamellar microstructure, curvature and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Faingold, Anna; Cohen, Sidney R; Reznikov, Natalie; Wagner, H Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical and structural properties of the sublayers of osteonal lamellae were studied. Young's modulus (E) of adjacent individual lamellae was measured by nanoindentation of parallel slices every 1-3 μm, in planes parallel and perpendicular to the osteon axis (OA). In planes parallel to the OA, the modulus of a lamella could vary significantly between sequential slices. Significant modulus variations were also sometimes found on opposing sides of the osteonal canal for the same lamella. These results are rationalized by considerations involving the microstructural organization of the collagen fibrils in the lamellae. Scanning electron microscope imaging of freeze fractured surfaces revealed that the substructure of a single lamella can vary significantly on the opposing sides of the osteonal axis. Using a serial surface view method, parallel planes were exposed every 8-10 nm using a dual-beam microscope. Analysis of the orientations of fibrils revealed that the structure is rotated plywood like, consisting of unidirectional sublayers of fibrils of several orientations, with occasional randomly oriented sublayers. The dependence of the measured mechanical properties of the lamellae on the indentation location may be explained by the observed structure, as well as by the curvature of the osteonal lamellae through simple geometrical-structural considerations. Mechanical advantages arising from the curved laminate structure are discussed. PMID:23220032

  19. Mechanical property degradation of graphite/polyimide composites after exposure to moisture or shuttle orbiter fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of moisture exposure on the mechanical properties of graphite polyimide systems are presented. The mechanism of the degradation and the magnitude of the affect associated with specific mechanical properties is investigated. An experimental effort involving exposure to selected environmental variables and subsequent mechanical property testing and analysis is included.

  20. Thermal and mechanical treatments for nickel and some nickel-base alloys: Effects on mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. M.; Beuhring, V. F.

    1972-01-01

    This report deals with heat treating and working nickel and nickel-base alloys, and with the effects of these operations on the mechanical properties of the materials. The subjects covered are annealing, solution treating, stress relieving, stress equalizing, age hardening, hot working, cold working, combinations of working and heat treating (often referred to as thermomechanical treating), and properties of the materials at various temperatures. The equipment and procedures used in working the materials are discussed, along with the common problems that may be encountered and the precautions and corrective measures that are available.

  1. Mechanical Properties of ZnSe for the FEANICS Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ZnSe windows to be used with the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) experiments were measured in order to determine design allowables. In addition, the literature on crack growth properties was summarized. The average Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, equibiaxial fracture strength, flaw size, grain size, Knoop hardness, Vicker's hardness, and branching constant were 74.3 +/- 0.1 GPa, 0.31, 57.8 +/- 6.5 MPa, 21 4 mm, 43 +/- 9 micron, 0.97 +/- 0.02 GPa, 0.97 +/- 0.02 GPa, and 1.0 +/- 0.1 MPam(exp 0.5), respectively. The properties of current ZnSe made by chemical vapor deposition are in good agreement with those measured in the 1970's. The hardness of CVD ZnSe windows is about one twentieth of the sapphire window being replaced, and about one-sixth of that of window glass. Thus the ZnSe window must be handled with great care. The large grain size relative to the inherent crack size implies the need to use single crystal crack growth properties in the design process. In order to determine the local failure stresses in one of the test specimens, a solution for the stresses between the support ring and the edge of a circular plate load between concentric rings was derived.

  2. Double-peak mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingna; Zhang, Xiaohua; Di, Jiangtao; Xu, Geng; Yang, Xiaojie; Liu, Xiangyang; Yong, Zhenzhong; Chen, Minghai; Li, Qingwen

    2010-11-22

    The introduction of twist during the spinning of carbon nanotubes from their arrays (forests) has been widely applied in making ultrastrong, stiff, and lightweight nanotube fibers. Here, for the first time, an important observation of a double-peak behavior of the tensile properties, as a function of the twist angle, that is different from the single peak of traditional fibers is reported. Raman spectra show that the new peak arises from the collapse of nanotubes, showing a strong "nano" element in applying the ancient draw-and-twist technique, besides the downsizing. A qualitative continuum model is also presented to describe the collapse-induced enhancement as well as traditional fibers. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies indicate the direction of full utilization of the nano element in improving the mechanical properties of nanotube fibers. PMID:20941775

  3. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.

  4. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-27

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  5. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  6. Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone.

    PubMed Central

    Currey, J D; Zioupos, P; Davies, P; Casino, A

    2001-01-01

    We compared the mechanical properties of 'ordinary' bovine bone, the highly mineralized bone of the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris, and mother of pearl (nacre) of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. The rostrum and the nacre are similar in having very little organic material. However, the rostral bone is much weaker and more brittle than nacre, which in these properties is close to ordinary bone. The ability of nacre to outperform rostral bone is the result of its extremely well-ordered microstructure, with organic material forming a nearly continuous jacket round all the tiny aragonite plates, a design well adapted to produce toughness. In contrast, in the rostrum the organic material, mainly collagen, is poorly organized and discontinuous, allowing the mineral to join up to form, in effect, a brittle stony material. PMID:12123292

  7. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Al-Mg Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bong-Jae; Hong, Kyung-Eui; Kim, Young-Jig

    The aim of this research is to develop the high strength Al alloy sheet for the automotive body. For the fabrication Al-Mg alloy sheet, the composition of alloying elements was designed by the properties database and CALPHAD (Calculation Phase Diagram) approach which can predict the phases during solidification using thermodynamic database. Al-Mg alloys were designed using CALPHAD approach according to the high content of Mg with minor alloying elements. After phase predictions by CALPHAD, designed Al-Mg alloys were manufactured. Addition of Mg in Al melts were protected by dry air/Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) mixture gas which can control the severe Mg ignition and oxidation. After rolling procedure of manufactured Al-Mg alloys, mechanical properties were examined with the variation of the heat treatment conditions.

  8. Mechanical properties of open-pore titanium foam.

    PubMed

    Imwinkelried, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    Open-pore titanium foams are produced using the so-called space holder method. The mechanical properties of titanium foams with porosities of 50-80% are studied. The stiffness and yield strength of the foams are found to encompass the property range between cancellous bone and cortical bone. The analyzed foams are found to be anisotropic due to the use of nonspherical space holder particles which rearrange during the compaction of the powder mixture. The titanium foams are stronger perpendicular to the compaction direction and weaker along the compaction axis. In view of the application as an implant material in the lumbar spine, an intermediate porosity of 60-65% is analyzed more in detail. The typical yield strength of titanium foam with 62.5% porosity is above 60 MPa in compression, bending, and tension. Stiffness values vary with the testing method from 7-14 GPa. PMID:17252551

  9. Mechanical property evaluation of natural fiber coir composite

    SciTech Connect

    Harish, S.; Michael, D. Peter; Bensely, A. Lal, D. Mohan; Rajadurai, A.

    2009-01-15

    The fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber-reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, coir composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Scanning electron micrographs obtained from fractured surfaces were used for a qualitative evaluation of the interfacial properties of coir/epoxy and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that coir can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  10. Modeling the mechanical properties of liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping; Shen, Yuanyuan; Song, Liang

    2016-06-14

    The progression of liver fibrosis changes the biomechanical properties of liver tissue. This study characterized and compared different liver fibrosis stages in rats in terms of viscoelasticity. Three viscoelastic models, the Voigt, Maxwell, and Zener models, were applied to experimental data from rheometer tests and then the elasticity and viscosity were estimated for each fibrosis stage. The study found that both elasticity and viscosity are correlated with the various stages of liver fibrosis. The study revealed that the Zener model is the optimal model for describing the mechanical properties of each fibrosis stage, but there is no significant difference between the Zener and Voigt models in their performance on liver fibrosis staging. Therefore the Voigt model can still be effectively used for liver fibrosis grading. PMID:27017300

  11. Structure Formation Mechanisms and Electrical Properties of PVD Fluoropolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchnikov, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of forming fluoropolymer coatings on silicon substrates via condensation from an active gas phase using directed flows of accelerated electrons and ions are studied. It is demonstrated that electrical properties of the resulting fluoropolymer films strongly depend on the technological parameters of the deposition process. Their most optimal properties are reported when condensation takes place at the temperatures within ~373-386 K. It is shown that thermal annealing of the films in vacuum at 430-470 K improves their electrophysical parameters by re-evaporating the low-molecular complexes from the structure and decreasing the concentration of defects and spin-radicals, while annealing in air gives rise to formation of additional polar groups.

  12. Photoacoustic characterization of the mechanical properties of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Carmen M.; Murray, Todd W.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2002-01-01

    Narrow band photoacoustics (laser ultrasonics) are used to characterize the properties of free-standing nanometer-sized thin films. Photoacoustic generation is achieved by use of a microchip laser which deposits pulsed laser energy in the form of a spatially periodic source on the structure. The resulting narrow band ultrasonic modes are monitored using a Michelson interferometer. By varying the geometry of the spatially periodic source, a wide range of acoustic wave numbers is probed. Results are presented for two-layer thin film aluminum/silicon-nitride (Al/Si3N4) membranes. For such thin films, only the two lowest order guided modes are generated and these in turn can be related to sheet and flexural modes in plates. The mechanical properties and residual stress in the thin films are evaluated from measured acoustic dispersion curves for these two lowest order modes.

  13. Mechanical and electrical properties of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1998-08-27

    Effects of Ag particle dispersions on microstructural development and some properties were investigated for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. They were fabricated by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS) Process to achieve finer and densified microstructure. ZnO/Ag nanocomposites with novel microstructure which were prepared by a reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powders were compared with microcomposites prepared by mixing of Ag and ZnO powders. SEM observation indicated that fine Ag particles were homogeneously dispersed within the ZnO matrix grains and at the grain boundaries for ZnO/Ag nanocomposites prepared by the reduction process using Ag{sub 2}O fine powder. Hardness and fracture toughness increased with increasing the Ag volume fraction. Linear resistivity was decreased with increasing Ag volume fraction. However, the mechanical and electrical properties appeared to the significantly different for composites prepared by two different powder processes.

  14. Estimation of mechanical properties of nanomaterials using artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, V.; Garg, A.; Wong, C. H.; Tai, K.

    2014-09-01

    Computational modeling tools such as molecular dynamics (MD), ab initio, finite element modeling or continuum mechanics models have been extensively applied to study the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based on given input variables such as temperature, geometry and defects. Artificial intelligence techniques can be used to further complement the application of numerical methods in characterizing the properties of CNTs. In this paper, we have introduced the application of multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) and support vector regression to formulate the mathematical relationship between the compressive strength of CNTs and input variables such as temperature and diameter. The predictions of compressive strength of CNTs made by these models are compared to those generated using MD simulations. The results indicate that MGGP method can be deployed as a powerful method for predicting the compressive strength of the carbon nanotubes.

  15. Asteroid Regolith Mechanical Properties: Laboratory Experiments With Cohesive Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Scheeres, D. J.; Roark, S. E.; Dissly, R.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-10-01

    Despite clear evidence that small asteroids undergo drastic physical evolution, the geophysics and mechanics of many of the processes governing that evolution remain a mystery due to a lack of scientific data, both on the sub-surface and global geophysics of these small bodies and on the mechanical properties of regoliths in the unique micro-gravity regime they inhabit. We are beginning a three-year effort to study regolith properties and processes on low-gravity, small asteroids by conducting analog experiments with cohesive powders in a 1-g laboratory environment. Based on a rigorous comparison of forces it can be shown that van der Waals cohesive forces between millimeter to centimeter-sized grains on asteroids ranging in size from Eros to Itokawa, respectively, may exceed their ambient weight several-fold. This observation implies that regoliths composed of impact debris of those sizes should behave on the microgravity surfaces of small asteroids like flour or other cohesive powders do in the 1-g environment here on Earth. Our goal is to develop an improved understanding of the role of cohesion in affecting regolith processes and surface morphology of small Solar System bodies, some the targets of ongoing and proposed NASA New Frontiers and Discovery missions, and to quantify the range of expected mechanical properties of such regoliths. Our experiments will be conducted in ambient and vacuum conditions within an environmental test chamber at Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation (BATC) in Boulder, CO. To aid in validating our experiment chamber and support equipment performance, and before proceeding with experiments on geologic regolith simulant materials, we will perform a series of comparative, ‘calibration’ experiments with micro glass spheres; all primary experiments will be performed with at least one non-idealized regolith simulant, like JSC-1, that more realistically simulates the angular particle shapes expected in actual geologic fragments

  16. Mechanical properties of a biodegradable bone regeneration scaffold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, B. D.; Oldham, J. B.; He, S. L.; Zobitz, M. E.; Payne, R. G.; An, K. N.; Currier, B. L.; Mikos, A. G.; Yaszemski, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Poly (Propylene Fumarate) (PPF), a novel, bulk erosion, biodegradable polymer, has been shown to have osteoconductive effects in vivo when used as a bone regeneration scaffold (Peter, S. J., Suggs, L. J., Yaszemski, M. J., Engel, P. S., and Mikos, A. J., 1999, J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 10, pp. 363-373). The material properties of the polymer allow it to be injected into irregularly shaped voids in vivo and provide mechanical stability as well as function as a bone regeneration scaffold. We fabricated a series of biomaterial composites, comprised of varying quantities of PPF, NaCl and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), into the shape of right circular cylinders and tested the mechanical properties in four-point bending and compression. The mean modulus of elasticity in compression (Ec) was 1204.2 MPa (SD 32.2) and the mean modulus of elasticity in bending (Eb) was 1274.7 MPa (SD 125.7). All of the moduli were on the order of magnitude of trabecular bone. Changing the level of NaCl from 20 to 40 percent, by mass, did not decrease Ec and Eb significantly, but did decrease bending and compressive strength significantly. Increasing the beta-TCP from 0.25 g/g PPF to 0.5 g/g PPF increased all of the measured mechanical properties of PPF/NVP composites. These results indicate that this biodegradable polymer composite is an attractive candidate for use as a replacement scaffold for trabecular bone.

  17. Mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dale L; Kersh, Mariana E; Walsh, Nicole C; Ackland, David C; de Steiger, Richard N; Pandy, Marcus G

    2016-08-01

    Isotropic hyperelastic models have been used to determine the material properties of normal human cartilage, but there remains an incomplete understanding of how these properties may be altered by osteoarthritis. The aims of this study were to (1) measure the material constants of normal and osteoarthritic human knee cartilage using isotropic hyperelastic models; (2) determine whether the material constants correlate with histological measures of structure and/or cartilage tissue damage; and (3) quantify the abilities of two common isotropic hyperelastic material models, the neo-Hookean and Yeoh models, to describe articular cartilage contact force, area, and pressure. Small osteochondral specimens of normal and osteoarthritic condition were retrieved from human cadaveric knees and from the knees of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and tested in unconfined compression at loading rates and large strains representative of weight-bearing activity. Articular surface contact area and lateral deformation were measured concurrently and specimen-specific finite element models then were used to determine the hyperelastic material constants. Structural parameters were measured using histological techniques while the severity of cartilage damage was quantified using the OARSI grading scale. The hyperelastic material constants correlated significantly with OARSI grade, indicating that the mechanical properties of cartilage for large strains change with tissue damage. The measurements of contact area described anisotropy of the tissue constituting the superficial zone. The Yeoh model described contact force and pressure more accurately than the neo-Hookean model, whereas both models under-predicted contact area and poorly described the anisotropy of cartilage within the superficial zone. These results identify the limits by which isotropic hyperelastic material models may be used to describe cartilage contact variables. This study provides novel data for the

  18. Mechanical properties of several Fe-Ni meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Mulford, Roberta N; El - Dasher, Bassem

    2010-10-28

    The strength and elastic constants of meteorites are of increasing interest as predictions of meteorite impacts on earth come within the realm of possibility. In addition, meteorite impacts on extraterrestrial bodies provide an excellent sampling tool for evaluation of planetary compositions and properties. Fe-Ni meteorites provide a well-defined group of materials of fairly uniform composition. Iron-nickel meteorites exhibit a unique lamellar microstructure, a Widmanstatten structure, consisting of small regions with steep-iron-nickel composition gradients. This microstructure is found in the Fe-Ni system only in meteorites, and is believed to arise as a result of slow cooling in a planetary core or other large mass. Meteorites with compositions consisting of between 5 and 17% nickel in iron are termed 'octahedrite,' and further characterized according to the width of the Ni-poor kamacite bands; 'fine,' (0.2-0.5 mm) 'medium,' (0.5-1.3 mm) and 'coarse,' (1.5-3.3 mm). Many meteorites have inclusions and structures indicating that the material has been shocked at some point early in its evolution. Several Iron-nickel meteorites have been examined using Vickers and spherical indentation, x-ray fluorescence, and EBSD. Direct observation of mechanical properties in these hig