Sample records for propidium iodide-stained cells

  1. Propidium iodide staining: a new application in fluorescence microscopy for analysis of cytoarchitecture in adult and developing rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Marcus; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Koch, Marco; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2012-10-01

    Immunohistochemical visualization of antigens in specimen has evolved to an indispensable technique in biomedical research for investigations of cell morphology and pathology both in bright field and fluorescence microscopy. While there are couple of staining methods that reveal entire cytoarchitecture in bright field microscopy such as Nissl or hemalaun-eosin, there are still limitations in visualizations of cytoarchitecture in fluorescence microscopy. The present study reports a simple staining method that provides the required illustration of cell allocations and cellular composition in fluorescence microscopy in adult and in developing rodent central nervous system using the fluorophore propidium iodide (PI, 5?g/mL). PI is a well-accepted marker for degenerating cells when applied prior to fixation (pre-fixation PI staining). Here, PI was added to the sections after the fixation (post-fixation PI staining). This revised labeling procedure led to similar cytoarchitectural staining patterns in fluorescence microscopy as observed with hemalaun in bright field microscopy. This finding was proven in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) and brain sections obtained from different postnatal developmental stages. Excitotoxically lesioned OHSC subjected to pre-fixation PI staining merely showed brightly labeled condensed nuclei of degenerating neurons. In contrast, post-fixation PI staining additionally revealed extensive labeling of neuronal cell bodies and glial cells within the OHSC, thus allowing visualization of stratification of neuronal layers and cell morphology. Furthermore, post-fixation PI staining was combined with NeuN, calbindin, calretinin, glial fibrillary acidic protein or Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB(4)) in post natal (p1 and p9) and adult rats. In early post-natal brain sections almost all mentioned cellular markers led to an incomplete staining of the native cell organization and resulted in an inaccurate estimation of cell morphology when compared to adult brains. In contrast, post-fixation PI staining allowed investigation of the whole cytoarchitecture independent of the developmental stage. Taken together, post-fixation PI staining provides a detailed insight in the morphology of both developing and adult brain tissues in fluorescence microscopy. PMID:22579654

  2. NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

  3. Effect of medium conductivity and composition on the uptake of propidium iodide into electropermeabilized myeloma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cholpon S. Djuzenova; Ulrich Zimmermann; Hermann Frank; Vladimir L. Sukhorukov; Ekkehard Richter; Günter Fuhr

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ionic composition and conductivity of the medium on electropermeabilization of the plasma membrane of mammalian cells were studied. Temporal and spatial uptake of propidium iodide (PI) into field-treated cells was measured by means of flow cytometry, spectrofluorimetry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Murine myeloma cells were electropulsed in iso-osmolar solutions. These contained 10–100 ?g ml?1 PI at

  4. Curcumin induces apoptosis-independent death in oesophageal cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G O'Sullivan-Coyne; GC O'Sullivan; TR O'Donovan; K Piwocka; SL McKenna

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing and survival rates remain extremely poor. Natural agents with potential for chemoprevention include the phytochemical curcumin (diferuloylmethane). We have examined the effects of curcumin on a panel of oesophageal cancer cell lines. METHODS: MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and propidium iodide staining were used to assess viability and DNA content, respectively. Mitotic catastrophe

  5. Curcumin induces apoptosis-independent death in oesophageal cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G O'Sullivan-Coyne; G C O'Sullivan; T R O'Donovan; K Piwocka; S L McKenna; SL McKenna Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Background:Oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing and survival rates remain extremely poor. Natural agents with potential for chemoprevention include the phytochemical curcumin (diferuloylmethane). We have examined the effects of curcumin on a panel of oesophageal cancer cell lines.Methods:MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and propidium iodide staining were used to assess viability and DNA content, respectively. Mitotic catastrophe (MC), apoptosis and

  6. Immunophenotyping of Mya arenaria neoplastic hemocytes using propidium iodide and a specific monoclonal antibody by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Delaporte, Maryse; McKenna, Patricia; Siah, Ahmed; Berthe, Franck C J

    2008-09-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN) is a disorder referred to as hemic neoplasia (HN) in the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. Traditionally, diagnosis is performed by hematocytology or histology. The intensity of the disease is generally given as the percentage of transformed neoplastic cells out of total number of hemocytes. Flow cytometry techniques have found a field of application in diagnosis of HN with analysis of ploidy. Hemocytes of the soft-shell clams with HN display tetraploid DNA content, as shown by propidium iodide staining. This feature makes difficult HN diagnosis in the soft-shell clam, especially for early stages of the condition, since the percentage of normal circulating cells undergoing mitosis, which also are tetraploid, remains unknown in molluscs. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies in a flow cytometry assay was foreseen as a way to overcome the difficulty. The purpose of this study was to develop a double staining protocol using propidium iodide for hemocyte cycle analysis and the MAb 1E10 for staining of HN cells. Our results showed a correlation between tetraploid and MAb 1E10-stained hemocytes in a single clam with moderate HN. This protocol offers some potential for further investigation of this cell disorder. However, a validation step will be necessary to confirm our preliminary results. PMID:18534614

  7. Effect of PCR amplicon length on suppressing signals from membrane-compromised cells by propidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Paz Jopia; Urrutia, Homero; Sossa, Katherine; Nocker, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    Treatment of microbiological samples with viability dyes prior to extraction of DNA and PCR amplification for downstream analysis has evolved into a commonly applied method. The addition of this easy-to-perform step to the sample analysis procedure inhibits the amplification of DNA from dead cells with compromised cell membranes. The method is currently used both in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR), end-point PCR, and isothermal amplification. We present here a detailed study of the effect of amplicon size on amplification signals from unstressed and heat-exposed cells after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA). PMA treatment was shown to be more efficient in excluding dead cells from the analysis both in combination with qPCR (PMA-qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PMA-DGGE), when longer amplicons were used. When applied to pure cultures of the fish pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Flavobacterium psychrophilum exposed to a heat gradient ranging from mild to lethal, qPCR product lengths did not influence PMA-qPCR results at low temperatures, whereas an increasingly strong impact was seen at higher temperatures. Membrane permeability as a result of heat exposure might however have to be considered a conservative parameter for cell death for these pathogens as culturability and redox activity were lost at lower stress intensities than membrane integrity. When applying PMA-DGGE to an environmental water sample which was either left untreated or was exposed to heat, differences to non-PMA treated samples tended to slightly increase when amplified fragments in the first round of the nested PCR were longer, whereas the impact of 1st-round cycle numbers remains unclear. PMID:21821068

  8. Induction of apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines by an alkyl resorcinol isolated from Lithraea molleoides

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, Luciana; Lopez, Paula; Ruffa, Julieta; Martino, Virginia; Ferraro, Graciela; Campos, Rodolfo; Cavallaro, Lucia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of cytotoxicity of a new active 5-alkyl resorcinol [1, 3-dihydroxy-5- (tridec-4’, 7’-dienyl) benzene] isolated from Lithraea molleoides leaves on liver tumor cells. METHODS: Human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) in culture were treated with inhibitory concentrations, 50% of the compound, for 24 h. The induction of apoptosis was detected in treated cells by analysis of DNA fragmentation, DNA content, and acridine orange and propidium iodide staining. RESULTS: After 24 h of 5-alkyl resorcinol treatment, both cell lines showed: (1) the typical morphological alterations of apoptosis; (2) DNA fragmentation, detected by laddering and appearance of a subG0 population by flow cytometry; and (3) condensed and fragmented nuclei by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, this compound exerts its cytotoxic effect in both hepatocellular cell lines through apoptotic cell death. For Hep3B, cells with mutated p53 and Fas, apoptosis would proceed by p53- or Fas-independent pathways. PMID:17009393

  9. Flow cytometric determination of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its correlation with cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Welleweerd, J.; Wilder, M.E.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-07-01

    Chinese hamster M3-1 cells were irradiated with several doses of x rays or ..cap alpha.. particles from /sup 238/Pu. Propidium iodide-stained chromosome suspensions were prepared at different times after irradiation; cells were also assayed for survival. The DNA histograms of these chromosomes showed increased background counts with increased doses of radiation. This increase in background was cell-cycle dependent and was correlated with cell survival. The correlation between radiation-induced chromosome damage and cell survival was the same for X rays and ..cap alpha.. particles. Data are presented which indicate that flow cytometric analysis of chromosomes of irradiated cell populations can be a useful adjunct to classical cytogenic analysis of irradiation-induced chromosomal damage by virtue of its ability to express and measure chromosomal damage not seen by classical cytogenic methods.

  10. FV peptide induces apoptosis in HEp 2 and HeLa cells: an insight into the mechanism of induction

    PubMed Central

    Sri Balasubashini, M; Karthigayan, S; Somasundaram, ST; Balasubramanian, T; Rukkumani, R; Menon, Venugopal P

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of peptide (7.6 kDa) from lionfish (Pterios volitans) venom on cultured HEp2 and HeLa cells. Different dose of purified peptide (1, 2 and 4 ?g/ml) at different time points (12, 24 and 36 hrs) were tested for antiproliferative index of the peptide. Among them, 2 ?g/ml at 24 hrs was found to effectively inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and did not cause any adverse effect on normal human lymphocytes. Apoptosis was examined by propidium iodide staining, confirmed by the expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3, down regulation of Bcl-2 expression and DNA fragmentation in treated cells, when compared to untreated HEp2 and HeLa cells. Thus fish venom peptide was found to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cell. PMID:17137521

  11. Limitations in the Use of Fluorescein Diacetate/Propidium Iodide (FDA/PI) and Cell Permeable Nucleic Acid Stains for Viability Measurements of Isolated Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Vinc; Cholewa, Olivia Maria; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Background A review of current literature shows that the combined use of the cell permeable esterase-substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and the cell impermeant nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI) to be one of the most common fluorescence-based methods to assess the viability of isolated islets of Langerhans, and it is currently used for islet product release prior to transplantation in humans. However, results from this assay do not correlate with islet viability and function or islet transplantation success in animals or humans (Eckhard et al. 2004; Ricordi et al. 2001). This may be in part attributed to considerable differences as well as discrepancies in the use of these reagents on islets. We critically surveyed the literature and evaluated the impact of a number of variables associated with the use of FDA/PI to determine their reliability in assessing islet cell viability. In addition, we evaluated other fluorescent stains, such as SYTO®13, SYTO®24 and SYBR®14 as possible alternatives to FDA. Results We found that the stability of stains in storage and stock solutions, the number of islets stained, concentration of stains, staining incubation time, the buffer/media used, and the method of examining islets were significant in the final scoring of viability. For archival file photos, the exposure time and camera/software settings can also impact interpretation of viability. Although our results show that FDA does detect intracellular esterase activity and staining with PI does assess cell membrane integrity, the results obtained from using these stains did not correlate directly with expected islet function and viability per transplantation into diabetic athymic nude mice (Papas et al. 2007). In addition, the use of two nucleic acid stains, such as SYTO®13 and PI, for live/dead scoring exhibited staining anomalies which limit their accuracy in assessing islet viability. Conclusions From a review of the literature and from our observations on the impact of reagent handling and various staining and imaging parameters used to visually evaluate islets, consistent interpretation of islet cell membrane integrity and viability is dependent upon a number of factors. We discuss the utility and limitations of these reagents in evaluating islet cell membrane integrity and viability. PMID:20814586

  12. Cell cycle-specific behavior of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Spivak, J L; Ferris, D K; Fisher, J; Noga, S J; Isaacs, M; Connor, E; Hankins, W D

    1996-02-01

    The murine erythropoietin-dependent erythroleukemia cell line, HCD-57, was employed to study the cell cycle-specific behavior of erythropoietin. Cell cycle duration for HCD-57 cells was approximately 12 hours and was uninfluenced by erythropoietin. Populations of HCD-57 cells synchronized in G1 by centrifugal elutriation were able to pass through one complete cell cycle in the absence of erythropoietin but, thereafter, arrested in G1 as identified by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Analysis of cell cycle behavior using the metachromic dye acridine orange, however, revealed that HCD-57 cells pass through a G0 cell cycle phase and, like serum-deprived 3T3 cells, actually arrest in G0 when deprived of erythropoietin. Expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein p34cdc2 was invariant throughout the cell cycle in HCD-57 cells. p34cdc2 was constitutively phosphorylated in G0 cells, and this effect was not modified by erythropoietin. Erythropoietin receptor distribution was log normal in HCD-57 cells in each phase of the cell cycle. The affinity of these surface receptors for erythropoietin was essentially invariant throughout the cell cycle, but receptor expression was upregulated in G2M cells as compared with cells in G1 or S phase. Taken together, these data indicate that erythropoietin has an important role in the G0-G1 to S phase transition but, based on receptor expression, is involved in other phases of the cell cycle as well. PMID:8641335

  13. Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth of Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro by Inducing G1 Arrest and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Raja Kumar; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Hamid, Muhajir; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2012-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a widely available plant-derived triterpene which is reported to possess selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukemia. However, the potential of betulinic acid as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) is still unclear. This study was carried out to demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid on VSMCs using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry cell cycle assay, BrdU proliferation assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and comet assay. Result from MTT and BrdU assays indicated that betulinic acid was able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 3.8??g/mL significantly (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, betulinic acid exhibited G1 cell cycle arrest in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling and low level of DNA damage against VSMC in acridine orange/propidium iodide and comet assay after 24?h of treatment. In conclusion, betulinic acid induced G1 cell cycle arrest and dose-dependent DNA damage on VSMC. PMID:23056140

  14. Pleiotropic effects of cadmium in mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Weiqun; Liu Ying [University of Toronto, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 1 King's College Circle , Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A8 (Canada); Templeton, Douglas M. [University of Toronto, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 1 King's College Circle , Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2009-08-01

    The mesangial cell of the renal glomerulus is exposed to circulating toxic substances and is a target involved in the glomerular component of chronic occupational and environmental exposure to cadmium. We review evidence for the involvement of cadmium in mesangial cell pathology, including effects on cell signaling, oncogene expression, and cell death. Previously we have shown that cadmium can inhibit apoptosis initiated through both the extrinsic (death ligand receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways, whereas exposure of mesangial cells to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} for 6 h initiates caspase-independent cell death through both apoptotic and apoptotic-like (annexin V positive, propidium iodide staining) mechanisms. Apoptotic death is dependent upon activation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). In the present study we show that low level exposure of mesangial cells to Cd{sup 2+} (0.5 {mu}M) initiates cell survival signals including PI3 kinase/Akt signaling, also dependent on CaMK-II, that are eventually overcome resulting in caspase-dependent cell death. These studies underscore the roles of cell signaling in various modes of cell death, and in particular the central role of CaMK-II in cadmium toxicology of the mesangial cell.

  15. Activin A regulates proliferation, invasion and migration in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianwei; Liu, Fan; Wu, Quanming; Liu, Xiancheng

    2015-06-01

    Activin A is a member of the TGF?? superfamily. Previous studies have demonstrated that activin A exhibited pluripotent effects in several tumours. However, the roles of activin A signaling in osteosarcoma pathogenesis have not been previously investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of activin A on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Firstly, the expression of activin A in osteosarcoma cell lines (MG63, SaOS?2 and U2OS) and a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19) was detected using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Activin A was upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines compared with hFOB1.19 cells. To investigate the effects of activin A on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration, MG63 cells were generated in which activin A was either overexpressed or depleted. MTT staining, propidium iodide staining and a Transwell assay were used to analyze the cell cycle, proliferation, invasion and migration of MG63 cells, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that the abilities of proliferation, invasion and migration were suppressed in MG63 cells in which activin A was depleted, while they were enhanced in activin A-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that activin A may facilitate proliferation, invasion and migration of osteosarcoma cells, and it may therefore be a potential target for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:25634369

  16. Inhibitory effects of evodiamine on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    BAI, XIAODONG; MENG, HAI; MA, LIFENG; GUO, AI

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a primary malignancy of bone, which is characterized by the proliferation of malignant mesenchymal cells, particularly in children and adolescents. Evodiamine is extracted from a variety of traditional Chinese medicines, which has been reported to induce apoptosis in certain tumors, including cervical, prostate and breast cancer, however, its effect on oestosarcoma cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of evodiamine on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and apoptosis, and explore the associated underlying molecular mechanism. A Cell Counting Kit 8 assay was performed to detect the effects of evodiamine on the proliferation of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was performed to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells. The effect of evodiamine on the protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3 and survivin were detected by performing western blot analysis. Evodiamine inhibited the growth of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated that evodiamine downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and survivin, and upregulated the expression of Bax in human osteosarcoma cells. Evodiamine effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in a dose-dependent manner via downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and survivin protein expression levels and upregulation of Bax protein expression levels. PMID:25621054

  17. Survival of Host-Associated Bacteroidales Cells and Their Relationship with Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium, and Adenovirus in Freshwater Microcosms as Measured by Propidium Monoazide-Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01

    The ideal host-associated genetic fecal marker would be capable of predicting the presence of specific pathogens of concern. Flowthrough freshwater microcosms containing mixed feces and inocula of the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and adenovirus were placed at ambient temperature in the presence and absence of diurnal sunlight. The total Enterococcus DNA increased during the early periods (23 h) under sunlight exposure, even though cultivable Enterococcus and DNA in intact cells, as measured by propidium monoazide (PMA), decreased with first-order kinetics during the entire period. We found a significant difference in the decay of host-associated Bacteroidales cells between sunlight exposure and dark conditions (P value < 0.05), whereas the persistence of host-associated Bacteroidales DNA was comparable. The 2-log reduction times of adenovirus were 72 h for sunlight exposure and 99 h for dark conditions with similar decay rate constants (P value = 0.13). The persistences of fecal Bacteroidales cells and Campylobacter cells exposed to sunlight were similar, and host-associated Bacteroidales DNA and waterborne pathogen DNA were degraded at comparable rates (P values > 0.05). Overall, the ratio of quantitative PCR (qPCR) cycle threshold (CT) values with and without PMA treatment was indicative of the time elapsed since inoculation of the microcosm with (i) fecal material from different animal sources based on host-associated Bacteroidales and (ii) pure cultures of bacterial pathogens. The use of both PMA-qPCR and qPCR may yield more realistic information about recent sources of fecal contamination and result in improved prediction of waterborne pathogens and assessment of health risk. PMID:22139002

  18. HPC viability measurement: trypan blue versus acridine orange and propidium iodide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mascotti; J. McCullough; S. R. Burger

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A reliable, validated method for rapidly determining HPC viability is essential for clinical cell en- gineering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A fluorometric cell viability assay using acridine orange and propidium io- dide (AO\\/PI) was compared to the current standard, trypan blue (TB) exclusion. Viable cells stained with AO\\/ PI fluoresce green under darkfield fluorescence micros- copy, while nonviable cells

  19. Knockdown of immature colon carcinoma transcript-1 inhibits proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells through Gap 2/mitotic phase arrest

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Rong; Zhang, Yichao; Shen, Chao; Cao, Xiaoyun; Gu, Shixin; Che, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    “Glioblastoma multiforme” (GBM) is the frequent form of malignant glioma. Immature colon carcinoma transcript-1 (ICT1) is essential for cell vitality and mitochondrial function and has been recognized in several human cancers. In the study reported here, we attempted to evaluate the functional role of ICT1 in GBM cells. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was applied to silence ICT1 expression in human GBM cell lines U251 and U87. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony-formation assays. Cell-cycle progression was determined by flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. The results revealed that lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) can specifically suppress the expression of ICT1 in U251 and U87 cells. Functional investigations proved for the first time, as far as we are aware, that ICT1 knockdown significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at Gap 2 (G2)/mitotic (M) phase after ICT1 knockdown, with a concomitant accumulation of cells in the Sub-Gap 1 (G1) phase. This study highlights the crucial role of ICT1 in promoting GBM cell proliferation, and provides a foundation for further study into the clinical potential of lentivirus-mediated silencing of ICT1 for GBM therapy.

  20. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of the Acetone Extract of Rubus fairholmianus Gard. Root on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. PMID:26078938

  1. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of the Acetone Extract of Rubus fairholmianus Gard. Root on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo

    2015-01-01

    Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. PMID:26078938

  2. Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action. PMID:24571090

  3. Celastrol induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria- and Fas/FasL-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haibo; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Peng; Bao, Hanying; Fang, Weijia; Xu, Nong

    2011-08-01

    Celastrol is a natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. It has attracted interests for its potential anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of celastrol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of celastrol on the human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 in vitro. Celastrol caused a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of A549 cells with an IC(50) of 2.12 ?M at 48 h treatment. Celastrol induced A549 cells apoptosis as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and DNA fragmentation. Celastrol-induced apoptosis was characterized by cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP protein, increased Fas and FasL expression, and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, celastrol induced the release of cytochrome c. Celastrol also up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, down-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and inhibited Akt phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that celastrol can induce apoptosis of human NSCLC A549 cells through activation of both mitochondria- and FasL-mediated pathways. PMID:21466843

  4. Subamolide E from Cinnamomum subavenium induces sub-G1 cell-cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis and reduces the migration ability of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Pei-Fang; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2011-08-10

    The aim of this work was to investigate the anticancer cytotoxic effects of natural compound subamolide E on the human skin cancer melanoma A375.S2 cells. Subamolide E was isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium and demonstrated cytotoxicities in the cell-growth assay at concentration ranges from 0 to 100 ?M at 24 h. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analyses were used to evaluate cell-cycle distribution and found that subamolide E caused DNA damage in the sub-G1 phase with a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of treatment. According to the western blot result, subamolide-E-treated cells with the increase of caspase-dependent apoptotic proteins induced related pathway mechanisms. Subamolide E also showed antimigratory activities of A375.S2 cells on the wound-healing assay. Finally, subamolide E demonstrated minor cytotoxicities to normal human skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts); therefore, it is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin melanoma. PMID:21707085

  5. Methods to isolate a large amount of generative cells, sperm cells and vegetative nuclei from tomato pollen for “omics” analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunlong; Wei, Liqin; Wang, Tai

    2015-01-01

    The development of sperm cells (SCs) from microspores involves a set of finely regulated molecular and cellular events and the coordination of these events. The mechanisms underlying these events and their interconnections remain a major challenge. Systems analysis of genome-wide molecular networks and functional modules with high-throughput “omics” approaches is crucial for understanding the mechanisms; however, this study is hindered because of the difficulty in isolating a large amount of cells of different types, especially generative cells (GCs), from the pollen. Here, we optimized the conditions of tomato pollen germination and pollen tube growth to allow for long-term growth of pollen tubes in vitro with SCs generated in the tube. Using this culture system, we developed methods for isolating GCs, SCs and vegetative cell nuclei (VN) from just-germinated tomato pollen grains and growing pollen tubes and their purification by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The purity and viability of isolated GCs and SCs were confirmed by microscopy examination and fluorescein diacetate staining, respectively, and the integrity of VN was confirmed by propidium iodide staining. We could obtain about 1.5 million GCs and 2.0 million SCs each from 180 mg initiated pollen grains, and 10 million VN from 270 mg initiated pollen grains germinated in vitro in each experiment. These methods provide the necessary preconditions for systematic biology studies of SC development and differentiation in higher plants. PMID:26082789

  6. Role of LM23 in cell proliferation and apoptosis and its expression during the testis development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Song, Ya-Juan; Meng, Li-Jun; Hu, Fen; Gou, Li-Xia; Jia, Chang-Hong; Tang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Wei-Jie; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Jia, Meng-Chun

    2013-01-01

    LM23, a gene expressed specifically in the testis in a stage-specific manner, has a diverse range of functions that are important in both the life and death of spermatogenic cells. The aim of this study was to further investigate the expression of LM23 in the developing rat testis and the biological function of LM23 in proliferation and antiapoptosis in vitro. Semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time PCR were used to examine the expression of LM23 in testis at different developmental stages. The results suggested that LM23 mRNA levels in the testis increased progressively after birth. The role of LM23 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and flow cytometry assays. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LM23 in 293T cells significantly promoted cell proliferation by increasing cell numbers in S phase. Several methods were used, including CCK8, annexin V and propidium iodide staining and western blotting, to determine the role of LM23 in apoptosis. The results showed that LM23 played a protective role in H2O2-induced apoptosis of 293T cells, mediated at least in part through the Akt/PI3K signal pathway. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the role of LM23 in the development of the testes and spermatogenesis. PMID:23685908

  7. Cytotoxic Effect of Coscinium fenestratum on Human Head and Neck Cancer Cell Line (HN31)

    PubMed Central

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Khonsung, Parirat

    2015-01-01

    Coscinium fenestratum is widely used as a medicinal plant in many Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of a crude water extract of C. fenestratum (CF extract) compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on human HN31 cell line, a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx. The results revealed that cell morphology visualized under inverted light microscopy was changed from flat with a polygonal appearance to round appearance after CF extract application. The cell viability assay (MTT test) showed that the concentration producing 50% growth inhibition (IC50) at 48-hour incubation of CF extract on HN31 was 0.12?mg/mL, while the IC50 of 5-FU was 6.6?mg/mL, indicating that CF extract has a higher potency. However, combining various concentrations of 5-FU and CF extract at IC50 did not show synergistic effect. The CF extract dose dependently increased cell apoptosis determined by Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. It decreased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and pAkt, while it increased the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of CF extract was associated with the modulation of p38 MAPK, pAkt, and p53 signal molecules, leading to inhibiting cell survival and increasing apoptosis. No synergistic effects of CF extract and 5-FU were observed. PMID:26074999

  8. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca²? homeostasis and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chang, Po-Min; Chen, I-Li; Hung, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Peng-Chih; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-28

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²? homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²? concentrations ([Ca²?]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Fura-2, a Ca²?-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²?]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 ?M caused a [Ca²?]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of external Ca²? abolished methoxychlor's effect. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²? influx was confirmed by Mn²?-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²? entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators. Methoxychlor killed cells at concentrations of 10-130 ?M in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²? with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxychlor's cytotoxicity. Methoxychlor (10 and 50 ?M) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently as determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Together, in HA59T cells, methoxychlor induced a [Ca²?]i rise by inducing Ca²? entry via protein kinase C-sensitive Ca²?-permeable channels, without causing Ca²? release from stores. Methoxychlor also induced apoptosis that was independent of [Ca²?]i rises. PMID:25687486

  9. Sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic fields do not affect structural morphology and proliferation of human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Supino, R; Bottone, M G; Pellicciari, C; Caserini, C; Bottiroli, G; Belleri, M; Veicsteinas, A

    2001-07-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields on several processes related to cell physiology and proliferation are currently being investigated. Although the results are still not conclusive and even conflicting, there seems to be a fairly good agreement on the early effects of electromagnetic fields on the generation of free radicals and on Ca++-intracellular concentration and transport. To evaluate the long-lasting consequences of these precocious events, we examined the effects of short- and long-term magnetic field exposure on structural organization (cytokeratin or actin detection), proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and propidium iodide staining), colony forming ability and viability (trypan blue exclusion test) of highly proliferating MCF-7 cells (from human breast carcinoma) and on slowly proliferating normal human fibroblasts (from healthy donors). Cells were exposed to either 20 or 500 microT sinusoidally oscillating (50Hz) magnetic fields for different lengths of time (1 to 4 days). Short (1 day)- and long (4 days)-time exposure to the two intensities did not affect MCF-7 growth and viability, colony number and size, or cellular distribution along the cell cycle; neither were the cell morphology and the intracellular distribution and amount of cytokeratin modified. Similarly, no modifications in the actin distribution and proliferative potential were observed in normal human fibroblasts. These findings suggest that under our experimental conditions, continuous exposure to magnetic fields does not result in any appreciable effect in both normal and tumor cells in vitro. PMID:11510961

  10. DNA damage, lysosomal degradation and Bcl-xL deamidation in doxycycline- and minocycline-induced cell death in the K562 leukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mona; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr; Hassan, Moustapha; Potácová, Zuzana

    2015-07-31

    We investigated mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by doxycycline (doxy) and minocycline (mino) in the chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell line. Doxy and mino induced cell death in exposure-dependent manner. While annexin V/propidium iodide staining was consistent with apoptosis, the morphological changes in Giemsa staining were more equivocal. A pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK partially reverted cell death morphology, but concurrently completely prevented PARP cleavage. Mitochondrial involvement was detected as dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release. DNA double strand breaks detected with ?H2AX antibody and caspase-2 activation were found early after the treatment start, but caspase-3 activation was a late event. Decrement of Bcl-xL protein levels and electrophoretic shift of Bcl-xL molecule were induced by both drugs. Phosphorylation of Bcl-xL at serine 62 was ruled out. Similarly, Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase levels were decreased. Lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine restored Bcl-xL and Bcr/Abl protein levels and inhibited caspase-3 activation. Thus, the cytotoxicity of doxy and mino in K562 cells is mediated by DNA damage, Bcl-xL deamidation and lysosomal degradation with activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. PMID:26022120

  11. Artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Chai, Jin; Chuang, Henry Hon Fung; Li, Shifeng; Wang, Tianran; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Wensheng; Zhou, Deshan

    2012-07-01

    The anticancer effects of artesunate (ART) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored yet. Herein we reported that 60 ?mol/l ART effectively inhibited A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) growth but not that of HaCaT (normal human keratinocyte cells). Our results revealed that ART induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the downregulation of cyclin A1, cyclin B, cyclin D1, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6. This correlated with the upregulation of p21 and p27. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay also indicated that ART treatment reduced DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, ART induced mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and western blot analysis. Interestingly, ART-induced apoptosis diminished under iron-deficient conditions but intensified under iron-overload conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the potential of ART in treating skin cancer through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and supported further investigations in other test systems. PMID:22421370

  12. Sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera Abel. induces apoptosis via Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Shiqiang; Li, Na; Chen, Liang; Su, Jiaosu; Niu, Guangjun; Zhu, Si; Liang, Yichi

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of cytotoxic effects by sasanquasaponin (SQS) in HepG2 cells. Following SQS treatment, time? and dose?dependent increases in the apoptotic rate were observed. The induction of cell death by SQS mainly occurs via programmed cell death, as indicated by Annexin V?fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining, where up to 30% apoptotic cells were detected following 12 h SQS treatment. Reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that SQS treatment upregulated B?cell lymphoma?2 (Bcl?2)?associated x protein and caspase?3 mRNA expression and downregulated Bcl?2 mRNA expression. Greater alterations in Bax, Bcl?2 and caspase?3 expression were observed with increasing treatment duration. The decrease in Bcl?2, increase in Bax and, finally, the activation of caspase?3 in HepG2 cells indicated that the apoptotic process induced by SQS was irreversible. The results of the present study therefore suggested that SQS induced HepG2 cell apoptosis via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. PMID:25937271

  13. Effects of high-dose major components in oral disinfectants on the cell cycle and apoptosis in primary human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuji; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Nishikiori, Ryo; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Maeda, Takeshi; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of high-dose major components in oral disinfectants on oral cells from the standpoints of the cell cycle and apoptosis. We examined the viability and cell cycle of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with the components of dental disinfectants, benzethonium chloride (BEC), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and povidone iodine (PVD-I) using a cell counting kit and flow cytometry. The IC(50) inhibitory concentration value in HGF cultures at 24 hours was 1.3x10(-2) mM BEC, 6.0x10(-3) mM BAC, and 2.6x10(-1) mM PVD-I. In the cell cycle analysis, propidium iodide-stained HGFs were arrested in G(0)/G(1) of the cell cycle by all three disinfectants, and in the apoptosis assay, annexin V-FITC/PI-stained HGFs that became apoptotic at 5.0x10(-2) and 1.0x10(-1) mM BEC and 5.0x10(-2) and 1.0x10(-1) mM BAC, but not in PVD-I at concentrations as high as 5.0x10(-1) mM. Our findings describe the effects of high-dose oral disinfectants, rather than clinical concentrations. Nevertheless, appreciating the effects of high-dose disinfectants absorbed into the human body is important, where they may accumulate in specific tissues and cells. PMID:20379016

  14. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T. [Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan (China); He Shiping [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan (China); Jan, C.-R. [Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  15. Interferon-beta-1b protects against multiple sclerosis-induced endothelial cells apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Saadatnia M, Mohammad; Homayouni V, Vida; Nikoogoftar M, Mahin; Maghzi, Amir H; Etemadifar, M; Chaitanya, V G; McGee, Jeanie C; Minagar, Alireza; Alexander, J Steven

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) due to endothelial cell (EC) injury is an essential step in formation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We investigated the role of endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis in the pathophysiology of MS, studying the therapeutic effect of IFN-beta-1b against MS sera-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with sera from patients with active MS (in relapse), MS in remission, or sera from healthy volunteers (each n = 5). Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-propidium iodide staining. Effects of IFN-beta-1b on EC apoptosis were tested at increasing doses (10, 100, and 1000 U/ml). Nitrite (NO?-?) levels were determined in culture supernatants. EC apoptosis was increased by sera from exacerbating MS patients, but not remission, compared to healthy individuals (p less than 0.001). Effects were blocked by IFN-beta-1b at 10 U/ml (p less than 0.05), but not higher doses, and was associated with increased NO/NO?- production (less than 0.05). EC apoptosis leading to disruption of the BBB may play a role in MS etiology and represents a novel therapeutic mechanism of action for IFN-beta-1b in MS therapy. PMID:22201961

  16. Cytotoxic activity of octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lepiarczyk, Monika; Ka?u?a, Zbigniew; Bielawska, Anna; Czarnomysy, Robert; Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Bielawski, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of novel octahydropyrazin[2,1-a:5,4-a']diisoquinoline derivatives (1a-2c) employing a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and inhibition of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA demonstrated that these compounds were more active than etoposide and camptothecin in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis after Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining also confirmed that apoptosis was the main response of human breast cancer cells to 1a-2c treatment. Our results suggest that apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in the presence of 1a-2c follows the mitochondrial pathway, with the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 9, as well as by the external pathway with the significant increase in caspase 8 expression. Cytotoxic properties of compounds 1a-2c in cultured human breast cancer cells correlate to their ability to inhibit topoisomerase I/II. PMID:25060945

  17. Icariin Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Zhe; Sheng, Chenxia; Peng, Weijun; Hui, Shan; Gong, Wei; Chen, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and shows promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin against amyloid beta protein fragment 25–35 (A?25–35) induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that icariin dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased A?25–35-induced apoptosis, as assessed by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Results of western blot analysis revealed that the selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 suppressed icariin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that the protective effects of icariin are associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 also blocked the icariin-induced downregulation of proapoptotic factors Bax and caspase-3 and upregulation of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 in A?25–35-treated PC12 cells. These findings provide further evidence for the clinical efficacy of icariin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25705234

  18. Icariin Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway in PC-12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Zhe; Sheng, Chenxia; Peng, Weijun; Hui, Shan; Gong, Wei; Chen, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and shows promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin against amyloid beta protein fragment 25-35 (A? 25-35) induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that icariin dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased A? 25-35-induced apoptosis, as assessed by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Results of western blot analysis revealed that the selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 suppressed icariin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that the protective effects of icariin are associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 also blocked the icariin-induced downregulation of proapoptotic factors Bax and caspase-3 and upregulation of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 in A? 25-35-treated PC12 cells. These findings provide further evidence for the clinical efficacy of icariin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25705234

  19. Cytotoxicity of direct current with antibacterial agents against host cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuko; Takahashi, Keiso; Shimetani, Akiko; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Hirofumi

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of iontophoresis treatment using direct current (DC) with or without antibacterial agents. The following antibacterial agents were used: diamine silver fluoride (AgF); sodium fluoride (NaF); and iodine zinc iodide (JJZ). The cytotoxic activity of DC with or without antibacterial agents against human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) was evaluated by the 3-[4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It was noted that DC (2 mA) killed PMNs in a time-dependent manner and the cytotoxicity was enhanced when DC was combined with antibacterial agents. The toxic effect of antibacterial agents was in the order: AgF>JJZ>NaF. The death of PMNs by DC was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. DC appeared to induce necrosis rather than apoptosis of PMNs. These results suggest that iontophoresis treatment using DC and antibacterial agents may induce necrotic cytotoxicity in host cells around periapical lesions. PMID:16186758

  20. Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gu, Mengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xinxin; Ma, Han; Yao, Hangping; Ji, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the ?- and ?-subunits of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

  1. Solamargine triggers hepatoma cell death through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    XIE, XIAODONG; ZHU, HAITAO; YANG, HUIJIAN; HUANG, WENSI; WU, YINGYING; WANG, YING; LUO, YANLING; WANG, DONGQING; SHAO, GENBAO

    2015-01-01

    Solamargine (SM), a steroidal alkaloid glycoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Solanum incanum, has been evidenced to inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis in a number of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, the anticancer effect of SM and underlying molecular mechanism of SM-induced apoptosis were investigated on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, SMMC7721 and HepG2. The proliferation effects of SM on the SMMC7721 and HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V/propidium iodide staining method and the cell cycle distribution mediated by SM was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, caspase-9, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and Ki67 proteins were examined to further demonstrate the proliferate and apoptosis effects of SM on the hepatoma cells. The results indicated that SM effectively inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. SM resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the two cell lines. In addition, SM downregulated the levels of proliferation-associated (Ki67 and pcna) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, and promoted the activity of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9). Therefore, the activation of the Bcl-2/Bax and caspase signaling pathways may be involved in the SM-induced apoptosis of hepatoma cells. PMID:26170994

  2. Korean Red Ginseng water extract inhibits COX-2 expression by suppressing p38 in acrolein-treated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Yong Seek

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for vascular diseases. There are many toxic compounds in cigarette smoke, including acrolein and other ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, which are regarded as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that acrolein, an ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde in cigarette smoke, induces inflammatory mediator expression, which is known to be related to vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) water extract suppressed acrolein-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Acrolein-induced COX-2 expression was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated p38 in HUVECs and KRG inhibited COX-2 expression in HUVECs. These results suggest that KRG suppresses acrolein-induced COX-2 expression via inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, KRG exhibited an inhibitory effect on acrolein-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V-propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Consistent with these results, KRG may exert a vasculoprotective effect through inhibition of COX-2 expression in acrolein-stimulated human endothelial cells. PMID:24558308

  3. Korean Red Ginseng water extract inhibits COX-2 expression by suppressing p38 in acrolein-treated human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Yong Seek

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for vascular diseases. There are many toxic compounds in cigarette smoke, including acrolein and other ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, which are regarded as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that acrolein, an ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde in cigarette smoke, induces inflammatory mediator expression, which is known to be related to vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) water extract suppressed acrolein-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Acrolein-induced COX-2 expression was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated p38 in HUVECs and KRG inhibited COX-2 expression in HUVECs. These results suggest that KRG suppresses acrolein-induced COX-2 expression via inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, KRG exhibited an inhibitory effect on acrolein-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V–propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Consistent with these results, KRG may exert a vasculoprotective effect through inhibition of COX-2 expression in acrolein-stimulated human endothelial cells. PMID:24558308

  4. Anti-tumor activity of safranal against neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Shoshtari, Mohammad Ebrahim; Sargolzaei, Javad; Hossinimoghadam, Hosna; Farahzad, Jabbari Azad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Safranal (2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde, C10H14O) is an active ingredient in the saffron, which is used in traditional medicine, and also, the biological activity of saffron in anti-cancer is in development. It has been reported to have anti-oxidant effects, but its anti-tumor effects remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of safranal on anti-tumor on neuroblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Neuroblastoma cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (0, 10, 15, 20, 50 ?g/ml). Cell proliferation was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptotic cells, cell cycle distribution, and sub-G1 fraction were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide staining. Results: Safranal inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC (50) values against the neuroblastoma cell line were determined as 11.1 and 23.3 ?g/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Safranal induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in safranal toxicity. Conclusions: Our pre-clinical study demonstrated a neuroblastoma cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not yet clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:24991121

  5. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit leukemia/lymphoma cell proliferation in vitro and in a mouse model of allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningxia; Gao, Lei; Qiu, Huiying; Huang, Chongmei; Cheng, Hui; Zhou, Hong; Lv, Shuqing; Chen, Li; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-07-01

    The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contributes to the reconstitution of hematopoiesis by ameliorating acute graft?versus?host disease (aGVHD). However, the role of MSCs in graft?versus?leukemia remains to be determined. In the present study, we co?cultured C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow (BM)?derived MSCs with A20 murine B lymphoma, FBL3 murine erythroleukemia and P388 murine acute lymphocytic leukemia cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the amount of cytokine secretion were then measured using a Cell Counting kit?8, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. We also established a model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using BALB/c mice. Following the administration of A20 cells and MSCs, we recorded the symptoms and the survival of the mice for 4 weeks, assessed the T cell subsets present in peripheral blood, and, after the mice were sacrifice, we determined the infiltration of MSCs into the organs by histological staining. Our results revealed that the MSCs inhibited the proliferation of the mouse lymphoma and leukemia cells in vitro, leading to cell cycle arrest and reducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)?10. In our model of allogeneic BMT, the intravenous injection of MSCs into the mice injected wth A20 cells decreased the incidence of lymphoma, improved survival, increased the fraction of CD3+CD8+ T cells, decreased the fraction of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells in peripheral blood, and ameliorated the manifestation of aGVHD. The results from the present study indicate that MSCs may be safe and effective when used in allogeneic BMT for the treatment of hemotological malignancies. PMID:25901937

  6. Immunofluorescence analysis of cytokeratin 8/18 staining is a sensitive assay for the detection of cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    DONG, QIAO-MEI; LING, CHUN; ZHAO, LI

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the major types of programmed cell death. During this process, cells experience a series of morphological and biochemical changes. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining of cell surface phosphatidylserine, in combination with a DNA-staining dye to probe the permeability of the cell membrane, is an established method for detecting apoptosis. The present study aimed to show that the immunofluorescence analysis of cytokeratin (CK) 8/18 staining may provide a new and sensitive assay for the detection of apoptotic cells. Tumor cells were treated with 20 ?M cisplatin to induce apoptosis. Following 12 and 24 h of cisplatin treatment, cells were collected and stained with 4?,6-diamidine-2?-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) and fluorescein-labeled anti-CK8/18 antibody. The apoptotic cells were subsequently examined by fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cisplatin was able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that apoptotic cells had a distinct CK8/18 staining pattern. In living cells, CK8/18 was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm and cytosol; however in the apoptotic cells with a condensed and/or fragmented apoptotic nucleus (as identified by DAPI staining), fluorescein-labeled anti-CK8/18 antibody exhibited unusual punctate and/or bubbly staining in the cytosol. In the apoptotic cells that could not be identified by DAPI staining, fluorescein-labeled CK8/18 displayed polarized aggregated staining in the cytosol. These results indicate that fluorescein-conjugated CK8/18 may be a useful and sensitive indicator of cell apoptosis. PMID:25663887

  7. Effects of salinomycin and CGP37157 on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Froelich, Katrin; Rak, Kristen; Ginzkey, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combinations of these are all accepted modalities for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Despite this, 40?60% of patients suffering from HNSCC develop loco?regional failure and/or distant metastases. Salinomycin has been demonstrated to be >100?fold more effective than paclitaxel at causing cancer stem cell death, therefore, it may offer an important improvement in cancer therapy. However, the toxicity of salinomycin is of concern. A possible solution may be the administration of additive drugs, which reduce the toxicity. By inhibiting the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger using the benzodiazepine derivate, CGP37157 (CGP), a significant reduction in salinomycin neuronal toxicity has been observed. This raises the question of whether CGP also inhibits the tumor toxicity of salinomycin. In the present study, the FaDu and HLaC79 C1 HNSCC cell lines were treated with salinomycin with or without CGP. Comparative viability assessments were performed using microscopy, a fluorescein diacetate assay, an MTT assay, a clonogenic assay and annexin V?propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of MDR?1 were monitored using reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Salinomycin alone, and in combination with CGP, achieved a significant attenuation of cell viability and increased apoptosis in a dose?dependent manner. However, the tumor toxicity of salinomycin was not inhibited by CGP. The HLaC79 C1 cells were more sensitive to salinomycin, compared with the FaDu cells, with this sensitivity being due to high expression levels of MDR?1 by the HLaC79 C1 cells. In conclusion, CGP did not counteract the tumor toxicity of salinomycin in vitro and may be a promising drug in future anticancer therapy. The results of the present study encourages further investigation of the toxicological aspects of salinomycin, particularly in human cells and animal models. PMID:26099997

  8. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nunes, P S; Kjaerulff, S; Dufva, M; Mogensen, K B

    2015-06-21

    The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells is determined by brightfield microscopy, while fluorescence detection is used to detect propidium iodide stained non-viable cells. This method can be incorporated into facilities with bioreactors to monitor the cell concentration and viability during the cultivation process. Here, we demonstrate the microfluidic system performance by monitoring in real time the cell concentration and viability of yeast extracted directly from an in-house made bioreactor. This is the first demonstration of using the Dean drag force, generated due to the implementation of a curved microchannel geometry in conjunction with high flow rates, to promote passive mixing of cell samples and thus homogenization of the diluted cell plug. The autonomous operation of the fluidics furthermore allows implementation of intelligent protocols for administering air bubbles from the bioreactor in the microfluidic system, so that these will be guided away from the imaging region, thereby significantly improving both the robustness of the system and the quality of the data. PMID:25923294

  9. Fumonisin B? inhibits apoptosis in HepG2 cells by inducing Birc-8/ILP-2.

    PubMed

    Chuturgoon, Anil A; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Moodley, Devapregasan

    2015-06-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp., a common contaminant of maize. FB1 inhibits sphingolipid biosynthesis, alters sphingosine/sphinganine ratios and modifies cell survival and cell death processes at varying propensities at both species- and tissue-specific level. We investigated the effect of FB1 on the apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We measured: (i) the level of cell proliferation and cell death mechanism of HepG2 cells (MTT assay, annexin V and propidium iodide staining, JC-1 assay, ?H2AX and cleaved PARP and Hoechst staining); (ii) initiator and executioner caspase activity (luminometric enzyme activity assays); (iii) regulation of mRNA expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules using an apoptosis array (qPCR) and (iv) levels of significantly altered apoptosis-related proteins (Western blotting) following a 24 h incubation. FB1 caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability with an inhibitory concentration for 50% of cell growth at 200 ?M. FACS data showed FB1 induced a 2.5-fold increase in annexin V staining, however, caspase activity and mitochondrial depolarization was not significantly influenced. Cleaved PARP and ?H2AX were significantly lower in treated cells with minimal DNA condensation and fragmentation observed with the Hoechst stain. BIRC-8/ILP-2 was most significantly up-regulated (8-fold; apoptosis array). ILP2 protein levels were elevated (2.3-fold) with a corresponding decrease in Smac/DIABLO protein levels (1.7-fold). Further analysis showed a dose-dependent increase in BIRC-8/ILP-2 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells. We conclude that FB1 modulates apoptosis in a complex dose-dependent regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules. PMID:25800559

  10. Resistance of the insect cell line IPLB-LdFB to salsolinol-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Enzo; Nappi, Anthony J; Vass, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of cell death that is manifested in Parkinson's disease (PD) and certain other neurodegenerative disorders. Metabolites of salsolinol (SAL), an intraneuronal, dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), have been shown to induce apoptosis in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells, implicating these molecules as causative or contributory factors in the selective killing of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, a cardinal manifestation of Parkinson's disease. Since insects employ dopamine and related catecholamines in a variety of processes including cuticular sclerotization and cellular immune reactions, it was of interest to know how insect cells metabolized exogenous SAL. Propidium iodide staining combined with flow cytometry showed that IPLB-LdFB cells from Lymantria dispar exhibited no significant (P < 0.05) increase in apoptosis when incubated for 48 h with concentrations of SAL ranging from 10 microM to 1 mM. A significant increase in apoptosis (P < 0.05) was observed in cell cultures containing the highest concentration of SAL tested (5 mM), but only 12.4% of the cells manifested this form of cell death. High pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) was used to document the production of two potentially cytotoxic quinonoids generated during the autoxidation of SAL, a reaction that was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by peroxidase. The resistance of IPLB-LdFB cells to SAL-induced apoptosis is attributed to the ability of these insect cells to metabolize and/or detoxify such dopamine-derived catecholic TIQs. Thus, the biochemical pathways employed by insect cells in these processes may be of considerable interest to individuals investigating certain neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:11754089

  11. Promotion of p53 expression and reactive oxidative stress production is involved in zerumbone-induced cisplatin sensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhong; Zeng, Qunli; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Haichao; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    p53 signaling plays an important role in cell death. Zerumbone, a natural cyclic sesquiterpene, has shown cytotoxic activity against many cancers. This study was done to investigate the anticancer effects of zerumbone on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explored the involvement of p53 signaling. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin-V/propidium iodide staining and caspase activity assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured by flow cytometry. Depletion of p53 was achieved by transfection of specific small interfering RNA. Gene expression changes were determined by Western blot analysis. Zerumbone treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of A549 and H460 NSCLC cell viability. Zerumbone-induced mitochondrial apoptosis of NSCLC cells, evidenced loss of ??m, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. There was increased p53 and Bax expression and ROS production in zerumbone-treated cells. Downregulation of p53 or scavenging ROS interfered with the pro-apoptotic action of zerumbone. Combinational treatment with zerumbone and cisplatin significantly accelerated apoptosis and promoted p53 expression and ROS production in NSCLC cells, compared with each alone. These findings demonstrate that zerumbone induces mitochondrial apoptosis and enhances the susceptibility to cisplatin in NSCLC cells, which are, at least partially, mediated through activation of p53 signaling and promotion of ROS generation. This study may provide a rationale for the potential clinical application of zerumbone as a chemotherapeutic agent against NSCLC. PMID:25220870

  12. Artesunate inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by downregulating COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, He-Sheng; Li, Ming; Tan, Shi-yun

    2015-01-01

    Artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua L., has been traditionally used to treat malaria, and artesunate has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells. However, there is little available information about the antitumor effects of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of artesunate on human gastric cancer cells and whether its antitumor effect is associated with reduction in COX-2 expression. The effects of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, rhodamine 123 staining, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate that artesunate exhibits antiproliferative effects and apoptosis-inducing activities. Artesunate markedly inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a reduction in COX-2 expression. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, or transient transfection of gastric cancer cells with COX-2 siRNA, also inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with artesunate promoted the expression of proapoptotic factor Bax and suppressed the expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated, and artesunate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. These results demonstrate that artesunate has an effect on anti-gastric cancer cells. One of the antitumor mechanisms of artesunate may be that its inhibition of COX-2 led to reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis, connected with mitochondrial dysfunction. Artesunate might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. PMID:25945055

  13. Single-Agent Obatoclax (GX15-070) Potently Induces Apoptosis and Pro-survival Autophagy in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazbeck, Victor Y.; Li, Changyou; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Zang, Yan; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives More than half of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are initially treated with curative intent, but will relapse over the course of their disease and have poor prognosis with a median survival of approximately 6 months. Novel therapeutic approaches are in desperate need for this patient population. The anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins such as BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 are involved in oncogenesis and chemoresistance and are overexpressed in HNSCC. Obatoclax is a small-molecule antagonist of the BH3-binding groove of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family. We evaluated the activity of obatoclax against 4 HNSCC cell lines (UMSCC-1, Cal33, 1483, UMSCC-22A). Methods Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, cell cycle status by propidium iodide staining, and apoptosis by Annexin-V staining and immunoblotting. Autophagy was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Results All four HNSCC cell lines were highly sensitive to single-agent obatoclax with IC50’s ranging from 46-177 nM. Obatoclax induced apoptosis in all four HNSCC cell lines as evidenced by increases in sub-G1 DNA content, Annexin-V staining, and PARP cleavage. In addition, obatoclax induced autophagy in all 4 cell lines, and the addition of the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine enhanced obatoclax cytotoxicity. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate potent monotherapeutic activity of obatoclax against HNSCC cells, and enhancement of this activity in the presence of chloroquine. This preclinical study suggests that obatoclax might have therapeutic value in the treatment of HNSCC, either alone or in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. PMID:24216166

  14. Expression and regulation of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) in human glioma stem cells in drug-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Jayashree C; Dawood, Parveen; Shah, Reecha D; Chandrika, Goparaju; Natesh, Kumar; Shiras, Anjali; Hegde, Amba S; Ranade, Deepak; Shastry, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and aggressive of brain tumors in adults. Cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to chemoresistance in many solid tumors including gliomas. The function of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) as a pro-apoptotic protein is well documented in many cancers; however, its role in CSC remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Par-4 in drug-induced cytotoxicity using human glioma stem cell line--HNGC-2 and primary culture (G1) derived from high grade glioma. We show that among the panel of drugs- lomustine, carmustine, UCN-01, oxaliplatin, temozolomide and tamoxifen (TAM) screened, only TAM induced cell death and up-regulated Par-4 levels significantly. TAM-induced apoptosis was confirmed by PARP cleavage, Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Knock down of Par-4 by siRNA inhibited cell death by TAM, suggesting the role of Par-4 in induction of apoptosis. We also demonstrate that the mechanism involves break down of mitochondrial membrane potential, down regulation of Bcl-2 and reduced activation of Akt and ERK 42/44. Secretory Par-4 and GRP-78 were significantly expressed in HNGC-2 cells on exposure to TAM and specific antibodies to these molecules inhibited cell death suggesting that extrinsic Par-4 is important in TAM-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, TAM decreased the expression of neural stem cell markers--Nestin, Bmi1, Vimentin, Sox2, and Musashi in HNGC-2 cell line and G1 cells implicating its potential as a stemness inhibiting drug. Based on these data and our findings that enhanced levels of Par-4 sensitize the resistant glioma stem cells to drug-induced apoptosis, we propose that Par-4 may be explored for evaluating anti-tumor agents in CSC. PMID:24523904

  15. The crosstalk: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes rich in regulatory T cells suppressed cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. The interactions between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cancer cells play important roles in cancer progression and metastasis. However, studies related to the crosstalk between CAFs and TILs in tumor microenvironment (TME) are still lacking. In this study, we mainly investigated the interactions between CAFs and TILs. Material and methods. The distribution of TILs rich in regulatory T cells (Tregs) in breast cancer tissues was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-CD3, anti-Foxp3, and anti-?-smooth muscle actin antibodies. Homologous CAFs/normal fibroblasts (NFs) and TILs cultured in vitro were identified and detected using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry (FCM). The direct interaction among these cell types was studied via a factorial design in a co-cultured system. Their indirect interaction was assayed using Transwell plates. The cell cycle and apoptosis of CAFs/NFs co-cultured with TILs was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. Results. Histochemistry demonstrated most of the TILs including Tregs, were distributed in the cancer stroma, adjoining to CAFs. This finding implies that both cell types interact closely in the TME. Identification of the cultured cells showed that CAFs maintained their activated phenotype within limited passages in vitro, and that the TILs population contained a high percentage of Tregs. Data analysis of the factorial design suggests significant interactions among CAFs, NFs, and TILs in both direct and indirect contact ways. The CAFs and NFs were suppressed signally by TILs, which are probably induced by the secretory cytokines derived from TILs or Tregs. Although apoptosis was not detected in CAFs/NFs, the cell cycle assay suggested that the CAFs/NFs were arrested in the G2/M phase by the TILs and their secretory cytokines. Conclusion. CAFs and NFs were dramatically suppressed by Tregs-rich TILs. This suggests the interaction between TILs and CAFs might modify the TME in an unknown manner. PMID:23336253

  16. Resident bacteria on leaves enhance survival of immigrant cells of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Poza-Carrion, Cesar; Suslow, Trevor; Lindow, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Although Salmonella enterica apparently has comparatively low epiphytic fitness on plants, external factors that would influence its ability to survive on plants after contamination would be of significance in the epidemiology of human diseases caused by this human pathogen. Viable population sizes of S. enterica applied to plants preinoculated with Pseudomonas syringae or either of two Erwinia herbicola strains was ?10-fold higher than that on control plants that were not precolonized by such indigenous bacteria when assessed 24 to 72 h after the imposition of desiccation stress. The protective effect of P. fluorescens, which exhibited antibiosis toward S. enterica in vitro, was only ?50% that conferred by other bacterial strains. Although S. enterica could produce small cellular aggregates after incubation on wet leaves for several days, and the cells in such aggregates were less susceptible to death upon acute dehydration than solitary cells (as determined by propidium iodide staining), most Salmonella cells were found as isolated cells when it was applied to leaves previously colonized by other bacterial species. The proportion of solitary cells of S. enterica coincident with aggregates of cells of preexisting epiphytic species that subsequently were judged as nonviable by viability staining on dry leaves was as much as 10-fold less than those that had landed on uncolonized portions of the leaf. Thus, survival of immigrant cells of S. enterica on plants appears to be strongly context dependent, and the presence of common epiphytic bacteria on plants can protect such immigrants from at least one key stress (i.e., desiccation) encountered on leaf surfaces. PMID:23506362

  17. Nanosponge-encapsulated camptothecin exerts anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Rosalba; Cavalli, Roberta; Ellis, Leigh; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Trotta, Francesco; Ciamporcero, Eric; Barrera, Giuseppina; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Chiara; Pili, Roberto

    2012-11-20

    Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent DNA Topoisomerase I inhibitor with anti-tumor activity in hematological and solid tumors. However, it did not reach clinical use because of its poor solubility and high degrability. ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge (CN) have been demonstrated to be able to increase the solubility of lipophilic compounds and to protect them from degradation. In the present study, we evaluated whether ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge carriers can overcome CPT chemical disadvantages and improve the in vitro anti-tumor efficacy in the androgen refractory models of prostate cancer DU145 and PC-3 and the androgen sensitive model LNCaP. Camptothecin-loaded ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge (CN-CPT) showed sizes of about 400 nm, spherical shape and a drug loading of 38%. HPLC analysis, performed on the cell pellet after treatment with CN-CPT revealed that CPT concentration increased over time indicating a prolonged release of the drug. Moreover, CN-CPT inhibited Topoisomerase I activity, and induced DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest more effectively than CPT, indicating that the CN-CPT formulation does not affect activity of the drug. Moreover, Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining showed an induction of cell death at low concentrations that were not effective for CTP. LNCaP cells were less sensitive to CPT than PC-3 and DU145 cells, but CN-CPT still exerted higher anti-proliferative activity and DNA damage ability than CPT. The experiments performed in LNCaP cells demonstrated that CN-CPT treatment inhibited expression of the androgen receptor at doses where CPT was ineffective. Our results demonstrated the higher anti-tumor effectiveness of CN-CPT compare to CPT in prostate cancer cells, supporting the relevance of future studies for the use of the ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge to deliver anticancer drugs in vivo. PMID:22917641

  18. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2?associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25891953

  19. Biological activity of ruthenium and osmium arene complexes with modified paullones in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Bartel, Caroline; Schmid, Wolfgang F.; Jakupec, Michael A.; Arion, Vladimir B.; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to combine the ability of indolobenzazepines (paullones) to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and that of platinum-group metal ions to interact with proteins and DNA, ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with paullones were prepared, expecting synergies and an increase of solubility of paullones. Complexes with the general formula [MIICl(?6-p-cymene)L]Cl, where M = Ru (1, 3) or Os (2, 4), and L = L1 (1, 2) or L2 (3, 4), L1 = N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]-benzazepin-6(5H)-yliden-N?-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)azine and L2 = N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6-yl)-N?-[3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-4-yl-methylene]azinium chloride (L2*HCl), were now investigated regarding cytotoxicity and accumulation in cancer cells, impact on the cell cycle, capacity of inhibiting DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis as well as their ability to inhibit Cdk activity. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay yielded IC50 values in the nanomolar to low micromolar range. In accordance with cytotoxicity data, the BrdU assay showed that 1 is the most and 4 the least effective of these compounds regarding inhibition of DNA synthesis. Effects on the cell cycle are minor, although concentration-dependent inhibition of Cdk2/cyclin E activity was observed in cell-free experiments. Induction of apoptosis is most pronounced for complex 1, accompanied by a low fraction of necrotic cells, as observed by annexin V–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. PMID:23037896

  20. Isocudraxanthone K induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral cancer cells via hypoxia inducible factor-1?.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mee-Ran; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Lee, Young-Man; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Isocudraxanthone K (IK) is a novel, natural compound from a methanol extract of the root bark of Cudrania tricuspidata. It has not been shown previously that IK possessed antitumor activity. We investigated the antitumor effects and molecular mechanism of IK and related signal transduction pathway(s) in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (OSCCCs). The MTT assay revealed that IK had an antiproliferative effect on OSCCCs, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IK induced apoptosis in OSCCCs, as identified by a cell-cycle analysis, annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining, and the nuclear morphology in cell death. IK caused time-dependent phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). In addition, IK increased the cytosolic to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and the degradation and phosphorylation of I?B-? in HN4 and HN12 cells. Furthermore, IK treatment downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and its target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a HIF-1? activator, attenuated the IK-induced growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects, and blocked IK-induced expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins, such as Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, and cytochrome c. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of IK as a HIF-1? inhibitor and suggest it may be a drug candidate for chemotherapy against oral cancer. PMID:25105148

  1. FoxP3 provides competitive fitness to CD4?CD25? T cells in leprosy patients via transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Ali, Riyasat; Rani, Richa; Khanna, Neena; Rao, D N

    2014-02-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. FoxP3 have been shown to have important implications in various diseases. The present study describes the mechanism of action of FoxP3 in CD4?CD25? T cells derived from leprosy patients. Increased molecular interactions of FoxP3 with histone deacetylases 7/9 in the nucleus of CD4?CD25? T cells derived from borderline lepromatous leprosy/lepromatous leprosy (BL/LL) patients were found to be responsible for FoxP3-driven immune suppression activities during the progression of leprosy. Further, downregulation of CTLA-4 and CD25 genes in siFoxP3-treated PBMCs derived from BL/LL patients elucidated the transcription-activating nature of FoxP3. This observation was supported by direct binding of FoxP3 to the promoter region of the CTLA-4 and CD25 genes, and FoxP3's molecular interaction with histone acetyl transferases. The study also revealed that the increased expression of miR155 in CD4?CD25? cells from BL/LL governs the competitive fitness of these cells. Again, reduced Annexin V & propidium iodide staining and Nur77 expression, and concomitantly increased Ki-67 positivity suggested that CD4?CD25? cells derived from BL/LL patients are more competitively fit than those from borderline tuberculoid leprosy/tuberculoid leprosy and healthy controls. Taken together, the study shows the orchestration of FoxP3 leading to competitive fitness of Treg cells in leprosy. PMID:24214631

  2. Autophagy limits the cytotoxic effects of the AKT inhibitor AZ7328 in human bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Rian J.; Nitti, Giovanni; Dinney, Colin P.; Davies, Barry R.; Kamat, Ashish M.; McConkey, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations that activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are relatively common in urothelial (bladder) cancers, but how these pathway mutations affect AKT dependency is not known. We characterized the relationship between AKT pathway mutational status and sensitivity to the effects of the selective AKT kinase inhibitor AZ7328 using a panel of 12 well-characterized human bladder cancer cell lines. Methods: Sequenome DNA sequencing was performed to identify mutations in a panel of 12 urothelial cancer cell lines. Drug-induced proliferative inhibition and apoptosis were quantified using MTT assays and propidium iodide staining with FACS analyses. Protein activation via phosphorylation was measured by immunoblotting. Autophagy was measured by LC3 immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Results: AZ7328 inhibited proliferation and AKT substrate phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner but had minimal effects on apoptosis. Proliferative inhibition correlated loosely with the presence of activating PIK3CA mutations and was strengthened in combination with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. AZ7328 induced autophagy in some of the lines, and in the cells exposed to a combination of AZ7328 and chemical autophagy inhibitors apoptosis was induced. Conclusions: The cytostatic effects of AZ7328 correlate with PIK3CA mutations and are greatly enhanced by dual pathway inhibition using an mTOR inhibitor. Furthermore, AZ7328 can interact with autophagy inhibitors to induce apoptosis in some cell lines. Overall, our results support the further evaluation of combinations of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and autophagy inhibitors in pre-clinical in vivo models and ultimately in patients with PIK3CA mutant bladder cancers. PMID:22895070

  3. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2 to 5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (> or =1.5-fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity=96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity=86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity. PMID:19665512

  4. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3?-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  5. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  6. A plasmacytoid dendritic cell (CD123+/CD11c-) based assay system to predict contact allergenicity of chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Snell, Maureen; Child, Matthew; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    A predictive allergenicity test system for assessing the contact allergenicity of chemicals is needed by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry to monitor product safety in the marketplace. Development of such non-animal alternative assay systems for skin sensitization and hazard identification has been pursued by policy makers and regulatory agencies. We investigated whether phenotypic and functional changes to a subset of dendritic cells (DC), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), could be used to identify contact allergens. To achieve this goal, normal human DC were generated from CD34+ progenitor cells and cryopreserved. Frozen DC were thawed and the pDC fraction (CD123+/CD11c-) was harvested using FACS sorting. The pDC were cultured, expanded, and exposed to chemical allergens (N=26) or non-allergens (N=22). Concentrations of each chemical that resulted in >50% viability was determined using FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained cells using pDC from 2-5 donors. Expression of the surface marker, CD86, which has been implicated in dendritic cell maturation, was used as a marker of allergenicity. CD86 expression increased (? 1.5 fold) for 25 of 26 allergens (sensitivity = 96%) but did not increase for 19 of 22 non-allergens (specificity = 86%). In a direct comparison to historical data for the regulatory approved, mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) for 23 allergens and 22 non-allergens, the pDC method had sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the LLNA assay was 83% and 82%, respectively. In conclusion, CD86 expression in pDC appears to be a sensitive and specific indicator to identify contact allergenicity. Such an assay method utilizing normal human cells will be useful for high throughput screening of chemicals for allergenicity. PMID:19665512

  7. Complement factor H-derived short consensus repeat 18-20 enhanced complement-dependent cytotoxicity of ofatumumab on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hörl, Susanne; Banki, Zoltan; Huber, Georg; Ejaz, Asim; Müllauer, Brigitte; Willenbacher, Ella; Steurer, Michael; Stoiber, Heribert

    2013-12-01

    The antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is mediated mainly by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Unfortunately, the efficacy of complement-dependent cytotoxicity is strongly restricted due to the expression and acquisition of regulators of complement activation by lymphocytic leukemia cells. Whereas the role of membrane regulators of complement activation, such as CD55 and CD59, has been investigated in detail in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the involvement of soluble regulators of complement activation, such as complement factor H, has not yet been reported. Propidium iodide staining was performed to investigate the efficacy of ofatumumab and factor H-derived short-consensus-repeat 18-20 in the induction of complement-dependent cytotoxicity on primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from 20 patients. Deposition of complement C3 fragments was monitored by western blot analysis. Expression of CD20, CD55 or CD59 was determined by FACS analysis. Replacement of factor H with short consensus repeat 18-20 significantly increased the susceptibility of primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to ofatumumab-induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity. More importantly, addition of short-consensus-repeat 18-20 was able to overcome complement- resistance occurring during treatment with ofatumumab alone. Use of short consensus repeat 18-20 is likely to prolong the turnover time of active C3b fragments generated on the target cells following ofatumumab-induced complement activation, thereby improving specific killing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The relative contribution of factor H to the protection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells against complement-dependent cytotoxicity was comparable to that of CD55. Our data suggest that, by abrogating factor H function, short consensus repeat 18-20 may provide a novel approach that improves the complement-dependent efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23850806

  8. Complement factor H-derived short consensus repeat 18–20 enhanced complement-dependent cytotoxicity of ofatumumab on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hörl, Susanne; Banki, Zoltan; Huber, Georg; Ejaz, Asim; Müllauer, Brigitte; Willenbacher, Ella; Steurer, Michael; Stoiber, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    The antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is mediated mainly by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Unfortunately, the efficacy of complement-dependent cytotoxicity is strongly restricted due to the expression and acquisition of regulators of complement activation by lymphocytic leukemia cells. Whereas the role of membrane regulators of complement activation, such as CD55 and CD59, has been investigated in detail in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the involvement of soluble regulators of complement activation, such as complement factor H, has not yet been reported. Propidium iodide staining was performed to investigate the efficacy of ofatumumab and factor H-derived short-consensus-repeat 18–20 in the induction of complement-dependent cytotoxicity on primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from 20 patients. Deposition of complement C3 fragments was monitored by western blot analysis. Expression of CD20, CD55 or CD59 was determined by FACS analysis. Replacement of factor H with short consensus repeat 18–20 significantly increased the susceptibility of primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to ofatumumab-induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity. More importantly, addition of short-consensus-repeat 18–20 was able to overcome complement- resistance occurring during treatment with ofatumumab alone. Use of short consensus repeat 18–20 is likely to prolong the turnover time of active C3b fragments generated on the target cells following ofatumumab-induced complement activation, thereby improving specific killing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The relative contribution of factor H to the protection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells against complement-dependent cytotoxicity was comparable to that of CD55. Our data suggest that, by abrogating factor H function, short consensus repeat 18–20 may provide a novel approach that improves the complement-dependent efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. PMID:23850806

  9. Fructose induces mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells by provoking oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Natasha; Maurya, Chandan K; Arha, Deepti; Avisetti, Deepa R; Prathapan, Ayyappan; Raj, Palayyan S; Raghu, Kozhiparambil G; Kalivendi, Shasi V; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes. There is evidence that oxidative stress results from the increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, tissue damage, insulin resistance, and other complications observed in type 2 diabetes. It has been suggested that intake of high fructose contributes to insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. However, there is limited information about the direct effect of fructose on the mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle, the major metabolic determinant of whole body insulin activity. Here, we assessed the effect of fructose exposure on mitochondria-mediated mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells. Exposure of L6 myotubes to high fructose stimulated the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO), and the expression of inducible NO synthase. Fructose-induced oxidative stress was associated with increased translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 to the nucleus, decreases in mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondrial dysfunctions, as evidenced by decreased activities of citrate synthase and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased activity of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes, and impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism. Furthermore, positive Annexin-propidium iodide staining and altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and caspases in L6 myotubes indicated that the cells progressively became apoptotic upon fructose exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that exposure of skeletal muscle cells to fructose induced oxidative stress that decreased mitochondrial DNA content and triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, which caused apoptosis. PMID:25913123

  10. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL) and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Bertolin, Thiago Carlos; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2013-01-01

    A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL) is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu); 92 (Ser/Leu); 93 (Ile/Thr); 95 (Arg/Gly) and 97 (Leu/Ser). CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp?=?43 µM) and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp?=?8.6 µM), but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the ?-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (?645 Å2). The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal ?-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells). The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells. PMID:23823708

  11. Neutrophil cell death, activation and bacterial infection in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Watt, A; Courtney, J; Moore, J; Ennis, M; Elborn, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by chronic endobronchial bacterial infection and neutrophil mediated inflammation. Neutrophil apoptosis is essential for the resolution of inflammation. This study assessed the relationship between levels of neutrophil apoptosis and sputum microbiology in matched clinically stable patients with CF. Methods: Sputum was induced from 34 patients (nine with no Gram negative infection, 10 colonised with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 with Burkholderia cenocepacia, and five with other infections). Apoptotic neutrophils measured by flow cytometric Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and morphology were similar in all groups. Results: Patients infected with P aeruginosa or B cenocepacia had a significantly lower percentage of viable neutrophils in the sputum than those with no Gram negative infection (Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.01, median (interquartile range (IQR)) 14.2% (9.4–21.6), 15.8% (12.3–19.5), and 48.4% (23.0–66.4); p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). They also had significantly higher levels of secondary necrotic granulocytes in sputum than patients with no Gram negative infection (Kruskal-Wallis p<0.0001, median (IQR) 55.5% (48.4–64.5), 50.4% (44.6–61.9), and 24.8% (14.4–30.5); p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Neutrophils (x106/g sputum) in P aeruginosa infected patients (Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.05, median (IQR) 6.3 (3.5–12.7)) and B cenocepacia infected patients (5.7 (1.5–14.5)) were significantly higher than in the group with no Gram negative infection (0.5 (0.5–4.3), p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: These results suggest that cell death and clearance may be altered in patients with CF colonised with P aeruginosa and B cenocepacia compared with those with no Gram negative infection. PMID:16061707

  12. Effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) on the cell cycle of CHO and Jurkat cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.; Navara, Christopher; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to nano-second pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. Variations between cell lines in membrane and cytoskeletal structure as well as in survival of nsPEF exposure should correspond to unique line-dependent cell cycle effects. Additionally, phase of cell cycle during exposure may be linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations recovered similarly to sham populations postnsPEF exposure and did not exhibit a phase-specific change in response. Jurkat cells exhibited considerable apoptosis/necrosis in response to nsPEF exposure and were unable to recover and proliferate in a manner similar to sham exposed cells. Additionally, Jurkat cells appear to be more sensitive to nsPEFs in G2/M phases than in G1/S phases. Recovery of CHO populations suggests that nsPEFs do not inhibit proliferation in CHO cells; however, inhibition of Jurkat cells post-nsPEF exposure coupled with preferential cell death in G2/M phases suggest that cell cycle phase during exposure may be an important factor in determining nsPEF toxicity in certain cell lines. Interestingly, CHO cells have a more robust and rigid cytoskeleton than Jurkat cells which is thought to contribute to their ability to survive nsPEFs. The ability of the CHO cytoskeleton to recover and complete mitosis after nsPEF-induced damage in G2/M phase may be integral to the cell line's higher tolerance of nsPEF exposure.

  13. Use of Image Cytometry for Quantification of Pathogenic Fungi in Association with Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Berkes, Charlotte; Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Wilkinson, Alisha; Paradis, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the cellular pathogenesis mechanisms of pathogenic yeasts such as Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans commonly employ infection of mammalian hosts or host cells (i.e. macrophages) followed by yeast quantification using colony forming unit analysis or flow cytometry. While colony forming unit enumeration has been the most commonly used method in the field, this technique has disadvantages and limitations, including slow growth of some fungal species on solid media and low and/or variable plating efficiencies, which is of particular concern when comparing growth of wild-type and mutant strains. Flow cytometry can provide rapid quantitative information regarding yeast viability, however, adoption of flow cytometric detection for pathogenic yeasts has been limited for a number of practical reasons including its high cost and biosafety considerations. Here, we demonstrate an image-based cytometric methodology using the Cellometer Vision (Nexcelom Bioscience, LLC) for the quantification of viable pathogenic yeasts in co-culture with macrophages. Our studies focus on detection of two human fungal pathogens: Histoplasma capsulatum and Candida albicans. H. capsulatum colonizes alveolar macrophages by replicating within the macrophage phagosome, and here, we quantitatively assess the growth of H. capsulatum yeasts in RAW 264.7 macrophages using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining in combination with image cytometry. Our method faithfully recapitulates growth trends as measured by traditional colony forming unit enumeration, but with significantly increased sensitivity. Additionally, we directly assess infection of live macrophages with a GFP-expressing strain of C. albicans. Our methodology offers a rapid, accurate, and economical means for detection and quantification of important human fungal pathogens in association with host cells. PMID:23851941

  14. Trichostatin A induces cell death at the concentration recommended to differentiate the RGC-5 cell line.

    PubMed

    Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Hofmann, Johanna; Szurman, Peter; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Spitzer, Martin S

    2012-05-01

    Supplementation with Trichostatin A (TSA) has been described as the method of choice for differentiating the RGC-5 cell line into cells with neuronal properties. However, TSA is known to induce apoptosis. We therefore investigated whether TSA at the recommended concentration for differentiation (500 nM) and at three additional concentrations (40, 150 and 2000 nM) induces apoptosis or cell death in the RGC-5 cell line. Morphological changes of the RGC-5 cells occurred after 24 and 48 hours (h) of treatment with 500 and 2000 nM TSA. Differentiation of RGC-5 cell began at 150 nM. A decrease in the cell count was observed from 150 nM TSA onwards compared to controls. Five hundred nanomolar of TSA reduced the amount of cells to 51% (p<0.005) after 24h and to 24% (p<0.005) after 48 h compared to controls on crystal violet staining. At 500 nM TSA a massive induction of apoptosis after 24 and 48 h was noted. Supplementation of 500 nM TSA increased caspase 3/7 activity 5.0-fold (p<0.005). Furthermore, 27× more TUNEL-positive cells were found and the cleaved caspase 3/caspase 3 ratio was 1.8-fold (p<0.1) higher 24h after the addition of 500 nM TSA. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was 3.4-fold (p<0.05) higher after 48 h. Cell viability decreased to 70% (p<0.005) and to 35% (p<0.005) after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Moreover, 103× (p<0.05) more dead cells (via propidium iodide staining) were found after 48 h of treatment with 500 nM TSA. In conclusion, TSA induces cell death and apoptosis at the concentration recommended for differentiation. The induction of apoptosis occurred dose and time dependently and already at even lower concentrations of TSA which did not lead to differentiation induced apoptosis. Thus, studies with RGC-5 cells should not be performed within the first 48 h after supplementation with TSA. PMID:22391323

  15. Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1. PMID:21602375

  16. A simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay with propidium iodide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W-J; Li, J

    2014-09-13

    Our aim was to develop a new simple sperm nuclear vacuole assay (SNVA) with propidium iodide (PI) to determine the status of nuclear vacuole (NV) of individual spermatozoa. After PI staining, sperm nuclei were classified into the 14 categories according to both nuclear morphology and the status of NV. The incidence was 57.8% (range 28-84%) in fertile controls (n = 40), and 85.1% (range 67-99%) in men with varicocele (n = 40). In the fertile group, normal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region were significantly more in comparison with the varicocele group. In the varicocele group, abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one large NV and with multiple NVs located in the ante-nuclear region were most frequent findings. Besides, spermatozoa with NVs in both ante- and post-nuclear regions in the varicocele group were significantly more than those in the fertile group. In both fertile and varicocele groups, normal or abnormal nuclear-shaped spermatozoa with one or more vacuoles only located in the post-nuclear region occurred sparingly. The SNVA provides a useful additional approach to identify the status of NV in human spermatozoa for diagnostic purposes. A good sperm sample would have more spermatozoa without NV or with one small NV located in the ante-nuclear region. PMID:25220411

  17. Detecting inactivated endospores in fluorescence microscopy using propidium monoazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Alexander; Mahnert, Alexander; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2012-04-01

    The differentiation between living and dead bacterial endospores is crucial in many research areas of microbiology. The identification of inactivated, non-pathogenic Bacillus anthracis spores is one reason why improvement of decontamination protocols is so desirable. Another field interested in spore viability is planetary protection, a sub-discipline of astrobiology that estimates the bioburden of spacecraft prior to launch in order to avoid interplanetary cross-contamination. We developed a dedicated, rapid and cost-effective method for identifying bacterial endospores that have been inactivated and consequently show a compromised spore wall. This novel protocol is culture-independent and is based on fluorescence microscopy and propidium monoazide (PMA) as a fluorescent marker, which is suggested to bind to DNA of spores with compromised spore coat, cortex and membranes based on our results. Inactivated preparations (treated with wet heat, irradiation, ultracentrifugation) showed a significant increase in spores that were PMA stained in their core; moreover, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus seemed to be best suited for this technique, as the spore cores of all these endospores could be positively stained after inactivation. Lastly, we describe an additional counter-staining protocol and provide an example of the application of the coupled staining methods for planetary protection purposes. The introduction of this novel protocol is expected to provide an initial insight into the various possible future applications of PMA as a non-viability marker for spores in, for example, B. anthracis-related studies, food microbiology and astrobiology.

  18. Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) in Wilms Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Jun, Lu; Gang, Li; Lan, Cao; Na-Na, Wang; Xiao-Juan, Du; Li-Chao, Sun; Wen-Li, Zhao; Pei-Fang, Xiao; He, Zhao; Guang-Hao, Su; Yan-Hong, Li; Yi-Ping, Li; Yun-Yun, Xu; Hui-Ting, Zhou; Yi, Wu; Mei-Fang, Jin; Lin, Liu; Jian, Ni; Shao-Yan, Hu; Xue-Ming, Zhu; Xing, Feng; Jian, Wang; Jian, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Background Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC. Conclusions LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new “network” of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators during LBH589 treatment. Our results provide new clues to the proapoptotic mechanism of LBH589. PMID:26176219

  19. Distinguishing between living and nonliving bacteria: Evaluation of the vital stain propidium iodide and its combined use with molecular probes in aquatic samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Williams; Y. Hong; D. C. A. Danavall; M. H. Howard-Jones; D. Gibson; M. E. Frischer; P. G. Verity

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a large fraction of marine bacterioplankton are either dead or moribund and, therefore, new methods are required to distinguish bacteria of different physiological states. A method is described which uses the general cell stain 4?6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), the vital stain propidium iodide (PI), and 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, to quantitatively identify cells with compromised membranes, and

  20. Visible light may directly induce nuclear DNA damage triggering the death pathway in RGC-5 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bin; Ma, Tong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Visible light has been previously demonstrated to induce retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-5 cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. The present study was designed to determine whether visible light might also directly trigger the death pathway by damaging nuclear DNA. Methods RGC-5 cells were exposed to various intensities and durations of visible light exposure. Cell viability and death were monitored with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide staining. Nuclear DNA damage caused by light was determined with the plasmid assay, genome DNA assay, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. The subsequent activation of nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was measured with western blot, and PARP-1’s role in the death pathway was assessed by using specific inhibitors. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) inhibitors were used to show their influence on light-induced cell death. Calcium influx was examined with the fura-2 assay and calcium channel blocker. Results We found that visible light induced RGC-5 cell death in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. After the light intensity was increased to 2,600 lx, activation of the death pathway in RGC-5 cells was clearly observed by detecting double-strand DNA breaks and nuclear DNA damage in vitro. Nuclear enzyme PARP-1 was promptly activated after exposure to 2,600 lx of light for 2 days, and specific inhibitors of PARP-1 had significant neuroprotective effects. The poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitor tannic acid and AIF inhibitor N-phenylmaleimide partially protected RGC-5 cells from light injury. A massive calcium influx was detected after 2 days of light exposure, and a calcium channel blocker partially protected cells against light injury. Conclusions These results suggest that visible light exposure may directly cause nuclear DNA damage, which consequently activates PARP-1. In addition, RGC-5 cells damaged by 2,600 lx of light exposure can be used as an appropriate cell death model for screening neuroprotective drugs, since this treatment induced remarkable cell death within 2 days. Moreover, these results show that 2,600 lx of light exposure provides a more apparent activation of the death pathway than 1,000 lx of light exposure, which was used in a previous study. PMID:22194654

  1. Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin knockdown sensitized these cells to selenium growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In nude mice bearing PC-3M xenografts, survivin knockdown synergizes with selenium in inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusions Selenium could inhibit the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the effects were modest. The growth inhibition was not mediated by downregulating survivin expression. Survivin silencing greatly enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of selenium. PMID:20698994

  2. Pro-apoptotic effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Ping; Ding, Hui; Shi, Da-Hua; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Er-Guang; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. METHODS: Tectorigenin, one of the main components of rhizome of Iris tectorum, was prepared by simple methods, such as extraction, filtration, concentration, precipitation and recrystallization. HepG2 cells were incubated with tectorigenin at different concentrations, and their viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was detected by morphological observation of nuclear change, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA ladder, and flow cytometry with Hoechst 33342, Annexin V-EGFP and propidium iodide staining. Generation of reactive oxygen species was quantified using DCFH-DA. Intracellular Ca2+ was monitored by Fura 2-AM. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using Rhodamine 123. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol was detected by Western blotting. Activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were investigated by Caspase Activity Assay Kit. RESULTS: The viability of HepG2 cells treated by tectorigenin decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The concentration that reduced the number of viable HepG2 cells by 50% (IC50) after 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation was 35.72 mg/L, 21.19 mg/L and 11.06 mg/L, respectively. However, treatment with tectorigenin at 20 mg/L resulted in a very slight cytotoxicity to L02 cells after incubation for 12, 24 or 48 h. Tectorigenin at a concentration of 20 mg/L greatly inhibited the viability of HepG2 cells and induced the condensation of chromatin and fragmentation of nuclei. Tectorigenin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared with the viability rate, induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of the anti-proliferation effect of tectorigenin in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, tectorigenin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, increased intracellular [Ca2+]i, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and -3. CONCLUSION: Tectorigenin induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells mainly via mitochondrial-mediated pathway, and produces a slight cytotoxicity to L02 cells. PMID:22553399

  3. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. PMID:22417362

  4. Induction of apoptosis in oral squamous carcinoma cells by pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Kate; Palagano, Eleonora; Butini, Stefania; Campiani, Giuseppe; Williams, D Clive; Zisterer, Daniela M; O'Sullivan, Jeff

    2015-09-01

    Oral cancer (OC) is a largely asymptomatic disease, resulting in one of the highest mortality rates of any cancer. OC is currently ranked as the sixth most common cancer in the world, according to a recent World Health Organization analysis, and its prevalence is increasing, both in western and developing regions. Depending on the stage of OC, treatment strategies include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. As with numerous other types of cancer, resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs is increasing in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to investigate the use of a novel group of compounds, the pyrrolo?1,5?benzoxazepines (PBOXs), as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of OC. PBOXs are microtubule?targeting agents that are able to induce apoptosis in numerous cancer cell types, thereby preventing tumour cell proliferation. Ca9.22 gingival and TR146 buccal cell lines were used as models for OSSC. Cell viability and proliferation in the presence of two PBOXs: PBOX?6 and PBOX?15, was monitored using an AlamarBlueTM assay. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide?stained cells was used to determine the DNA content, and therefore the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Microtubule disruption was determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Changes in protein expression and degradation were determined by western blotting. The results of the present study indicated that both PBOX?6 and ?15 were able to induce apoptotic cell death by disrupting the microtubule network in both cell lines. The EC50 values were subsequently calculated for both PBOX?6 and ?15, and PBOX?15 was shown to possess a higher potency. Both compounds displayed anti?proliferative effects mediated through sustained G2/M arrest accompanied by tubulin disruption, and a decrease in DNA repair protein poly (ADP ribose) polymerase expression. These findings suggest that PBOXs may prove useful, either alone or in combination with other agents, in the treatment of chemotherapeutic resistant OSCC. PMID:26005189

  5. Establishment and characterization of gemcitabine-resistant human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines with multidrug resistance and enhanced invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Wattanawongdon, Wareeporn; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Namwat, Nisana; Kanchanawat, Sirimas; Boonmars, Thidarut; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee; Leelayuwat, Chanwit; Techasen, Anchalee; Seubwai, Wunchana

    2015-07-01

    To establish and characterize the gemcitabine-resistant cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines, CCA KKU?M139 and KKU?M214 cell lines were exposed stepwisely to increasing gemcitabine (GEM). The resultant drug-resistant cell lines, KKU?M139/GEM and KKU?M214/GEM, retained the resistant phenotype in drug-free medium at least for 2 months. Sulforhodamine B assay demonstrated that KKU?M139/GEM and KKU?M214/GEM were 25.88- and 62.31-fold more resistant to gemcitabine than their parental cells. Both gemcitabine-resistant cell lines were cross-resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin and paclitaxel indicating their multidrug-resistant nature. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and western blot analyses, gemcitabine-resistant cells showed upregulation of RRM1 and downregulation of hENT1 and dCK. In relation to multidrug resistance, these cell lines showed upregulation of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) leading to an increase of drug efflux. Using cell adhesion and Boyden chamber transwell assays, these cell lines also showed higher cell adhesion, migration and invasion capabilities via the activations of protein kinase C (PKC), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Higher activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was also observed by a gelatin zymography assay and a casein-plasminogen zymography assay. Flow cytometry analysis indicated the G2/M arrest regulated by downregulation of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) resulted in an extended population doubling time. Using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, evasion of apoptosis via an intrinsic pathway was observed in both cell lines in association with upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of Bax. Interestingly, Fas was additionally downregulated in KKU?M214/GEM supporting the view of its higher GEM resistant characteristics. These findings indicate that long-term exposure of CCA cell lines to gemcitabine induce not only multidrug resistance but also enhance their invasiveness. PMID:25998688

  6. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in T-2 toxin-induced cell cycle alteration and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mona; Bhaskar, A S B; Rao, P V Lakshmana

    2015-06-01

    T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and a frequent contaminant in many agriculture products. Dietary ingestion represents the most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans. T-2 toxin exposure leads to many pathological conditions like nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immune depression and dermal inflammation. However, the neuronal toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32). T-2 toxin was cytotoxic at a low concentration of 10 ng/ml. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) of T-2 toxin was found to be 40 ng/ml as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, crystal violet dye exclusion test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. T-2 toxin increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation as early as 15 min and peaked at 60 min as analyzed by flow cytometry. Annexin V?+?propidium iodide staining showed time-dependent increase in percent apoptotic cells. DNA gel electrophoresis showed oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of apoptotic cells. Additionally, casapse-3 activation and PARP cleavage indicated involvement of mitochondrial mediated caspase-dependent pathway of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed time-dependent increase in sub-G1 population of cells and significant up-regulation of CDK2, CDK6, cyclin A and p21 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Exposure to T-2 toxin induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). Analysis of human phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) antibody array revealed time-dependent increase in phosphorylation. Upstream of ERK pathway Grb2, Ras and Raf and downstream transcription factors c-fos and c-jun were significantly up-regulated. Z-VAD-FMK and MAPK inhibitors (PD 98059, SB 203580 and ZM 336372) exposure prior to T-2 toxin treatment significantly decreased percent of apoptotic cells compared to only T-2 toxin-exposed cells. Results of the present study show that T-2 toxin at nanogram concentrations can induce apoptosis in human neuronal cells through multiple signal transduction pathways. The study provides possible leads for developing therapeutic approaches to prevent T-2 toxin-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25084755

  7. B7-H3 silencing by RNAi inhibits tumor progression and enhances chemosensitivity in U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yanfang; Dong, Fei; Zhu, Mingxia; Wan, Wenli; Li, Haishen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Xinxing; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of B7-H3 in acute monocytic leukemia U937 cells has not been thoroughly investigated. Materials and methods B7-H3 knockdown in the U937 cell line was performed using small hairpin (sh)RNA lentivirus transduction. The effects on cell proliferation, cycle, migration, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, methyl cellulose colony-forming assay, propidium iodide staining, and Transwell assays in vitro. Changes in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, when combined with chemotherapy drugs, were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays. U937 xenograft models were used to assess the effects of B7-H3 on tumorigenicity and the therapeutic effect of B7-H3 knockdown in combination with chemotherapy drugs in vivo. Results Downregulation of B7-H3 significantly decreased U937 cell growth and colony-forming ability. The mean inhibition rate of tumor growth with B7-H3 knockdown was 59.4%, and the expression of both Ki-67 and PCNA in xenografts was significantly reduced. After B7-H3 silencing, the U937 cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 phase. The cell migration rate of B7-H3 knockdown cells was reduced more than fivefold, and invasion capacity decreased by 86.7%. B7-H3 RNAi profoundly increased the antitumor effect of chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. On day 19, inhibition rates of tumor growth in B7-H3 shRNA combined with idarubicin, cytarabine, and idarubicin plus cytarabine were 70.5%, 80.0%, and 90.0%, respectively (P=0.006, P=0.004, and P=0.016, respectively). Conclusion B7-H3 may promote U937 cell progression, and shRNA targeting B7-H3 significantly enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results may provide new insight into the function of B7-H3 and a promising therapeutic approach targeting B7-H3 in acute monocytic leukemia.

  8. Positive allosteric modulation of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors promotes cell death by inducing Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Álvarez, María; Moreno-Ortega, Ana J; Navarro, Elisa; Fernández-Morales, José Carlos; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G; Cano-Abad, María F

    2015-05-01

    Positive allosteric modulation of ?7 isoform of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs) is emerging as a promising therapeutic approach for central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. However, its effect on Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability remains controversial. This study focuses on how the type II positive allosteric modulator (PAM II) PNU120596 affects intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability. We used human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing ?7-nAChRs (?7-SH) and their control (C-SH). We monitored cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) with Fura-2 and the genetically encoded cameleon targeting the ER, respectively. Nicotinic inward currents were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Viability was assessed using methylthiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide or propidium iodide staining. We observed that in the presence of a nicotinic agonist, PNU120596 (i) reduced viability of ?7-SH but not of C-SH cells; (ii) significantly increased inward nicotinic currents and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration; (iii) released Ca(2+) from the ER by a Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release mechanism only in ?7-SH cells; (iv) was cytotoxic in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures; and, lastly, all these effects were prevented by selective blockade of ?7-nAChRs, ryanodine receptors, or IP3 receptors. In conclusion, positive allosteric modulation of ?7-nAChRs with the PAM II PNU120596 can lead to dysregulation of ER Ca(2+) , overloading of intracellular Ca(2+) , and neuronal cell death. This study focuses on how the type II positive allosteric modulator PNU120596 (PAM II PNU12) affects intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability. Using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing ?7-nAChRs (?7-SH) and their control (C-SH), we find that PAM of ?7-nAChRs with PNU120596: (i) increases inward calcium current (ICa ) and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ); (ii) releases Ca(2+) from the ER ([Ca(2+) ]ER ) by a Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release mechanism; and (iv) reduces cell viability. These findings were corroborated in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures. [Ca(2+) ]cyt , cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration; [Ca(2+) ]ER , endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) concentration; ?7 nAChR, ?7 isoform of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; ?7-SH, SH-SY5Y stably overexpressing ?7 nAChRs cells; C-SH, control SH-SY5Y cells; Nic, nicotine; PNU12, PNU120596. PMID:25650007

  9. Real time PCR quantification of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples treated with propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    de Assunção, Thiago Milech; Batista, Eraldo L; Deves, Candida; Villela, Anne Drumond; Pagnussatti, Vany Elisa; de Oliveira Dias, Ana Christina; Kritski, Afrânio; Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2014-07-01

    Diagnostic methods of TB, nowadays, are prone to delay in diagnosis, increased false negative results and are not sensitive to many forms of paucibacillary disease. The aims of this study were to implement a quantitative nucleic acid-based diagnostic test for paucibacillary tuberculosis, enabling the identification and quantification of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). The intergenic region of the single-copy inhA-mabA gene was chosen as the target region for design of primers and probes conjugated with fluorophores. The construction of synthetic DNA flanking the target region served as standards for absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Using the intercaling dye, propidium monoazide, we were able to discriminate between viable and dead cells of M. tuberculosis. The diagnosis method showed a broad sensitivity (96.1%) when only compared to samples of smear-positive sputum and ROC analyses shows that our approach performed well and yielded a specificity of 84.6% and a sensitivity of 84.6% when compared to M. tuberculosis colony-forming units counting. PMID:24863654

  10. Action Mechanisms of Lithium Chloride on Cell Infection by Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Meng, Fandan; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Xunliang; Wang, Chao; Herrler, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses. PMID:21573100

  11. Transcriptional regulation of kinases downstream of the T cell receptor: another immunomodulatory mechanism of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals modulate T-cell function. Thus, glucocorticoids may affect T cells by interfering with the TCR signaling cascade. The purpose of the study was to search for glucocorticoid-modulated kinases downstream of the TCR. Methods Gene modulation in lymphoid cells either treated with glucocorticoids or from glucocorticoid-treated mice was studied using a RNase protection assay, real-time PCR, and western blotting. The sensitivity of genetically modified thymocytes to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis was studied by performing hypotonic propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The Student’s t-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results We found that transcription of Itk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, was up-regulated in a mouse T-cell hybridoma by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast, dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of Txk, a Tec kinase that functions redundantly with Itk, and Lck, the Src kinase immediately downstream of the TCR. We investigated the expression of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes following in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone treatment at different time points and doses. Kinase expression was differentially modulated and followed distinct kinetics. Itk was up-regulated in all cell types and conditions tested. Txk was strongly up-regulated in mature lymphocytes but only weakly up-regulated or non-modulated in thymocytes in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Conversely, Lck was down-regulated in thymocytes, but not modulated or up-regulated in mature lymphocytes in the different experimental conditions. This complex behaviour correlates with the presence of both positive and negative glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE and nGRE, respectively) in the Itk, Txk and Lck genes. To investigate the function associated with Itk up-regulation, dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of thymocytes from Itk-deficient mice was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that Itk deficiency causes increased sensitivity to dexamethasone but not to other pro-apoptotic stimuli. Conclusions Modulation of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes is another mechanism by which glucocorticoids modulate T-cell activation and differentiation. Itk up-regulation plays a protective role in dexamethasone-treated thymocytes. PMID:24993777

  12. Effects of cordycepin on HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells: Potential antiproliferative, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LU, HAISHENG; LI, XITING; ZHANG, JIANYING; SHI, HUI; ZHU, XIAOFENG; HE, XIAOSHUN

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor and accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenesis plays an important role in HCC development. Cordycepin, also known as 3?-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of adenosine, and numerous cellular enzymes cannot differentiate the two. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cordycepin regulates proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) and in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). MTT was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide staining). Transwell and wound healing assays were used to analyze the migration and invasion of HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells was assessed using a tube formation assay. Cordycepin strongly suppressed HepG2 and EA.hy926 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin induced EA.hy926 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (2,000 ?g/ml: 50.20±1.55% vs. 0 ?g/ml: 2.62±0.19%; P<0.01). Cordycepin inhibited EA.hy926 cell migration (percentage of wound healing area, 2,000 ?g/ml: 3.45±0.29% vs. 0 ?g/ml: 85.48±0.84%; P<0.05), as well as tube formation (total length of tubular structure, 1,000 ?g/ml: 107±39 ?m vs. 0 ?g/ml: 936±56 ?m; P<0.05). Cordycepin also efficiently inhibited HepG2 cell invasion and migration. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the cytosol from EA.hy926 cells showed that cordycepin was stable for 3 h. In conclusion, cordycepin not only inhibited human HepG2 cell proliferation and invasion, but also induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that cordycepin may be used as a novel anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC. PMID:24765175

  13. Arsenic sulfide, the main component of realgar, a traditional Chinese medicine, induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lian; Tian, Wei; Kim, Sungkyoung; Ding, Wenping; Tong, Yingying; Chen, Siyu

    2015-01-01

    Background Arsenic sulfide (As4S4), the main component of realgar, a traditional Chinese medicine, has shown antitumor efficacy in several tumor types, especially for acute promyelocytic leukemia. In this study, we aimed to explore the efficacy and mechanism of As4S4 in gastric cancer. Methods The effect of As4S4 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells was investigated by MTT assay, 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and annexin V–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining using gastric cancer cell lines AGS (harboring wild-type p53) and MGC803 (harboring mutant p53) in vitro. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was measured by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Mouse xenograft models were established by inoculation with MGC803 cells, and the morphology and the proportion of apoptotic cells in tumor tissues were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Results As4S4 inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of AGS and MGC803 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. As4S4 upregulated the expression of Bax and MDM2 while downregulated the expression of Bcl-2. The expression of p53 increased significantly in the AGS cells but did not readily increase in the MGC803 cells, which harbored mutant p53. Pifithrin-?, a p53 inhibitor, blocked the modulation of As4S4 on AGS cells, but not on MGC803 cells. Using xenograft as a model, we showed that As4S4 suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vivo and that the expression of p53 increased accordingly. Conclusion As4S4 is a potent cytotoxic agent for gastric cancer cells, as it induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo through a p53-dependent pathway. Our data indicate that As4S4 may have therapeutic potential in gastric cancer. PMID:25565771

  14. Identification of Novel Gene Expression Targets for the Ras Association Domain Family 1 (RASSF1A) Tumor Suppressor Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Neuroblastoma1

    PubMed Central

    Agathanggelou, Angelo; Bièche, Ivan; Ahmed-Choudhury, Jalal; Nicke, Barbara; Dammann, Reinhard; Baksh, Shairaz; Gao, Boning; Minna, John D.; Downward, Julian; Maher, Eamonn R.; Latif, Farida

    2012-01-01

    RASSF1A is a recently identified 3p21.3 tumor suppressor gene. The high frequency of epigenetic inactivation of this gene in a wide range of human sporadic cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and neuroblastoma suggests that RASSF1A inactivation is important for tumor development. Although little is known about the function of RASSF1A, preliminary data suggests that it may have multiple functions. To gain insight into RASSF1A functions in an unbiased manner, we have characterized the expression profile of a lung cancer cell line (A549) transfected with RASSF1A. Initially we demonstrated that transient expression of RASSF1A into the NSCLC cell line A549 induced G1 cell cycle arrest, as measured by propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, an-nexin-V staining showed that RASSF1A-expressing cells had an increased sensitivity to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. We then screened a cDNA microarray containing more than 6000 probes to identify genes differentially regulated by RASSF1A. Sixty-six genes showed at least a 2-fold change in expression. Among these were many genes with relevance to tumorigenesis involved in transcription, cytoskeleton, signaling, cell cycle, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For 22 genes we confirmed the microarray results by real-time RT-PCR and/or Northern blotting. In silico, we were able to confirm the majority of these genes in other NSCLC cell lines using published data on gene expression profiles. Furthermore, we confirmed 10 genes at the RNA level in two neuroblastoma cell lines, indicating that these RASSF1A target genes have relevance in non-lung cell backgrounds. Protein analysis of six genes (ETS2, Cyclin D3, CDH2, DAPK1, TXN, and CTSL) showed that the changes induced by RASSF1A at the RNA level correlated with changes in protein expression in both non-small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma cell lines. Finally, we have used a transient assay to demonstrate the induction of CDH2 and TGM2 by RASSF1A in NSCLC cell lines. We have identified several novel targets for RASSF1A tumor suppressor gene both at the RNA and the protein levels in two different cellular backgrounds. The identified targets are involved in diverse cellular processes; this should help toward understanding mechanisms that contribute to RASSF1A biological activity. PMID:14500366

  15. The indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet inhibits cell proliferation via overexpression of p21/CDKN1A in both estrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), an autolysis product of glucosinolates present in cruciferous vegetables, and its dimeric derivative (3,3'-DIM) have been indicated as promising agents in preventing the development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently shown that I3C cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet formulated in ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) efficiently inhibited cellular proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. This study aims to analyze the mechanisms involved in the in vitro inhibition of cell proliferation and to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of CTet in a xenograft study. Methods Estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were exposed to CTet to evaluate cell cycle perturbation (propidium iodide staining and cytofluorimetric acquisition), induction of autophagic morphological features (co-localization of LC3b autophagosome marker and LAMP2a lysosome marker by immunofluorescence) and changes in protein expression (immunoblot and microarray-based gene expression analyses). To test the in vivo efficacy of CTet, female athymic nude mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells were i.p. treated with 5 mg/kg/day of CTet for five days/week for two weeks and the tumor mass was externally monitored. Results CTet induced accumulation in G2/M phase without evidence of apoptotic response induction in both cell lines tested. In triple-negative MDA-MB-231 the autophagic lysosomal activity was significantly up-regulated after exposure to 4 ?M of CTet for 8 hours, while the highest CTet concentration was necessary to observe autophagic features in MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of Akt activity and p53-independent p21/CDKN1A and GADD45A overexpression were identified as the main molecular events responsible for CTet activity in MCF-7 and p53-mutant MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, CTet administration was able to significantly inhibit the growth of MCF-7 xenotransplanted into nude mice, without adverse effect on body weight or on haematological parameters. Conclusions Our data support CTet formulated with ?-CD as a promising and injectable anticancer agent for both hormone-responsive and triple-negative breast tumors. PMID:21435243

  16. Positron emission tomographic monitoring of dual phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and mTOR inhibition in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Nicolas; Li, Zhoulei; Herrmann, Ken; Weh, Daniel; Aichler, Michaela; Slawska, Jolanta; Walch, Axel; Peschel, Christian; Schwaiger, Markus; Buck, Andreas K; Dechow, Tobias; Keller, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Dual phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition offers an attractive therapeutic strategy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma depending on oncogenic nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) signaling. We tested the efficacy of a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BGT226 (BGT226), in two anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo and performed an early response evaluation with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the standard tracer, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and the thymidine analog, 3?-deoxy-3?-[18F] fluorothymidine (FLT). Methods The biological effects of BGT226 were determined in vitro in the NPM-ALK positive cell lines SU-DHL-1 and Karpas299 by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, propidium iodide staining, and biochemical analysis of PI3K and mTOR downstream signaling. FDG-PET and FLT-PET were performed in immunodeficient mice bearing either SU-DHL-1 or Karpas299 xenografts at baseline and 7 days after initiation of treatment with BGT226. Lymphomas were removed for immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation and apoptosis to correlate PET findings with in vivo treatment effects. Results SU-DHL-1 cells showed sensitivity to BGT226 in vitro, with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and an IC50 in the low nanomolar range, in contrast with Karpas299 cells, which were mainly resistant to BGT226. In vivo, both FDG-PET and FLT-PET discriminated sensitive from resistant lymphoma, as indicated by a significant reduction of tumor-to-background ratios on day 7 in treated SU-DHL-1 lymphoma-bearing animals compared with the control group, but not in animals with Karpas299 xenografts. Imaging results correlated with a marked decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67, and a slight increase in the apoptotic marker, cleaved caspase 3, as revealed by immunostaining of explanted lymphoma tissue. Conclusion Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition using BGT226 is effective in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma and can be monitored with both FDG-PET and FLT-PET early on in the course of therapy. PMID:24920919

  17. Assessment of Probiotic Viability during Cheddar Cheese Manufacture and Ripening Using Propidium Monoazide-PCR Quantification.

    PubMed

    Desfossés-Foucault, Emilie; Dussault-Lepage, Véronique; Le Boucher, Clémentine; Savard, Patricia; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (4-6?months) by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA) select only the living cells' DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011, or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052) or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1), both lactobacilli strains (MC2), or all three strains (MC3). DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf) or the transaldolase gene (tal). Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P?

  18. Assessment of Probiotic Viability during Cheddar Cheese Manufacture and Ripening Using Propidium Monoazide-PCR Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; Dussault-Lepage, Véronique; Le Boucher, Clémentine; Savard, Patricia; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (4–6?months) by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA) select only the living cells’ DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011, or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052) or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1), both lactobacilli strains (MC2), or all three strains (MC3). DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf) or the transaldolase gene (tal). Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P?

  19. The overexpression of hypomethylated miR-663 induces chemotherapy resistance in human breast cancer cells by targeting heparin sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2).

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiyan; Li, Shuqin; Cui, Xiuying; Lv, Xiaobin; Jiao, Yu; Yu, Fengyan; Yao, Herui; Song, Erwei; Chen, Yongsong; Wang, Minghui; Lin, Ling

    2013-04-19

    MicroRNAs are involved in regulating the biology of cancer cells, but their involvement in chemoresistance is not fully understood. We found that miR-663 was up-regulated in our induced multidrug-resistant MDA-MB-231/ADM cell line and that this up-regulation was closely related to chemosensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the role of miR-663 in regulating the chemoresistance of breast cancer. MicroRNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to identify differentially expressed microRNAs. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL, and reactive oxygen species generation analysis. The expression of miR-663 and HSPG2 in breast cancer tissues was detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The potential targets of miR-663 were defined by a luciferase reporter assay. Bisulfite sequencing PCR was used to analyze the methylation status. We found that miR-663 was significantly elevated in MDA-MB-231/ADM cells, and the down-regulation of miR-663 sensitized MDA-MB-231/ADM cells to both cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. The overexpression of miR-663 in breast tumor tissues was associated with chemoresistance; in MDA-MB-231 cells, this chemoresistance was accompanied by the down-regulation of HSPG2, which was identified as a target of miR-663. MDA-MB-231/ADM contained fewer methylated CpG sites than its parental cell line, and miR-663 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells was reactivated by 5-aza-29-deoxycytidine treatment, indicating that DNA methylation may play a functional role in the expression of miR-663. Our findings suggest that the overexpression of hypomethylated miR-663 induced chemoresistance in breast cancer cells by down-regulating HSPG2, thus providing a potential target for the development of an microRNA-based approach for breast cancer therapy. PMID:23436656

  20. Anticancer activity of a sub-fraction of dichloromethane extract of Strobilanthes crispus on human breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The leaves of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) which is native to the regions of Madagascar to the Malay Archipelago, are used in folk medicine for their antidiabetic, diuretic, anticancer and blood pressure lowering properties. Crude extracts of this plant have been found to be cytotoxic to human cancer cell lines and protective against chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. In this study, the cytotoxicity of various sub-fractions of dichloromethane extract isolated from the leaves of S. crispus was determined and the anticancer activity of one of the bioactive sub-fractions, SC/D-F9, was further analysed in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Methods The dichloromethane extract of S. crispus was chromatographed on silica gel by flash column chromatography. The ability of the various sub-fractions obtained to induce cell death of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and DU-145 cell lines was determined using the LDH assay. The dose-response effect and the EC50 values of the active sub-fraction, SC/D-F9, were determined. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V antibody and propidium iodide staining and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, while caspase 3/7 activity was detected using FLICA caspase inhibitor and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. Results Selected sub-fractions of the dichloromethane extract induced death of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The sub-fraction SC/D-F9, consistently killed breast and prostate cancer cell lines with low EC50 values but is non-cytotoxic to the normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. SC/D-F9 displayed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to tamoxifen, paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin. Cell death induced by SC/D-F9 occurred via apoptosis with the involvement of caspase 3 and/or 7. Conclusions A dichloromethane sub-fraction of S. crispus displayed potent anticancer activities in vitro that can be further exploited for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent. PMID:20684795

  1. Synergistic anticancer effects of a bioactive subfraction of Strobilanthes crispus and tamoxifen on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of tumour resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and concerns over their toxic effects has led to the increased use of medicinal herbs or natural products by cancer patients. Strobilanthes crispus is a traditional remedy for many ailments including cancer. Its purported anticancer effects have led to the commercialization of the plant leaves as medicinal herbal tea, although the scientific basis for its use has not been established. We previously reported that a bioactive subfraction of Strobilanthes crispus leaves (SCS) exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell lines. The current study investigates the effect of this subfraction on cell death activities induced by the antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen, in estrogen receptor-responsive and nonresponsive breast cancer cells. Methods Cytotoxic activity of SCS and tamoxifen in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was determined using lactate dehydrogenase release assay and synergism was evaluated using the CalcuSyn software. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry following Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Cells were also stained with JC-1 dye to determine changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Fluorescence imaging using FAM-FLICA assay detects caspase-8 and caspase-9 activities. DNA damage in the non-malignant breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, was evaluated using Comet assay. Results The combined SCS and tamoxifen treatment displayed strong synergistic inhibition of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell growth at low doses of the antiestrogen. SCS further promoted the tamoxifen-induced apoptosis that was associated with modulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Interestingly, the non-malignant MCF-10A cells displayed no cytotoxicity or DNA damage when treated with either SCS or SCS-tamoxifen combination. Conclusions The combined use of SCS and lower tamoxifen dose could potentially reduce the side effects/toxicity of the drug. However, further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness and safety of the combination treatment in vivo. PMID:25034326

  2. Flow cytometric estimation of nuclear DNA amount in diploid bananas ( Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Doležel; M. Doleželová; F. J. Novák

    1994-01-01

    Cell nuclei were isolated from leaf tissues of wild banana (Musa balbisiana, M. acuminata ssp.banksii andM. acuminata ssp.errans) and of the two vegetative clones of diploid cultivar “Pisang Mas”. Relative fluorescence intensity was measured on propidium\\u000a iodide-stained nuclei by flow cytometry. Nuclei isolated fromGlycine max with known nuclear genome size were used as internal standard to determine nuclear DNA content

  3. Fig. 1a-d. In situ hybridization of Allizirn metaphase chromosomes. Yellow indicates areas hybridized with rDNA probe. Orange chromosomal material is hybridized and visualized with propidium iodide. Arrows with a number show the labelled chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    #12;#12;Fig. 1a-d. In situ hybridization of Allizirn metaphase chromosomes. Yellow indicates areas, hybrid 81215,ll metaphase cells each of six different individuals were evaluated. Of the 16 chromosomes hybridized with rDNA probe. Orange chromosomal material is hybridized and visualized with propidium iodide

  4. Sanguinarine inhibits angiotensin II?induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac cells via restoring reactive oxygen species?mediated decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Jiao, Rong; Ma, Zhen-Guo; Liu, Wei; Wu, Qing-Qing; Yang, Zheng; Li, Fang-Fang; Yuan, Yuan; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Cell apoptosis induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) has a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sanguinarine (SAN), a drug which was proved to have anti?oxidant, anti?proliferative and immune enhancing effects, can abolish cell apoptosis induced by Ang II. In the present study, H9c2 cardiac cells were stimulated with 10 µM Ang II with or without SAN. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed using JC?1 staining. Furthermore, mRNA expression of NOX2 was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The expression of B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2), Bcl?2?associated X protein (Bax) as well as cleaved (c)?caspase 3 and ?9 were detected by western blot analysis, and the activity of caspase 3 and ?9 was detected using an ELISA. The results of the present study showed that NOX2 expression and ROS generation induced by Ang II were inhibited by SAN, and the Ang 2?induced MMP loss was also ameliorated. Furthermore, Ang II?induced H9c2 cardiac cell apoptosis as well as c?caspase 3 and ?9 levels were significantly reduced by SAN. Investigation of the possible pathway involved in the anti?apoptotic effect of SAN showed that the expression of Bcl?2 was decreased, while that of Bax was increased following stimulation with Ang II, which was reversed following treatment with SAN. In addition, Ang II enhanced the activity of caspase 9 and cleaved downstream caspases such as caspase?3, initiating the caspase cascade, while pre?treatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with SAN blocked these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that SAN inhibits the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac cells induced by Ang II, most likely via restoring ROS?mediated decreases of the MMP. PMID:26017473

  5. Steroid-triggered, cell-autonomous death of a Drosophila motoneuron during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster is accompanied by elimination of obsolete neurons via programmed cell death (PCD). Metamorphosis is regulated by ecdysteroids, including 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), but the roles and modes of action of hormones in regulating neuronal PCD are incompletely understood. Results We used targeted expression of GFP to track the fate of a larval motoneuron, RP2, in ventral ganglia. RP2s in abdominal neuromeres two through seven (A2 to A7) exhibited fragmented DNA by 15 hours after puparium formation (h-APF) and were missing by 20 h-APF. RP2 death began shortly after the 'prepupal pulse' of ecdysteroids, during which time RP2s expressed ecdysteroid receptors (EcRs). Genetic manipulations showed that RP2 death required the function of EcR-B isoforms, the death-activating gene, reaper (but not hid), and the apoptosome component, Dark. PCD was blocked by expression of the caspase inhibitor p35 but unaffected by manipulating Diap1. In contrast, aCC motoneurons in neuromeres A2 to A7, and RP2s in neuromere A1, expressed EcRs during the prepupal pulse but survived into the pupal stage under all conditions tested. To test the hypothesis that ecdysteroids trigger RP2's death directly, we placed abdominal GFP-expressing neurons in cell culture immediately prior to the prepupal pulse, with or without 20E. 20E induced significant PCD in putative RP2s, but not in control neurons, as assessed by morphological criteria and propidium iodide staining. Conclusions These findings suggest that the rise of ecdysteroids during the prepupal pulse acts directly, via EcR-B isoforms, to activate PCD in RP2 motoneurons in abdominal neuromeres A2 to A7, while sparing RP2s in A1. Genetic manipulations suggest that RP2's death requires Reaper function, apoptosome assembly and Diap1-independent caspase activation. RP2s offer a valuable 'single cell' approach to the molecular understanding of neuronal death during insect metamorphosis and, potentially, of neurodegeneration in other contexts. PMID:21521537

  6. Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Miglio, Gianluca; Mesturini, Riccardo; Varsaldi, Federica; Mocellin, Marco; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Dianzani, Chiara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto; Lombardi, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of L-glutamate on activation-induced cell death (AICD) of human activated (1??g?ml?1 phytohemagglutinin plus 2?U?ml?1 interleukin-2; 8 days) T lymphocytes were studied by measuring anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (10??g?ml?1; 18?h)-induced cell apoptosis (Annexin V and propidium iodide staining). L-Glutamate (1 × 10?8–1 × 10?4?M) significantly (P?0.01) inhibited AICD in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=6.3 × 10?8?M; maximum inhibition 54.8±6.3% at 1 × 10?6?M). The L-glutamate inhibitory effect was pharmacologically characterized as mediated by group I mGlu receptors, since mGlu receptor agonists reproduced this effect. The EC50 values were: 3.2 × 10?7?M for (1S,3R)-ACPD; 4.5 × 10?8?M for quisqualate; 1.0 × 10?6?M for (S)-3,5-DHPG; 2.0 × 10?5?M for CHPG. Group I mGlu receptor antagonists inhibited the effects of quisqualate 1.0 × 10?6?M. The IC50 values calculated were: 8.7 × 10?5, 4.3 × 10?6 and 6.3 × 10?7?M for AIDA, LY 367385 and MPEP, respectively. L-Glutamate (1 × 10?6 M; 18?h) significantly (P?0.05) inhibited FasL expression (40.8±11.3%) (cytofluorimetric analysis), whereas it did not affect Fas signalling. Expression of both mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor mRNA by T lymphocytes and T-cell lines, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis, suggests that L-glutamate-mediated inhibition of AICD was exerted on T cells. These data depict a novel role for L-glutamate in the regulation of the immune response through group I mGlu receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16751798

  7. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields and the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.

    Exposure to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. The phase of the cell cycle at the time of exposure is linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Additionally, nsPEFs are capable of activating cell cycle checkpoints, which could lead to apoptosis or slow population growth. NsPEFs are emerging as a method for treating tumors via apoptotic induction; therefore, investigating the relevance of nsPEFs and the cell cycle could translate into improved efficacy in tumor treatment. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate the role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations appeared similar to sham populations post-nsPEFs but exhibited arrest in the G1 phase at 6h after exposure. Jurkat cells exhibited increased cell death after nsPEFs compared to CHO cells but did not exhibit checkpoint arrest at any observed time point. The G1/S phase checkpoint is partially controlled by the action of p53; the lack of an active p53 response in Jurkat cells could contribute to their ability to pass this checkpoint and resist cell cycle arrest. Both cell lines exhibited increased sensitivity to nsPEFs in G2/M phase. Live imaging of CHO cells after nsPEF exposure supports the theory of G1/S phase arrest, as a reduced number of cells undergo mitosis within 24 h when compared to sham treated cells. CHO cells undergoing mitosis after exposure also exhibit improper separation of chromatids which could indicate loss of function of the mitotic spindle checkpoint. Activation and loss of function of checkpoints in CHO but not Jurkat cells after nsPEF exposure suggests that activation of cell cycle checkpoints could be important in defining the character of cell line specific recovery after nsPEF exposure. Moreover, the increased sensitivity in G2/M phase exhibited by both cell lines indicates that cell cycle phase is an important consideration during nsPEF exposure, particularly when aiming to induce apoptosis.

  8. Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) Leaves Contain Compounds that Reduce Nuclear Propidium Iodide Fluorescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. James Price; George Hodnett; J. Spencer Johnston

    2000-01-01

    Sunflower leaves have unidentified compounds that interfere with propidium iodide (PI) intercalation and\\/or fluorescence. Independently prepared pea leaf nuclei show greater PI fluorescence than nuclei from pea leaves simultaneously processed (co-chopped) with sunflower leaves. Differences in fluorescence persist after mixing the PI-stained pea and the co-chopped pea\\/sunflower samples, i.e. PI staining protects the nuclei from the effects of the inhibitor.

  9. Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Oenococcus oeni in must and wine by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Malolactic fermentation is an important step in winemaking, but it has to be avoided in some cases. It's carried out by lactic acid bacteria belonging mainly to the genus Oenococcus, which is known to be a slow growing bacterium. Classical microbiological methods to enumerate viable cells of Oenococcus oeni in must and wine take 7-9 days to give results. Moreover, RT-qPCR technique gives accurate quantitative results, but it requires time consuming steps of RNA extraction and reverse transcription. In the present work we developed a fast and reliable quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate cells of Oenococcus oeni, directly, in must and wine. For the first time we used a propidium monoazide treatment of samples to enumerate only Oenococcus oeni viable cells. The detection limit of the developed method is 0.33 log CFU/mL (2.14 CFU/mL) in must, and 0.69 log CFU/mL (4.90 CFU/mL) in wine, lower than that of the previously developed qPCR protocols. PMID:23628614

  10. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique's inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not an appropriate method for discriminating between live and dead cells to enumerate Legionella for regulatory purposes. PMID:25288885

  11. Evaluation of Propidium Monoazide Real-Time PCR for Early Detection of Viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Clinical Respiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Min; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. We evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the early detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical respiratory specimens. Methods A total of 15 diluted suspensions from 5 clinical MTB isolates were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation. Eighty-three AFB-positive sputum samples were also tested to compare the ?CT values (CT value in PMA-treated sputum samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated sputum samples) between culture-positive and culture-negative specimens. Real-time PCR was performed using Anyplex MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection (Seegene, Korea), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between culture-positive and culture-negative groups. Results In MTB suspensions, the increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in dead cells (P=0.0001) but not in live cells (P=0.1070). In 14 culture-negative sputum samples, the median ?CT value was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-8.2; P<0.0001), whereas that in 69 culture-positive sputum samples was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ?CT value for maximum sensitivity (89.9%) and specificity (85.7%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 3.4. Conclusions PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for differentiating dead from live bacilli in AFB smear-positive sputum samples. PMID:24790907

  12. Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155. PMID:23267699

  13. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of total and propidium monoazide-resistant fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Field, R; Stinson, M; Rukovets, B; Wymer, L; Haugland, R

    2009-11-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. These methods were used in the analyses of wastewater samples to investigate their feasibility as alternatives to current fecal indicator bacteria culture methods for predicting the efficiency of viral pathogen removal by standard treatment processes. PMA treatment was effective in preventing qPCR detection of target sequences from non-viable cells. Concentrates of small volume, secondary-treated wastewater samples, collected from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) under normal operating conditions, had little influence on this effectiveness. Higher levels of total suspended solids, such as those associated with normal primary treatment and all treatment stages during storm flow events, appeared to interfere with PMA effectiveness under the sample preparation conditions employed. During normal operating conditions at three different POTWs, greater reductions were observed in PMA-qPCR detectable target sequences of both Enterococcus and Bacteroidales than in total qPCR detectable sequences. These reductions were not as great as those observed for cultivable fecal indicator bacteria in response to wastewater disinfection. Reductions of PMA-qPCR as well as total qPCR detectable target sequences from enterococci and, to a lesser extent, Bacteroidales correlated well with reductions in infectious viruses during both normal and storm flow operating conditions and therefore may have predictive value in determining the efficiency at which these pathogens are removed. PMID:19540546

  14. Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods?

    PubMed Central

    Wahman, David G.; Wulfeck-Kleier, Karen A.; Pressman, Jonathan G.

    2009-01-01

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure-culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture-independent methods, namely, Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were first verified with mixtures of heat-killed (nonviable) and non-heat-killed (viable) cells before a series of batch disinfection experiments with stationary-phase cultures (batch grown for 7 days) at pH 8.0, 25°C, and 5, 10, and 20 mg Cl2/liter monochloramine. Two data sets were generated based on the viability method used, either (i) LD or (ii) PMA-qPCR. These two data sets were used to estimate kinetic parameters for the delayed Chick-Watson disinfection model through a Bayesian analysis implemented in WinBUGS. This analysis provided parameter estimates of 490 mg Cl2-min/liter for the lag coefficient (b) and 1.6 × 10?3 to 4.0 × 10?3 liter/mg Cl2-min for the Chick-Watson disinfection rate constant (k). While estimates of b were similar for both data sets, the LD data set resulted in a greater k estimate than that obtained with the PMA-qPCR data set, implying that the PMA-qPCR viability measure was more conservative than LD. For N. europaea, the lag phase was not previously reported for culture-independent methods and may have implications for nitrification in drinking water distribution systems. This is the first published application of a PMA-qPCR method for disinfection kinetic model parameter estimation as well as its application to N. europaea or monochloramine. Ultimately, this PMA-qPCR method will allow evaluation of monochloramine disinfection kinetics for mixed-culture bacteria in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:19561179

  15. Comparative analysis of bacterial community composition in bulk tank raw milk by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods using the viability dye propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mareike; Geißert, Janina; Kruse, Myriam; Lipski, André

    2014-11-01

    Microbial diversity of 3 raw milk samples after 72 h of storage at 4 °C in a bulk tank was analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent methods. The culture-dependent approach was based on the isolation of bacteria on complex and selective media, chemotaxonomic differentiation of isolates, and subsequent identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach included the treatment of raw milk with the dye propidium monoazide before direct DNA extraction by mechanic and enzymatic cell lysis approaches, and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The selective detection of viable bacteria improved the comparability between bacterial compositions of raw milk based on culture-dependent and -independent methods, which was the major objective of this study. Several bacterial species of the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were detected by the culture-dependent method, whereas mainly bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria as well as low proportions of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were detected by the culture-independent method. This led to the conclusion that the phylum Firmicutes was strongly discriminated by the culture-independent approach. Generally, species richness detected by the culture-dependent method was higher than that detected by the culture-independent method for all samples. However, few taxa could be detected solely by the direct DNA-based method. In conclusion, the combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods led to the detection of the highest bacterial diversity for the raw milk samples analyzed. It was shown that DNA extraction from raw milk as the essential step in culture-independent methods causes the discrimination of taxa by incomplete cell lysis. Treatment of raw milk with the viability dye propidium monoazide was optimized for the application in raw milk without former removal of milk ingredients and proved to be a suitable tool to ensure comparability of bacterial diversity depicted by both methods. PMID:25242425

  16. The DNA intercalators ethidium bromide and propidium iodide also bind to core histones

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amrita; Majumder, Parijat; Sanyal, Sulagna; Singh, Jasdeep; Jana, Kuladip; Das, Chandrima; Dasgupta, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is compacted in the form of chromatin, in a complex with histones and other non-histone proteins. The intimate association of DNA and histones in chromatin raises the possibility that DNA-interactive small molecules may bind to chromatin-associated proteins such as histones. Employing biophysical and biochemical techniques we have characterized the interaction of a classical intercalator, ethidium bromide (EB) and its structural analogue propidium iodide (PI) with hierarchical genomic components: long chromatin, chromatosome, core octamer and chromosomal DNA. Our studies show that EB and PI affect both chromatin structure and function, inducing chromatin compaction and disruption of the integrity of the chromatosome. Calorimetric studies and fluorescence measurements of the ligands demonstrated and characterized the association of these ligands with core histones and the intact octamer in absence of DNA. The ligands affect acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 5 and lysine 8 ex vivo. PI alters the post-translational modifications to a greater extent than EB. This is the first report showing the dual binding (chromosomal DNA and core histones) property of a classical intercalator, EB, and its longer analogue, PI, in the context of chromatin. PMID:24649406

  17. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative PCR for selective detection of live Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables after inactivation by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Aznar, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) is enjoying increased popularity among researchers in different fields of microbiology. Its use in combination with real-time PCR (qPCR) represents one of the most successful approaches to detect viable cells. PMA-qPCR has successfully been used to evaluate the efficacy of various disinfection technologies in different microorganisms. Initially, in this study the effect of four essential oils (EOs), cumin, clove, oregano and cinnamon, was evaluated on suspensions of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by PMA-qPCR, LIVE/DEAD BacLight flow cytometry analysis (LIVE/DEAD-FCM), and plate count. E. coli O157:H7 cells treated with EOs at killing concentrations were permeable to PMA which was confirmed by LIVE/DEAD-FCM. However, the PMA-qPCR assay allows specific quantification among the autochthonous microbiota of food products. Therefore, the PMA-qPCR assay was used to evaluate its applicability in artificially contaminated iceberg lettuce and soya sprouts. Amplification signal was negative for the spiking tests performed with any of the EO-killed E. coli cells. It demonstrates that the PMA-qPCR assay is a suitable technique for monitoring E. coli O157:H7 inactivation by essential oils in fresh-cut vegetables. PMID:23072696

  18. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Bacteriophage Activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Propidium Monoazide Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yan D.; Li, Jinquan; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional methods to determine the efficacy of bacteriophage (phage) for biocontrol of E. coli require several days, due to the need to culture bacteria. Furthermore, cell surface-attached phage particles may lyse bacterial cells during experiments, leading to an overestimation of phage activity. DNA-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a fast, sensitive, and highly specific means of enumerating pathogens. However, qPCR may underestimate phage activity due to its inability to distinguish viable from nonviable cells. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of propidium monoazide (PMA), a microbial membrane-impermeable dye that inhibits amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA within dead or membrane-compromised cells as a means of using qPCR to identify only intact E. coli cells that survive phage exposure. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain R508N and 4 phages (T5-like, T1-like, T4-like, and O1-like) were studied. Results compared PMA-qPCR and direct plating and confirmed that PMA could successfully inhibit amplification of DNA from compromised/damaged cells E. coli O157:H7. Compared to PMA-qPCR, direct plating overestimated (P < 0.01) phage efficacy as cell surface-attached phage particles lysed E. coli O157:H7 during the plating process. Treatment of samples with PMA in combination with qPCR can therefore be considered beneficial when assessing the efficacy of bacteriophage for biocontrol of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:25530959

  19. Development of a sensitive and specific qPCR assay in conjunction with propidium monoazide for enhanced detection of live Salmonella spp. in food

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a variety of methodologies are available for detection of Salmonella, sensitive, specific, and efficient methods are urgently needed for differentiation of live Salmonella cells from dead cells in food and environmental samples. Propidium monoazide (PMA) can preferentially penetrate the compromised membranes of dead cells and inhibit their DNA amplification, however, such inhibition has been reported to be incomplete by some studies. In the present study, we report an efficient qPCR assay targeting a conserved region of the invA gene of Salmonella in conjunction with PMA treatment for detection of DNA from live Salmonella cells in food samples. Results We investigated the relationship between amplicon length and inhibitory effect of PMA treatment to prevent DNA amplification from dead cells while allowing for DNA amplification from live cells, and found that the two factors are well correlated with each other. An amplicon that is 130 bp in length was determined to be optimal for PMA treatment and was selected for further PMA-qPCR assay development. A PMA-qPCR assay was established by utilizing this amplicon and adopting a modified PMA-treatment procedure. The PMA-qPCR assay provided excellent inhibition of DNA amplification from dead cells (a 17-CT-value, or 128,000-fold reduction) while only a slight DNA amplification difference (0.5 CT value) was noted between the PMA-treated and untreated live cells. This assay has been validated through stringent inclusivity and exclusivity studies using a large number of (n?=?167) Salmonella, including all strains of SARA and SARB collections, and non-Salmonella strains (n?=?36). This PMA-qPCR assay is capable of detecting live Salmonella cells in live/dead cell mixtures, or 30 CFU/g live Salmonella cells from enriched spiked spinach samples as early as 4 h. Conclusions A 130-bp amplicon in invA gene was demonstrated to be optimal for PMA treatment for selective detection of live Salmonella cells by PCR. This PMA-qPCR assay provides a sensitive, specific, and efficient method for detecting live Salmonella cells in foods and environmental samples and may have an impact on the accurate microbiological monitoring of Salmonella in foods and environment samples. PMID:24289661

  20. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05) than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and under stress conditions. PMID:24358142

  1. Application of propidium monoazide-qPCR to evaluate the ultrasonic inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut vegetable wash water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Elizaquível; G. Sánchez; M. V. Selma; R. Aznar

    The efficacy of sanitizing technologies in produce or in vegetable wash water is generally evaluated by plate count in selective media. This procedure is time consuming and can lead to misinterpretations because environmental conditions and sanitizing processes may affect bacterial growth or culturable capability. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the applicability of a propidium monoazide real-time

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, ? particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by ?H2AX-immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l ?-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). TGF-?1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to ? particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent permanent cell cycle blocks lead to a depletion of proliferation-competent cel

  3. Evaluation of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR to detect viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Lee, Man-Ho; Kim, Bog-Soon

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated whether propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is suitable for detecting viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. PMA-qPCR was effective in determining the viability of M. fortuitum compared with qPCR based on the membrane integrity. However, with a mild chlorine concentration, PMA-qPCR as an alternative method was not applicable due to a large gap between loss of culturability and membrane integrity damage. In ozonation, PMA-qPCR was able to differentiate between viable and injured mycobacteria, and the results were similar to those obtained by the culture method. Interestingly, PMA-qPCR was successful in monitoring the viability after UV disinfection due to the long UV exposure needed to effectively inactivate M. fortuitum. The findings of the present study suggested that the characteristics of disinfectants and the M. fortuitum resistance to disinfectants play critical roles in determining the suitability of PMA-qPCR for evaluating the efficacy of disinfection methods. PMID:26143168

  4. Anthocyanin Inhibits Propidium Iodide DNA Fluorescence in Euphorbia pulcherrima: Implications for Genome Size Variation and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Michael D.; Price, H. James; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2008-01-01

    Background Measuring genome size by flow cytometry assumes direct proportionality between nuclear DNA staining and DNA amount. By 1997 it was recognized that secondary metabolites may affect DNA staining, thereby causing inaccuracy. Here experiments are reported with poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with green leaves and red bracts rich in phenolics. Methods DNA content was estimated as fluorescence of propidium iodide (PI)-stained nuclei of poinsettia and/or pea (Pisum sativum) using flow cytometry. Tissue was chopped, or two tissues co-chopped, in Galbraith buffer alone or with six concentrations of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (a cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside contributing to red coloration in poinsettia). Key Results There were large differences in PI staining (35–70 %) between 2C nuclei from green leaf and red bract tissue in poinsettia. These largely disappeared when pea leaflets were co-chopped with poinsettia tissue as an internal standard. However, smaller (2·8–6·9 %) differences remained, and red bracts gave significantly lower 1C genome size estimates (1·69–1·76 pg) than green leaves (1·81 pg). Chopping pea or poinsettia tissue in buffer with 0–200 µm cyanidin-3-rutinoside showed that the effects of natural inhibitors in red bracts of poinsettia on PI staining were largely reproduced in a dose-dependent way by this anthocyanin. Conclusions Given their near-ubiquitous distribution, many suspected roles and known affects on DNA staining, anthocyanins are a potent, potential cause of significant error variation in genome size estimations for many plant tissues and taxa. This has important implications of wide practical and theoretical significance. When choosing genome size calibration standards it seems prudent to select materials producing little or no anthocyanin. Reviewing the literature identifies clear examples in which claims of intraspecific variation in genome size are probably artefacts caused by natural variation in anthocyanin levels or correlated with environmental factors known to induce variation in pigmentation. PMID:18158306

  5. Lenticular mitoprotection. Part A: Monitoring mitochondrial depolarization with JC-1 and artifactual fluorescence by the glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibitor, SB216763

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Morgan M.; Neelam, Sudha; Fudala, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Dissipation of the electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane results in mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (mMPT), a potential early marker for the onset of apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in regulating mMPT. Using direct inhibition of GSK-3? with the GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763, mitochondria may be prevented from depolarizing (hereafter referred to as mitoprotection). Cells treated with SB216763 showed an artifact of fluorescence similar to the green emission spectrum of the JC-1 dye. We demonstrate the novel use of spectral deconvolution to negate the interfering contributing fluorescence by SB216763, thus allowing an unfettered analysis of the JC-1 dye to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Methods Secondary cultures of virally transfected human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) were exposed to acute hypoxic conditions (approximately 1% O2) followed by exposure to atmospheric oxygen (approximately 21% O2). The fluorescent dye JC-1 was used to monitor the extent of mitochondrial depolarization upon exposure of inhibitor treatment relative to the control cells (mock inhibition) in atmospheric oxygen. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was implemented to determine cell viability. Results Treatment of HLE-B3 cells with SB216763 (12 µM), when challenged by oxidative stress, suppressed mitochondrial depolarization relative to control cells as demonstrated with JC-1 fluorescent dye analysis. Neither the control nor the SB216763-treated HLE-B3 cells tested positive with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining under the conditions of the experiment. Conclusions Inhibition of GSK-3? activity by SB216763 blocked mMPT relative to the slow but consistent depolarization observed with the control cells. We conclude that inhibition of GSK-3? activity by the GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763 provides positive protection against mitochondrial depolarization. PMID:23825920

  6. Dual induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and senescence in chronic myelogenous leukemia by myrtucommulone A.

    PubMed

    Grandjenette, Cindy; Schnekenburger, Michael; Morceau, Franck; Mack, Fabienne; Wiechmann, Katja; Werz, Oliver; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), the development of drug resistance and minimal residual disease remain major challenges for the treatment of CML patients, thus highlighting the need to develop innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Myrtucommulone A (MCA) is a nonprenylated acylphloroglucinol isolated from the leaves of myrtle, a plant traditionally used in folk medicine. To date, studies addressing bioactivities of myrtle and its specific components are rare. Here, we investigated the biological effects of MCA, focusing on its anti-leukemic activity. As evidenced by fragmented nuclei after Hoechst/propidium iodide staining and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, MCA induces apoptosis in CML cells through down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. Interestingly, we showed that chronic treatment with MCA at low doses induced senescence in CML cells. Taken together, this study highlights the chemotherapeutical potential of this natural product in human leukemia. PMID:25469628

  7. Flow Cytometry for Determination of the Efficacy of Contact Lens Disinfecting Solutions against Acanthamoeba spp.

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Roya N.; May, Lauren L.; Noble, Judith A.; Avery, Simon V.; Ahearn, Donald G.

    2000-01-01

    Flow cytometric analyses of cellular staining with fluorescent viability dyes and direct microscopic observations of methylene blue exclusion were compared for evaluation of the effects of a chlorhexidine gluconate-based contact lens disinfectant solution and a polyhexamethylene biguanide solution against cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The flow cytometric procedure with propidium iodide (used to stain dead cells) indicated that more than 90% of trophozoites of both species (inocula of 105 to 106/ml) at 22°C lost their viability after 4 h of exposure to chlorhexidine. When propidium iodide was used in combination with fluorescein diacetate (for live cells), the apparent number of propidium iodide-stained cells was reduced, but the relative efficacies of the two biguanide solutions appeared unchanged from those evident with the single dyes; the chlorhexidine solution was more effective than the polyhexamethylene biguanide solution. Similar data were obtained with the more cumbersome methylene blue exclusion procedure. Flow cytometric analyses provided a statistically reproducible and rapid procedure for determining the relative antiamoebal efficacies of the disinfecting solutions. PMID:10698771

  8. Detection of viable murine norovirus using the plaque assay and propidium-monoazide-combined real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Seo, Jina; Oh, Hyejin; Jeon, Su Been; Ha, Sang-Do; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo; Choi, Changsun

    2015-09-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a virus culture system makes it difficult to determine the viability of norovirus by only reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the detection of viable murine norovirus (MNV) by combining propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) with qRT-PCR. MNV (5.21log10PFU/mL) was subjected to heat treatment at room temperature, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, or 90°C in a water bath for 1min. The plaque assay, qRT-PCR, PMA-combined qRT-PCR, and EMA-combined qRT-PCR were then performed with heat exposed MNV samples. The MNV titer was reduced by 0.38, 1.34, and 3.71log10PFU/mL at temperatures of 65, 70, and 75°C, respectively. MNV was reduced >4.21log10PFU/mL at 80, 85, and 90°C heat inactivation. PMA (EMA) value equation for the interpretation of the viability of MNV was derived as follows: PMA (EMA) value=-logRN-logRP (RN: the relative quantity value of the not-treated sample, and RP: the relative quantity value of the PMA- or EMA-treated sample as determined by qRT-PCR). By PMA-combined qRT-PCR, the viable PMA value was 0.32, 0.83, and 2.62 for the 65, 70, and 75°C preheated MNVs, respectively. The viable PMA values for the viruses heated at 80, 85, and 90°C were all greater than 3.0, which was the cutoff value for discriminating between live and dead MNVs. The results of EMA-combined qRT-PCR were similar to those of qRT-PCR. Thus, PMA-combined qRT-PCR correlated well with the plaque assay in detecting viable MNVs. PMID:25920568

  9. Noncontact microsurgery of cell membranes using femtosecond laser pulses for optoinjection of specified substances into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ina, I V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Chefonov, O V; Sitnikov, D S; Agranat, Mikhail B; Mikaelyan, A S

    2013-04-30

    IR femtosecond laser pulses were used for microsurgery of a cell membrane aimed at local and short-duration change in its permeability and injection of specified extracellular substances into the cells. The possibility of noncontact laser delivery of the propidium iodide fluorescent dye and the pEGFP plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein, into the cells with preservation of the cell viability was demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  10. A sperm viability test using SYBR-14/propidium iodide flow cytometry as a tool for rapid screening of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients and for choosing sperm sources for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhi-hong; Huang, Xue-feng; Jia, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Jufen; Yuan, Yao; Shi, Ting-yan; Diao, Hua; Yu, He-guo; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Hui-qing; Shi, Hui-juan; Feng, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Spermatozoa viability tests based on dual-color flow cytometry after staining with Sybr-14/propidium iodide were performed on 44 men with complete asthenospermia for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) screening, and seven were identified with PCD by electron microscopy of ultrastructural ciliary defects. Six PCD patients underwent eight intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy cycles using ejaculated sperm or testicular sperm, obtaining a mean fertilization rate of 46.6%, with three healthy babies born and one in utero at the time of writing. PMID:20797703

  11. Comparison of apoptotic, necrotic and clonogenic cell death and inhibition of cell growth following camptothecin and X-radiation treatment in a human melanoma and a human fibroblast cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami S. Qutob; Cheng E. Ng

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated apoptotic, necrotic and clonogenic cell death and inhibition of cell growth in a human melanoma cell line (Sk-Mel-3) and a normal human fibroblast cell line (AG1522) following treatment with camptothecin (CPT) or with concurrent CPT and X-radiation. Materials and methods: Apoptotic and necrotic cell death was determined morphologically by dual-staining (propidium iodide, acridine orange). Inhibition of cell

  12. Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged Benjamin D Cosgrove, Penney M Gilbert, Ermelinda Porpiglia, Foteini Mourkioti,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles Benjamin57BL/6 mice. Viable mononuclear cells from enzymatically digested hindlimb skeletal muscles were gated based on forward/side scatter (not shown) and propidium iodide negativity (far left). Cells were

  13. Flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete blood with latex particles and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Egido, J M; Viñuelas, J

    1997-01-01

    We report a rapid method for the flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete peripheral blood (HCPB), using commercially available phycoerythrin-conjugated latex particles of 1 micron diameter. The method is faster and shows greater reproducibility than Bjerknes' (1984) standard technique using propidium iodide-stained Candida albicans, conventionally applied to the leukocytic layer of peripheral blood but here modified for HCPB. We also report a modification of Bjerknes' Intracellular Killing Test to allow its application to HCPB. PMID:9428182

  14. Induction of apoptosis by diallyl disulfide through activation of caspase-3 in human leukemia HL60 cells 1 1 Abbreviations: Ac-DEVD-CHO, N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (aldehyde); Ac-DEVD-AFC, N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-AFC (7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl-coumaine); Ac-YVAD-CHO, N-acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO (aldehyde); CAD, caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease; CM-H 2DCFDA, 5-(and -6)-chloromethyl-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; DADS, diallyl disulfide; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorter; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; ICAD, inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; PI, propidium iodide; and ROI, reactive oxygen intermediate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang-Beom Kwon; Su-Jin Yoo; Do-Gon Ryu; Jeong-Yeh Yang; Hye-Won Rho; Jong-Suk Kim; Jin-Woo Park; Hyung-Rho Kim; Byung-Hyun Park

    2002-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a component of garlic (Allium sativum), has been known to exert potent chemopreventative activity against colon, lung, and skin cancers. However, its molecular mechanism of action is still obscure. The present study demonstrated that DADS induces apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with an ic50 for cell viability of less than

  15. Adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effect on human placenta via modulation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haitian; Chen, Hanqing; Wu, Yanxin; Liu, Bin; Li, Zhuyu; Wang, Zilian

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of adiponectin on human placenta during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and on high glucose (HG)-induced BeWo cell proliferation. We examined the expression levels of adiponectin in control and GDM placenta using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using a colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8), PCNA immunocytochemical staining, and Western blot analysis of cyclin D1. Transfection of siRNA against c-jun was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell cycle analysis was performed using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Results show a decreased expression of adiponectin and an increased degree of trophoblast cell proliferation in GDM placenta compared to the normal placenta. Similarly, HG can promote BeWo cell proliferation that is associated with adiponectin down-regulation. This proliferation could be depressed by addition of exogenous adiponectin, i.e. adiponectin exerts antiproliferative effects on HG-induced trophoblast cells. Adiponectin suppresses the HG-induced BeWo cell proliferation by inhibiting the activation of JNK/c-jun. In conclusion, adiponectin inhibits HG-induced proliferation of BeWo cells through down-regulation of JNK/c-jun phosphorylation. PMID:25031708

  16. Calibrating the imaging and therapy performance of magneto-fluorescent gold nanoshells for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Adam; Chen, Wenxue; Biswal, Nrusingh; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Giuliano, Mario; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi J.; Joshi, Amit

    2012-03-01

    Gold nanoshells with NIR plasmon resonance can be modified to simultaneously enhance conjugated NIR fluorescence dyes and T2 contrast of embedded iron-oxide nanoparticles, and molecularly targeted to breast and other cancers. We calibrated the theranostic performance of magneto-fluorescent nanoshells, and contrasted the performance of molecularly targeted and untargeted nanoshells for breast cancer therapy, employing MCF-7L and their HER2 overexpressing derivative MCF-7/HER2-18 breast cancer cells as in vitro model systems. Silica core gold nanoshells with plasmon resonance on ~810 nm were doped with NIR dye ICG and ~10 nm iron-oxide nanoparticles in a ~20 nm epilayer of silica. A subset of nanoshells was conjugated to antibodies targeting HER2. Cell viability with varying laser power levels in presence and absence of bare and HER2-targeted nanoshells was assessed by calcein and propidium iodide staining. For MCF-7L cells, increasing power resulted in increased cell death (F=5.63, p=0.0018), and bare nanoshells caused more cell death than HER2-targeted nanoshells or laser treatment alone (F=30.13, p<0.001). For MCF-7/HER2-18 cells, death was greater with HER2-targeted nanoshells and was independent of laser power. This study demonstrates the capability of magneto-fluorescent nanocomplexes for imaging and therapy of breast cancer cells, and the advantages of targeting receptors unique to cancer cells.

  17. The apoptotic and necrotic effects of tomatine adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Wu, Ching-An; Morrow, W J W

    2004-06-01

    Tomatine adjuvant, consisting of tomatine, n-octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OGP), phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol is unique in that when combined with soluble protein antigen it elicits a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in immunized animals. The mechanisms underlying this property are unknown. In an attempt to understand how tomatine activates cellular immunity, we examined its potential to induce apoptosis. Thus in the present study, cell death of EL4 thymoma cells induced by whole adjuvant and the surface-active components in the formulation was examined. Cytotoxicity was monitored using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and lactate dehydrogenase release assays, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and morphology was examined by Hoechst 33342 staining. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the appearance of the sub-G1 phase in cells treated with these agents and Annexin V/PI staining showed that all three agents induced both apoptosis and necrosis in EL4 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Tomatine was effective at much lower concentrations than OGP, suggesting that the majority of the effect of whole adjuvant could be attributed to this component. Microscopic examination of EL4 cells after treatment with these agents revealed morphological features of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with zVAD-fmk did not block cell death induced by these agents, showing that tomatine adjuvant-induced EL4 cell apoptosis is caspase-independent. PMID:15149791

  18. Rescue effect of lipid emulsion on bupivacaine?induced cardiac toxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Libin; Bai, Zhixia; Lv, Danni; Liu, Haibo; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the rescue effect of lipid emulsion on bupivacaine (BPV)?induced cardiomyocyte toxicity. The inhibitory effects of BPV on H9c2 myoblast cell proliferation were investigated using an MTT assay. The H9c2 myoblast cells were treated with either 1 mM BPV or 1% lipid emulsion (LE) alone, or co?treated with both of the drugs. Cell apoptosis was detected using both Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP assay. The protein expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were quantified using western blot analysis, and the mRNA expression levels were quantified by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of reactive oxidative species, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were quantified using the optical density values obtained from a spectrophotometer. In addition, the mechanism underlying the mitochondrial function of the H9c2 myoblast cells was investigated using both JC?1 staining, and cyclosporin A and atractyloside treatment. The results indicated that the H9c2 myoblast cells treated with BPV exhibited significantly higher levels of apoptosis. Furthermore, BPV treatment increased the levels of oxidative stress, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction within the H9c2 myoblast cells. LE treatment reversed the effects of BPV treatment in the H9c2 myoblast cells. PMID:26018942

  19. Multicellular spheroid formation and evolutionary conserved behaviors of apple snail hemocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-02-01

    A hemocyte primary culture system for Pomacea canaliculata in a medium mimicking hemolymphatic plasma composition was developed. Hemocytes adhered and spread onto culture dish in the first few hours after seeding but later began forming aggregates. Time-lapse video microscopy showed the dynamics of the early aggregation, with cells both entering and leaving the aggregates. During this period phagocytosis occurs and was quantified. Later (>4 h), hemocytes formed large spheroidal aggregates that increased in size and also merged with adjacent spheroids (24-96 h). Large single spheroids and spheroid aggregates detach from the bottom surface and float freely in the medium. Correlative confocal, transmission electron and phase contrast microscopy showed a peculiar organization of the spheroids, with a compact core, an intermediate zone with large extracellular lacunae and an outer zone of flattened cells; also, numerous round cells emitting cytoplasmic extensions were seen attaching to the spheroids' smooth surface. Dual DAPI/propidium iodide staining revealed the coexistence of viable and non-viable cells within aggregates, in varying proportions. DNA concentration increased during the first 24 h of culture and stabilized afterward. BrdU incorporation also indicated proliferation. Spontaneous spheroid formation in culture bears interesting parallels with spheroidal hemocyte aggregates found in vivo in P. canaliculata, and also with spheroids formed by tumoral or non-tumoral mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:23246811

  20. UVA Irradiation of Dysplastic Keratinocytes: Oxidative Damage versus Antioxidant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Nechifor, Marina T.; Niculi?e, Cristina M.; Urs, Andreea O.; Regalia, Teodor; Mocanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Alexandra; Manda, Gina; Dinu, Diana; Leabu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    UVA affects epidermal cell physiology in a complex manner, but the harmful effects have been studied mainly in terms of DNA damage, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. We investigated UVA effects on membrane integrity and antioxidant defense of dysplastic keratinocytes after one and two hours of irradiation, both immediately after exposure, and 24 h post-irradiation. To determine the UVA oxidative stress on cell membrane, lipid peroxidation was correlated with changes in fatty acid levels. Membrane permeability and integrity were assessed by propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. The effects on keratinocyte antioxidant protection were investigated in terms of catalase activity and expression. Lipid peroxidation increased in an exposure time-dependent manner. UVA exposure decreased the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which gradually returned to its initial value. Lactate dehydrogenase release showed a dramatic loss in membrane integrity after 2 h minimum of exposure. The cell ability to restore membrane permeability was noted at 24 h post-irradiation (for one hour exposure). Catalase activity decreased in an exposure time-dependent manner. UVA-irradiated dysplastic keratinocytes developed mechanisms leading to cell protection and survival, following a non-lethal exposure. The surviving cells gained an increased resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that their pre-malignant status harbors an abnormal ability to control their fate. PMID:23222638

  1. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bennett L. Ibey; Caleb C. Roth; Andrei G. Pakhomov; Joshua A. Bernhard; Gerald J. Wilmink; Olga N. Pakhomova; Boris Rubinsky

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the LD50 (50% lethal dose) for cell death, and the ED50 (50% of cell population staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat, U937, CHO-K1, and GH3) exposed to 10-ns electric pulses (EP). We found that the LD50 varied substantially across the cell lines

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages leads to apoptosis of T cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadhna Sharma; Monika Sharma; Mridula Bose

    2009-01-01

    The induction of apoptosis of T cells by intracellular pathogen is an attractive hypothesis to explain their persistence in host cells. To test this hypothesis, human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and cocultured with autologous T cells stimulated with nonspecific phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or specific culture filtrate protein (CFP) of M. tuberculosis. CD95 (Fas) expression, propidium iodide (PI)

  3. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  4. A cyclic peptide accelerates the loading of peptide antigens in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Shaheen, Farzana; Roetzschke, Olaf; Shah, Zafar Ali; Abbas, Syed Comail; Siraj, Rizwana; Makhmoor, Talat

    2015-01-16

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-loading enhancers (MLE) have recently attracted attention because of their ability to enhance the efficacy of peptide immunotherapeutics. As small molecular weight compounds, they influence the loading of peptides in MHC molecules by converting them from a non-receptive to a receptive state. Herein, we report a 14-mer cyclic peptide 1 (CP-1) as a new class of MLE-peptide. This peptide was used to investigate its loading on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules. It was found that CP-1 strongly accelerates peptide-loading on both soluble and cell surface HLA-DR molecules in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was evident for all subsets of HLA-DR tested, including HLA-DRB1*1501, indicating that it acts independently of P1-pocket size, which is the canonical MLE-binding site. Importantly, increased peptide-loading by CP-1 was correlated with improved CD4(+) T cell responses in vitro, while propidium iodide staining indicated low peptide-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, this study revealed a new class of peptide-based enhancers that catalyze peptide-loading by allosteric interactions with MHC molecules. Because of its low cellular cytotoxicity and high MLE activity, it may be useful in stimulating antigen-specific T cell responses for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25522880

  5. Flow cytometric quantification of proliferating coelomocytes non-invasively retrieved from the earthworm, Dendrobaena veneta.

    PubMed

    Homa, Joanna; Bzowska, Malgorzata; Klimek, Malgorzata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Earthworms irritated naturally (e.g. by predators) or experimentally extrude coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid through the dorsal pores of the body wall. In the present study, the earthworms, Dendrobaena veneta, experimentally depleted of free-floating coelomocytes by multiple electric shocks (1 min, 4.5 V) remained fully vital and coelomocyte depletion was followed by the extensive cell replenishment, which was more efficient in the case of amoebocytes than autofluorescent eleocytes/chloragocytes, quantified by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical procedure with antibodies against human Ki-67 proliferation antigens revealed proliferating cells on cytospin preparations of coelomocytes extruded by electric shock. Quantification of proliferating cells in the suspension of extruded coelomocytes was performed by flow cytometry on FL-2 profiles of propidium iodide-stained samples; riboflavin-derived autofluorescence of eleocytes/chloragocytes was lost during detergent treatment. As expected, the percentage of coelomocytes proliferating in coelomic fluid was increased during restoration of coelomocyte number after experimental depletion. The method described here may be very useful for investigations of antigen-driven proliferation of earthworm coelomocytes. PMID:17544121

  6. Low-dose ?-irradiation induces dual radio-adaptive responses depending on the post-irradiation time by altering microRNA expression profiles in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seunghee; Kim, Karam; Cha, Hwa Jun; Choi, Yeongmin; Shin, Shang Hun; An, In-Sook; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Su Jae; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young; An, Sungkwan

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation, including ?-radiation, induces severe skin disorders. However, the biological consequences and molecular mechanisms responsible for the response of human skin to low-dose ?-radiation (LDR) are largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that LDR (0.1 Gy) induces distinct cellular responses in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) depending on the post-irradiation time point. A MTT-based cell viability assay and propidium iodide staining-based cell cycle assay revealed that the viability and proportion of the cells in the G2/M phase were differed at 6 and 24 h post-irradiation. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that LDR significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), but downregulated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) at 24 h post-irradiation. MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis further demonstrated that LDR induced changes in the expression profiles of specific miRNAs and that some of the deregulated miRNAs were specific to either the early or late radio-adaptive response. Our results suggest that LDR generates dual radio-adaptive responses depending on the post-irradiation time by altering specific miRNA expression profiles in NHDFs. PMID:25384363

  7. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-disubstituted 2-amino thiophene derivatives as a novel class of antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Balzarini, Jan; Nussbaumer, Peter; Bassetto, Marcella; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Yang-Gao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2014-09-15

    In search of new compounds with strong antiproliferative activity and simple molecular structure, we designed a novel series of agents based on the 2-amino-3-alkoxycarbonyl/cyano-5-arylethylthiophene scaffold. The presence of the ethyl spacer between the 2',5'-dimethoxyphenyl and the 5-position of the thiophene ring, as well as the number and location of methoxy substitutents on the phenyl ring, played a profound role in affecting the antiproliferative activity. Among the synthesized compounds, we identified the 2-amino-3-cyano-[2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl] thiophene 2c as the most promising derivative against a wide panel of cancer cell lines (IC50=17-130 nM). The antiproliferative activity of this compound appears to correlate well with its ability to inhibit tubulin assembly and the binding of colchicine to tubulin. Moreover 2c, as determined by flow cytometry, strongly induced arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and annexin-V and propidium iodide staining indicate that cell death proceeds through an apoptotic mechanism that follows the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24398384

  8. A Study of Aberrant Glycosylation in Simulated Microgravity Using Laser Induced AutoFluorescence and Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, B. DeSales

    1999-01-01

    A number of pathologies and cellular dysfunctions including neoplasms have been correlated with autofluorescence. The complications of aging and diabetes have been associated with the accumulation of non-enzymatic glycosylations of tissue macromolecules. These products are known as the Advanced Glycosylated End Products (AGEs). A physical property associated with AGEs is the emission of 570 mn or 630 nm light energy (autofluorescence) following the absorption of 448 mm energy associated with the argon laser. This investigation sought to assess the induction of argon-laser induced autofluorescence in a variety of in vitro culture systems. Different fluorescence intensities distinguished tumor lines from normal cell populations. Laser-stimulated autofluorescence discriminated primary cultures of lymphocytes grown in the presence of excess glucose as opposed to normal glucose concentrations. The effects of deglycosylating agents upon laser-induced autofluorescence were also assessed. The studies included studies of cell cycle analysis using Propidium Iodide stained DNA of cells grown in simulated microgravity using NASA Bioreactor Vessels in media of normal and elevated glucose concentrations.

  9. Limited use of antiseptics in septic surgery.

    PubMed

    Röhner, Eric; Hoff, Paula; Pfitzner, Tilman; Seeger, Joern Bengt; Buttgereit, Frank; Perka, Carsten; Matziolis, Georg

    2012-10-01

    In septic joint surgery, treatment with antiseptics is a standard procedure. Postinfectious degeneration of cartilage often results in early arthritis that necessitates joint replacement, even in young patients. It is still unclear whether antiseptics have only a toxic effect on chondrocytes or also induce late cell death through apoptosis. We hypothesized that commonly used antiseptics (polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine) induce different stages of apoptosis on human chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes were isolated and cultured. Polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine were added to the monolayer cultures. Early and late apoptotic cells were analyzed using flow cytometric detection of Annexin V, active caspases, and 7AAD, and fluorescence microscopy using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Flow cytometric analysis revealed an increase of Annexin V and active caspases expression of human chondrocytes after incubation with polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated a high number of apoptotic cells. Our data show that polyhexanide and chlorhexidine only promote the early stages of apoptosis without any differences in toxicity. Conversely, hydrogen peroxide induces early and later stages of apoptosis on primary human chondrocytes in vitro. PMID:23020271

  10. Analysis of cell-tissue grafts under weightless conditions using confocal fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volova, L. T.; Milyakova, M. N.; Rossinskaya, V. V.; Boltovskaya, V. V.; Kulagina, L. N.; Kurganskaya, L. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Zherdeva Taskina, Larisa A.

    2015-03-01

    The research results of monitoring of viable cells in a cellular-tissue graft using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy at 488 nm and 561 nm with the use of fluorophore propidium iodide (propidium iodide, PI Sigma Aldrich USA) are presented. The processing of the received images was carried out using the software ANDOR. It is experimentally shown that the method of confocal fluorescence microscopy is one of the informational methods for detecting cells populated in a 3-D bio-carrier with a resolution of at least 400 nm. Analysis of the received micrographs suggests that the cells that were in a bio-carrier for 30 days in a synchronous ground-based experiment retained their viability compared to a similar space-based experiment in which the cells were hardly detected in a bio-carrier.

  11. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhanbei; Keeley, Ann

    2012-11-15

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate the applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR heat induced hsp70 mRNA in water samples spiked with oocysts. Changes in viability of flow cytometry sorted fresh and oocysts having undergone various aging periods (up to 48 months at 4 °C) were evaluated by Ct values obtained from the qPCR before and after disinfection scenarios involving ammonia or hydrogen peroxide. Both qPCR methods achieved stability in dose dependent responses by hydrogen peroxide treatment in distilled water that proved their suitability for the viability evaluations. Oocysts exposed to 3% hydrogen peroxide were inactivated at a rate of 0.26 h(-1) and 0.93 h(-1), as measured by the mRNA assay and the PMA-DNA assay, respectively. In contrast, the PMA-DNA assay was not as sensitive as the mRNA assay in detecting viability alterations followed by exposure to ammonia or after a long-term storage in 4 °C in distilled water since no dose response dependency was achieved. Surface water concentrates containing enhanced suspendable solids determined that changes in viability were frequently detected only by the mRNA method. Failure of, or inconsistency in the detection of oocysts viability with the PMA-DNA method, apparently resulted from solids that might have reduced light penetration through the samples, and thus inhibited the cross-linking step of PMA-DNA assay. PMID:22980572

  12. Oxidative stress damage in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is inhibited by Cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Patricia L; Perrone, Alina E; Milduberger, Natalia; Postan, Miriam; Bua, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) specifically inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Opening of the mPTP, which is triggered by high levels of matrix [Ca2+] and/or oxidative stress, leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and thus to cell death by either apoptosis or necrosis. In the present study, we analysed the response of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote parasites to oxidative stress with 5 mm H2O2, by studying several features related to programmed cell death and the effects of pre-incubation with 1 ? m of CsA. We evaluated TcPARP cleavage, DNA integrity, cytochrome c translocation, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, reactive oxygen species production. CsA prevented parasite oxidative stress damage as it significantly inhibited DNA degradation, cytochrome c translocation to cytosol and TcPARP cleavage. The calcein-AM/CoCl2 assay, used as a selective indicator of mPTP opening in mammals, was also performed in T. cruzi parasites. H2O2 treatment decreased calcein fluorescence, but this decline was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with CsA. Our results encourage further studies to investigate if there is a mPTP-like pore and a mitochondrial cyclophilin involved in this protozoan parasite. PMID:25823521

  13. Naringin inhibits high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating the activation of the p38 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haili; Wu, Keng; You, Qiong; Huang, Ruina; Li, Shanghai; Wu, Keng

    2013-08-01

    Recently, naringin (NAR; 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rhamnoglucoside) has been shown to have cardioprotective properties. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of NAR and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms in cardiomyocytes using high glucose (HG) to induce apoptosis in H9c2 cells. The effect of NAR on apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and by determining the levels of active caspase-3, -8 and -9. The effect of NAR on mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Our results demonstrated that exposure to HG induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with NAR significantly increased MMP and inhibited the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. NAR attenuated the HG-induced p38 and p53 phosphorylation, decreased mitochondrial Bax and Bak expression, prevented the release of cytochrome c and increased Bcl-2 expression. Pre-treatment with SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, also suppressed p53 phosphorylation and prevented the loss of MMP, as well as apoptosis in the HG-treated H9c2 cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NAR inhibits HG-induced apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating the activation of the p38 signaling pathway. PMID:23732220

  14. A new flavonoid regulates angiogenesis and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Liu, Chaomei; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Bingrong; Yin, Liangjie; Swarts, Steven; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Zhang, Lurong; Okunieff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The tumor vascular system, which is critical to the survival and growth of solid tumors, has been an attractive target for anticancer research. Building on studies that show that some flavonoids have anticancer vascular effects, we developed and analyzed the flavonoid derivative R24 [3, 6-bis (2-oxiranylmethoxy)-9H-xanthen-9-one]. A CAM assay revealed that R24 disrupted neovascular formation; fewer dendrites were detected and overall dendritic length was shorter in the R24-treated chicken embryos. The antiproliferative effect of R24 was measured by MTT assay in A549 (lung cancer), AsPC-1 (pancreatic cancer), HCT-116 (colorectal cancer), and PC-3 (prostate cancer) cell lines. R24 reduced proliferation with an IC50 of 3.44, 3.59, 1.22, and 11.83 ?M, respectively. Cell-cycle analysis and Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining showed that R24 induced apoptosis. In addition, R24 regulated intracellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. CM-H2DCFDA staining indicated that intracellular ROS production increased with the R24 dose. In summary, we found that R24 exhibits potent antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects, induces apoptosis, and promotes ROS production. PMID:24729227

  15. Comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing for cryopreservation of caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Lemos, Paula F B; Freitas Neto, Leopoldo M; Moura, Marcelo T; Melo, Janaína V; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-08-01

    The experiment aimed to compare conventional freezing and different vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of caprine embryos at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. Caprine embryos produced in vivo were allocated randomly to three groups: (1) conventional freezing with ethylene glycol (EG); (2) dimethyl sulfoxide + EG (DMSO/EG) vitrification; and (3) dimethylformamide + EG (DMF/EG) vitrification. All groups were scored for cell viability (propidium iodide staining and ultrastructural levels) and re-expansion rate after thawing or warming. Embryos subjected to DMSO/EG vitrification showed higher cell viability (73.33%), compared with DMF/EG vitrification and conventional freezing group embryos (40.00 and 66.66%, respectively). The ultrastructural study revealed that vitrified embryos had greater preservation of cellular structure than embryos from conventional freezing with EG. DMSO/EG vitrification resulted in higher rates of re-expansion in vitro (47.36%) than DMF/EG vitrification (31.58%), and conventional freezing (25.00%). In conclusion, caprine embryos produced in vivo are better cryopreserved after vitrification than conventional freezing, therefore we conclude that DMSO/EG vitrification is the most effective protocol for cryopreservation. PMID:24964134

  16. Cationic surfactants in the form of nanoparticles and micelles elicit different human neutrophil responses: a toxicological study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-02-01

    Cationic surfactants are an ingredient commonly incorporated into nanoparticles for clinical practicability; however, the toxicity of cationic surfactants in nanoparticles is not fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory responses of cationic nanobubbles and micelles in human neutrophils. Soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) are the two cationic surfactants employed in this study. The zeta potential of CTAB nanobubbles was 80 mV, which was the highest among all formulations. Nanobubbles, without cationic surfactants, showed no cytotoxic effects on neutrophils in terms of inflammatory responses. Cationic nanobubbles caused a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of degranulation (elastase release) and membrane damage (release of lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). Among all nanoparticles and micelles, CTAB-containing nanosystems showed the greatest inflammatory responses. A CTAB nanobubble diluent (1/150) increased the LDH release 80-fold. Propidium iodide staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified cell death and morphological change of neutrophils treated by CTAB nanobubbles. SME, in a micelle form, strengthened the inflammatory response more than SME-loaded nanobubbles. Membrane interaction and subsequent Ca(2+) influx were the mechanisms that triggered inflammation. The information obtained from this work is beneficial in designing nanoparticulate formulations for balancing clinical activity and toxicity. PMID:24246197

  17. Antifungal activity of the non cytotoxic human peptide hepcidin 20 against fluconazole resistant Candida glabrata in human vaginal fluid.

    PubMed

    Del Gaudio, Gaetano; Lombardi, Lisa; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-06-24

    Vaginal infections due to Candida glabrata are difficult to eradicate, due to the scarce susceptibility to azoles of this species. Previous studies have shown that the human cationic peptide hepcidin 20 (Hep-20) exerts fungicidal activity in sodium phosphate buffer against a panel of C. glabrata clinical isolates with different susceptibility to fluconazole. In addition, the activity of the peptide was potentiated under acidic condition, suggesting a potential application in the topical treatment of vaginal infections. To investigate whether the peptide activity could be maintained in biological fluids, in this study the antifungal activity of Hep-20 was evaluated by killing assay in (i) a vaginal fluid simulant (VFS), and in (ii) a human vaginal fluid (HVF) collected from three healthy donors. The results obtained indicated that the activity of the peptide was maintained in VFS and HVF supplemented with EDTA. Interestingly, the fungicidal activity of Hep-20 was enhanced in HVF, in comparison to that observed in VFS, with a minimal fungicidal concentration of 25 ?? for all donors. No cytotoxic effect on human cells was exerted by Hep-20 at concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 100 ??, as shown by XTT reduction assay and propidium iodide staining. An indirect evidence of Hep-20 stability was also obtained from co-incubation experiments of the peptide with HVF at 37°C for 90 minutes and 24 hours. Collectively, these results indicate that this peptide should be further studied as a potential novel therapeutic agent for the topical treatment of vaginal C. glabrata infections. PMID:23796919

  18. The mechanism of UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in cataract.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yinghong; Cai, Lei; Zheng, Tianyu; Ye, Hongfei; Rong, Xianfang; Rao, Jun; Lu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Cataract is the most common eye disease that causes blindness in patients. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is considered an important factor leading to cataract by inducing apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), but the mechanism is currently unclear. In this study, we investigated HLECs under different intensities of UVB irradiation and different exposure time. The annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining results showed that UVB irradiation could efficiently lead to HLECs apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manner. The expression of pro-apoptotic Bax gene was promoted by UVB irradiation, while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression was inhibited at both transcript and protein levels. Notably, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 displayed a high and positive correlation to the proportion of apoptotic HLECs. Mitochondrial dysfunction was also observed with rapid loss of potential (?? m), as well as changes of the levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, total antioxidative capabilities, and superoxide dismutase. In caspase pathway, the level of caspase-3 protein increased after UVB irradiation. All these discovered changes may play important roles in UVB-induced HLECs apoptosis, and would be helpful in understanding the mechanism of UVB-induced cataract and providing potential prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25445170

  19. Resolution of fluorescence signals from cells labeled with fluorochromes having different lifetimes by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Steinkamp; Harry A. Crissman

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometric method has been developed that uses phase-sensitive detection to separate signals from simultaneous fluorescence emissions in cells labeled with fluorochromes having different fluorescence decay lifetimes. CHO cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). These dyes bind to DNA and protein and the fluorescence lifetimes of the bound dyes are 15.0 and 3.6 ns,

  20. Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples was developed by modification of the propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) procedure. Cell staining involved sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, FITC, and PI) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifiguation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients revealed mixed 2C DNA and aneuploid populations with the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle kinetic analysis of the 2C DNA and the aneuploid population.

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Loperamide Hydrochloride on Canine Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    REGAN, Rebecca Cohen; GOGAL, Robert Michael; BARBER, James Perry; TUCKFIELD, Richard Cary; HOWERTH, Elizabeth Wynne; LAWRENCE, Jessica Ann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide is a peripheral opiate agonist that can cause apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human cancer cell lines and may sensitize cells to chemotherapy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of loperamide on viability, apoptosis and cell cycle kinetics in canine cancer cells and to establish whether the drug sensitizes cells to doxorubicin. Cell viability was assessed using Alamar Blue. Cell death and cell cycle were studied using flow cytometry with 7-Aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Loperamide decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion and was most effective against canine osteosarcoma cells. In all cell lines, it induced a dose and time dependent apoptosis and resulted in accumulation in G0/G1. When co-incubated with doxorubicin, loperamide induced a synergistic cell kill in canine carcinoma cells. Investigation is warranted into the role of loperamide in the treatment of canine cancer. PMID:25649936

  2. Manipulation of cell volume and membrane pore comparison following single cell permeabilization with 60- and 600-ns electric pulses.

    PubMed

    Nesin, Olena M; Pakhomova, Olga N; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2011-03-01

    Intense nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) open stable nanopores in the cell membrane, followed by cell volume changes due to water uptake or expulsion, as regulated by the osmolality balance of pore-impermeable solutes inside and outside the cell. The size of pores opened by either fifty 60-ns EP (~13 kV/cm) or five, 600-ns EP (~6 kV/cm) in GH3 cells was estimated by isoosmotic replacement of bath NaCl with polyethylene glycols and sugars. Such replacement reduced cell swelling or resulted in transient or sustained cell shrinking in response to EP. depending on the availability of pores permeable to the test solute. Unexpectedly, solute substitutions showed that for the same integral area of pores opened by 60- and 600-ns treatments (as estimated by cell volume changes), the pore sizes were similar. However, the 600-ns exposure triggered significantly higher cell uptake of propidium. We concluded that 600-ns EP opened a greater number of larger (propidium-permeable pores), but the fraction of the larger pores in the entire pore population was insufficient to contribute to cell volume changes. For both the 60- and 600-ns exposures, cell volume changes were determined by pores smaller than 0.9 nm in diameter; however, the diameter increased with increasing the nsEP intensity. PMID:21182825

  3. The in vitro influences of epidermal growth factor and heregulin-?1 on the efficacy of trastuzumab used in Her-2 positive breast adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2) is over expressed in approximately 25-30% of all primary breast tumors resulting in a distinctive breast cancer subtype associated with a poor prognosis and a decrease in overall survival. Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), an anti-Her-2 monoclonal antibody, has dramatically altered the prognosis of Her-2 positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab is, however, associated with primary and acquired resistance. Aim and methods To investigate the in-vitro effects of trastuzumab on cell viability (tetrazolium conversion assay), cell cycling (propidium iodide staining), apoptosis (executioner caspases and annexin-V) and relative surface Her-2 receptor expression (anti-Her-2 affibody molecule) in Her-2-positive (SK-Br-3) and oestrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) breast adenocarcinoma cells and to determine potential augmentation of these effects by two endogenous ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heregulin-?1 (HRG- ?1). Results Cell viability was decreased in SK-Br-3 cells by exposure to trastuzumab. This was associated with G1 accumulation and decreased relative surface Her-2 receptor density, supporting the cytostatic nature of trastuzumab in vitro. SK-Br-3 cells exposed to EGF and heregulin-?1 produced differential cell responses alone and in combination with trastuzumab, in some instances augmenting cell viability and cell cycling. Relative surface Her-2 receptor density was reduced substantially by trastuzumab, EGF and heregulin-?1. These reductions were amplified when ligands were used in combination with trastuzumab. Conclusion Cell type specific interactions of endogenous ligands appear to be dependent on absolute Her-receptor expression and cross activation of signaling pathways. This supports the notion that receptor density of Her-family members and multiplicity of growth ligands are of mutual importance in breast cancer cell proliferation and therefore also in resistance associated with trastuzumab. PMID:24119761

  4. Manipulation of cell volume and membrane pore comparison following single cell permeabilization with 60- and 600-ns electric pulses

    PubMed Central

    Nesin, Olena M.; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2010-01-01

    Intense nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) open stable nanopores in cell plasma membrane, followed by cell volume changesdue to water uptake or expulsion, as regulated by the osmolality balance of pore-impermeable solutes inside and outside the cell. The size of pores opened by 50, 60-ns EP (10 Hz, ~13 kV/cm) and 5, 600-ns EP (1 Hz, ~6 kV/cm) in GH3 cells was estimated by isoosmotic replacement of bath NaCl with (polyethylene glycols and sugars. Such replacement reduced cell swelling and/or turned it into a transient or sustained shrinking, depending on the availability of pores permeable to the test solute. Unexpectedly, solute substitutions showed that for the same integral area of pores opened by 60- and 600-ns treatments (as indicated by cell volume changes), the pore sizes were similar. However, the 600-ns exposure triggered significantly higher cell uptake of propidium. We concluded that 600-ns EP opened a greater number of larger (propidium-permeable pores), but the fraction of the larger pores in the entire pore population was insufficient to contribute to cell volume changes. For both the 60- and 600-ns exposures, cell volume changes were determined by pores smaller than 0.9 nm in diameter; however, the diameter increased with increasing the nsEP intensity. PMID:21182825

  5. MLN4924, a novel protein neddylation inhibitor, suppresses proliferation and migration of human urothelial carcinoma: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Ho, I-Lin; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Wu, June-Tai; Lin, Wei-Chou; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Chou, Chien-Tso; Hsu, Chen-Hsun; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Chang, Shih-Chen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Kuo-How

    2015-07-28

    MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), has been reported to elicit an anti-tumor effect on various malignancies. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of MLN4924 in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) in vitro and in vivo by using three human UC cell lines of various grading (T24, NTUB1 and RT4). The impact of MLN4924 on UC cells was determined by measuring viability (MTT), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), cell cycle progression (flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining) and apoptosis (flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC labeling). The cell cycle regulatory molecules, apoptosis-related molecules, and cell stress-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. The influence of tumor cell migration and invasion was analyzed by Transwell and wound healing assays. We also evaluated the effects of MLN4924 on tumor growth by a SCID xenograft mouse model. The data show that MLN4924 induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity, anti-proliferation, anti-migration, anti-invasion and apoptosis in human UC cells, accompanied by activations of Bad, phospho-histone H2A.X, caspase-3, 7 and PARP, decreased level of phospho-Bcl2, and caused cell cycle retardation at the G2M phase. Moreover, MLN4924 activated endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecules (caspase-4, phospho-eIF2?, ATF-4 and CHOP) and other stress responses (JNK and c-Jun activations). Finally, we confirmed MLN4924 inhibited tumor growth in a UC xenograft mouse model with minimal general toxicity. We concluded that MLN4924 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as activation of cell stress responses in human UC. These findings imply MLN4924 provides a novel strategy for the treatment of UC. PMID:25615422

  6. Protective effect of Glycine max and Chrysanthemum indicum extracts against cisplatin-induced renal epithelial cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanittha Pongjit; Chaunpit Ninsontia; Chatchai Chaotham; Pithi Chanvorachote

    2011-01-01

    Although cisplatin is one of the most efficient chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumors, frequently observed nephrotoxicity has limited its use in several patients. Materials and methods: The protective effect of Glycine max (GM) and Chrysanthemum indicum (CM) extracts on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human proximal tubular HK-2 cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Hoechst 33342, and propidium

  7. Analysis of Cell Cycle Position in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Matthew J.; Amiri, Mehdi; Dick, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of cell proliferation is central to tissue morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Furthermore, loss of control of cell proliferation underlies the pathology of diseases like cancer. As such there is great need to be able to investigate cell proliferation and quantitate the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. It is also of vital importance to indistinguishably identify cells that are replicating their DNA within a larger population. Since a cell?s decision to proliferate is made in the G1 phase immediately before initiating DNA synthesis and progressing through the rest of the cell cycle, detection of DNA synthesis at this stage allows for an unambiguous determination of the status of growth regulation in cell culture experiments. DNA content in cells can be readily quantitated by flow cytometry of cells stained with propidium iodide, a fluorescent DNA intercalating dye. Similarly, active DNA synthesis can be quantitated by culturing cells in the presence of radioactive thymidine, harvesting the cells, and measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into an acid insoluble fraction. We have considerable expertise with cell cycle analysis and recommend a different approach. We Investigate cell proliferation using bromodeoxyuridine/fluorodeoxyuridine (abbreviated simply as BrdU) staining that detects the incorporation of these thymine analogs into recently synthesized DNA. Labeling and staining cells with BrdU, combined with total DNA staining by propidium iodide and analysis by flow cytometry1 offers the most accurate measure of cells in the various stages of the cell cycle. It is our preferred method because it combines the detection of active DNA synthesis, through antibody based staining of BrdU, with total DNA content from propidium iodide. This allows for the clear separation of cells in G1 from early S phase, or late S phase from G2/M. Furthermore, this approach can be utilized to investigate the effects of many different cell stimuli and pharmacologic agents on the regulation of progression through these different cell cycle phases. In this report we describe methods for labeling and staining cultured cells, as well as their analysis by flow cytometry. We also include experimental examples of how this method can be used to measure the effects of growth inhibiting signals from cytokines such as TGF-?1, and proliferative inhibitors such as the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p27KIP1. We also include an alternate protocol that allows for the analysis of cell cycle position in a sub-population of cells within a larger culture5. In this case, we demonstrate how to detect a cell cycle arrest in cells transfected with the retinoblastoma gene even when greatly outnumbered by untransfected cells in the same culture. These examples illustrate the many ways that DNA staining and flow cytometry can be utilized and adapted to investigate fundamental questions of mammalian cell cycle control. PMID:22297617

  8. Analysis of cell cycle position in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Matthew J; Amiri, Mehdi; Dick, Frederick A

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of cell proliferation is central to tissue morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Furthermore, loss of control of cell proliferation underlies the pathology of diseases like cancer. As such there is great need to be able to investigate cell proliferation and quantitate the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. It is also of vital importance to indistinguishably identify cells that are replicating their DNA within a larger population. Since a cell's decision to proliferate is made in the G1 phase immediately before initiating DNA synthesis and progressing through the rest of the cell cycle, detection of DNA synthesis at this stage allows for an unambiguous determination of the status of growth regulation in cell culture experiments. DNA content in cells can be readily quantitated by flow cytometry of cells stained with propidium iodide, a fluorescent DNA intercalating dye. Similarly, active DNA synthesis can be quantitated by culturing cells in the presence of radioactive thymidine, harvesting the cells, and measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into an acid insoluble fraction. We have considerable expertise with cell cycle analysis and recommend a different approach. We Investigate cell proliferation using bromodeoxyuridine/fluorodeoxyuridine (abbreviated simply as BrdU) staining that detects the incorporation of these thymine analogs into recently synthesized DNA. Labeling and staining cells with BrdU, combined with total DNA staining by propidium iodide and analysis by flow cytometry offers the most accurate measure of cells in the various stages of the cell cycle. It is our preferred method because it combines the detection of active DNA synthesis, through antibody based staining of BrdU, with total DNA content from propidium iodide. This allows for the clear separation of cells in G1 from early S phase, or late S phase from G2/M. Furthermore, this approach can be utilized to investigate the effects of many different cell stimuli and pharmacologic agents on the regulation of progression through these different cell cycle phases. In this report we describe methods for labeling and staining cultured cells, as well as their analysis by flow cytometry. We also include experimental examples of how this method can be used to measure the effects of growth inhibiting signals from cytokines such as TGF-?1, and proliferative inhibitors such as the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p27KIP1. We also include an alternate protocol that allows for the analysis of cell cycle position in a sub-population of cells within a larger culture. In this case, we demonstrate how to detect a cell cycle arrest in cells transfected with the retinoblastoma gene even when greatly outnumbered by untransfected cells in the same culture. These examples illustrate the many ways that DNA staining and flow cytometry can be utilized and adapted to investigate fundamental questions of mammalian cell cycle control. PMID:22297617

  9. Kinetics of plasma membrane and mitochondrial alterations in cells undergoing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lizard, G.; Fournel, S.; Genestier, L.; Dhedin, N. [Hospital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is characterized by typical morphological alterations. By transmission electron microscopy, apoptotic cells are identified by condensation of the chromatin in tight apposition to the nuclear envelope, alteration of the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, whereas integrity of the plasma membrane and organelles is preserved. Conversely cells undergoing necrosis display and early desintegration of cytoplasmic membrane and swelling of mitochondria. In this study we assessed by flow cytometry the sequential alterations of forward angle light scatter, 90{degrees} light scatter, and fluorescence associated with fluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123, and propidium iodide in two human B cell lines undergoing apoptosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by sodium azide. At the same time intervals, cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy and by UV microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342. We report that sequential changes in light scatters and fluorescein diacetate are similar in cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, whereas apoptosis is characterized by a slightly delayed decrease of mitochondrial activity as assessed by rhodamine 123 staining. Surprisingly, a part of cells undergoing apoptosis displayed an early uptake of propidium iodide followed by a condensation and then a fragmentation of their nuclei. It is concluded that uptake of propidium iodide is a very early marker of cell death which does not discriminate between necrosis and apoptosis. Along with biochemical criteria, nuclear morphology revealed by staining with Hoechst 33342 would seem to be of the most simple and most discriminative assay of apoptosis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    E-print Network

    Truernit, Elisabeth; Haseloff, Jim

    2008-06-23

    not stained. Non-viable cells are stained selectively The root cap, consisting of columella and lateral root cap, gation zone of the root (Figure 2) [6]. Cells at the end of the lateral root cap die, thus exposing the root epidermis [6]. The enhancer-trap line... Figure 2 SYTOX orange staining of non-viable lateral root cap cells. (A) to (D) Enhancer-trap line Q0171 expressing GFP (green) in the columella (c) and lateral root cap (lrc). (A), (C) Overlay projection image of Q0171 stained with propidium iodide...

  11. Flow Cytometric Characteristics of Sperm Cells Isolated from Pollen of Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guichang; Campenot, Mary K.; McGann, Locksley E.; Cass, David D.

    1992-01-01

    Sperm cells have been isolated from pollen of maize (Zea mays L.) and purified with Percoll density centrifugation. Their flow cytometric characteristics were determined on a FACScan flow cytometer with the fluorescent dyes, fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Freshly isolated sperm cells appeared as a dot cluster on the forward scatter and side scatter dot plot. This dot cluster contained 85 to 95% of the 10 thousand counts collected. More than 98% of cells from the cluster were fluorescein diacetate positive, with no propidium iodide positivity, indicating high cell viability. After 5 hours in 15% (w/v) sucrose at room temperature (23°C), scattering properties, cell number, and percentage of fluorescein diacetate-positive cells remained the same. In contrast, Brewbaker and Kwack salts in 15% sucrose resulted in the emergence of a new cell population, as well as a decrease in cell number at 5 hours. Further investigations with individual components of the Brewbaker and Kwack salts showed that calcium was mainly responsible for the deleterious effects. These results demonstrate the utility of flow cytometry as a tool to determine viability and to monitor morphological changes of plant sperm cells and to challenge current views on the ability of Brewbaker and Kwack salts to maintain viability of isolated sperm cells. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668883

  12. Apoptosis induced by HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, B; De Girolami, U; He, J; Wang, S; Lorenzo, A; Busciglio, J; Gabuzda, D

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a role in AIDS pathogenesis in the immune system, but its role in HIV-1-induced neurological disease is unknown. In this study, we examine apoptosis induced by HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in an in vitro model and in brain tissue from AIDS patients. HIV-1 infection of primary brain cultures induced apoptosis in neurons and astrocytes in vitro as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and propidium iodide staining and by electron microscopy. Apoptosis was not significantly induced until 1-2 wk after the time of peak virus production, suggesting induction by soluble factors rather than by direct viral infection. Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes was also detected in brain tissue from 10/11 AIDS patients, including 5/5 patients with HIV-1 dementia and 4/5 nondemented patients. In addition, endothelial cell apoptosis was frequently detected in the brain of AIDS patients and was confirmed by electron microscopy. Most of the apoptotic cells were not localized adjacent to HIV-1-infected cells, providing further evidence for induction by soluble factors. In six non-AIDS control patients with normal brain, apoptotic cells were absent or limited to rare astrocytes. However, TUNEL-positive neurons and astrocytes were frequently detected in seven patients with Alzheimer's disease or abundant senile plaques. These studies suggest that apoptosis is a mechanism of CNS injury in AIDS which is likely to be induced by soluble factors. The apoptosis of endothelial cells in the CNS raises the possibility that some of these factors may be blood-derived. PMID:8903316

  13. Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sanhu; Yang, Yanyong; Liu, Wen; Xuan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shouming; Yu, Shunfei; Mei, Ke; Huang, Yijuan; Zhang, Pei; Cai, Jianming; Ni, Jin; Zhao, Yaoxian

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be used as an effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of hydrogen on immune system in mice. H2 was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. Spleen index and histological analysis were used to evaluate the splenic structural damage. Spleen superoxide dismutase, GSH, MDA were measured to appraise the antioxidant capacity and a DCF assay for the measurement of radical oxygen species. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by an Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining method as well as the apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and c-caspase-3. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subtypes were detected by flow cytometry with FITC-labelled antimouse CD4 and PE antimouse CD8 staining. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the CD4+ T cell subtypes and related cytokines. Our study demonstrated that pre-treatment with H2 could increase the spleen index and attenuate the radiation damage on splenic structure. Radical oxygen species level was also reduced by H2 treatment. H2 also inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in splenocytes and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins in living mice. Radiation-induced imbalance of T cells was attenuated by H2. Finally, we found that H2 could regulate the polarization of CD4+ T cells and the level of related cytokines. This study suggests H2 as an effective radioprotective agent on immune system by scavenging reactive oxygen species. PMID:24618260

  14. Oridonin nanosuspension was more effective than free oridonin on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dianrui; Xu, Xia; Feng, Feifei; Ren, Guijie; Chu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Keli

    2012-01-01

    Oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescencs, has been reported to have antitumor effects. However, low solubility has limited its clinical applications. Preparation of drugs in the form of nanosuspensions is an extensively utilized protocol. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of oridonin and oridonin nanosuspension on human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth. Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to detect morphologic changes. The percentage of apoptosis and cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometric method staining with propidium iodide. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/PI staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The apoptotic and cell cycle protein expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Both oridonin and oridonin nanosuspension induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and the latter had a more significant cytotoxic effect. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression was decreased and caspase- 3 activity was stimulated. The expression of cyclin B1 and p-cdc2 (T161) was suppressed. Our results showed that oridonin nanosuspension was more effective than free oridonin on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell line. PMID:22619528

  15. Oridonin nanosuspension was more effective than free oridonin on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dianrui; Xu, Xia; Feng, Feifei; Ren, Guijie; Chu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Keli

    2012-01-01

    Oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescencs, has been reported to have antitumor effects. However, low solubility has limited its clinical applications. Preparation of drugs in the form of nanosuspensions is an extensively utilized protocol. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of oridonin and oridonin nanosuspension on human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth. Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to detect morphologic changes. The percentage of apoptosis and cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometric method staining with propidium iodide. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/PI staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The apoptotic and cell cycle protein expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Both oridonin and oridonin nanosuspension induced apoptosis and G(2)/M phase cell cycle arrest, and the latter had a more significant cytotoxic effect. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression was decreased and caspase- 3 activity was stimulated. The expression of cyclin B1 and p-cdc2 (T161) was suppressed. Our results showed that oridonin nanosuspension was more effective than free oridonin on G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell line. PMID:22619528

  16. The effects of oncolytic reovirus in canine lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C C; Umeki, S; Igase, M; Coffey, M; Noguchi, S; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T

    2014-10-15

    Reovirus is a potent oncolytic virus in many human neoplasms that has reached phase II and III clinical trials. Our laboratory has previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine mast cell tumour (MCT). In order to further explore the potential of reovirus in veterinary oncology, we tested the susceptibility of reovirus in 10 canine lymphoma cell lines. Reovirus-induced cell death, virus replication and infectivity were confirmed in four cell lines with variable levels of susceptibility. The level of Ras activation varied among the cell lines with no correlation with reovirus susceptibility. Reovirus-susceptible cell lines underwent apoptosis as proven by propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cleavage of PARP and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitor. A single intratumoral injection of reovirus suppressed the growth of canine lymphoma subcutaneous tumour in NOD/SCID mice. Unlike canine MCT, canine lymphoma is less susceptible to reovirus. PMID:25319493

  17. Time course and mechanism of hippocampal neuronal death in an in vitro model of status epilepticus: Role of NMDA receptor activation and NMDA dependent calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Lou, Jeffrey K.; Mian, Ali; Blair, Robert E.; Sombati, Sompong; Attkisson, Elisa; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus is especially vulnerable to seizure-induced damage and excitotoxic neuronal injury. This study examined the time course of neuronal death in relationship to seizure duration and the pharmacological mechanisms underlying seizure-induced cell death using low magnesium (Mg2+) induced continuous high frequency epileptiform discharges (in vitro status epilepticus) in hippocampal neuronal cultures. Neuronal death was assessed using cell morphology and Fluorescein diacetate-Propidium iodide staining. Effects of low Mg2+ and various receptor antagonists on spike frequency were assessed using patch clamp electrophysiology. We observed a linear and time-dependent increase in neuronal death with increasing durations of status epilepticus. This cell death was dependent upon extracellular calcium that entered primarily through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor channel subtype. Neuronal death was significantly decreased by co-incubation with the NMDA receptor antagonists and was also inhibited by reduction of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) during status epilepticus. In contrast, neuronal death from in vitro status epilepticus was not significantly prevented by inhibition of other glutamate receptor subtypes or voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly this NMDA-Ca2+ dependent neuronal death was much more gradual in onset compared to cell death from excitotoxic glutamate exposure. The results provide evidence that in vitro status epilepticus results in increased activation of the NMDA-Ca2+ transduction pathway leading to neuronal death in a time dependent fashion. The results also indicate that there is a significant window of opportunity during the initial time of continuous seizure activity to be able to intervene, protect neurons and decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated with status epilepticus. PMID:18289526

  18. A pan caspase inhibitor decreases caspase-1, IL-1? and IL-1?, and protects against necrosis of cisplatin-treated freshly isolated proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Faubel, Sarah; Edelstein, Charles L

    2015-02-01

    Caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-1? are known to be activated in the NLRP3 inflammasome. The inflammasome is activated mostly in inflammatory cells. The presence of inflammasome proteins in proximal tubules (PTs) and the effect of cisplatin-treatment or caspase inhibition on inflammasome proteins in PTs are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cisplatin on inflammasome proteins in freshly isolated PTs and also to determine the effect of caspase inhibition on inflammasome proteins and PT injury. PTs were isolated using collagenase digestion and Percoll centrifugation. After recovery period, freshly isolated PTs were incubated with vehicle, 50?µM cisplatin or 50?µM cisplatin plus 50?µM pan caspase inhibitor, QVD-OPH. PTs treated with 50?µM cisplatin showed Propidium Iodide staining indicative of necrosis. Necrotic cells (%) were 2.2 in Vehicle-treated, 37.7 in Cisplatin-treated (p?cell membrane damage seen in necrosis was 7.1 in Vehicle-treated, 39.7 in Cisplatin-treated (p?

  19. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J A; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Pinkney, A E; Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S

    2015-03-15

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin-fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa. PMID:25559842

  20. Flow cytometric method for measuring chromatin fragmentation in fixed sperm from yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2015-01-01

    Declining harvests of yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in urbanized watersheds of Chesapeake Bay have prompted investigations of their reproductive fitness. The purpose of this study was to establish a flow cytometric technique for DNA analysis of fixed samples sent from the field to provide reliable gamete quality measurements. Similar to the sperm chromatin structure assay, measures were made on the susceptibility of nuclear DNA to acid-induced denaturation, but used fixed rather than live or thawed cells. Nuclei were best exposed to the acid treatment for 1 minute at 37 °C followed by the addition of cold (4 °C) propidium iodide staining solution before flow cytometry. The rationale for protocol development is presented graphically through cytograms. Field results collected in 2008 and 2009 revealed DNA fragmentation up to 14.5%. In 2008, DNA fragmentation from the more urbanized watersheds was significantly greater than from reference sites (P = 0.026) and in 2009, higher percentages of haploid testicular cells were noted from the less urbanized watersheds (P = 0.032) indicating better reproductive condition at sites with less urbanization. For both years, total and progressive live sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis ranged from 19.1% to 76.5%, being significantly higher at the less urbanized sites (P < 0.05). This flow cytometric method takes advantage of the propensity of fragmented DNA to be denatured under standard conditions, or 1 minute at 37 °C with 10% buffered formalin–fixed cells. The study of fixed sperm makes possible the restrospective investigation of germplasm fragmentation, spermatogenic ploidy patterns, and chromatin compaction levels from samples translocated over distance and time. The protocol provides an approach that can be modified for other species across taxa.

  1. The antimicrobial mechanism of action of epsilon-poly-l-lysine.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Vad, Brian S; Stenvang, Marcel; Otzen, Daniel E; Meyer, Rikke L

    2014-12-01

    Epsilon-poly-l-lysine (?-PL) is a natural antimicrobial cationic peptide which is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative. Although its antimicrobial activity is well documented, its mechanism of action is only vaguely described. The aim of this study was to clarify ?-PL's mechanism of action using Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua as model organisms. We examined ?-PL's effect on cell morphology and membrane integrity and used an array of E. coli deletion mutants to study how specific outer membrane components affected the action of ?-PL. We furthermore studied its interaction with lipid bilayers using membrane models. In vitro cell studies indicated that divalent cations and the heptose I and II phosphate groups in the lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli are critical for ?-PL's binding efficiency. ?-PL removed the lipopolysaccharide layer and affected cell morphology of E. coli, while L. innocua underwent minor morphological changes. Propidium iodide staining showed that ?-PL permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane in both species, indicating the membrane as the site of attack. We compared the interaction with neutral or negatively charged membrane systems and showed that the interaction with ?-PL relied on negative charges on the membrane. Suspended membrane vesicles were disrupted by ?-PL, and a detergent-like disruption of E. coli membrane was confirmed by atomic force microscopy imaging of supported lipid bilayers. We hypothesize that ?-PL destabilizes membranes in a carpet-like mechanism by interacting with negatively charged phospholipid head groups, which displace divalent cations and enforce a negative curvature folding on membranes that leads to formation of vesicles/micelles. PMID:25304506

  2. The Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Epsilon-Poly-l-Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Vad, Brian S.; Stenvang, Marcel; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon-poly-l-lysine (?-PL) is a natural antimicrobial cationic peptide which is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative. Although its antimicrobial activity is well documented, its mechanism of action is only vaguely described. The aim of this study was to clarify ?-PL's mechanism of action using Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua as model organisms. We examined ?-PL's effect on cell morphology and membrane integrity and used an array of E. coli deletion mutants to study how specific outer membrane components affected the action of ?-PL. We furthermore studied its interaction with lipid bilayers using membrane models. In vitro cell studies indicated that divalent cations and the heptose I and II phosphate groups in the lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli are critical for ?-PL's binding efficiency. ?-PL removed the lipopolysaccharide layer and affected cell morphology of E. coli, while L. innocua underwent minor morphological changes. Propidium iodide staining showed that ?-PL permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane in both species, indicating the membrane as the site of attack. We compared the interaction with neutral or negatively charged membrane systems and showed that the interaction with ?-PL relied on negative charges on the membrane. Suspended membrane vesicles were disrupted by ?-PL, and a detergent-like disruption of E. coli membrane was confirmed by atomic force microscopy imaging of supported lipid bilayers. We hypothesize that ?-PL destabilizes membranes in a carpet-like mechanism by interacting with negatively charged phospholipid head groups, which displace divalent cations and enforce a negative curvature folding on membranes that leads to formation of vesicles/micelles. PMID:25304506

  3. Effect of lipophilicity of Mn (III) ortho N-alkylpyridyl- and diortho N, N'-diethylimidazolylporphyrins in two in-vitro models of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Wise-Faberowski, Lisa; Warner, David S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2009-04-01

    In vivo investigations have confirmed the beneficial effects of hydrophilic, cationic Mn(III) porphyrin-based catalytic antioxidants in different models of oxidative stress. Using a cell culture model of rat mixed neuronal/glial cells, this study investigated the effect of MnTnOct-2-PyP5+ on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death as compared to the effects of widely studied hydrophilic analogues MnTE-2-PyP5+ and MnTDE-2-ImP5+ and a standard compound, dizocilpine (MK-801). It was hypothesized that the octylpyridylporphyrin, MnTnOct-2-PyP5+, a lipophilic but equally potent antioxidant as the other two porphyrins, would be more efficacious in reducing OGD-induced cell death due to its higher bioavailability. Cell death was evaluated at 24 h using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and propidium iodide staining. At concentrations from 3-100 microM, all three porphyrins reduced cell death as compared to cultures exposed to OGD alone, the effects depending upon the concentrations and type of treatment. To assess the effect of lipophilicity the additional experiments were performed using submicromolar concentrations of MnTnOct-2-PyP5+ in an organotypic hippocampal slice model of OGD with propidium iodide and Sytox staining. When compared to oxygen and glucose deprivation alone, concentrations of MnTnOct-2-PyP5+ as low as 0.01 microM significantly (p<0.001; power 1.0) reduced neuronal cells similar to control. This is the first in vitro study on the mammalian cells which indicates that MnTnOct-2-PyP5+ is up to 3000-fold more efficacious than equally potent hydrophilic analogues, due entirely to its increased bioavailability. Such remarkable increase in efficacy parallels 5.7-orders of magnitude increase in lipophilicity of MnTnOct-2-PyP5+ (log P=-0.77) when compared to MnTE-2-PyP5+ (log POW=-6.43), POW being partition coefficient between n-octanol and water. PMID:19259881

  4. Flow cytometric quantification of radiation responses of murine peritoneal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tokita, N.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods have been developed to distinguish subpopulations of murine peritoneal cells, and these were applied to the measurement of early changes in peritoneal cells after irradiation. The ratio of the two major subpopulations in the peritoneal fluid, lymphocytes and macrophages, was measured rapidly by means of cell volume distribution analysis as well as by hypotonic propidium iodide (PI) staining. After irradiation, dose and time dependent changes were noted in the cell volume distributions: a rapid loss of peritoneal lymphocytes, and an increase in the mean cell volume of macrophages. The hypotonic PI staining characteristics of the peritoneal cells showed two or three distinctive G/sub 1/ peaks. The ratio of the areas of these peaks was also found to be dependent of the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. These results demonstrate that these two parameters may be used to monitor changes induced by irradiation (biological dosimetry), and to sort different peritoneal subpopulations.

  5. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Rioboo, Carmen; O'Connor, José Enrique; Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Angeles

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and reproduction at microalgal cell level. PMID:19679360

  6. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  7. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    PubMed

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  8. Induction of Eosinophil Apoptosis by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor AT7519 Promotes the Resolution of Eosinophil-Dominant Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Leitch, Andrew E.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Sheldrake, Tara A.; Dorward, David A.; Hirani, Nik; Pinho, Vanessa; de Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Lyons, John F.; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk). Conclusions Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase-dependent eosinophil apoptosis and enhancing macrophage ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. These findings demonstrate the utility of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as AT7519 as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of eosinophil dominant allergic disorders. PMID:21984938

  9. Protection of ginsenoside Rg1 on chondrocyte from IL-1?-induced mitochondria-activated apoptosis through PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumin; Wu, Dongying; Fan, Weimin

    2014-07-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis is closely related to the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects cells by antagonizing apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rg1 on interleukin 1? (IL-1?)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Chondrocytes were harvested from the joints of 1-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. After treated with 10 ?g/mL Rg1 for 2 h, the chondrocytes were cultured with 10 ng/mL IL-1? to induce cytotoxicity. Cell viability was assessed with MTT assays. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling were used to detect chondrocyte apoptosis. The contents of total Akt, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome C (Cyt c) were determined by Western blotting assay. A quantitative colorimetric assay was used to determine caspase-3 activity. Our present findings have shown that pre-treatment of chondrocytes with Rg1 reduces IL-1? induced cytotoxicity/apoptosis. Rg1 pretreatment also decreases the activity of IL-1? that reduces expression of Bcl-2 and level of p-Akt, and increases Bax activity, Cyt c release, and caspase-3 activation. It also reverses the activity of IL-1? that reduces the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression and increased the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase-13, with the net effect of inhibiting extracellular matrix degradation. These results indicate that Rg1 may protect chondrocytes from IL-1?-induced apoptosis via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway, through preventing caspase-3 release. PMID:24671491

  10. Overcoming multidrug resistance in 2D and 3D culture models by controlled drug chitosan-graft poly(caprolactone)-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Le, Van-Minh; Gu, Chun-Hua; Zheng, Yuan-Hong; Lang, Mei-Dong; Lu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Jian-Wen

    2014-04-01

    The principal limitations of chemotherapy are dose-limiting systemic toxicity and the development of multidrug-resistant phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a new sustained drug delivery system based on chitosan and ?-caprolactone to overcome multidrug resistance in monolayer and drug resistance associated with the three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment in our established 3D models. The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering, and its released property was determined at different pH values. 5-FU/NPs exhibited well-sustained release properties and markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of 5-FU against HCT116/L-OHP or HCT8/VCR MDR cells in two-dimensional (2D) and its parental cells in 3D collagen gel culture with twofold to threefold decrease in the IC50 values, as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, the possible mechanism was explored by high-performance liquid chromatography and rhodamine 123 accumulation experiment. Overall, the results demonstrated that 5-FU/NPs increase intracellular concentration of 5-FU and enhance its anticancer efficiency by inducing apoptosis. It was suggested that this novel NPs are a promising carrier to decrease toxic of 5-FU and has the potential to reverse the forms of both intrinsic and acquired drug resistance in 2D and 3D cultures. PMID:24523221

  11. Nutrient reserves may allow for genome size increase: evidence from comparison of geophytes and their sister non-geophytic relatives

    PubMed Central

    Veselý, Pavel; Bureš, Petr; Šmarda, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genome size of an organism is determined by its capacity to tolerate genome expansion, given the species' life strategy and the limits of a particular environment, and the ability for retrotransposon suppression and/or removal. In some giant-genomed bulb geophytes, this tolerance is explained by their ability to pre-divide cells in the dormant stages or by the selective advantage of larger cells in the rapid growth of their fleshy body. In this study, a test shows that the tendency for genome size expansion is a more universal feature of geophytes, and is a subject in need of more general consideration. Methods Differences in monoploid genome sizes were compared using standardized phylogenetically independent contrasts in 47 sister pairs of geophytic and non-geophytic taxa sampled across all the angiosperms. The genome sizes of 96 species were adopted from the literature and 53 species were newly measured using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Key Results The geophytes showed increased genome sizes compared with their non-geophytic relatives, regardless of the storage organ type and regardless of whether or not vernal geophytes, polyploids or annuals were included in the analyses. Conclusions The universal tendency of geophytes to possess a higher genome size suggests the presence of a universal mechanism allowing for genome expansion. It is assumed that this is primarily due to the nutrient and energetic independence of geophytes perhaps allowing continuous synthesis of DNA, which is known to proceed in the extreme cases of vernal geophytes even in dormant stages. This independence may also be assumed as a reason for allowing large genomes in some parasitic plants, as well as the nutrient limitation of small genomes of carnivorous plants. PMID:23960044

  12. Micromanipulation and physiological monitoring of cells using two-photon excited fluorescence in cw laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonek, Gregory J.; Liu, Yagang; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1996-05-01

    We report the observation of two-photon fluorescence excitation and cell confinement, simultaneously, in a continuous-wave (cw) single-beam gradient force optical trap, and demonstrate its use as an in-situ probe to study the physiological state of an optically confined cell sample. At the wavelength of 1064 nm, a single focused gaussian laser beam is used to simultaneously confine, and excite visible fluorescence from, a human sperm cell that has been tagged with propidium iodide, a exogenous fluorescent dye that functions as a viability assay of cellular physiological state. The intensity at the dye peak emission wavelength of 620 nm exhibits a near-square-law dependence on incident trapping beam photon laser power, a behavior consistent with a two-photon absorption process. In addition, for a sperm cell held stationary in the optical tweezers for a period of several minutes at a constant trapping power, red fluorescence emission was observed to increase the time, indicating that the cell has gradually transitioned between a live and dead state. Two-photon excited fluorescence was also observed in chinese hamster ovary cells that were confined by cw laser tweezers and stained with either propidium iodide or Snarf, a pH-sensitive dye probe. These results suggest that, for samples suitably tagged with fluorescent probes and vital stains, optical tweezers can be used to generate their own in-situ diagnostic optical probes of cellular viability or induced photodamage, via two-photon processes.

  13. The Cellular Basis for Biocide-Induced Fluorescein Hyperfluorescence in Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bakkar, May M.; Hardaker, Luke; March, Peter; Morgan, Philip B.; Maldonado-Codina, Carole; Dobson, Curtis B.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical examination of the ocular surface is commonly carried out after application of sodium fluorescein in both veterinary and medical practice by assessing the resulting ‘staining’. Although localized intensely stained regions of the cornea frequently occur after exposure to ‘adverse’ clinical stimuli, the cell biology underlying this staining is unknown, including whether intense fluorescein staining indicates the presence of damaged cells. Ocular exposure to certain contact lens multipurpose solutions (MPS) gives rise to intense fluorescein staining referred to as solution induced corneal staining (SICS), and we have made use of this phenomenon with Vero and L929 cell culture models to investigate the fundamental biology of fluorescein interactions with cells. We found that all cells take up fluorescein, however a sub-population internalize much higher levels, giving rise to brightly staining ‘hyperfluorescent’ cells within the treated cultures, which contain fluorescein throughout the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. The numbers of these hyperfluorescent cells are significantly increased after exposure to MPS associated with SICS. Surprisingly, hyperfluorescent cells did not show higher levels of staining with propidium iodide, a marker of lysed cells. Consistently, treatment with the cytolytic toxin benzalkonium chloride resulted in almost all cells staining with propidium iodide, and the complete abolition of fluorescein hyperfluorescence. Finally we found that internalization of fluorescein and its loss from treated cells both require cellular activity, as both processes were halted after incubation at 4°C. We conclude that fluorescein hyperfluorescence can be replicated in three diverse cell cultures, and is increased by MPS-treatment, as occurs clinically. The process involves the concentration of fluorescein by a sub-population of cells that are active, and does not occur in lysed cells. Our data suggest that corneal staining in the clinic reflects active living cells, and is not directly caused by dead cells being produced in response to adverse clinical stimuli. PMID:24489650

  14. Duhuo Jisheng decoction treatment inhibits the sodium nitroprussiate?induced apoptosis of chondrocytes through the mitochondrial?dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fayuan; Liu, Guozhong; Liang, Wenna; Ye, Hongzhi; Weng, Xiaping; Lin, Pingdong; Li, Huiting; Chen, Jiashou; Liu, Xianxiang; Li, Xihai

    2014-12-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis activated by the mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritis. Duhuo Jisheng decoction (DHJSD), a herbal formula from traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for treating osteoarthritis (OA). However, the molecular mechanisms behind the therapeutic effect of DHJSD remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of DHJSD on the mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway in sodium nitroprussiate (SNP)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis were investigated. Chondrocytes, from the knee articular cartilage of Sprague Dawley rats, were identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. The chondrocytes, stimulated with or without SNP to induce apoptosis, were treated by DHJSD for various concentrations and times. The viability of SNP-induced chondrocytes treated with DHJSD was enhanced compared to SNP-induced chondrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as assessed by the MTT assay. The apoptosis of SNP-induced chondrocytes treated by DHJSD was significantly decreased compared to SNP-induced chondrocyte, as shown by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) of SNP-induced chondrocytes treated by DHJSD was significantly decreased compared to SNP-induced chondrocyte, as shown by JC-1 staining. To understand the mechanism, the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), caspase-9 and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. In SNP-induced chondrocyte treated by DHJSD, the Bcl-2 expression was increased, whereas the expression of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was decreased compared to SNP-induced chondrocyte. Taken together, these results indicated that DHJSD inhibits the apoptosis of SNP-induced chondrocyte by the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway, and this may partly explain its therapeutic efficacy for OA. PMID:25339266

  15. Antifungal Activity of the Noncytotoxic Human Peptide Hepcidin 20 against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida glabrata in Human Vaginal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Del Gaudio, Gaetano; Lombardi, Lisa; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Senesi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by Candida glabrata are difficult to eradicate due to this species' scarce susceptibility to azoles. Previous studies have shown that the human cationic peptide hepcidin 20 (Hep-20) exerts fungicidal activity in sodium phosphate buffer against a panel of C. glabrata clinical isolates with different levels of susceptibility to fluconazole. In addition, the activity of the peptide was potentiated under acidic conditions, suggesting an application in the topical treatment of vaginal infections. To investigate whether the peptide activity could be maintained in biological fluids, in this study the antifungal activity of Hep-20 was evaluated by a killing assay in (i) a vaginal fluid simulant (VFS) and in (ii) human vaginal fluid (HVF) collected from three healthy donors. The results obtained indicated that the activity of the peptide was maintained in VFS and HVF supplemented with EDTA. Interestingly, the fungicidal activity of Hep-20 was enhanced in HVF compared to that observed in VFS, with a minimal fungicidal concentration of 25 ?M for all donors. No cytotoxic effect on human cells was exerted by Hep-20 at concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 100 ?M, as shown by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide tetrazolium salt (XTT) reduction assay and propidium iodide staining. A piece of indirect evidence of Hep-20 stability was also obtained from coincubation experiments of the peptide with HVF at 37°C for 90 min and for 24 h. Collectively, these results indicate that this peptide should be further studied as a novel therapeutic agent for the topical treatment of vaginal C. glabrata infections. PMID:23796919

  16. Cytotoxic Action of Serratia marcescens Hemolysin on Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Hilger, Martina; Weingardt-Kocher, Sandra; Walev, Iwan

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of human epithelial cells with nanomolar concentrations of chromatographically purified Serratia marcescens hemolysin (ShlA) caused irreversible vacuolation and subsequent lysis of the cells. Vacuolation differed from vacuole formation by Helicobacter pylori VacA. Sublytic doses of ShlA led to a reversible depletion of intracellular ATP. Restoration to the initial ATP level was presumably due to the repair of the toxin damage and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Pores formed in epithelial cells and fibroblasts without disruption of the plasma membrane, and the pores appeared to be considerably smaller than those observed in artificial lipid membranes and in erythrocytes and did not allow the influx of propidium iodide or trypan blue. All cytotoxic effects induced by isolated recombinant ShlA were also obtained with exponentially growing S. marcescens cells. The previously suggested role of the hemolysin in the pathogenicity of S. marcescens is supported by these data. PMID:9916096

  17. Loss of host cell plasma membrane integrity following cell traversal by Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin.

    PubMed

    Formaglio, Pauline; Tavares, Joana; Ménard, Robert; Amino, Rogerio

    2014-02-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are able to migrate through host cells by breaching their plasma membrane and gliding inside their cytoplasm. This migratory activity, called cell traversal (CT), was studied in vivo mainly using mutant sporozoites lacking the ability to wound host cells, and thus to perform CT. However, direct evidence of CT activity in host tissues by wild-type sporozoites remains scarce. Here, we describe a double-wounding assay to dynamically image CT activity in vivo and monitor cell membrane integrity over time. Based on the incorporation kinetics of a first live cell-impermeant dye, propidium iodide, we could determine whether traversed cells repair their wounded membranes or not. A second impermeant dye, SYTOX Green, was used to confirm the transient or the permanent loss of membrane integrity of traversed cells. This assay allowed, for the first time, the direct observation of sporozoites wounding and traversing host skin cells and showed that, while some traversed cells resealed their membrane, most became irreversibly permeable to these live cell-impermeant dyes. In combination with the study of CT-deficient sporozoites and the use of specific host cell markers, this intravital assay will provide the means to identify the nature of the cells traversed by sporozoites and will thus contribute to elucidating the role of CT by apicomplexan parasites in the vertebrate host. PMID:23892177

  18. Prediction of clinical toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients by radio-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Normal tissue toxicity due to x-ray exposure is a limiting factor for treatment success. Many efforts have been employed to develop predictive tests applied to clinical practice. Determination of lymphocyte radio-sensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method to predict tissue toxicity due to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients and to explore their role in predicting radiation induced toxicity. Seventy nine consecutive patients suffering from head and neck cancer, diagnosed and treated in our institution, were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and fitted to a semi logarithmic model defined by two constants: ? and ?. ?, as the origin of the curve in the Y axis determining the percentage of spontaneous cell death, and ?, as the slope of the curve determining the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose, were obtained. ? value was statistically associated to normal tissue toxicity in terms of severe xerostomia, as higher levels of apoptosis were observed in patients with low toxicity (p = 0.035; Exp(B) 0.224, I.C.95% (0.060-0.904)). These data agree with our previous results and suggest that it is possible to estimate the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients determining the radiation induced apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide staining. ? values observed define an individual radiosensitivity profile that could predict late toxicity due to radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. Anyhow, prospective studies with different cancer types and higher number of patients are needed to validate these results. PMID:20109191

  19. Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Valley, Justin K; Neale, Steven; Hsu, Hsan-Yin; Ohta, Aaron T; Jamshidi, Arash; Wu, Ming C

    2009-06-21

    Electroporation is a common technique for the introduction of exogenous molecules across the, otherwise, impermeant cell membrane. Conventional techniques are limited by either low throughput or limited selectivity. Here we present a novel technique whereby we use patterned light to create virtual electrodes which can induce the parallel electroporation of single cells. This technique seamlessly integrates with optoelectronic tweezers to provide a single cell manipulation platform as well. We present evidence of parallel, single cell electroporation using this method through use of fluorescent dyes and dielectrophoretic responses. Additionally, through the use of integrated microfluidic channels, we show that cells remain viable following treatment in the device. Finally, we determine the optimal field dosage to inject propidium iodide into a HeLa cell and maintain cellular viability. PMID:19495455

  20. Local electroporation of a single cell using a scanning ion conductance microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Futoshi; Yamazaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Kimihiro; Ushiki, Tatuo

    2014-03-01

    We developed a novel electroporation technique for molecular delivery into a single cell. A nanopipette, a thermally pulled glass capillary, is prepared as to act as a pair of tiny electrodes for single-cell electroporation. An Ag/AgCl wire is inserted into the nanopipette, and the outside edge of the nanopipette is coated by Ag sputtering. Electric pulses are applied between the outside and inside electrodes to form a local electric field at the edge of the nanopipette. To position the pipette edge in the vicinity of the cell membrane, we control the probe-surface distance using a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM). The SICM technique achieves non-contact approach of the nanopipette edge on the cell membrane, which allows low-invasive electroporation of a single cell. As a demonstration of this technique, a fluorescent molecule of propidium iodide was successfully delivered into a single HeLa cell.

  1. Electrical field manipulation of cancer cell behavior monitored by whole cell biosensing device.

    PubMed

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Melnick, Steven J; Zhang, Xueji; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    All living cells possess electrical characteristics and are thus responsive to, and even generate electric fields and currents. It has been shown that the electrical properties of cancer cells differ from normal proliferating cells, thus electric fields may induce differential effects in normal and cancer cells. Manipulation of these electrical properties may provide a powerful direct and/or adjuvant therapeutic option for cancer. A whole cell impedance-based biosensor to monitor the effects of a range of different frequencies (50 kHz-2 MHz) at low-intensity (<2 V/cm) on the growth rate of human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells versus non-cancerous HUVECs is reported. Rapid real-time monitoring of the SKOV3 behavior was observed as the alternating electric fields were applied and the impedimetric response of the cells was recorded. The cells were also labeled with propidium iodide to examine morphological changes and cell viability with fluorescence microscopy with trypan blue for comparison. A noticeable decrease in the growth profile of the SKOV3 was observed with the application of 200 kHz alternating electric fields indicating specific inhibitory effects on dividing cells in culture in contrast to the HUVECs. The outcome of this research will improve our fundamental understanding of the behavior of cancer cells when exposed to alternating electric fields at specific frequencies and foster the development strategies and optimal parameters for alternating electric field therapies for clinical and drug delivery applications. PMID:23793477

  2. Iodinated contrast media cause direct tubular cell damage, leading to oxidative stress, low nitric oxide, and impairment of tubuloglomerular feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi Zhao; Schmerbach, Kristin; Lu, Yuan; Perlewitz, Andrea; Nikitina, Tatiana; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Persson, Pontus B.; Liu, Ruisheng; Sendeski, Mauricio M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) have adverse effects that may result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in CM-induced kidney injury. We test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide in tubules are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage and that increased local oxidative stress may increase tubuloglomerular feedback. Rat thick ascending limbs (TAL) were isolated and perfused. Superoxide and nitric oxide were quantified using fluorescence techniques. Cell death rate was estimated using propidium iodide and trypan blue. The function of macula densa and tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness were measured in isolated, perfused juxtaglomerular apparatuses (JGA) of rabbits. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated in the renal medulla of rats that received CM. CM increased superoxide concentration and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in TAL. Propidium iodide fluorescence and trypan blue uptake increased more in CM-perfused TAL than in controls, indicating increased rate of cell death. There were no marked acute changes in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress in medullary segments of Henle's loop. SOD activity did not differ between CM and control groups. The tubuloglomerular feedback in isolated JGA was increased by CM. Tubular cell damage and accompanying oxidative stress in our model are consequences of CM-induced direct cell damage, which also modifies the tubulovascular interaction at the macula densa, and may therefore contribute to disturbances of renal perfusion and filtration. PMID:24431205

  3. Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of motile sperm cells and CHO cells in an optical trap (laser tweezers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Liu, Yagang; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Patrizio, Pasquale; Tadir, Yona; Sonek, Gregory J.; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    We describe fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging studies of optically trapped single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and motile human sperm cells. The NIR trapping beam was provided by a tunable, multimode continuous wave Ti:Sapphire laser. The beam was introduced into an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Fluorescence of cells in the single- beam gradient force optical trap was excited with a 488 nm microbeam (laser scanning microscopy) or with 365 nm radiation from a high- pressure mercury lamp. Modifications to NADH-attributed autofluorescence and Rhodamine- and Propidium Iodide-attributed xenofluorescence indicate a significant cell-damaging effect of 760 nm trapping beams. 760 nm effects produce a biological response comparable to UVA-induced oxidative stress and appear to be a consequence to two-photon absorption.

  4. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of weisiensin B isolated from Rabdosia weisiensis C.Y. Wu in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lan; Zhang, Shi-Dong; Yang, Dong-Juan; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Qi-Yin; Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Weisiensin B, a new ent-kaurane diterpenoid, was isolated from traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia weisiensis C.Y. Wu. In this study, cytotoxicity of weisiensin B was tested on four different tumor cell lines and the effect of growth inhibition and apoptosis in BEL-7402 cell line were investigated in vitro. The results indicated that weisiensin B had significant antiproliferation activity on the four cell lines. Further study on BEL-7402 cells involving Hoechst 33258 stain and DNA fragmentation assay revealed the characteristic apoptotic features of nuclear and DNA ladder formation. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis with propidium iodide (PI) staining demonstrated that BEL-7402 cells treated with weisiensin B were arrested in G(2)/M phase. The results demonstrated that a significant fraction of weisiensin B-treated cells died by an apoptotic pathway in BEL-7402 cells. PMID:19031246

  5. Conducting and permeable states of cell membrane submitted to high voltage pulses: mathematical and numerical studies validated by the experiments.

    PubMed

    Leguèbe, M; Silve, A; Mir, L M; Poignard, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new model of in vitro cell electropermeabilization, which describes separately the conducting state and the permeable state of the membrane submitted to high voltage pulses. We first derive the model based on the experimental observations and we present the numerical methods to solve the non-linear partial differential equations. We then present numerical simulations that corroborate qualitatively the experimental data dealing with the uptake of propidium iodide (PI) after millipulses. This tends to justify the validity of our modeling. Forthcoming work will be to calibrate the parameters of the model for quantitative description of the uptake. PMID:25010659

  6. Freezing behavior of adherent neuron-like cells and morphological change and viability of post-thaw cells.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of nerve cells forming a neuronal network has largely been neglected, despite the fact that the cryopreservation of nerve cells benefits the study of cells in the areas of medicine and poison screening. Freezing of nerve cells is also attractive for studying cell morphology because of the characteristic long, thread-like neurites extending from the cell body. In the present study, freezing of neuron-like cells adhering to the substrate (differentiated PC12 cells), in physiological saline, was investigated in order to understand the fundamental freezing and thawing characteristics of nerve cells with neurites. The microscopic freezing behavior of cells under different cooling rates was observed. Next, the post-thaw morphological changes in the cells, including the cytoskeleton, were investigated and post-thaw cell viability was evaluated by dye exclusion using propidium iodide. Two categories of morphological changes, beading and shortening of the neurites, were found and quantified. Also, the morphological changes of neurites due to osmotic stress from sodium chloride were studied to gain a better understanding of causation. The results showed that morphological changes and cell death were promoted with a decrease in end temperature during freezing. PMID:25645578

  7. Bilirubin- and light induced cell death in a murine lymphoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Christensen, T; Roll, E B; Jaworska, A; Kinn, G

    2000-11-01

    Cells from the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y-R were exposed to blue light from phototherapy lamps in the presence of solutions of 160 microM bilirubin supplemented with serum albumin. HPLC analysis showed that the bilirubin solution was photooxidised as a function of increasing light dose. The cells were stained with trypan blue to score necrosis, and apoptosis was assayed by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase assay (TdT) or by studying the nuclear structure in cells stained with propidium iodide. A rapidly developing apoptosis was observed after light doses killing 60-80% of the cells as judged from the trypan blue exclusion test. The fraction of apoptotic cells was smaller than the fraction of necrotic cells. Exposure of the cells to fractions of light at a high dose rate was compared to the effect of the same total dose at a lower dose rate given as a single fraction. No large differences were found, however, there was a tendency of a higher degree of necrosis as well as apoptosis in the cells receiving the light in fractions at a high dose rate. PMID:11233646

  8. PACAP protects against TNF?-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Shami; Gandham, Mahendra; Lucero, Mary T

    2010-01-01

    In mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) protects against axotomy-induced apoptosis. We used mouse OE to determine whether PACAP protects neurons during exposure to the inflammatory cytokine TNF?. Live slices of neonatal mouse OE were treated with 40 ng/ml TNF? ± 40 nM PACAP for 6 hours and dying cells were live-labeled with 0.5% propidium iodide. TNF? significantly increased the percentage of dying cells while co-incubation with PACAP prevented cell death. PACAP also prevented TNF?-mediated cell death in the olfactory placodal (OP) cell lines, OP6 and OP27. Although OP cell lines express all three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1,VPAC2), PACAP’s protection of these cells from TNF? was mimicked by the specific PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan and abolished by the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6–38. Treatment of OP cell lines with blockers or activators of the PLC and AC/MAPKK pathways revealed that PACAP-mediated protection from TNF? involved both pathways. PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. PMID:20654718

  9. The antiproliferative effect of C2-ceramide on lung cancer cells through apoptosis by inhibiting Akt and NF?B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The anticancer effects of ceramide have been reported in many types of cancers but less in lung cancer. In this study, we used C2-ceramide to further investigate its possible anticancer effects and mechanisms on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H1299 cells. The result of cell proliferation in terms of trypan blue assay showed high dose of C2-ceramide inhibited cell survival after 24 h treatment. The flow cytometry-based assays indicated the effect of apoptosis, chromatin condensation, and G1 arrest in terms of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), DAPI, and PI stainings, respectively. Moreover, the decreased protein level of p-Akt, p-NF?B, survivin and cyclin A2 were detected by Western blot assay. Taken together, these results indicated the antiproliferative effect of C2-ceramide is majorly responsible for cell apoptosis in lung cancer H1299 cells. PMID:24393431

  10. Localized micro-scale disruption of cells using laser-generated focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Frampton, John; Ok, Jong G; Takayama, Shuichi; Guo, L Jay

    2013-12-01

    We utilize laser-generated focused ultrasound (LGFU) to create targeted mechanical disturbance on a few cells. The LGFU is transmitted through an optoacoustic lens that converts laser pulses into focused ultrasound. The tight focusing (<100 µm) and high peak pressure of the LGFU produces cavitational disturbances at a localized spot with micro-jetting and secondary shock-waves arising from micro-bubble collapse. We demonstrate that LGFU can be used as a non-contact, non-ionizing, high-precision tool to selectively detach a single cell from its culture substrate. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of biomolecule delivery in a small population of cells targeted by LGFU at pressure amplitudes below and above the cavitation threshold. We experimentally confirm that cavitational disruption is required for delivery of propidium iodide, a membrane-impermeable nucleic acid-binding dye, into cells. PMID:23420806

  11. Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2014-01-01

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice. PMID:25142835

  12. Delivery of molecules into cells using localized single cell electroporation on ITO micro-electrode based transparent chip.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chiech; Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ju; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2012-10-01

    Single cell electroporation is one of the nonviral method which successfully allows transfection of exogenous macromolecules into individual living cell. We present localized cell membrane electroporation at single-cell level by using indium tin oxide (ITO) based transparent micro-electrodes chip with inverted microscope. A focused ion beam (FIB) technique has been successfully deployed to fabricate transparent ITO micro-electrodes with submicron gaps, which can generate more intense electric field to produce very localized cell membrane electroporation. In our approach, we have successfully achieved 0.93 ?m or smaller electroporation region on the cell surface to inject PI (Propidium Iodide) dye into the cell with 60 % cell viability. This experiments successfully demonstrate the cell self-recover process from the injected PI dye intensity variation. Our localized cell membrane electroporation technique (LSCMEP) not only generates reversible electroporation process but also it provides a clear optical path for potentially monitoring/tracking of drugs to deliver in single cell level. PMID:22674171

  13. A biocompatible microchip and methodology for efficiently trapping and positioning living cells into array based on negative dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2015-06-01

    We present a microchip and trapping methodology based on negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP), whereby living cells were manipulated and positioned into an array with high trapping efficiency while maintaining good viability. The main factors that ensured good viability of cells were investigated including temperature of medium, extra transmembrane potential on cells, and electrolysis effect in DEP-based trapping. Optimum DEP conditions for the microchip were determined by considering both biocompatibility and trapping efficiency. Experiments demonstrated that under a voltage of 3.6-4 Vpp and at a frequency of 100 kHz, HeLa cells could be trapped and positioned into an array in less than 10 s while maintaining good viability. The normal adherence morphology and fluorescence of the cells, dyed with propidium iodide and Calcein-AM, were observed and verified the biocompatibility of the microchip and trapping methodology.

  14. Magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry sorting methods for the isolation and function analysis of mouse CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hang; Ding, Chen-guang; Tian, Pu-xun; Ge, Guan-qun; Jin, Zhan-kui; Jia, Li-ning; Ding, Xiao-ming; Pan, Xiao-ming; Xue, Wu-jun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this paper we compared the two methods of cell sorting (magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry sorting) for the isolation and function analysis of mouse CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in order to inform further studies in Treg cell function. Methods: We separately used magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry sorting to identify CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells. After magnetic cell separation, we further used flow cytometry to analyze the purity of CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, trypan blue staining to detect cell viability, and propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess the cell viability. We detected the immune inhibition of CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells in the in vitro proliferation experiments. Results: The results showed that compared to flow cytometry sorting, magnetic cell sorting took more time and effort, but fewer live cells were obtained than with flow cytometry sorting. The CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, however, obtained with both methods have similar immunosuppressive capacities. Conclusion: The result suggests that both methods can be used in isolating CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells, and one can select the best method according to specific needs and availability of the methodologies. PMID:19946957

  15. A mutation in the cdh23 gene causes age-related hearing loss in Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siwei; Li, Shengli; Zhu, Hongliang; Cheng, Shaoli; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23) is an important constituent of the hair cell tip link in the organ of Corti. Mutations in cdh23 are associated with age-related hearing loss (AHL). In this study, we proposed that the Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mice with progressive hair cell loss had specific morphological changes and suffered a base to apex gradient and age-related hearing loss, and that mutations in cdh23 were linked to AHL. The Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mice produced by the N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis program were used as an animal model to study AHL and progressive hair cell loss. RT-PCR was performed to confirm the cdh23 mutation in Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mice and genetic analysis was used to map the specific mutation site. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) assay and acoustic brainstem evoked response (ABR) threshold analysis were carried out to evaluate the AHL. Cochlear histology was examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), as well as the nuclear labeling by propidium iodide staining; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 activities were examined to evaluate cell apoptosis. Genetic mapping identified the candidate gene linking AHL in Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mice as cdh23. A mutation in exon3 (63 T>C) was screened as compared with the sequence of the same position of the gene from B6 (+/+) mice. The cochleae outer hair cells were reduced from 5–10% at one month to 100% at three months in the basal region. DPOAE and ABR exhibited an increasing threshold at high frequencies (?16 kHz) from one month of age. Morphological and cellular analysis showed that Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mice exhibited a time course of histological alterations and cell apoptosis of outer hair cells. Our results suggest that the cdh23 mutation may be harmful to the stereociliary tip link and cause the hair cell apoptosis. Due to the same cdh23 mutations in human subjects with presbycusis (Petit et al., 2001; Zheng et al., 2005), the Cdh23nmf308/nmf308 mouse is an excellent animal model for investigating the mechanisms involved in human AHL. PMID:22326520

  16. Caspofungin Kills Candida albicans by Causing both Cellular Apoptosis and Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Binghua; Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2013-01-01

    Caspofungin exerts candidacidal activity by inhibiting cell wall (1,3)-?-d-glucan synthesis. We investigated the physiologic mechanisms of caspofungin-induced Candida albicans cell death. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) and necrosis were studied after C. albicans SC5314 cells were exposed to caspofungin at 0.06, 0.125, and 0.5 ?g/ml (0.5×, 1×, and 4× the MIC, respectively) for 3 h. Caspofungin at 0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml reduced cellular viability by >50%, as measured by colony counts and methylene blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis were demonstrated by annexin V and propidium iodide staining for phosphatidylserine externalization and loss of membrane integrity, respectively. At all concentrations of caspofungin, 20 to 25% and 5 to 7% of C. albicans cells exhibited early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis, respectively (P value was not significant [NS]). Necrosis, on the other hand, was significantly greater at 0.125 (43%) and 0.5 (48%) ?g/ml than at 0.06 ?g/ml (26%) (P values of 0.003 and 0.003, respectively). The induction of apoptosis at concentrations less than or equal to the MIC was corroborated by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123) and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining (reactive oxygen species production), JC-1 staining (mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining (DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation). Moreover, electron microscopy of cells exposed to 0.125 ?g/ml of caspofungin showed hallmark apoptotic features like chromatin margination and condensation and nuclear blebs. Apoptosis was associated with metacaspase 1 activation, as demonstrated by D2R staining. Caspofungin exerts activity against C. albicans by directly killing cells (resulting in necrosis) and causing others to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). Apoptosis is initiated at subinhibitory concentrations, suggesting that strategies to target this process may augment the benefits of antifungal agents. PMID:23114781

  17. Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2013-09-15

    The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0-80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS. PMID:23892171

  18. Use of a photolabeling technique to identify nonviable cells in fixed homologous or heterologous cell populations.

    PubMed

    Riedy, M C; Muirhead, K A; Jensen, C P; Stewart, C C

    1991-01-01

    Flow cytometric determination of viable versus nonviable cells in fixed samples can be accomplished by utilizing the irreversible binding of photoactivated ethidium monoazide (EMA). EMA is a positively charged molecule which is excluded by cells with intact membranes (viable cells), included by cells with damaged membranes, and can be photochemically crosslinked to nucleic acids using visible light. EMA fluorescence can be excited using a standard argon laser operating at 488 nm and is able to be distinguished from fluorescein and phycoerythrin. Fixation is important when analyzing cells from a potentially infectious origin. EMA is photochemically crosslinked and therefore unable to leak out of cells when removed from the extracellular media, unlike propidium iodide (PI) or other viability stains, which were heretofore commonly used. We demonstrate the usefulness of EMA in combination with fluoresceinated and phycoerythrin labeled monoclonal antibodies in immunophenotyping. The photoaffinity labeling technique allows for a quick and efficient means of identifying nonviable cells which cannot be distinguished on the basis of light-scattering properties. PMID:2049970

  19. Human Wharton's jelly stem cells, its conditioned medium and cell-free lysate inhibit the growth of human lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao Daniel; Fong, Chui Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Bongso, Ariff

    2014-08-01

    Several groups have reported that primitive mesenchymal stem cells from the gelatinous matrix of the Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord (hWJSCs) possess tumoricidal properties and inhibit the growth of solid tumours such as human mammary carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma and osteosarcoma. This unique characteristic led to the hypothesis that hWJSCs serve as a natural defence against migrating cancer cells from mother to fetus thus explaining why tumorigenesis in the fetus is rare. However, it is not known whether non-solid malignant hematopoietic cells are also inhibited by hWJSCs and what the exact tumoricidal mechanisms are. We therefore evaluated the influence of hWJSCs and its extracts on Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Cell proliferation (BrdU and Ki67+), viability (MTT) and cell death (Annexin V-Propidium iodide and live/dead) assays showed significant inhibition of lymphoma cell growth after 48 h exposure to hWJSCs or its extracts compared to controls. Increased cell death was observed at sub-G1 and S and decreased proliferation at G2/M phases of the mitotic cycle. Superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide activity were significantly increased and glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased in treated lymphoma cells. Time lapse imaging and confocal z-stack images showed yellow fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals of lymphoma cell Y chromosomes within the cytoplasm of female red labelled hWJSCs. We hypothesize that the growth of lymphoma cells is inhibited by the molecules secreted by hWJSCs that use oxidative stress pathways to induce cell death followed by engulfment of the apoptotic remains of the lymphoma cells by the hWJSCs. PMID:24789672

  20. Evaluation of the photobiomodulation in L929 cell culture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Juliana Mangolin; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Da Silva, Newton Soares

    2014-12-01

    Low-level laser therapy has become an important tool for bio-modulation process. It can induce stimulatory or inhibitory effects according to cell behavior at specific irradiation. Our objective was to determine L929 cell line response to irradiation at ? 685 and 830?nm, concentrations of 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum and different energy densities of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30?J/cm(2). Thus, cells were plated at 1?×?10(5) cells/mL and irradiated with semiconductor laser As-Ga-Al. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, cells were subjected to MTT, neutral red, crystal violet tests, and cell staining was performed using the kit Alexa Fluor 488 Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Our results showed that low-level laser therapy stimulates effect when the energy density is 5 to 3030?J/cm(2) and inhibits effects on energy density 0.1 to 3?J/cm(2). This inhibitory effect was evidenced by the absence of dead cells labeled, decreased cell density, and by the absorption of neutral red in intact cells. The study also demonstrated that fetal bovine serum, at different concentrations, did not affect response of the cells after irradiation. PMID:25092826

  1. Membrane permeabilization and cell damage by ultrashort electric field shocks.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Shevin, Rachael; White, Jody A; Kolb, Juergen F; Pakhomova, Olga N; Joshi, Ravindra P; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2007-09-01

    Mammalian cells exposed to electric field pulses of nanosecond duration (nsPEF; 60-ns, 12 kV/cm) experienced a profound and long-lasting increase in passive electrical conductance (G(m)) of the cell membrane, probably caused by opening of stable conductance pores (CPs). The CPs were permeable to Cl(-) and alkali metal cations, but not to larger molecules such as propidium iodide (PI). CPs gradually resealed; the process took minutes and could be observed even in dialyzed cells and in ATP- and glucose-free solutions. Cells subjected to long nsPEF trains (up to 200 pulses) underwent severe and immediate necrotic transformation (cell swelling, blebbing, cytoplasm granulation), but remained impermeable to PI for at least 30-60 min after the exposure. Both G(m) increase after short nsPEF trains and necrotic changes after long nsPEF trains were cell type-dependent: they were much weaker in HeLa than in GH3 cells. La(3+) and Gd(3+) ions significantly inhibited the nsPEF-induced G(m) increase (probably by blocking the CPs), and effectively protected intensely exposed cells from developing necrosis. We conclude that plasma membrane permeabilization is the principal cause of necrotic transformation in nsPEF-exposed cells and probably contributes to other known nsPEF bioeffects. PMID:17555703

  2. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.M.B.D., E-mail: jmanya@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Seabra, S.H. [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vallim, D.C. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L. [Laboratorio de Bacteriologia Medica, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Laboratorio de Bacteriologia Medica, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vommaro, R.C. [Laboratorio de Ultra-estrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, IBCCF, UFRJ (Brazil)] [Laboratorio de Ultra-estrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, IBCCF, UFRJ (Brazil); Domingues, R.M.C.P. [Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  3. Detection of irradiated quail meat by using DNA comet assay and evaluation of comets by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erel, Yakup; Yazici, Nizamettin; Özvatan, Sumer; Ercin, Demet; Cetinkaya, Nurcan

    2009-09-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) was used to detect DNA comets in irradiated quail meat samples. Obtained DNA comets were evaluated by both photomicrographic and image analysis. Quail meat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0.52, 1.05, 1.45, 2.00, 2.92 and 4.00 kGy in gamma cell (gammacell 60Co, dose rate 1.31 kGy/h) covering the permissible limits for enzymatic decay and stored at 2 °C. The cells isolated from muscle (chest, thorax) in cold PBS were analyzed using the DNA comet assay on 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 11 day post irradiation. The cells were lysed between 2, 5 and 9 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophorosis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2 min. After propidium iodide staining, the slides were evaluated through a fluorescent microscope. In all irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and damaged cells appeared as a comet. All measurement data were analyzed using BS 200 ProP with software image analysis (BS 200 ProP, BAB Imaging System, Ankara, Turkey). The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. The values of tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment were significantly different and identical between 0.9 and 4.0 kGy dose exposure, and also among storage times on day 1, 4 and 8. In conclusion, the DNA Comet Assay EN 13784 standard method may be used not only for screening method for detection of irradiated quail meat depending on storage time and condition but also for the quantification of applied dose if it is combined with image analysis. Image analysis may provide a powerful tool for the evaluation of head and tail of comet intensity related with applied doses.

  4. Survivin inhibition induces human neural tumor cell death through caspase-independent and -dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S L; Mani, S; O'Guin, K N; Kandimalla, E R; Agrawal, S; Shafit-Zagardo, B

    2001-10-01

    Survivin inhibits apoptosis during development and carcinogenesis and is absent in differentiated cells. To determine whether survivin inhibition induces cell death in neural tumor cells, survivin antisense oligonucleotides (SAO) were administered to a human neuroblastoma (MSN) and an oligodendroglioma (TC620) resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in survivin protein. Although 74% of the SAO-treated MSN cells were trypan blue(+), PARP cleavage or activated caspase-3 was not observed. However nuclear translocation of AIF occurred and XIAP increased dramatically. Co-administration of z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) with SAO did not inhibit cell death suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed multiple large macronuclei with no apoptotic bodies supporting a role for survivin in cell division. By contrast, while 70% of the SAO-treated TC620 cells were trypan blue(+), PARP was cleaved, cells were TUNEL(+) and PI-staining revealed macronuclei and numerous apoptotic bodies. Co-treatment of the TC620 cells with SAO and zVAD-fmk blocked cell death. While no macronuclei or apoptotic bodies were observed there was a two-fold increase in metaphase cells. Our results suggest that survivin inhibition decreases the viability of human neural tumor cells and as a result of mitotic catastrophe, cell death can be initiated by either a classic apoptotic mechanism or a caspase-independent mechanism. PMID:11677271

  5. Rapid count of microbial cells in dialysate.

    PubMed

    Shimakita, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Hidenori; Naramura, Tomotaka; Fujimori, Akira; Ide, Takao; Tashiro, Yoshikazu; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2007-10-01

    An apparatus for the non-culture method (NCM) of microbial cell count was formerly developed and named a bioplorer. The bioplorer NCM is based on the double staining of cells with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI) and the automatic analysis of their fluorescent microscopic images. Viable cells can be stained with DAPI, while dead cells can be stained with DAPI and PI. In this study, the bioplorer NCM has been applied to the dialysate. The viable and dead cells in dialysate could be counted within 20 min. The detection limit expressed by log(10)[cells/100 mL] was 2.0. When cell-spiked dialysate samples containing prescribed number of Bacillus subtilis cells were assayed, the numbers of cells determined by the bioplorer NCM (N(VIA)(NCM)) and a conventional culture method (CM) on R2A medium (N(VIA)(R2A-CM)) were similar in the range of 2.6-4.6 within the 95% confidence interval (NCM-CM equivalent range). When test solutions sampled from a practical facility in a hospital were assayed, N(VIA)(NCM) was greater than, but comparable to, N(VIA)(R2A-CM). The endotoxin (ET) in the test samples were assayed as well using a test kit for limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The results of microbial cells and ET concentration indicated that the dialysate supplying line was clean and well maintained. The bioplorer NCM can determine if the microbial contamination of dialysate supplying facilities is greater than 2.6 (398 cells/100 mL). PMID:17845395

  6. Traditional Chinese medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang prevents oxidative damage by activating Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Induction of Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant genes has been recognized as an effective strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Paeoniae, Angelicae, Chuanxiong and Rehmanniae, is one of the most popular traditional oriental medicines for women’s diseases. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of SWT on Nrf2 pathway in vitro and in vivo and to identify the active component(s). Results Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in the non-cancerous breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A after H2O2 treatment in the presence or absence of SWT using the Sulphorhodamine B assay, Annexin-V/Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. SWT strongly reduced H2O2 -induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MCF-10A cells. Expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated genes HMOX1 (heme oxygenase 1) and SLC7A11 (xCT) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunocytochemistry. SWT strongly induced Nrf2-regulated genes at mRNA and protein levels and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in MCF-10A cells. The in vivo pharmacodynamic effect of SWT was evaluated in healthy female Sprague–Dawley rats. Short-term oral administration of SWT (1,000 mg/kg per day for six consecutive days) to rats resulted in an increased expression of Nrf2-regulated genes Hmox1 and Slc7A11 in the liver detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Among nine compounds that have been identified previously in the SWT products, z-liguistilide was discovered as the main component responsible for the effect of Nrf2 activation using the antioxidant response element-luciferase reporter gene assay. Z-liguistilide was confirmed with a high potency to induce Nrf2-regulated genes and Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that SWT and its component z-liguistilide are able to activate the Nrf2 pathway in non-cancerous cells and organs in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that SWT might be an orally effective and nontoxic agent for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:24507416

  7. Flow-cytometric analyses of viability biomarkers in pesticide-exposed sperm of three aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Favret, Karen P; Lynn, John W

    2010-05-01

    Toxicity studies on sperm often use fertilization success as the end point. This type of assay can be affected by sperm density, egg quality, and sperm-egg compatibility. Testing sperm viability biomarkers with flow cytometry is a fast, high-throughput technique for seminal analysis. In this study, we detected sperm viability biomarkers with several fluorescent reporter dyes using flow cytometry in three aquatic invertebrates (Crassostrea virginica, Dreissena polymorpha, and Lytechinus variegatus) after exposure to a pesticide and herbicide. The pesticide, Bayluscide, appeared to affect mitochondrial membrane potential in the sperm of all three species, as measured with MitoTracker Red CMXRos. A decrease in the percentage of sperm stained with SYBR-14 (indicating uncompromised plasma membrane) was observed in C. virginica and D. polymorpha sperm exposed to Bayluscide, but propidium iodide staining (indicating compromised plasma membranes) appeared to be inhibited by Bayluscide. Acrosome-reacted sperm, as measured by FITC-PNA, decreased after Bayluscide exposure in C. virginica and D. polymorpha sperm. The herbicide, Roundup Ready To-Use-Plus, did not affect the overall percentages of sperm stained with MitoTracker but did cause an increase in MitoTracker fluorescence intensity at 16 mg/L in D. polymorpha. Roundup also caused significant decreases in SYBR-14 staining, significant increases in propidium iodide staining, and significant increases in FITC-PNA staining in D. polymorpha sperm. By not having to rely on egg availability and optimal sperm density, sperm toxicity can be more accurately assessed with flow cytometry as being directly correlated to sperm viability rather than the possibility of altered toxicity results due to sperm-to-egg compatibility. PMID:19876686

  8. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50??g/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2??g/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

  9. Oridonin inhibits BxPC-3 cell growth through cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Shen, Wen; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Jun; Fan, Yongjun; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurene diterpenoid extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has multiple biological and pharmaceutical functions and has been used clinically for many years. While the antitumor function of oridonin has been corroborated by numerous lines of evidence, its anticancer mechanism has not been well documented. In this study, the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was used as a model to investigate a possible anticancer mechanism of oridonin through examining its effects on cell viability. The results showed that oridonin affected cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After exposure to different oridonin concentrations, growth rates and cell cycle arrest of BxPC-3 cells were significantly reduced compared with untreated cells, suggesting its effects on proliferation inhibition. Detailed signaling pathway analysis by western blot analysis revealed that low-dose oridonin treatment inhibited BxPC-3 cell proliferation by up-regulating p53 and down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. A high-dose oridonin not only arrested BxPC-3 cells in the G2/M phase but also induced cell accumulation in the S phase, presumably through ?H2AX up-regulation and DNA damage. In addition, our results showed that a cell subpopulation was stained with propidium iodide after oridonin treatment. Protein quantification showed that cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression was increased after a high-dose oridonin treatment, especially after long-term exposure. Accompanied by the increased level of deactivated PARP in BxPC-3 cells, the apoptosis initiators caspase-3 and caspase-7 expressions were also significantly increased, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptosis contributed to cell death. PMID:25651847

  10. Cell cycle inhibition by sodium arsenite in primary embryonic rat midbrain neuroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Jaspreet S; Ponce, Rafael A; Vredevoogd, Melinda A; Yu, Xiaozhong; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung-Woo; Schneider, Emily; Faustman, Elaine M

    2006-02-01

    Arsenite (As3+) exposure during development has been associated with neural tube defects and other structural malformations, and with behavioral alterations including altered locomotor activity and operant learning. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are uncertain. Because arsenic can cross the placenta and accumulate in the developing neuroepithelium, we examined cell cycling effects of sodium arsenite (As3+ 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 microM) on embryonic primary rat midbrain (gestational day [GD] 12) neuroepithelial cells over 48 h. There was a concentration- and time-dependent As3+-induced reduction in cell viability assessed by neutral red dye uptake assay but minimal apoptosis at concentrations below 4 microM. Morphologically, apoptosis was not apparent until 4 microM at 24 h, which was demonstrated by a marginal but statistically significant increase in cleaved caspase-3/7 activity. Cell cycling effects over several rounds of replication were determined by continuous 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and bivariate flow cytometric Hoechst-Propidium Iodide analysis. We observed a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell cycle progression as early as 12 h after exposure (> or =0.5 microM). In addition, data demonstrated a concentration-dependent increase in cytostasis within all cell cycle phases, a decreased proportion of cells able to reach the second cell cycle, and a reduced cell cycle entry from gap 1 phase (G1). The proportion of affected cells and the severity of the cell cycle perturbation, which ranged from a decreased transition probability to complete cytostasis in all cell cycle phases, were also found to be concentration-dependent. Together, these data support a role for perturbed cell cycle progression in As3+ mediated neurodevelopmental toxicity. PMID:16251481

  11. Crayfish mechanoreceptor neuron prevents photoinduced apoptosis of satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Kolosov, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly

    2006-05-15

    Interactions between neurons and glia play a key role in the development, functioning and survival of the nervous system. However, the influence of neurons on glial cells has received less attention than the role of glia in supporting neural functions. We here investigated the role of isolated crayfish stretch receptor neuron in the death of satellite glial cells under photodynamic impact. After staining with aluminum phthalocyanine photosens, the neuronal cell body was locally irradiated with a focused beam of He-Ne (633 nm, 200 W/cm2) or semiconductor laser (650 nm, 50 W/cm2). This rapidly abolished neuronal activity. The whole preparation was then subjected to total laser irradiation with lower intensity (633 nm, 0.3 W/cm2), which induced death of glial cells. Double staining of the preparation with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 in the following 6-7h allowed the visualization of necrotic, apoptotic and alive cells. Previous neuron inactivation with the focused laser beam was found to increase photodynamically-induced apoptosis but not necrosis of satellite glial cells enwrapping the axon. Therefore, the intact neuronal cell body protected satellite glial cells against photoinduced apoptosis. Altogether the data indicate that mechanoreceptor neurons release some signaling molecules involved in the prevention of glial apoptosis. This may provide integrity of the stretch receptor organ and its resistance to injurious factors. PMID:16647578

  12. Effects of oridonin nanosuspension on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiumei; Xue, Wei; YangYang, Yuna; Xu, Derong; Zhao, Yunxue; Lou, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of oridonin nanosuspension on human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line in vitro. The PC-3 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of oridonin solution and nanosuspensions for 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to measure cellular viability and investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth of PC-3. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining method was used to determine the effect of oridonin by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Nanosuspension on early apoptosis of PC-3 cells was also evaluated. Oridonin significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours of treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Compared with the same concentration of oridonin solution, oridonin nanosuspension enhanced the inhibition ratio of proliferation. The observation of propidium iodide fluorescence staining confirmed the MTT assay results. The cell proportion of PC-3 at the G2/M phase in the nanosuspension treatment group was upregulated compared with that of the control and oridonin solution groups. Both oridonin solution and nanosuspension promoted the early apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Furthermore, while improving the ratio of early apoptosis, oridonin nanosuspensions also enhanced growth suppression, and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. This shows great potential in the treatment of androgen-independent carcinoma of prostate by oridonin nanosuspensions. PMID:21042419

  13. Inhibition of TMEM45A suppresses proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and reduces cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Yang, Weihong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Zhongping

    2015-06-01

    The association of TMEM45A with various cancers has been recently reported. However, the biological function of TMEM45A in ovarian cancer remains unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of TMEM45A in regulating the biological behavior of ovarian cancer cells. We compared the expression of TMEM45A between ovarian cancer tissues and normal tissues based on RNA-sequencing data of the ovarian cancer cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and our real-time PCR data from 25 pairs of ovarian cancer and their matched non-cancerous tissue samples. The expression of TMEM45A was then suppressed in two ovarian cancer cell lines, HO-8910 and A2780, by RNA interference. Cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, adhesion and invasive ability were then detected using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8), propidium iodide (PI) staining, and cell adhesion and Transwell assays, respectively. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?1 and TGF-?2), Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) were detected with real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. TCGA data and our real-time PCR results demonstrated the overexpression of TMEM45A in ovarian cancer. Silencing of TMEM45A significantly inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased the cell population in the G1 phase. Moreover, knockdown of TMEM45A also inhibited cell adhesion as well as cell invasion. More importantly, suppression of TMEM45A notably downregulated the expression of TGF-?1, TGF-?2, RhoA and ROCK2. In conclusion, TMEM45A may function as an oncogene for ovarian cancer, and inhibition of TMEM45A may be a therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. PMID:25872785

  14. Umbelliferone exhibits anticancer activity via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Min; Hu, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor, associated with poor patient prognoses, and high rates of morbidity and mortality. To date, the therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of HCC remain limited. The present study aimed to elucidate the anticancer activity of umbelliferone, a naturally occurring coumarin derivative isolated from Ferula communis, against the HepG2 HCC cell line. A 3?(4,5?dimthylthaizol?2?yl)?2,5, diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cell viability following umbelliferone treatment, and the effects of umbelliferone on cell cycle progression and apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry. The presence of morphological features characteristic of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation, were evaluated in HepG2 cells following umbelliferone treatment. Cell cycle analysis conducted via propidium iodide (PI) staining indicated that umbelliferone treatment induced cell cycle arrest at S phase in HepG2 cells. Analysis with Annexin V and PI staining revealed that umbelliferone induced apoptotic events in HepG2 cells in a concentration?dependant manner (0?50 µM). Umbelliferone also induced dose?dependant DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, umbelliferone was found to exhibit significant anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cancer cells. PMID:25997538

  15. Electrodelivery of drugs into cancer cells in the presence of poloxamer 188.

    PubMed

    Tsoneva, Iana; Iordanov, Iordan; Berger, Annette J; Tomov, Toma; Nikolova, Biliana; Mudrov, Nikola; Berger, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study it is shown that poloxamer 188, added before or immediately after an electrical pulse used for electroporation, decreases the number of dead cells and at the same time does not reduce the number of reversible electropores through which small molecules (cisplatin, bleomycin, or propidium iodide) can pass/diffuse. It was suggested that hydrophobic sections of poloxamer 188 molecules are incorporated into the edges of pores and that their hydrophilic parts act as brushy pore structures. The formation of brushy pores may reduce the expansion of pores and delay the irreversible electropermeability. Tumors were implanted subcutaneously in both flanks of nude mice using HeLa cells, transfected with genes for red fluorescent protein and luciferase. The volume of tumors stopped to grow after electrochemotherapy and the use of poloxamer 188 reduced the edema near the electrode and around the subcutaneously growing tumors. PMID:20706647

  16. Electric discharge plasmas influence attachment of cultured CHO K1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kieft, I E; Broers, J L V; Caubet-Hilloutou, V; Slaaf, D W; Ramaekers, F C S; Stoffels, E

    2004-07-01

    Non-thermal plasmas can be generated by electric discharges in gases. These plasmas are reactive media, capable of superficial treatment of various materials. A novel non-thermal atmospheric plasma source (plasma needle) has been developed and tested. Plasma appears at the end of a metal pin as a submillimetre glow. We investigate the possibility of applying the plasma needle directly to living tissues; the final goal is controlled cell treatment in microsurgery. To resolve plasma effects on cells, we study cultured Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1) as a model system. When these are exposed to the plasma, instantaneous detachment of cells from the surface and loss of cell-cell interaction is observed. This occurs in the power range 0.1-0.2 W. Cell viability is assessed using propidium iodide (PI) and cell tracker green (CTG) fluorescent staining utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Detached cells remain alive. Use of higher doses (plasma power >0.2 W) results in cell necrosis. In all cases, plasma-influenced cells are strictly localized in submillimetre areas, while no reaction in surrounding cells is observed. Due to its extreme precision, plasma treatment may be applicable in refined tissue modification. PMID:15197760

  17. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  18. Changes in cellular response to the damage induced in PC-3 prostate cancer cells by proton microbeam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, Ewelina W; Wieche?, Anna; Duli?ska-Litewka, Joanna; Kubica, Ma?gorzata; Lekki, Janusz; Stachura, Zbigniew; Wiltowska-Zuber, Joanna; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this research was to find out whether the passage number effect may influence on the PC-3 cells (the human prostate cancer line derived from bone metastases) response to proton radiation. 2 MeV horizontally focused proton microbeam was used as a radiation source. The cells were treated with a counted number of H(+) ions (50-8000) corresponding to doses of 1.3-209 Gy/cell. For comparison, cell death was also induced by UVC radiation. All cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide and visualized under a fluorescence microscope. Necrosis was observed at: a) 8000 protons per cell (corresponding to ?209 Gy/cell) after 2-4 passages, b) 3200 protons per cell (corresponding to ?84 Gy/cell) for cells after 11-14 passages and c) only 800 protons per cell (corresponding to ?2 Gy/cell ) after 47-50 passages. Apoptosis was efficiently induced, by protons, only in cells after 50 passages. The results showed that the laboratory conditions affected cellular response of PC-3 cell line to the proton irradiation. The cellular response to the radiation treatment strongly depends on number of passages. PMID:22447826

  19. Effect of Sterols Isolated from Myrtillocactus geometrizans on Growth Inhibition of Colon and Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños-Carrillo, Mario Augusto; Ventura-Gallegos, Jose Luis; Saldivar-Jiménez, Arturo David; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effect of peniocerol and macdougallin on HCT-15 and MCF-7 cells proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and PARP cleavage. Methods. HCT-15 and MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations of peniocerol and macdougallin (10–80??M) during 24 or 48?h. Crystal Violet Assay was used to evaluate the inhibition effect. Cell cycle regulation was examined by a propidium iodide method. Cell apoptosis was detected through both Annexin–V FLUOS/PI double-labeled cytometry assays and Western blot was applied to assess PARP cleavage. Results. Peniocerol and macdougallin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, peniocerol and macdougallin induced arrest of cell cycle-dependent manner and increased the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase. PARP cleavage in HCT-15 and MCF-7 cells was induced by treatment with peniocerol and macdougallin after 36 hours. Conclusions. Our results showed that the mechanism of cytotoxicity displayed by peniocerol and macdougallin is related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in both cell lines. This is a significant observation because it helps to understand the way some oxysterols isolated from Myrtillocactus geometrizans develop their biological activities against cancer cells. PMID:26113867

  20. Microfluidic device for stem cell differentiation and localized electroporation of postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonmo; Giraldo-Vela, Juan P; Nathamgari, S Shiva P; McGuire, Tammy; McNaughton, Rebecca L; Kessler, John A; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2014-12-01

    New techniques to deliver nucleic acids and other molecules for gene editing and gene expression profiling, which can be performed with minimal perturbation to cell growth or differentiation, are essential for advancing biological research. Studying cells in their natural state, with temporal control, is particularly important for primary cells that are derived by differentiation from stem cells and are adherent, e.g., neurons. Existing high-throughput transfection methods either require cells to be in suspension or are highly toxic and limited to a single transfection per experiment. Here we present a microfluidic device that couples on-chip culture of adherent cells and transfection by localized electroporation. Integrated microchannels allow long-term cell culture on the device and repeated temporal transfection. The microfluidic device was validated by first performing electroporation of HeLa and HT1080 cells, with transfection efficiencies of ~95% for propidium iodide and up to 50% for plasmids. Application to primary cells was demonstrated by on-chip differentiation of neural stem cells and transfection of postmitotic neurons with a green fluorescent protein plasmid. PMID:25205561

  1. Vitamin C suppresses cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells induced by tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Tamilselvan; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yang; Ho, Chai Ling; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Aziz, Suraini Abdul; Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan Nik Abd; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is generally thought to enhance immunity and is widely taken as a supplement especially during cancer treatment. Tamoxifen (TAM) has both cytostatic and cytotoxic properties for breast cancer. TAM engaged mitochondrial oestrogen receptor beta in MCF-7 cells and induces apoptosis by activation of pro-caspase-8 followed by downstream events, including an increase in reactive oxygen species and the release of pro-apoptotic factors from the mitochondria. In addition to that, TAM binds with high affinity to the microsomal anti-oestrogen-binding site and inhibits cholesterol esterification at therapeutic doses. This study aimed to investigate the role of vitamin C in TAM-mediated apoptosis. Cells were loaded with vitamin C by exposure to dehydroascorbic acid, thereby circumventing in vitro artefacts associated with the poor transport and pro-oxidant effects of ascorbic acid. Pre-treatment with vitamin C caused a dose-dependent attenuation of cytotoxicity, as measured by acridine-orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) and Annexin V assay after treatment with TAM. Vitamin C dose-dependently protected cancer cells against lipid peroxidation caused by TAM treatment. By real-time PCR analysis, an impressive increase in FasL and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA was detected after TAM treatment. In addition, a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential was observed. These results support the hypothesis that vitamin C supplementation during cancer treatment may detrimentally affect therapeutic response. PMID:24266867

  2. Autophagy proteins play cytoprotective and cytocidal roles in leucine starvation-induced cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Slawomir A.; Caplan, Allan B.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is essential for prolonging yeast survival during nutrient deprivation; however, this report shows that some autophagy proteins may also be accelerating population death in those conditions. While leucine starvation caused YCA1-mediated apoptosis characterized by increased annexin V staining, nitrogen deprivation triggered necrotic death characterized by increased propidium iodide uptake. Although a ?atg8 strain died faster than its parental strain during nitrogen starvation, this mutant died slower than its parent during leucine starvation. Conversely, a ?atg11 strain died slower than its parent during nitrogen starvation, but faster during leucine starvation. Curiously, although GFP-Atg8 complemented the ?atg8 mutation, this protein made ATG8 cells more sensitive to nitrogen starvation, and less sensitive to leucine starvation. These results were difficult to explain if autophagy only extended life but could be an indication that a second form of autophagy could concurrently facilitate either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. PMID:22361650

  3. Microscopic elucidation of abundant endophytic bacteria colonizing the cell wall–plasma membrane peri-space in the shoot-tip tissue of banana

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Pious; Reddy, Krishna M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at generating microscopic evidence of intra-tissue colonization in banana in support of the previous findings on widespread association of endophytic bacteria with the shoot tips of field-grown plants and micropropagated cultures, and to understand the extent of tissue colonization. Leaf-sheath tissue sections (?50–100 µm) from aseptically gathered shoot tips of cv. Grand Naine were treated with Live/Dead bacterial viability kit components SYTO 9 (S9) and propidium iodide (PI) followed by epifluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The S9, which targets live bacteria, showed abundant green-fluorescing particles along the host cell periphery in CLSM, apparently in between the plasma membrane and the cell wall. These included non-motile and occasional actively motile single bacterial cells seen in different x–y planes and z-stacks over several cell layers, with the fluorescence signal similar to that of pure cultures of banana endophytes. Propidium iodide, which stains dead bacteria, did not detect any, but post-ethanol treatment, both PI and 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole detected abundant bacteria. Propidium iodide showed clear nuclear staining, as did S9 to some extent, and the fluorophores appeared to detect bacteria at the exclusion of DNA-containing plant organelles as gathered from bright-field and phase-contrast microscopy. The S9–PI staining did not work satisfactorily with formalin- or paraformaldehyde-fixed tissue. The extensive bacterial colonization in fresh tissue was further confirmed with the suckers of different cultivars, and was supported by transmission electron microscopy. This study thus provides clear microscopic evidence of the extensive endophytic bacterial inhabitation in the confined cell wall–plasma membrane peri-space in shoot tissue of banana with the organisms sharing an integral association with the host. The abundant tissue colonization suggests a possible involvement of endophytes in the biology of the host besides recognizing cell wall–plasma membrane peri-space as a major niche for plant-associated bacteria.

  4. Unusual chromosome structure of fission yeast DNA in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    McManus, J; Perry, P; Sumner, A T; Wright, D M; Thomson, E J; Allshire, R C; Hastie, N D; Bickmore, W A

    1994-03-01

    Chromosomes from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been introduced into mouse cells by protoplast fusion. In most cell lines the yeast DNA integrates into a single site within a mouse chromosome and results in striking chromosome morphology at metaphase. Both light and electron microscopy show that the yeast chromosome region is narrower than the flanking mouse DNA. Regions of the yeast insert stain less intensely with propidium iodide than surrounding DNA and bear a morphological resemblance to fragile sites. We investigate the composition of the yeast transgenomes and the modification and chromatin structure of this yeast DNA in mouse cells. We suggest that the underlying basis for the structure we see lies above the level of DNA modification and nucleosome assembly, and may reflect the attachment of the yeast DNA to the rodent cell nucleoskeleton. The yeast integrant replicates late in S phase at a time when G bands of the mouse chromosomes are being replicated, and participates in sister chromatid exchanges at a high frequency. We discuss the implications of these studies to the understanding of how chromatin folding relates to metaphase chromosome morphology and how large stretches of foreign DNA behave when introduced into mammalian cells. PMID:8006067

  5. Luteolin exerts an anticancer effect on NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung cancer cells through the induction of Sirt1-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liping; Peng, Hongjun; Li, Kunsheng; Zhao, Runrun; Li, Li; Yu, Yilong; Wang, Xiaoming; Han, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    Luteolin is a falconoid compound, which exhibits anticancer properties, however, its contribution to Sirt1-mediated apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study confirmed that the anticancer effect of luteolin on NCI?H460 cells was through Sirt1?mediated apoptosis. The NCI?H460 cells were treated with different concentrations of luteolin, and a 3?(4,5?dimethyl?2?thiazolyl)?2,5?diphnyl?2H?tetrazolium bromide assay, cell cycle analysis and annexin?V/fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium double staining were performed to assess the apoptotic effect of luteolin. Wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to confirm the inhibition of NCI?H460 cell migration. The protein levels of Sirt1 were knocked down in the NCI?H460 cells using a lentivirus to further investigate the role of this protein, and the expression levels of the apoptotic associated proteins, Bad, Bcl?2, Bax, caspase?3 and Sirt1, were measured using western blotting. The results of the present study demonstrated that luteolin exerted an anticancer effect against NCI?H460 cells through Sirt1?mediated apoptosis and the inhibition of cell migration. PMID:26096576

  6. Cell-death assessment by fluorescent and nonfluorescent cytosolic and nuclear staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Atale, N; Gupta, S; Yadav, U C S; Rani, V

    2014-07-01

    Apoptosis, a genetically programmed cellular event leads to biochemical and morphological changes in cells. Alterations in DNA caused by several factors affect nucleus and ultimately the entire cell leading to compromised function of the organ and organism. DNA, a master regulator of the cellular events, is an important biomolecule with regards to cell growth, cell death, cell migration and cell differentiation. It is therefore imperative to develop the staining techniques that may lead to visualize the changes in nucleus where DNA is housed, to comprehend the cellular pathophysiology. Over the years a number of nuclear staining techniques such as propidium iodide, Hoechst-33342, 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), Acridine orange-Ethidium bromide staining, among others have been developed to assess the changes in DNA. Some nonnuclear staining techniques such as Annexin-V staining, which although does not stain DNA, but helps to identify the events that result from DNA alteration and leads to initiation of apoptotic cell death. In this review, we have briefly discussed some of the most commonly used fluorescent and nonfluorescent staining techniques that identify apoptotic changes in cell, DNA and the nucleus. These techniques help in differentiating several cellular and nuclear phenotypes that result from DNA damage and have been identified as specific to necrosis or early and late apoptosis as well as scores of other nuclear deformities occurring inside the cells. PMID:24831993

  7. Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianlin; Li, Juan; Zhu, Shifeng; Liu, Yiling; Zhao, Jianlei; Wan, Meihua; Tang, Wenfu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi decoction can regulate a necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells. This study investigated the effects of rhein, a component of this medicine, on a necrosis-apoptosis switch in pancreatic rat AR42J cells. Methods. Cerulein-treated AR42J cells were used. After pretreatment with 479, 119.8, or 29.9??g/L rhein, cells were cocultured with rhein and cerulein (10?8?M) for 4, 8, or 16?h. Apoptosis and necrosis were examined using annexin V and propidium iodide costaining. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis-associated proteins were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blotting. Results. Few cells died in untreated samples. The number was significantly higher in 16-h-cerulein-treated samples and treatment with 479??g/L rhein most effectively increased the apoptotic-to-necrotic cell ratio (P < 0.05). In cerulein-treated cells, rhein increased the concentrations of p53, cytochrome C, and caspase-3, and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the maximum effect in cells treated with 479??g/L rhein for 16?h (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Rhein induces the necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signaling pathways might play an important role in this effect. PMID:24959186

  8. Foodborne Cereulide Causes Beta-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vangoitsenhoven, Roman; Rondas, Dieter; Crèvecoeur, Inne; D'Hertog, Wannes; Baatsen, Pieter; Masini, Matilde; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Van Loco, Joris; Matthys, Christophe; Mathieu, Chantal; Overbergh, Lut; Van der Schueren, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To study the effects of cereulide, a food toxin often found at low concentrations in take-away meals, on beta-cell survival and function. Methods Cell death was quantified by Hoechst/Propidium Iodide in mouse (MIN6) and rat (INS-1E) beta-cell lines, whole mouse islets and control cell lines (HepG2 and COS-1). Beta-cell function was studied by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mechanisms of toxicity were evaluated in MIN6 cells by mRNA profiling, electron microscopy and mitochondrial function tests. Results 24 h exposure to 5 ng/ml cereulide rendered almost all MIN6, INS-1E and pancreatic islets apoptotic, whereas cell death did not increase in the control cell lines. In MIN6 cells and murine islets, GSIS capacity was lost following 24 h exposure to 0.5 ng/ml cereulide (P<0.05). Cereulide exposure induced markers of mitochondrial stress including Puma (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, P<0.05) and general pro-apoptotic signals as Chop (CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein). Mitochondria appeared swollen upon transmission electron microscopy, basal respiration rate was reduced by 52% (P<0.05) and reactive oxygen species increased by more than twofold (P<0.05) following 24 h exposure to 0.25 and 0.50 ng/ml cereulide, respectively. Conclusions/Interpretation Cereulide causes apoptotic beta-cell death at low concentrations and impairs beta-cell function at even lower concentrations, with mitochondrial dysfunction underlying these defects. Thus, exposure to cereulide even at concentrations too low to cause systemic effects appears deleterious to the beta-cell. PMID:25119564

  9. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100?M)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations. PMID:26004138

  10. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid is neuroprotective in rat model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Jafar Sadik B.; Ahmad, Muzamil; Li, Wenjin; Rose, Marie E.; Foley, Lesley M.; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Graham, Steven H.; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) diminishes vasodilatory and neuroprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by hydrolyzing them to inactive dihydroxy metabolites. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the effects of acute sEH inhibition by trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB) on infarct volume, functional outcome, and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in rats for 90 min followed by reperfusion. At the end of 24 h after reperfusion rats were euthanized for infarct volume assessment by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Brain cortical sEH activity was assessed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Functional outcome at 24 and 48 h after reperfusion was evaluated by arm flexion and sticky-tape tests. Changes in CBF were assessed by arterial spin-labeled-MRI at baseline, during ischemia, and at 180 min after reperfusion. Neuroprotective effects of t-AUCB were evaluated in primary rat neuronal cultures by Cytotox-Flour kit and propidium iodide staining. t-AUCB significantly reduced cortical infarct volume by 35% (14.5 ± 2.7% vs. 41.5 ± 4.5%), elevated cumulative epoxyeicosatrienoic acids-to-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio in brain cortex by twofold (4.40 ± 1.89 vs. 1.97 ± 0.85), and improved functional outcome in arm-flexion test (day 1: 3.28 ± 0.5 s vs. 7.50 ± 0.9 s; day 2: 1.71 ± 0.4 s vs. 5.28 ± 0.5 s) when compared with that of the vehicle-treated group. t-AUCB significantly reduced neuronal cell death in a dose-dependent manner (vehicle: 70.9 ± 7.1% vs. t-AUCB0.1?M: 58 ± 5.11% vs. t-AUCB0.5?M: 39.9 ± 5.8%). These findings suggest that t-AUCB may exert its neuroprotective effects by affecting multiple components of neurovascular unit including neurons, astrocytes, and microvascular flow. PMID:24043255

  11. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Ischemia by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Issan, Yossi; Kornowski, Ran; Aravot, Dan; Shainberg, Asher; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Sodhi, Komal; Abraham, Nader G.; Hochhauser, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation. Methods In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured. Results HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospho kinase (CK), decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS) was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05). CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01), reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively). CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNF? levels (p<0.05). The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05). CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3? (p<0.05) in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects. Conclusions HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by the increased levels of pAKT with a concomitant inhibition of pGSK3? leading to preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:24658657

  12. P2 receptor antagonists prevent synaptic failure and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat CA1 hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Traini, Chiara; Pedata, Felicita; Cipriani, Sara; Mello, Tommaso; Galli, Andrea; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Cerbai, Francesca; Volpini, Rosaria; Cristalli, Gloria; Pugliese, Anna Maria

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the role of purinergic P2 receptors under ischemia, we studied the effect of P2 receptor antagonists on synaptic transmission and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat hippocampal slices. The effect of the P2 antagonists pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS, unselective, 30 ?m), N(?6) -methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate (MRS2179, selective for P2Y(1) receptor, 10 ?m), Brilliant Blue G (BBG, selective for P2X(7) receptor, 1 ?m), and 5-[[[(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (A-317491, selective for P2X(3) receptor, 10 ?m), and of the newly synthesized P2X(3) receptor antagonists 2-amino-9-(5-iodo-2-isopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)adenine (PX21, 1 ?m) and 2-amino-9-(5-iodo-2-isopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)-N(?6)-methyladenine (PX24, 1 ?m), on the depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and anoxic depolarization (AD) elicited by 7 min of OGD were evaluated. All antagonists significantly prevented these effects. The extent of CA1 cell injury was assessed 3 h after the end of 7 min of OGD by propidium iodide staining. Substantial CA1 pyramidal neuronal damage, detected in untreated slices exposed to OGD injury, was significantly prevented by PPADS (30 ?m), MRS2179 (10 ?m), and BBG (1 ?m). Western blot analysis showed that, 10 min after the end of the 7 min of OGD, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 MAPK activation was significantly increased. MRS2179, BBG, PPADS and A-317491 significantly counteracted ERK1/2 activation. Hippocampal slices incubated with the ERK1/2 inhibitors 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadiene (U0126, 10 ?m) and ?-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl) benzeneacetonitrile (SL327, 10 ?m) showed significant fEPSP recovery after OGD and delayed AD, supporting the involvement of ERK1/2 in neuronal damage induced by OGD. These results indicate that subtypes of hippocampal P2 purinergic receptors have a harmful effect on neurotransmission in the CA1 hippocampus by participating in AD appearance and activation of ERK1/2. PMID:21453436

  13. Influence of the papiliocin peptide derived from Papilio xuthus on the perturbation of fungal cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juneyoung; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Hwang, Bomi; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Seong Ryul; Kim, Yangmee; Lee, Dong Gun

    2010-10-01

    Papiliocin is a 37-residue peptide isolated from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus. In this study, the antifungal effects and the mechanism of actions of papiliocin were investigated. First of all, papiliocin was shown to exert fungicidal activity. To understand the antifungal mechanism(s), propidium iodide influx into Candida albicans cells, induced by papiliocin, was examined. The result indicated that papiliocin perturbed and disrupted the fungal plasma membrane. Furthermore, calcein leakage from large unilamellar vesicles and rhodamine leakage from giant unilamellar vesicles further confirmed and visualized the membrane-disruptive action of papiliocin in the fungal model membrane, respectively. In summary, the present study suggests that papiliocin exerts its antifungal activity by a membrane-active mechanism and that this peptide can be developed into novel potent antifungal agents. PMID:20707816

  14. Plantaricin A, a peptide pheromone produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, permeabilizes the cell membrane of both normal and cancerous lymphocytes and neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Sand, Sverre L; Oppegård, Camilla; Ohara, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio; Naderi, Soheil; Blomhoff, Heidi K; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Sand, Olav

    2010-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides produced by multicellular organisms protect against pathogenic microorganisms, whereas such peptides produced by bacteria provide an ecological advantage over competitors. Certain antimicrobial peptides of metazoan origin are also toxic to eukaryotic cells, with preference for a variety of cancerous cells. Plantaricin A (PlnA) is a peptide pheromone with membrane permeabilizing strain-specific antibacterial activity, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum C11. Recently, we have reported that PlnA also permeabilizes cancerous rat pituitary cells (GH(4) cells), whereas normal rat anterior pituitary cells are resistant. To investigate if preferential effect on cancerous cells is a general feature of PlnA, we have studied effects of the peptide on normal and cancerous lymphocytes and neuronal cells. Normal human B and T cells, Reh cells (from human B cell leukemia), and Jurkat cells (from human T cell leukemia) were studied by flow cytometry to detect morphological changes (scatter) and viability (propidium iodide uptake), and by patch clamp recordings to monitor membrane conductance. Ca(2+) imaging based on a combination of fluo-4 and fura-red was used to monitor PlnA-induced membrane permeabilization in normal rat cortical neurons and glial cells, PC12 cells (from a rat adrenal chromaffin tumor), and murine N2A cells (from a spinal cord tumor). All the tested cell types were affected by 10-100 microM PlnA, whereas concentrations below 10 microM had no significant effect. We conclude that normal and cancerous lymphocytes and neuronal cells show similar sensitivity to PlnA. PMID:20416350

  15. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  16. Evaluation of the overall accuracy of the DeLaval cell counter for somatic cell counts in ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; de la Fuente, F; Primitivo, F San

    2006-12-01

    The DeLaval cell counter (DCC) is a portable device designed for on-farm somatic cell count (SCC) analysis in bovine milk. This study evaluated the performance of the DCC when analyzing ovine milk. A total of 29 composite ovine milk samples, ranging between 20 x 10(3) and 2,200 x 10(3) cells/mL, were divided into 15 aliquots/milk sample corresponding to 5 SCC methods using 3 types of preservation (unpreserved, azidiol, and bronopol). The SCC methods were the Fossomatic (FSCC), the DCC in undiluted samples, and the DCC in samples diluted 1:1 in 3 different types of diluents (PBS + Triton X-100, PBS + ethidium bromide + Triton X-100, and PBS + propidium iodide + Triton X-100). All analyses were carried out in duplicate. In addition, each sample was analyzed in quadruplicate by the direct microscopic method (DMSCC) using Pyronin Y-methyl green as a stain. Comparison of methods was based on overall accuracy studies (means comparison, repeatability, and regression studies vs. DMSCC and FSCC as reference methods). The DCC methods used to analyze milk samples diluted in staining solution (with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide) showed large coefficients of regression (b = 0.91 to 1.01) and correlation (r > 0.99) when compared with the DMSCC and FSCC methods. In these samples the DCC gave repeatability values (s(r) = 33 to 48 x 10(3) cells/mL) similar to the DMSCC (s(r) = 36 x 10(3) cells/mL), and their log SCC means (5.52 to 5.54) did not differ from the reference value (5.54). However, undiluted samples analyzed by the DCC method showed large standard deviations of repeatability and SCC values lower than those by the DMSCC or FSCC methods, probably because of the high solids content in ovine milk. The type of preservation did not affect the outcomes. Consequently, the DCC was determined to be accurate when analyzing diluted ovine milk based on comparison with the SCC reference methods. PMID:17106093

  17. Natural Killer Cells Induce Eosinophil Activation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Ali; Yassine, Hanane; Barrier, Mathieu; Vorng, Han; Marquillies, Philippe; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Duez, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are potent inflammatory cells with numerous immune functions, including antigen presentation and exacerbation of inflammatory responses through their capacity to release a range of largely preformed cytokines and lipid mediators. Thus, timely regulation of eosinophil activation and apoptosis is crucial to develop beneficial immune response and to avoid tissue damage and induce resolution of inflammation. Natural Killer (NK) cells have been reported to influence innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms including cytotoxicity against other immune cells. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the interaction between NK cells and eosinophils. Co-culture experiments revealed that human NK cells could trigger autologous eosinophil activation, as shown by up-regulation of CD69 and down-regulation of CD62L, as well as degranulation, evidenced by increased CD63 surface expression, secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN). Moreover, NK cells significantly and dose dependently increased eosinophil apoptosis as shown by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Direct contact was necessary for eosinophil degranulation and apoptosis. Increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cocultured eosinophils and inhibition of eosinophil CD63 expression by pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that MAPK and PI3K pathways are involved in NK cell-induced eosinophil degranulation. Finally, we showed that NK cells increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression by eosinophils in co-culture and that mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and antimycin) partially diminished NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting the implication of mitochondrial ROS in NK cell-induced eosinophil apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-FMK) only slightly decreased eosinophil apoptosis in coculture. Altogether, our results suggest that NK cells regulate eosinophil functions by inducing their activation and their apoptosis. PMID:24727794

  18. Mouse testis cell sorting according to DNA and mitochondrial changes during spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.M.; Ratinaud, M.H.; Cordelli, E.; Spano, M.; Julien, R. [Institut de Biotechnologie, Rome (Italy)

    1995-04-01

    Flow cytometry can measure variations in DNA content and chromatin structure as well as dramatic changes in the mitochondria of germ cells during maturation from spermatogonia to elongated spermatids. Using 10-N nonyl acridine orange (NAO), an inner mitochondrial membrane dye, it is easy to follow mitochondria rearrangements. Mouse testis cells stained with the DNA fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry can be discriminated on the basis of their ploidy levels into five main regions corresponding to elongated spermatids, round spermatids, diploid, S-phase, and tetraploid cells. The simultaneous use of PI and NAO demonstrated the presence of cells having low and high mitochondrial content in the haploid, diploid, and tetraploid compartments. Eleven sorting windows were selected from the bivariate analysis (PI/NAO) and the corresponding cells were identified by microscopic observation. Cells were also discriminated by two parameter analysis of DNA content vs. cell diameter. The definition of seven different regions allowed us to determine NAO or rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) uptakes in each compartment. We observed that the ratio (Rh 123/NAO) dramatically changed according to the progression of cell differentiation which occurs during spermatogenesis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Polysaccharide of Boschniakia rossica induces apoptosis on laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenghui; Lu, Chuangxin; Wu, Caiqin; Xu, Min; Kou, Xiaohui; Kong, Demin; Jing, Gangli

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to explore the anti-tumor potential of a polysaccharide isolated from Boschniakia rossica (BRP) in Hep2 human larynx squamous carcinoma cells. High performance size-exclusion chromatography analysis showed that BRP was a homogeneous polysaccharide and had a molecular weight of 22 kDa. Total carbohydrate content in BRP was determined to be 96.9%, without the presence of protein and nucleic acid. BRP suppressed the proliferation of Hep2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that exposure to BRP (200 ?g/ml) caused a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in Hep2 cells. Moreover, treatment with BRP at 100-400 ?g/ml for 24h induced a significant apoptosis Hep2 cells compared to untreated control cells, as determined by flow cytometry with annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. Additionally, BRP treatment promoted the cleavage of pro-caspase-3, pro-caspase-8, and pro-caspase-9, coupled with increased expression of death receptor DR5 and Bax and reduced expression of Bcl-2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that BRP shows potent anti-tumor activity in human larynx squamous carcinoma, largely through induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Activation of both mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways is involved in the cytotoxicity of BRP. PMID:24334128

  20. Inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on tumor survival and angiogenesis in gastric cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Hassan; Aminzadeh, Saman; Fallahi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested effectiveness of long-term and regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and aspirin, in preventing and treatment of certain cancers including prostate, colon, breast, lung, and gastric cancers. We have studied the potential anti-turmeric effect of ibuprofen in adenocarcinoma gastric cell line (AGS). The effects of ibuprofen were investigated on cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and expression of stemness marker genes using real-time RT-PCR, DNA laddering, and tube formation assays via ECM gel and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Annexin-V-FLUOS and propidium iodide (PI) were used to stain the apoptotic cells. Our findings indicate that ibuprofen at the concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ?M is able to reduce the cancerous characteristics of the AGS cells by inducing apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. Real-time RT-PCR showed that ibuprofen altered the expression of several genes including Akt, P53, PCNA, Bax, and Bcl2 in the AGS cells. In addition, reduction in CD44 and OCT3/4 transcript levels revealed that ibuprofen reduces the stemness of the AGS cells and therefore it could be used as a potential anti-tumor drug. PMID:25542229

  1. Synergistic antiangiogenic activity of tetrandrine combined with Endostar on the human umbilical vein endothelial cell model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoping; Yan, Bo; Zhou, Xuefei; Xie, Li; Wei, Jia; Li, Rutian; Yu, Lixia; Liu, Baorui

    2013-06-01

    Endostar was approved for the treatment of cancer as an antiangiogenic agent with limited therapeutic effects used alone in cancer treatment. Tetrandrine (TET) has a variety of nontumor-related effects and anticancer effects, including antiangiogenic effects. This study was designed to explore the interaction of Endostar and TET. Antiproliferative effects of TET combined with Endostar on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the human colon cancer cell line LoVo were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide (MTT) assays. The effects on HUVEC migration and tube formation of TET plus Endostar were observed by the transwell test and tube formation assay. Refer to the mechanisms of the cell proliferation inhibition effect caused by the two drugs: apoptosis assay and cell cycle analysis of HUVECs were analyzed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining, followed by flow cytometry. The combination of TET and Endostar had a synergistic effect on the antiproliferation of HUVECs and LoVo cells. Further, all these antiangiogenic effects such as inhibition of cell migration, suppression of tube formation, induction of cell apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest were enhanced when HUVECs were treated with TET combined with Endostar. Thus, we identified that there was a synergistic antiangiogenic effect in vitro when combining TET with Endostar. PMID:23682584

  2. Differentiated NSC-34 cells as an in vitro cell model for VX.

    PubMed

    Kanjilal, Baishali; Keyser, Brian M; Andres, Devon K; Nealley, Eric; Benton, Betty; Melber, Ashley A; Andres, Jaclynn F; Letukas, Valerie A; Clark, Offie; Ray, Radharaman

    2014-10-01

    The US military has placed major emphasis on developing therapeutics against nerve agents (NA). Current efforts are hindered by the lack of effective in vitro cellular models to aid in the preliminary screening of potential candidate drugs/antidotes. The development of an in vitro cellular model to aid in discovering new NA therapeutics would be highly beneficial. In this regard, we have examined the response of a differentiated hybrid neuronal cell line, NSC-34, to the NA VX. VX-induced apoptosis of differentiated NSC-34 cells was measured by monitoring the changes in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity post-exposure. Differentiated NSC-34 cells showed an increase in caspase-3 activity in a manner dependent on both time (17-23?h post-exposure) and dose (10-100?nM). The maximal increase in caspase-3 activity was found to be at 20-h post-exposure. Caspase-9 activity was also measured in response to VX and was found to be elevated at all concentrations (10-100?nM) tested. VX-induced cell death was also observed by utilizing annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry. Finally, VX-induced caspase-3 or -9 activities were reduced with the addition of pralidoxime (2-PAM), one of the current therapeutics used against NA toxicity, and dizocilpine (MK-801). Overall the data presented here show that differentiated NSC-34 cells are sensitive to VX-induced cell death and could be a viable in vitro cell model for screening NA candidate therapeutics. PMID:25045830

  3. Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

    2010-03-01

    Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem. Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation of PMA treatment and to evaluate the suitability of the method by applying the following samples: (1) pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Alcaligenes faecalis; (2) pond water samples spiked with heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 and E. aerogenes; (3) anaerobic sludge samples exposed to increasing heat stress; and (4) selected natural samples of estuarine sediment and lake mud. Results from the first two experiments show that PMA treatment cannot efficiently suppress dead cells from PCR amplification when the targeted gene is as short as 190 bp, however, the two-step nested PCR can overcome this problem. The last two experiments indicate the method that PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR is useful for viable cells detection in microbial ecology. PMID:20024544

  4. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma aqueous extract induces apoptosis in alveolar human lung cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem; Afshari, Reza; Davoodi, Saeideh

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549). We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the normal invertmicroscope, MTT assay, Annexin V and propidium iodide, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activated caspases were detected by treatment of saffron in lung cancer cells using fluorescein-labeled inhibitors of polycaspases. The proliferation of the A549 cells were decreased after treatment with saffron in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with saffron concentrations. Saffron induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells, and induced apoptosis. Saffron could induce apoptosis in the A549 cells and activate caspase pathways. The levels of caspases involved in saffron-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells indicating caspase-dependent pathway were induced by saffron. The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation. PMID:24288678

  5. Mycobacterial Di-O-Acyl-Trehalose Inhibits Mitogen- and Antigen-Induced Proliferation of Murine T Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Rafael; Segura, Erika; Leyva, Rosario; Esparza, Luis A.; López-Marín, Luz M.

    2001-01-01

    2,3-Di-O-acyl-trehalose (DAT) is a glycolipid located on the outer layer of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope. Due to its noncovalent linkage to the mycobacterial peptidoglycan, DAT could easily interact with host cells located in the focus of infection. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of DAT on the proliferation of murine spleen cells. DAT was purified from reference strains of M. tuberculosis, or M. fortuitum as a surrogate source of the compound, by various chromatography and solvent extraction procedures and then chemically identified. Incubation of mouse spleen cells with DAT inhibited in a dose-dependent manner concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation of the cells. Experiments, including the propidium iodide exclusion test, showed that these effects were not due to death of the cells. Tracking of cell division by labeling with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester revealed that DAT reduces the rounds of cell division. Immunofluorescence with an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody indicated that T lymphocytes were the population affected in our model. Our experiments also suggest that the extent of the suppressive activity is strongly dependent on the structural composition of the acyl moieties in DATs. Finally, the inhibitory effect was also observed on antigen-induced proliferation of mouse spleen cells specific for Toxoplasma gondii. All of these data suggest that DAT could have a role in the T-cell hyporesponsiveness observed in chronic tuberculosis. PMID:11687444

  6. Silica Nanoparticles Sensitize Human Multiple Myeloma Cells to Snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) Venom-Induced Apoptosis and Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Douaa; Al-Sadoon, Mohamed K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multiple myeloma (MM), an almost incurable disease, is the second most common blood cancer. Initial chemotherapeutic treatment could be successful; however, resistance development urges the use of higher toxic doses accompanied by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The establishment of more effective treatments that can overcome or circumvent chemoresistance has become a priority. We recently demonstrated that venom extracted from Walterinnesia aegyptia (WEV) either alone or in combination with silica nanoparticles (WEV+NPs) mediated the growth arrest and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of WEV alone and WEV+NP on proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells. Methods. The impacts of WEV alone and WEV+NP were monitored in MM cells from 70 diagnosed patients. The influences of WEV and WEV+NP were assessed with flow cytometry analysis. Results. WEV alone and WEV+NP decreased the viability of MM cells. Using a CFSE proliferation assay, we found that WEV+NP strongly inhibited MM cell proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the cell cycle using the propidium iodide (PI) staining method indicated that WEV+NP strongly altered the cell cycle of MM cells and enhanced the induction of apoptosis. Conclusions. Our data reveal the biological effects of WEV and WEV+NP on MM cells that enable these compounds to function as effective treatments for MM. PMID:23304253

  7. Synergistic increase in cell lethality by dieldrin and H2O2 in rat thymocytes: effect of dieldrin on the cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chimeddorj, Tsolmon; Suzuki, Tomoko; Murakane, Kazuhiro; Inai, Miyuki; Satoh, Masaya; Oyama, Yasuo

    2013-09-01

    Dieldrin, one of persistent pesticides, is highly resistant to biotic and abiotic degradation. It is accumulated in organisms. Recent studies suggest that dieldrin exerts a potent cytotoxic action on cells exposed to oxidative stress. In this study, the effect of dieldrin on rat thymocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress was examined. Dieldrin at 5?M and H2O2 at 300?M slightly increased cell lethality from a control value of 5.4±0.5% (mean±standard deviation of four experiments) to 7.8±1.3% and 9.0±0.3%, respectively. Simultaneous application of dieldrin and H2O2 significantly increased cell lethality to 46.2±1.8%. The synergistic increase in cell lethality was dependent on dieldrin concentration (0.3-5?M) but not on H2O2 concentration (30-300?M). Dieldrin accelerated H2O2-induced cell death, which was estimated with the help of annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Presence of either dieldrin or H2O2 decreased the cellular content of nonprotein thiol and increased intracellular Zn(2+) concentration. The combination of dieldrin and H2O2 further pronounced these effects. TPEN, a chelator of intracellular Zn(2+), significantly attenuated the synergistic increase in cell lethality induced by dieldrin and H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that dieldrin augments the cytotoxicity of H2O2 in a Zn(2+)-dependent manner. PMID:23726008

  8. The interaction of the carbon nanoparticles with human cell plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overchuk, M.; Prylutska, S.; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Prylutsky, Yu.; Ritter, U.

    2013-09-01

    The study of carbon nanostructures is a highly topical branch of bionanotechnology because of their potential application in biomedicine. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for their ability to kill tumor cells causing hyperthermia shock and can be used in photothermal therapy respectively. Also chemically modified CNTs can be used for drug delivery. The needle-like shape of CNTs allows them to penetrate into the cell plasma membrane without killing the cell. C60 fullerenes are regarded as valuable nanocarriers for different hydrophobic molecules as well as potential antiviral agents or photosensitizers. In our previous studies we have demonstrated that all types of carbon nanoparticles cause externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner to the outer layer of the cell membrane in the small local patches (points of contact), leaving the other parts of plasma membrane PS-negative. In the current work there were studied the interactions of pristine C60 fullerenes and different types of CNTs with human blood cells (erythrocytes and Jurkat T-cells). We have shown, that carbon nanoparticles do not have any hemolytic effects, if judged by the dynamics of acidic hemolysis, although they are capable of permeabilizating the cells and facilitating the internalization of propidium iodide into the nuclei.

  9. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction of Salvia chloroleuca on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Asili, Javad; Aioubi, Ehsan; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Fragrant species of the genus Salvia have been attributed many medicinal properties, which include anticancer activity. In the present study, cytotoxic properties of total methanol extract of Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. & Aellen and its fractions were investigated on MCF- 7, a breast carcinoma cell line. Malignant and non-malignant cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of plant extracts. Cell viability was quantitated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl) -2-(4-sulphophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide (PI) staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). S. chloroleuca inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions of S. chloroleuca, the n-hexane and methylene chloride fractions were found to be more toxic compared to other fractions. S. chloroleuca-induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Administration of N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin C two ROS scavengers also resulted in significant inhibition of cytotoxicity induced by S. chloroleuca. These results support a mechanism whereby S. chloroleuca induces apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cells through a ROS-mediated pathway. PMID:24523759

  10. Gliotoxin Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. Induces Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer and Chondrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Lee, Jung Suck; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Li, Yong-Xin; Kim, Kil-Nam; Heo, Soo-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Je, Jae-Young; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine fungus Aspergillus sp., possesses various biological activities including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism underlying gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity on human cervical cancer (Hela) and human chondrosarcoma (SW1353) cells remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of gliotoxin induction on apoptosis, the activating expressions of caspase family enzymes in the cells. Apoptotic cell levels were measured through DAPI and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) double staining analysis. The apoptotic protein expression of Bcl-2 and caspase family was detected by Western blot in Hela and SW1353 cells. Our results showed that gliotoxin treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced significant morphological changes. Gliotoxin induced apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Gliotoxin-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and cytochromec (cyt c) release showed evidence for the gliotoxin activity on apoptosis. These findings suggest that gliotoxin isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. induced apoptosis in Hela and SW1353 cells via the mitochondrial pathway followed by downstream events leading to apoptotic mode of cell death. PMID:24368570

  11. Phellinus linteus extract induces autophagy and synergizes with 5-fluorouracil to inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Ying; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus linteus (PL) is a medicinal mushroom due to its several biological properties, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer effect remain to be elucidated. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract from the PL combined with 5-FU on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and to determine the mechanism of cell death. Individually, PL extract and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PL extract (30 mg/mL) in combination with 5-FU (10 ?g/mL) synergistically inhibited MDA-MB-231 cells by 1.8-fold. PL did not induce apoptosis, as demonstrated by the DNA fragmentation assay, the sub-G1 population, and staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to PL extracts resulted in several confirmed characteristics of autophagy, including the appearance of autophagic vacuoles revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining, the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, autophagosome membrane association of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) characterized by cleavage of LC3 and its punctuate redistribution, and ultrastructural observation of autophagic vacuoles by transmission electron microscopy. We concluded that PL extracts synergized with low doses of 5-FU to inhibit triple-negative breast cancer cell growth and demonstrated that PL extract can induce autophagy-related cell death. PMID:25622112

  12. Exposure to bisphenol A induces dysfunction of insulin secretion and apoptosis through the damage of mitochondria in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y; Sun, X; Qiu, L; Wei, J; Huang, Q; Fang, C; Ye, T; Kang, M; Shen, H; Dong, S

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in plastic products, through which humans are exposed to it. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA exposure is associated with ?-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial defects can cause impairment and failure of ? cells, but there is little information about the effects of BPA on the mitochondrial function of ? cells. In this study, we assessed the role of mitochondria-mediated mechanisms underlying BPA-induced ?-cell dysfunction and resulting ?-cell apoptosis. INS-1 cells were cultured with 0, 0.0020, 0.020, 0.20, or 2.0??M BPA. Cell viability, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and mitochondrial function were examined. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was also analyzed at molecular level. We found that BPA suppressed cell viability and disturbed GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. Positive Annexin- propidium iodide (PI) staining and altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and caspases in INS-1 cells indicated that the cells progressively became apoptotic after BPA exposure. Additionally, BPA-induced apoptosis was associated with mitochondrial defects in ? cells, as evidenced by depletion of ATP, release of cytochrome c, loss of mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, and alterations in expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and metabolism. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that BPA triggers INS-1 cells dysfunction and apoptosis may be meditated via the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23328667

  13. [Effect of IL-15 on the proliferation, differentiation and anti-apoptosis of CD34+ cells in patients with MDS].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Zheng; Ye, Zhong-Lu; Cai, Kang-Rong; Huang, Xiu-Lan; Cheng, Ri-Ling; Chen, Han-Rong

    2005-08-01

    To study the effect of interleukin-15 (IL-15) on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of MDS CD34(+) cells, CD34(+) cells of high enrichment were separated by MACS system, and cultured in liquid media with different concentration of IL-15 in treated group and without IL-15 in the control group. Apoptosis of hematopoietic precursors was assayed by propidium iodine staining and cell by FCM, and the other MDS CD34(+) cells were stained by cytochemical staining after culture. The results showed that after culture with IL-15 the proliferation and differentiation of MDS CD34(+) cells were obviously promoted. It was found the every lineage of mature cells developed, the expressions of cell surface antigens CD71, CD33 and CD19 all increased in the MDS CD34(+) cell treated with IL-15. It is suggested that IL-15 stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of MDS CD34(+) cells, and partly shows anti-apoptosis effects which may be applicable to the therapy MDS. PMID:16129046

  14. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Cultured in Normal and Hyperglycemic Media in Simulated Microgravity Using NASA Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales

    2003-01-01

    We sought answers to several questions this summer at NASA Johnson Space Center. Initial studies involved the in vitro culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear in cells in different conditioned culture media. Several human cancer clones were similarly studied to determine responses to aberrant glycosylation by the argon laser. The cells were grown at unit gravity in flasks and in simulated microgravity using NASA bioreactors. The cells in each instance were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis was acquired by staining nuclear DNA with propidium iodide. Responses to the laser stimulation was measured by observing autofluorescence emitted in the green and red spectra after stimulation. Extent of glycosylation correlated with the intensity of the laser stimulated auto-fluorescence. Our particular study was to detect and monitor aberrant glycosylation and its role in etiopathogenesis. Comparisons were made between cells known to be neoplastic and normal cell controls using the same Laser Induced Autofluorescence technique. Studies were begun after extensive literature searches on using the antigen presenting potential of dendritic cells to induce proliferation of antigen specific cytotoxic T-cells. The Sendai virus served as the antigen. Our goal is to generate sufficient numbers of such cells in the simulated microgravity environment for use in autologous transplants of virally infected individuals including those positive for hepatitis and HIV.

  15. Bax translocation mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and caspase dependent photosensitizing effect of Ficus religiosa on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Jazir; Parvathy, Muraleedharan; M, Parvathy; Thankayyan R, Santhosh Kumar; Sithul, Hima; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential effect of acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE) in multiple apoptosis signalling in human breast cancer cells. FAE treatment significantly induced dose and time dependent, irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells. This observation was validated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell cycle analysis by Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induction of sub-G0 peak. FAE induced chromatin condensation and displayed an increase in apoptotic population in Annexin V-FITC/PI (Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide) double staining. FAE stimulated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal diploid cells. To understand the role of Bax in FAE induced apoptosis, we employed a sensitive cell based platform of MCF-7 cells expressing Bax-EGFP. Bax translocation to mitochondria was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and marked elevation in LEHDase activity (Caspase 9). Consistent with this data, FAE induced Caspase activation as evidenced by ratio change in FRET Caspase sensor expressing MCF-7 cell line and cleavage of prominent Caspases and PARP. Interestingly, FAE accelerated cell death in a mitochondrial dependent manner in continuous live cell imaging mode indicating its possible photosensitizing effect. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by FAE played a critical role in mediating apoptotic cell death and photosensitizing activity. FAE induced dose and time dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth which was associated with Bax translocation and mitochondria mediated apoptosis with the activation of Caspase 9 dependent Caspase cascade. FAE also possessed strong photosensitizing effect on cancer cell line that was mediated through rapid mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and partial Caspase activation involving generation of intracellular ROS. PMID:22792212

  16. The role of local renin-angiotensin system on high glucose-induced cell toxicity, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shahveisi, Kaveh; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rad, Abolfazl Khajavi; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Rajaei, Ziba; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and apoptosis have key roles in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. There are local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in different tissues such as neural tissue. Local RASs are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the role of local renin-angiotensin system on high glucose-induced cell toxicity, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PC12 cells, as a cell model of diabetic neuropathy. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were exposed to a high glucose concentration (27 mg/ml), captopril (ACE inhibitor), telmisartan and losartan (AT1 antagonists), and also PD123319 (AT2 antagonist) were administered before and after induction of high glucose toxicity. Then cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and apoptotic cells and intracellular ROS production were detected by annexin V-propidium iodide and DCFDA, respectively, using flow cytometry. Results: High glucose concentration decreased cell viability, and increased apoptotic cells. Intracellular ROS production was also increased. In PC12 cells pretreatment and treatment by the drugs showed a significant improvement in cell viability and reduced apoptosis in captopril, telmisartan and PD123319 but only captopril and telmisartan were able to reduce ROS production. Losrtan significantly lowered ROS but didn't show any improvements in cell viability and apoptotic cells. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that RAS inhibitors reduced cell toxicity and apoptosis and ROS production was induced by high glucose. It may be suggested that local RAS has a role in high glucose toxicity. PMID:25422756

  17. Microenvironment mesenchymal cells protect ovarian cancer cell lines from apoptosis by inhibiting XIAP inactivation.

    PubMed

    Castells, M; Milhas, D; Gandy, C; Thibault, B; Rafii, A; Delord, J-P; Couderc, B

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is characterized by high frequency of recurrence (70% of patients) and carboplatin resistance acquisition. Carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSC) have been shown to induce ovarian cancer chemoresistance through trogocytosis. Here we examined CA-MSC properties to protect ovarian cancer cells from carboplatin-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was determined by Propidium Iodide and Annexin-V-FITC labelling and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage analysis. We showed a significant increase of inhibitory concentration 50 and a 30% decrease of carboplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells incubated in the presence of CA-MSC-conditioned medium (CM). A molecular analysis of apoptosis signalling pathway in response to carboplatin revealed that the presence of CA-MSC CM induced a 30% decrease of effector caspases-3 and -7 activation and proteolysis activity. CA-MSC secretions promoted Akt and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP; caspase inhibitor from inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family) phosphorylation. XIAP depletion by siRNA strategy permitted to restore apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells stimulated by CA-MSC CM. The factors secreted by CA-MSC are able to confer chemoresistance to carboplatin in ovarian cancer cells through the inhibition of effector caspases activation and apoptosis blockade. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway and the phosphorylation of its downstream target XIAP underlined the implication of this signalling pathway in ovarian cancer chemoresistance. This study reveals the potentialities of targeting XIAP in ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:24176845

  18. Inhibitory effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on fatty acid synthase and MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Nie, Fangyuan; Ouyang, Jian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is overexpressed in many human cancers including breast cancer and is considered to be a promising target for therapy. Sea buckthorn has long been used to treat a variety of maladies. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPs) isolated from the seeds of sea buckthorn on FAS and FAS overexpressed human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The FAS activity and FAS inhibition were measured by a spectrophotometer at 340 nm of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) absorption. We found that SBP potently inhibited the activity of FAS with a half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.087 ?g/ml. 3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to test the cell viability. SBP reduced MDA-MB-231 cell viability with an IC50 value of 37.5 ?g/ml. Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide dual staining and flow cytometric analysis showed that SBP induced MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis. SBP inhibited intracellular FAS activity with a dose-dependent manner. In addition, sodium palmitate could rescue the cell apoptosis induced by SBP. These results showed that SBP was a promising FAS inhibitor which could induce the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells via inhibiting FAS. These findings suggested that SBP might be useful for preventing or treating breast cancer. PMID:24957042

  19. Apoptosis induced by sonodynamic therapy in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Li, Wei; Geng, Shuo; Meng, Qing-Gang; Bi, Zheng-Gang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-sonodynamic therapy (HMME-SDT) on MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. The HMME concentration was kept constant at 20 µg/ml and the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line was exposed to ultrasound with an intensity of 1.0 W/cm2 for 30 sec. Cell cytotoxicity was quantified using an MTT assay 6 h after HMME-SDT. The intracellular localization of HMME was imaged using inverted confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptosis was investigated using flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodine staining. The cytotoxicity of HMME-mediated sonodynamic action on MG-63 cells was significantly higher than that of other treatments, including ultrasound alone, HMME alone and sham treatment. Flow cytometry demonstrated that HMME?SDT action markedly enhanced the apoptotic rate of MG-63 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis were analyzed by measuring the protein expression of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved PARP, procaspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. The data demonstrated that HMME-SDT action markedly induced the apoptosis of MG-63 cells. PMID:25778820

  20. Chemical compositions and antiproliferation activities of the chloroform fraction from Pyropolyporus fomentarius in K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wang, P; Xiao, Y; Wang, X; Yang, S; Liu, Q

    2015-07-01

    Pyropolyporus fomentarius, a fungus of the polyporaceae family, has been used in the treatment of various diseases, such as gastroenteric disorder, hepatocirrhosis, oral ulcer, inflammation, and several cancers. This study was conducted to investigate the compositions and cell growth inhibition effects of P. fomentarius chloroform (CHCl3) fraction and to clarify the possible mechanisms. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to investigate the composition of the P. fomentarius CHCl3 fraction. Cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell membrane damage was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope and flow cytometry following propidium iodide and bis-(1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol staining. Apoptosis was analyzed using annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining. Generation of intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m) were detected by flow cytometry using fluo 3-acetoxymethyl ester, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate, and rhodamine 123. Our obtained data indicate that P. fomentarius CHCl3 fraction could inhibit proliferation of K562 cells depending on both the dosage and the incubation time, cause cell membrane damage, influence intracellular [Ca(2+)]i variation, promote the yield of ROS, decrease the level of ?? m, and initiate the apoptotic response in K562 cells. PMID:25403175

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles in melanoma cells and dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Grudzinski, Ireneusz P; Bystrzejewski, Michal; Cywinska, Monika A; Kosmider, Anita; Poplawska, Magdalena; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Ostrowska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) are emerging as promising biomedical tools due to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of CEINs (the mean diameter distribution ranges 46-56 nm) has been explored by MTT, LDH leakage, Calcein-AM/propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays in human melanoma (HTB-140), mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The results demonstrated that CEINs produce mitochondrial and cell membrane cytotoxicities in a dose (0.0001-100 ?g/ml)-dependent manner. Moreover, the studies elucidated some differences in cytotoxic effects between CEINs used as raw and purified materials composing of the carbon surface with acidic groups. Experiments showed that HTB-140 cells are more sensitive to prone early apoptotic events due to raw CEINs as compared to B16-F10 or HDF cells, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that the amount of CEINs administered to cells and the composition of CEINs containing different amounts of iron as well as the carbon surface modification type is critical determinant of cytotoxic responses in both normal and cancer (melanoma) cells. PMID:23990753

  2. Rapid separation and counting of viable microbial cells in food by nonculture method with bioplorer, a focusing-free microscopic apparatus with a novel cell separation unit.

    PubMed

    Shimakita, Tomonori; Tashiro, Yoshikazu; Katsuya, Akira; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    A nonculture method utilizing a novel apparatus, the bioplorer, was developed. The bioplorer is composed of an efficient cell separation unit, a focusing-free microscopic device, and an image analysis program. A meat or vegetable suspension is poured into the cell separation funnel, and insoluble matter in the sample suspension is trapped by prefilters. Microbial cells passing through the two prefilters are then trapped by the membrane filter (pore size, 0.4 microm). Trapped cells are double-stained with 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide, and the membrane filter is removed and set on the focusing-free microscope. A fluorescent image is then recorded. Total numbers of viable and dead cells on the membrane filter can thus be determined automatically. One assay can be performed within 10 min, which is much faster than the culture method. The results obtained with both the nonculture method and the culture method for meat and vegetable samples were highly correlated (r = 0.953 to 0.998). This method is feasible for the practical purpose of food safety control. PMID:16416915

  3. Identification of a novel synergistic induction of cell death by Smac mimetic and HDAC inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Steinwascher, Sofie; Nugues, Anne-Lucie; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Fulda, Simone

    2015-09-28

    Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and contribute to resistance to programmed cell death. Here, we report that inhibition of IAP proteins by the small-molecule Smac mimetic BV6 acts together with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACIs) such as MS275 or SAHA to trigger cell death in AML cell lines in a synergistic manner, as underscored by calculation of combination index (CI). Also, BV6 and HDACIs cooperate to trigger DNA fragmentation, a marker of apoptotic cell death, and to suppress long-term clonogenic survival of AML cells. In contrast, equimolar concentrations of BV6 and MS275 or SAHA do not synergize to elicit cell death in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), emphasizing some tumor cell selectivity of this combination treatment. Addition of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?-blocking antibody Enbrel significantly reduces BV6/MS275-induced cell death in the majority of AML cell lines, indicating that autocrine/paracrine TNF? signaling contributes to cell death. Remarkably, the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) fails to rescue MV4-11, Molm13 and OCI-AML3 cells and even enhances BV6/MS275-mediated cell death, whereas zVAD.fmk reduces BV6/MS275-induced cell death in NB4 cells. Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining reveals that BV6/MS275 cotreatment predominately increases the percentage of double-positive cells. Of note, the Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP)1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or the Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like protein (MLKL) inhibitor necrosulfonamide (NSA) significantly reduce BV6/MS275-induced cell death in the presence of zVAD.fmk, suggesting that BV6/MS275 cotreatment triggers necroptosis when caspases are inhibited. Thus, BV6 acts in concert with HDACIs to induce cell death in AML cells and can bypass apoptosis resistance, at least in several AML cell lines, by engaging necroptosis as an alternative route of regulated cell death. The identification of a novel synergism of BV6 and HDACIs has important implications for the development of new treatment strategies for AML. PMID:26028172

  4. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-04-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  5. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  6. The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA acts in synergism with fenretinide and doxorubicin to control growth of rhabdoid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhabdoid tumors are highly aggressive malignancies affecting infants and very young children. In many instances these tumors are resistant to conventional type chemotherapy necessitating alternative approaches. Methods Proliferation assays (MTT), apoptosis (propidium iodide/annexin V) and cell cycle analysis (DAPI), RNA expression microarrays and western blots were used to identify synergism of the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor SAHA with fenretinide, tamoxifen and doxorubicin in rhabdoidtumor cell lines. Results HDAC1 and HDAC2 are overexpressed in primary rhabdoid tumors and rhabdoid tumor cell lines. Targeting HDACs in rhabdoid tumors induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. On the other hand HDAC inhibition induces deregulated gene programs (MYCC-, RB program and the stem cell program) in rhabdoid tumors. These programs are in general associated with cell cycle progression. Targeting these activated pro-proliferative genes by combined approaches of HDAC-inhibitors plus fenretinide, which inhibits cyclinD1, exhibit strong synergistic effects on induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition sensitizes rhabdoid tumor cell lines to cell death induced by chemotherapy. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that HDAC inhibitor treatment in combination with fenretinide or conventional chemotherapy is a promising tool for the treatment of chemoresistant rhabdoid tumors. PMID:23764045

  7. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of ?-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active ?-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential ?-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (p<0.0001). E. coli cells transformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (?-lactamase) remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, ?-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and survival, honey active compounds would be highly applicable for therapeutic purposes while differences in the mode of action between honey and ampicillin may provide clinical advantage in eradicating ?-lactam-resistant pathogens. PMID:25191847

  8. An anticancer agent icaritin induces sustained activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and inhibits growth of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, YuMing; Zhang, XinTian; Meng, Jun; Wang, Zhao-Yi

    2011-05-11

    Icaritin, a prenylflavonoid derivative from Epimedium Genus, regulates many cellular processes. However, the function and the underlying mechanisms of icaritin in breast cancer cell growth have not been well established. Here, we report that icaritin strongly inhibited the growth of breast cancer MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 cells. At concentrations of 2-3 ?M, icaritin induced cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase accompanied by a down-regulation of the expression levels of the G(2)/M regulatory proteins such as cyclinB, cdc2 and cdc25C. Icaritin at concentrations of 4-5 ?M, however, induced apoptotic cell death characterized by the accumulation of the annexin V- and propidium iodide-positive cells, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and down-regulation of the Bcl-2 expression. In addition, icaritin also induced a sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in these breast cancer cells. U0126, a specific ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated icaritin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Icaritin more potently inhibited growth of the breast cancer stem/progenitor cells compared to anti-estrogen tamoxifen. Our results indicate that icaritin is a potent growth inhibitor for breast cancer cells and provide a rationale for preclinical and clinical evaluations of icaritin for breast cancer therapy. PMID:21376032

  9. An anticancer agent icaritin induces sustained activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and inhibits growth of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, YuMing; Zhang, XinTian; Meng, Jun; Wang, Zhao-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Icaritin, a prenylflavonoid derivative from Epimedium Genus, regulates many cellular processes. However, the function and the underlying mechanisms of icaritin in breast cancer cell growth have not been well established. Here, we report that icaritin strongly inhibited growth of breast cancer MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 cells. At concentrations of 2–3?M, icaritin induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase accompanied by a down-regulation of the expression levels of the G2/M regulatory proteins such as cyclinB, cdc2 and cdc25C. Icaritin at concentrations of 4–5?M, however, induced apoptotic cell death characterized by accumulation of the annexin V- and propidium iodide-positive cells, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and down-regulation of the Bcl-2 expression. In addition, icaritin also induced a sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) in these breast cancer cells. U0126, a specific ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated icaritin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Icaritin more potently inhibited growth of the breast cancer stem/progenitor cells compared to anti-estrogen tamoxifen. Our results indicate that icaritin is a potent growth inhibitor for breast cancer cells and provide a rational for preclinical and clinical evaluation of icaritin for breast cancer therapy. PMID:21376032

  10. Cucurbitacin-I inhibits Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and survivin, induces defects in cell cycle progression and promotes ABT-737-induced cell death in a caspase-independent manner in malignant human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Daniel R; Jane, Esther P; Pollack, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    Because STAT signaling is commonly activated in malignant gliomas as a result of constitutive EGFR activation, strategies for inhibiting the EGFR/JAK/STAT cascade are of significant interest. We, therefore, treated a panel of established glioma cell lines, including EGFR overexpressors, and primary cultures derived from patients diagnosed with glioblastoma with the JAK/STAT inhibitor cucurbitacin-I. Treatment with cucurbitacin-I depleted p-STAT3, p-STAT5, p-JAK1 and p-JAK2 levels, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced G2/M accumulation, DNA endoreduplication, and multipolar mitotic spindles. Longer exposure to cucurbitacin-I significantly reduced the number of viable cells and this decrease in viability was associated with cell death, as confirmed by an increase in the subG1 fraction. Our data also demonstrated that cucurbitacin-I strikingly downregulated Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and survivin. We then searched for agents that exhibited a synergistic effect on cell death in combination with cucurbitacin-I. We found that cotreatment with cucurbitacin-I significantly increased Bcl(-)2/Bcl(-)xL family member antagonist ABT-737-induced cell death regardless of EGFR/PTEN/p53 status of malignant human glioma cell lines. Although >50% of the cucurbitacin-I plus ABT-737 treated cells were annexin V and propidium iodide positive, PARP cleavage or caspase activation was not observed. Pretreatment of z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor did not inhibit cell death, suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Genetic inhibition of Aurora kinase A or Aurora kinase B or survivin by RNA interference also sensitized glioma cells to ABT-737, suggesting a link between STAT activation and Aurora kinases in malignant gliomas. PMID:25482928

  11. High glucose protects embryonic cardiac cells against simulated ischemia.

    PubMed

    Malliopoulou, Vassiliki; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Cokkinos, Alexandros D; Katsilambros, Nikolaos; Pantos, Constantinos; Kardami, Elissavet; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2006-03-01

    In the present study we investigated whether acute glucose administration could be protective against hypoxic stress. H9c2 cells were exposed to either 4.5 mM or 22 mM of glucose for 15,min and then were submitted to simulated ischemia. Cell death was microscopically assessed by combined staining with propidium iodide (PI) and Hoeschst 33358. Intracellular content of glucose was measured by enzymatic analysis. Clucose content of H9c2 cells was 48.24+/- 7.94 micromol/L in the 22 mM vs 23.86+/- 4.8 micromol/L in the 4.5 mM group (p < 0.05). PKCepsilon expression was increased 1.6 fold in the membrane fraction after pretreatment with high glucose (p < 0.05), while was decreased 1.6 fold in the cytosol (p < 0.05). In addition, no difference to PKCdelta translocation was observed after pretreatment with low glucose. After hypoxia, in the 22 mM group, cell death was found to be 17.36+/- 2.66% vs 38.2+/- 5.4% in the 4.5 mM group (p < 0.05). In the presence of iodoacetic acid, a glycolytic inhibitor, cell death was not different between the two groups (23.54+/- 3.2% in 22 mM vs 22.06+/- 5.3% in 4.5 mM). Addition of chelerythrine did not change the protective effect of high glucose (13.4+/- 1.7% cell death in 22 mM vs 27.5+/- 5.5% in 4.5 mM, p < 0.05). In conclusion, short pretreatment with high glucose protects H9c2 cells against hypoxia. Although this protective effect is associated with translocation of PKCepsilon and increased glucose uptake, it was abrogated only by inhibition of glycolysis. PMID:16541202

  12. Stable overexpression of DNA fragmentation factor in T-47D cells: sensitization of breast cancer cells to apoptosis in response to acetazolamide and sulfabenzamide.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Safarian, Shahrokh; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-11-01

    Alterations in expression of the DFF40 gene have been reported in some cancers. This study is an in vitro study of the therapeutic effects of gene transfer that lead to elevation in DFF40 expression within T-47D cells in the presence of sulfonamide drugs. In this study, we have constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for DFF40 and transfected it into T-47D cancer cells. We used real time RT-PCR to detect the expression of DFF40 and the MTT assay to determine effects of the sulfonamide drugs acetazolamide, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on cell viability in the presence of increased and normal DFF40 levels. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by propidium iodide (PI) staining and the rates of apoptosis by annexin V/PI staining. The DNA laddering analysis was employed to evaluate apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of DFF40 was only effective in decreasing viability in cells incubated with acetazolamide and sulfabenzamide. There was enhanced apoptosis in these groups, particularly with acetazolamide. The cell cycle distribution analysis showed that in the presence of sulfonamide drugs there were no substantial changes in empty-vector or DFF40-transfected cells, except for those cells treated with sulfabenzamide or sulfathiazole. There was no DNA laddering in cells that expressed the empty vector when incubated with sulfonamide drugs. In contrast, we observed DNA laddering in cells that expressed DFF40 in the presence of acetazolamide. Our results have demonstrated that combinatorial use of some sulfonamides such as acetazolamide along with increased expression of DFF40 can potently kill tumor cells via apoptosis and may be beneficial for treatment of some chemoresistant cancers. PMID:25086620

  13. Effect of Ca2+ on programmed death of guard and epidermal cells of pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Kiselevsky, D B; Kuznetsova, Yu E; Vasil'ev, L A; Lobysheva, N V; Zinovkin, R A; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2010-05-01

    The effect of Ca2+ on programmed death of guard cells (GC) and epidermal cells (EC) determined from destruction of the cell nucleus was investigated in epidermis of pea leaves. Ca2+ at concentrations of 1-100 microM increased and at a concentration of 1 mM prevented the CN(-)-induced destruction of the nucleus in GC, disrupting the permeability barrier of GC plasma membrane for propidium iodide (PI). Ca2+ at concentrations of 0.1-1 mM enhanced drastically the number of EC nuclei stained by PI in epidermis treated with chitosan, an inducer of programmed cell death. The internucleosomal DNA fragmentation caused by CN(-) was suppressed by 2 mM Ca2+ on 6 h incubation, but fragmentation was stimulated on more prolonged treatment (16 h). Presumably, the disruption of the permeability barrier of plasma membrane for PI is not a sign of necrosis in plant cells. Quinacrine and diphenylene iodonium at 50 microM concentration prevented GC death induced by CN(-) or CN(-) + 0.1 mM Ca2+ but had no influence on respiration and photosynthetic O2 evolution in pea leaf slices. The generation of reactive oxygen species determined from 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was promoted by Ca2+ in epidermal peels from pea leaves. PMID:20632941

  14. Iron-induced necrotic brain cell death in rats with different aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingzhe; Du, Hanjian; Ni, Wei; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2015-06-01

    Brain iron overload has a key role in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our recent study demonstrated that ICH-induced brain injury was greater in low capacity runner (LCR) than in high capacity runner (HCR) rats. The present study examines whether iron-induced brain injury differs between LCRs and HCRs. Adult male LCR and HCR rats had an intracaudate injection of iron or saline. Rats were euthanized at 2 and at 24 h after T2 magnetic resonance imaging, and the brains were used for immunostaining and Western blotting. LCRs had more hemispheric swelling, T2 lesion volumes, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal death at 24 h after iron injection (p?propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells, indicative of necrotic cell death, were observed in the ipsilateral basal ganglia of both HCRs and LCRs at 2 h after iron injection. PI fluorescence intensity was higher in LCRs than in HCRs. In addition, membrane attack complex (MAC) expression was increased at 2 h after iron injection and was higher in LCRs than in HCRs. The PI-positive cells co-localized with MAC-positive cells in the ipsilateral basal ganglia. Iron induces more severe necrotic brain cell death, brain swelling, and blood-brain barrier disruption in LCR rats, which may be related with complement activation and MAC formation. PMID:25649272

  15. Characterization of cell death caused by diplodiatoxin and dipmatol, toxic metabolites of Stenocarpella maydis.

    PubMed

    Masango, Mxolisi G; Ellis, Charlotte E; Botha, Christo J

    2015-08-01

    Diplodiosis, a neuromycotoxicosis of cattle and sheep grazing on mouldy cobs infected by Stenocarpella maydis, is considered the last major veterinary mycotoxicosis for which the causative mycotoxin is still unknown. The current study was aimed at characterizing the cell death observed in mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell lines exposed to the S. maydis metabolites (i.e. diplodiatoxin and dipmatol) by investigating the roles of necrosis and apoptosis. Necrosis was investigated using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assays and apoptosis was evaluated using the caspase-3/7 and Annexin V flow cytometry assays. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to correlate the cell death pathways observed in this study with their typical morphologies. Both diplodiatoxin and dipmatol (750 ?M) induced necrosis and caspase-dependent apoptosis in Neuro-2a, CHO-K1 and MDBK cells. Ultrastructurally, the two mycotoxins induced mitochondrial damage, cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear fragmentation in the three cell lines. These findings have laid a foundation for future studies aimed at elucidating in detail the mechanism of action of the S. maydis metabolites. PMID:26004494

  16. Galangin induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Luo, Hui; Wu, Jun; Lan, Liu-Bo; Fan, Da-Hua; Zhu, Kai-Dan; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Wen, Min; Liu, Hui-Ming

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism by which galangin, a polyphenolic compound derived from medicinal herbs, induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: The 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to measure cell viability. Apoptosis was evaluated by in situ uptake of propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and was then detected by fluorescence microscopy. Protein expressions were detected by Western blotting. To confirm the apoptotic pathway mediated by galangin, cells were transfected by bcl-2 gene to overexpress Bcl-2 or siRNA to down-regulate Bcl-2 expression. RESULTS: Galangin (46.25-370.0 ?mol/L) exerted an anti-proliferative effect, induced apoptosis, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose and time-dependent manner. Treatment with galangin induced apoptosis by translocating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax to the mitochondria, which released apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c into the cytosol. Overexpression of Bcl-2 attenuated galangin-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis, while decreasing Bcl-2 expression enhanced galangin-induced cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that galangin mediates apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway, and may be a potential chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of HCC. PMID:20632439

  17. Chemical and biological insights into uranium-induced apoptosis of rat hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Ke-Jie; Fang, Zhen; You, Yong; Wen, Ge-Bo; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2015-05-01

    Ur anium release into the environment is a threat to human health, and the mechanisms of cytotoxicity caused by uranium are not well-understood. To improve our understanding in this respect, we herein evaluated the effects of uranium exposure on normal rat hepatic BRL cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis, uranyl nitrate was found to be transformed into uranyl phosphate particles in the medium and taken up by BRL cells in an endocytotic uptake manner, which presumably initiates apoptosis of the cell, although soluble uranyl ion may also be toxic. The apoptosis of BRL cells upon uranium exposure was also confirmed by both the acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining assay and the Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining assay. Further studies revealed that uranium induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the uranium-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, indicating both a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway and a death receptor pathway by a crosstalk. This study provides new chemical and biological insights into the mechanism of uranium toxicity toward hepatic cells, which will help seek approaches for biological remediation of uranium. PMID:25636514

  18. ?-Tomatine-Mediated Anti-Cancer Activity In Vitro and In Vivo through Cell Cycle- and Caspase-Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Min-Wu; Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Ya-Ling; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2012-01-01

    ?-Tomatine, a tomato glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess antibiotic properties against human pathogens. However, the mechanism of its action against leukemia remains unclear. In this study, the therapeutic potential of ?-tomatine against leukemic cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability experiments showed that ?-tomatine had significant cytotoxic effects on the human leukemia cancer cell lines HL60 and K562, and the cells were found to be in the Annexin V-positive/propidium iodide-negative phase of cell death. In addition, ?-tomatine induced both HL60 and K562 cell apoptosis in a cell cycle- and caspase-independent manner. ?-Tomatine exposure led to a loss of the mitochrondrial membrane potential, and this finding was consistent with that observed on activation of the Bak and Mcl-1 short form (Mcl-1s) proteins. Exposure to ?-tomatine also triggered the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus and down-regulated survivin expression. Furthermore, ?-tomatine significantly inhibited HL60 xenograft tumor growth without causing loss of body weight in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Immunohistochemical test showed that the reduced tumor growth in the ?-tomatine-treated mice was a result of increased apoptosis, which was associated with increased translocation of AIF in the nucleus and decreased survivin expression ex vivo. These results suggest that ?-tomatine may be a candidate for leukemia treatment. PMID:22970166

  19. ?-Tomatine-mediated anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo through cell cycle- and caspase-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wu; Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Ya-Ling; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2012-01-01

    ?-Tomatine, a tomato glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess antibiotic properties against human pathogens. However, the mechanism of its action against leukemia remains unclear. In this study, the therapeutic potential of ?-tomatine against leukemic cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability experiments showed that ?-tomatine had significant cytotoxic effects on the human leukemia cancer cell lines HL60 and K562, and the cells were found to be in the Annexin V-positive/propidium iodide-negative phase of cell death. In addition, ?-tomatine induced both HL60 and K562 cell apoptosis in a cell cycle- and caspase-independent manner. ?-Tomatine exposure led to a loss of the mitochrondrial membrane potential, and this finding was consistent with that observed on activation of the Bak and Mcl-1 short form (Mcl-1s) proteins. Exposure to ?-tomatine also triggered the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus and down-regulated survivin expression. Furthermore, ?-tomatine significantly inhibited HL60 xenograft tumor growth without causing loss of body weight in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Immunohistochemical test showed that the reduced tumor growth in the ?-tomatine-treated mice was a result of increased apoptosis, which was associated with increased translocation of AIF in the nucleus and decreased survivin expression ex vivo. These results suggest that ?-tomatine may be a candidate for leukemia treatment. PMID:22970166

  20. The properties of microparticles from RAW 264.7 macrophage cells undergoing in vitro activation or apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Diane M; Gauley, Julie; Pisetsky, David S

    2014-04-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small, membrane-bound vesicles that arise from dead and dying cells, and display pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic activity. As shown previously, the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line can release MPs following stimulation with LPS or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], ligands of TLR4 and TLR3 respectively. To determine the relationship of these MPs to those released during apoptosis, the nucleic acid content of MPs from cultures stimulated with LPS or poly (I:C) was compared with the nucleic acid content of MPs from untreated cells or cells induced to undergo apoptosis by treatment with etoposide or staurosporine (STS). As results of these studies showed, MPs from activated, apoptotic and untreated cells had features in common, as demonstrated by binding of the nucleic acid dyes SYTO 13 and propidium iodide; molecular mass of DNA; and binding of monoclonal anti-DNA and anti-nucleosome Abs. While MPs from the different culture conditions all contained ribosomal RNA, ribosomal RNA from MPs from STS-treated cells showed cleavage and degradation. Taken together, these studies indicate that the nucleic acid content of MPs from activated and apoptotic cells have important similarities, suggesting that events during TLR activation may lead to apoptosis and subsequent MP release. PMID:23839527

  1. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on human colon cancer cells: a side-by-side comparison.

    PubMed

    Nutakul, Wasamon; Sobers, Hana Shatara; Qiu, Peiju; Dong, Ping; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang

    2011-10-26

    The effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene (two structurally related stilbene compounds) on three human colon cancer cells were systematically compared. Cell viability tests indicated that IC(50) values of pterostilbene were 2-5-fold lower than those of resveratrol in all three cancer cells. Pterostilbene was also more potent in inhibiting colony formation of all three cancer cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide costaining assay and Western blotting analysis showed pterostilbene had a stronger apoptosis-inducing effect, which was evidenced by the higher percentage of annexin V positive cells and higher levels of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteins in cancer cells treated with pterostilbene compared with resveratrol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that intracellular levels of pterostilbene were 2-4-fold higher than those of resveratrol after treatments with individual compounds at the same concentration. Overall, the results demonstrated that pterostilbene had more potent inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells than resveratrol, which may be associated with the superior bioavailability of pterostilbene to resveratrol. PMID:21936500

  2. Enhanced detection of fluorescence quenching in labeled cells

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A. (Los Alamos, NM); Steinkamp, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for quantifying BrdU labeled DNA in cells. The BrdU is incorporated into the DNA and the DNA is stained with a first fluorochrome having a fluorescence which is quenchable by BrdU. The first fluorochrome is preferably a thymidine base halogen analogue, such as a Hoechst fluorochrome. The DNA is then stained with a second fluorochrome having a fluorescence that is substantially uneffected by BrdU. The second fluorochrome may be selected from the group consisting of mithramycin, chromomycin A3, olivomycin, propidium iodide and ethidium bromine. The fluorescence from the first and second fluorochromes is then measured to obtain first and second output signals, respectively. The first output signal is substracted from the second output signal to obtain a difference signal which is functionally related to the quantity of BrdU incorporated into DNA. The technique is particularly useful for quantifying the synthesis of DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle.

  3. Enhanced detection of fluorescence quenching in labeled cells

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, H.A.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1987-11-30

    A method is provided for quantifying BrdU labeled DNA in cells. The BrdU is substituted onto the DNA and the DNA is stained with a first fluorochrome having a fluorescence which is quenchable by BrdU. The first fluorochrome is preferably a thymidine base halogen analogue, such as a Hoechst fluorochrome. The DNA is then stained with a second fluorochrome having a fluorescence which is substantially uneffected by BrdU. The second fluorochrome may be selected from the group consisting of mithramycin, chromomycin A3, olivomycin, propidium iodide and ethidium bromine. The fluorescence from the first and second fluorochromes is then measured to obtain first and second output signals, respectively. The first output signal is subtracted from the second output signal to obtain a difference signal which is functionally related to the quantity of BrdU incorporated into DNA. The technique is particularly useful for quantifying the synthesis of DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle. 2 figs.

  4. Comet assay, cloning assay, and light and electron microscopy on one preselected cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Oehring, H.; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen; Fiedler, Ursula; Bauer, Eckhard; Greulich, Karl O.

    1997-12-01

    In order to perform long-term studies up to one week on a preselected single cell after micromanipulation (e.g. UVA and NIR microbeam exposure) in comparison with non-treated neighbor cells (control cells) we applied a variety of single cell diagnostic techniques and developed a special comet assay for single preselected cells. For that purpose adherent cells were grown in low concentrations and maintained in special sterile centimeter-sized glass cell chambers. After preselection, a single cell was marked by means of diamond-produced circles on the outer cell chamber window. During exposure to microbeams, NADH-attributed autofluorescence of the chosen cell was detected by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, cell morphology was video-monitored (formation of pseudopodia, membrane blebbing,...). Maintaining the microchamber in the incubator, the irradiated cell was examined 24 h later for cell division (clone formation) and modifications in autofluorescence and morphology (including daughter cells). In the case that no division occurred the vitality of the light-exposed cell and of the control cells were probed by intranuclear propidium iodide accumulation. After fixation, either electron microscopy or single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was performed. To monitor comet formation indicating photoinduced DNA damage in the preselected single cell in comparison with the non-exposed neighbor cells the chamber was filled with low-melting gel and lysis solution and exposed to an electric field. In contrast to the conventional comet assay, where only randomly chosen cells of a suspension are investigated, the novel optimized electrophoresis technique should enhance the possibilities of DNA damage detection to a true single (preselected) cell level. The single cell techniques applied to UVA microexposed Chinese hamster ovary cells (364 nm, 1 mW, 3.5 W/cm2) revealed significant cell damage for J/cm2 fluences such as modifications of intracellular redox state, impaired cell division, formation of giant cells and cell shrinking, swelling of mitochondria and loss of cristae as well as DNA damage.

  5. Responses of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Simulated Food Processing Treatments, Determined Using Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting and Plate Counting?

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Deirdre; Cronin, Ultan P.; Wilkinson, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Three common food pathogenic microorganisms were exposed to treatments simulating those used in food processing. Treated cell suspensions were then analyzed for reduction in growth by plate counting. Flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were carried out on treated cells stained for membrane integrity (Syto 9/propidium iodide) or the presence of membrane potential [DiOC2(3)]. For each microbial species, representative cells from various subpopulations detected by FCM were sorted onto selective and nonselective agar and evaluated for growth and recovery rates. In general, treatments giving rise to the highest reductions in counts also had the greatest effects on cell membrane integrity and membrane potential. Overall, treatments that impacted cell membrane permeability did not necessarily have a comparable effect on membrane potential. In addition, some bacterial species with extensively damaged membranes, as detected by FCM, appeared to be able to replicate and grow after sorting. Growth of sorted cells from various subpopulations was not always reflected in plate counts, and in some cases the staining protocol may have rendered cells unculturable. Optimized FCM protocols generated a greater insight into the extent of the heterogeneous bacterial population responses to food control measures than did plate counts. This study underlined the requirement to use FACS to relate various cytometric profiles generated by various staining protocols with the ability of cells to grow on microbial agar plates. Such information is a prerequisite for more-widespread adoption of FCM as a routine microbiological analytical technique. PMID:21602370

  6. Photic Injury to Cultured RPE Varies Among Individual Cells in Proportion to Their Endogenous Lipofuscin Content as Modulated by Their Melanosome Content

    PubMed Central

    Zareba, Mariusz; Skumatz, Christine M. B.; Sarna, Tadeusz J.; Burke, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We determined whether photic stress differentially impairs organelle motility of RPE lipofuscin and melanin granules, whether lethal photic stress kills cells in proportion to lipofuscin abundance, and whether killing is modulated by melanosome content. Methods. Motility of endogenous lipofuscin and melanosome granules within the same human RPE cells in primary culture was quantified by real-time imaging during sublethal blue light irradiation. Cell death during lethal irradiation was quantified by dynamic imaging of the onset of nuclear propidium iodide fluorescence. Analyzed were individual cells containing different amounts of autofluorescent lipofuscin, or similar amounts of lipofuscin and a varying content of phagocytized porcine melanosomes, or phagocytized black latex beads (control for light absorbance). Results. Lipofuscin granules and melanosomes showed motility slowing with mild irradiation, but slowing was greater for lipofuscin. On lethal irradiation, cell death was earlier in cells with higher lipofuscin content, but delayed by the copresence of melanosomes. Delayed death did not occur with black beads, suggesting that melanosome protection was due to properties of the biological granule, not simple screening. Conclusions. Greater organelle motility slowing of the more photoreactive lipofuscin granule compared to melanosomes suggests that lipofuscin mediates mild photic injury within RPE cells. With lethal light stress endogenous lipofuscin mediates killing, but the effect is cell autonomous and modulated by coincident melanosome content. Developing methods to quantify the frequency of individual cells with combined high lipofuscin and low melanosome content may have value for predicting the photic stress susceptibility of the RPE monolayer in situ. PMID:25034597

  7. 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide Induces Apoptosis on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells Through Mitochondria-Related Apoptotic Pathways: p38/JNK Activation and PI3K/AKT Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ching-Chyuan; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Din, Zhong-Hao; Su, Jui-Hsin; Yang, Zih-Yan; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Robert Y.L.; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assessment, cell wound-healing assay, TUNEL/4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 13-AC inhibited the growth and migration of gastric carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometer analysis. 13-AC-induced apoptosis was confirmed through observation of a change in ??m, up-regulated expression levels of Bax and Bad proteins, down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 proteins, and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, p38 and JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 and JNK activity by pretreatment with SB03580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK-specific inhibitor) led to rescue of the cell cytotoxicity of 13-AC-treated AGS cells, indicating that the p38 and the JNK pathways are also involved in the 13-AC-induced cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that 13-AC induces cell apoptosis against gastric cancer cells through triggering of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway as well as activation of the p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:25342459

  8. Neuropeptide Y receptors activation protects rat retinal neural cells against necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Carvalho, A; Elvas, F; Álvaro, A R; Ambrósio, A F; Cavadas, C

    2013-01-01

    It has been claimed that glutamate excitotoxicity might have a role in the pathogenesis of several retinal degenerative diseases, including glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has neuroprotective properties against excitotoxicity in the hippocampus, through the activation of Y1, Y2 and/or Y5 receptors. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the potential protective role of NPY against glutamate-induced toxicity in rat retinal cells (in vitro and in an animal model), unraveling the NPY receptors and intracellular mechanisms involved. Rat retinal neural cell cultures were prepared from newborn Wistar rats (P3-P5) and exposed to glutamate (500??M) for 24?h. Necrotic cell death was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) assay and apoptotic cell death using TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. The cell types present in culture were identified by immunocytochemistry. The involvement of NPY receptors was assessed using selective agonists and antagonists. Pre-treatment of cells with NPY (100?nM) inhibited both necrotic cell death (PI-positive cells) and apoptotic cell death (TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3-positive cells) triggered by glutamate, with the neurons being the cells most strongly affected. The activation of NPY Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors inhibited necrotic cell death, while apoptotic cell death was only prevented by the activation of NPY Y5 receptor. Moreover, NPY neuroprotective effect was mediated by the activation of PKA and p38K. In the animal model, NPY (2.35?nmol) was intravitreally injected 2?h before glutamate (500?nmol) injection into the vitreous. The protective role of NPY was assessed 24?h after glutamate (or saline) injection by TUNEL assay and Brn3a (marker of ganglion cells) immunohistochemistry. NPY inhibited the increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the decrease in the number of Brn3a-positive cells induced by glutamate. In conclusion, NPY and NPY receptors can be considered potential targets to treat retinal degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23681231

  9. X-irradiation-induced cell cycle delay and DNA double-strand breaks in the murine osteoblastic cell line OCT-1.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine E; Reitz, Günther

    2010-05-01

    Radiation response of bone cells, especially the bone-forming osteoblasts, is an important issue for radiotherapy in young age. A radiation-induced cell cycle arrest may enhance or accelerate osteoblastic differentiation. To analyze radiation response of osteoblastic cells, the correlation between DNA double-strand break induction (DSB), cell cycle alterations and gene expression modifications after X-irradiation was investigated in the osteoblast-like cell line OCT-1. As marker of the cellular response to DSB, the temporal appearance of gamma-H2AX foci after X-irradiation was visualized. Gene expression profiles of the key cell cycle regulatory protein p21 (CDKN1A), and the most abundant growth factor in human bone, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) were recorded using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The distribution of cells in the cell cycle phases G1, S and G2 was determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. Initial studies show a strong dose dependency in the number of gamma-H2AX foci shortly after X-irradiation. Exposure to 1 Gy yields approximately 36 small foci in OCT-1 cells after 30 min that became larger after 1 h of incubation; after 24 h most of the foci had disappeared. X-rays provoked a dose-dependent arrest in G2 phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by a dose-dependent gene expression regulation for p21 and TGF-beta1. As TGF-beta1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization, modulation of its expression could influence the expression of the main osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 (Cbfa1) and other osteoblast differentiation markers. PMID:20232074

  10. p-Cresol Affects Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Cell Cycle Arrest, Cytotoxicity and Inflammation/Atherosclerosis-Related Modulators Production in Endothelial Cells and Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chiu-Po; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Lin, Bor-Ru; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Tseng, Shui-Kuan; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cresols are present in antiseptics, coal tar, some resins, pesticides, and industrial solvents. Cresol intoxication leads to hepatic injury due to coagulopathy as well as disturbance of hepatic circulation in fatal cases. Patients with uremia suffer from cardiovascular complications, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hemolysis, and bleeding, which may be partly due to p-cresol toxicity and its effects on vascular endothelial and mononuclear cells. Given the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation in vascular thrombosis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of p-cresol on endothelial and mononuclear cells. Methods EA.hy926 (EAHY) endothelial cells and U937 cells were exposed to different concentrations of p-cresol. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 -diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue dye exclusion technique, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Endothelial cell migration was studied by wound closure assay. ROS level was measured by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF) fluorescence flow cytometry. Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and uPA production were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results Exposure to 100–500 µM p-cresol decreased EAHY cell number by 30–61%. P-cresol also decreased the viability of U937 mononuclear cells. The inhibition of EAHY and U937 cell growth by p-cresol was related to induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Closure of endothelial wounds was inhibited by p-cresol (>100 µM). P-cresol (>50 µM) also stimulated ROS production in U937 cells and EAHY cells but to a lesser extent. Moreover, p-cresol markedly stimulated PAI-1 and suPAR, but not PGF2?, and uPA production in EAHY cells. Conclusions p-Cresol may contribute to atherosclerosis and thrombosis in patients with uremia and cresol intoxication possibly due to induction of ROS, endothelial/mononuclear cell damage and production of inflammation/atherosclerosis-related molecules. PMID:25517907

  11. Luteolin acts as a radiosensitizer in non?small cell lung cancer cells by enhancing apoptotic cell death through activation of a p38/ROS/caspase cascade.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Ji; Ahn, Kwang-Chul; Choi, Jae Yeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Wun-Jae; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk

    2015-03-01

    To improve radiation therapy, the development of effective radiosensitizer is required. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 3',4',5',7'?tetrahydroxyflavone (luteolin) against NCI?H460 and ?H1299 non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were determined using 3?(4,5?dimethylthiazol?2?yl)?2,5?diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Radiosensitizing activity was assessed in vitro by treating cells with luteolin prior to irradiation of ??ionizing radiation (IR), and performing cell count and clonogenic assays. Cell signaling pathways involved in the radiosensitizing effects of luteolin were examined using propidium iodide (PI) uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection and immunoblot assays, with or without specific chemical inhibitors. Apoptotic cell death was confirmed by PI uptake and immunoblot assays. In vivo radiosensitizing activity was tested using an NCI?H460 cell xenograft model in nude mice. Tumor size was measured and apoptosis was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in animals in four treatment groups: mock?treated control, luteolin only, IR only, and luteolin plus IR. Treatment with luteolin or IR induced NSCLC cell death in vitro, but the combination of luteolin pre?treatment and IR was more effective than either agent alone, yielding dose enhancement ratios (DERs) of 1.22 and 1.35 for NCI?H460 and ?H1299 cells, respectively. Combined treatment with luteolin and IR enhanced apoptotic cell death in association with downregulation of B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) and activation of caspase?3, ?8, and ?9; it also induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ROS accumulation. Inhibition of p38 MAPK decreased ROS production, and inhibition of either p38 MAPK or ROS production attenuated apoptotic cell death and activation of caspase?8 and ?9. In a xenograft model, tumor growth was delayed by 21.8 days in the luteolin/IR combination group compared with controls, and apoptotic cell death was increased. The enhancement factor of the luteolin and IR combination was 1.83. Collectively, these findings indicate that luteolin acts as a radiosensitizer by enhancing apoptotic cell death through activation of a p38/ROS/caspase cascade. PMID:25586525

  12. Apoptosis Induction of Salvia chorassanica Root Extract on Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Parsaee, Heydar; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Soofi, Hojjat; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Salvia chorassanica Bunge is one of the Iranian endemic species of Salvia. There is not any reported literature on S. chorassanica. This study was designed to examine the in-vitro anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of the methanol extract of S. chorassanica and its fractions on HeLa cell line. Cells were cultured in EX-CELL®, an animal free medium specially designed for HeLa cell line and incubated with different concentrations of plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide (PI) staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). Activity of caspase -3, -8 and -9 was measured by the caspase colorimetric kit assay. S. chorassanica inhibited the growth of malignant cells and the CH2Cl2 fraction was determined as the most cytotoxic fraction in comparison with other fractions. The calculated IC50 values for methanol extract, n-hexane, CH2Cl2 and EtOAc fractions were 8.841, 5.45, 2.38, and 58.03 ?g/mL, respectively. S. chorassanica induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that the cytotoxic mechanism is characterized by apoptosis induction. The activity of caspase-3 and 8 proteins in treated HeLa cells was significantly higher than that of the control while caspase-9 activity did not change significantly. Based on the result obtained from our study, the apoptosis pathway involved in S. chorassanica-induced cell death may be through the extrinsic pathway and it can be a novel promising candidate in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24250574

  13. Single-Cell Tracking Reveals Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Mycobacterial Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Emre; McKinney, John D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ATP is a key molecule of cell physiology, but despite its importance, there are currently no methods for monitoring single-cell ATP fluctuations in live bacteria. This is a major obstacle in studies of bacterial energy metabolism, because there is a growing awareness that bacteria respond to stressors such as antibiotics in a highly individualistic manner. Here, we present a method for long-term single-cell tracking of ATP levels in Mycobacterium smegmatis based on a combination of microfluidics, time-lapse microscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ATP biosensors. Upon treating cells with antibiotics, we observed that individual cells undergo an abrupt and irreversible switch from high to low intracellular ATP levels. The kinetics and extent of ATP switching clearly discriminate between an inhibitor of ATP synthesis and other classes of antibiotics. Cells that resume growth after 24 h of antibiotic treatment maintain high ATP levels throughout the exposure period. In contrast, antibiotic-treated cells that switch from ATP-high to ATP-low states never resume growth after antibiotic washout. Surprisingly, only a subset of these nongrowing ATP-low cells stains with propidium iodide (PI), a widely used live/dead cell marker. These experiments also reveal a cryptic subset of cells that do not resume growth after antibiotic washout despite remaining ATP high and PI negative. We conclude that ATP tracking is a more dynamic, sensitive, reliable, and discriminating marker of cell viability than staining with PI. This method could be used in studies to evaluate antimicrobial effectiveness and mechanism of action, as well as for high-throughput screening. PMID:25691591

  14. Glycans coated silver nanoparticles induces autophagy and necrosis in HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Mariano, Stefania; Dini, Luciana

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the induction of autophagy by two concentrations (2×103 or 2×104 NPs/cell) of 30 nm sized ?-D-Glucose- and ?-D-Glucose/Sucrose-coated silver NanoParticles (AgNPs-G and AgNPs-GS respectively) in HeLa cells treated for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hrs. Cell viability was assessed by Neutral Red (NR) test and morphological evaluation. In addition ROS generation (NBT test) and induction of apoptosis/necrosis (Annexin V/Propidium Iodide-Annexin V/PI staining) and autophagy (Monodansylcadaverine-MDC staining) were evaluated. Cytotoxicity, ROS generation and morphology changes depend on NPs type and amount, and incubation time. As a general result, AgNPs-G are more toxic than AgNPs-GS. Moreover, the lowest AgNPs-GS concentration is ineffective on cell viability and ROS generation. Only 10% and 25% of viable HeLa cells were found at the end of incubation time in the presence of higher amount of AgNPs - G and AgNPs-GS respectively and in parallel ROS generation is induced. To elucidate the type of cell death, Annexin V/PI and MDC staining was performed. Interestingly, irrespective of coating type and NPs amount the percentage of apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-) is similar to viable HeLa cells. At contrary, we observed a NPs amount dependent autophagy and necrosis induction. In fact, the lower amount of NPs induces autophagy (MDC+/PI- cells) whereas the higher one induces necrosis (Annexin V+/PI+ cells). Our findings suggest that AgNPs-induced cytotoxicity depends on AgNPs amount and type and provide preliminary evidence of induction of autophagy in HeLa cells cultured in the presence of AgNPs.

  15. Interactions of human bone cells with diamond-like carbon polymer hybrid coatings.

    PubMed

    Calzado-Martín, Alicia; Saldaña, Laura; Korhonen, Hannu; Soininen, Antti; Kinnari, Teemu J; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Munuera, Luis; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2010-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings produced using the plasma-accelerating filtered pulsed arc discharge (FPAD) method display excellent adherence to the substrate and improve its corrosion resistance. This article reports the interactions of human osteoblastic cells with DLC and two DLC polymer hybrid (DLC-p-h) coatings deposited on smooth, matt and rough silicon wafers by the FPAD method. The DLC-p-h materials were DLC-polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) and DLC-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) coatings. The biocompatibility of the coatings was assayed by using mesenchymal stem cells, primary osteoblasts and Saos-2 cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells proliferated when cultured on DLC and DLC-PTFE-h, but their numbers diminished on DLC-PDMS-h. In all three cell types studied, phalloidin-TRITC staining disclosed cell-type organization typical of an actin cytoskeleton on DLC and DLC-PTFE-h, but minimal and disorganized stress fibers on cells cultured on DLC-PDMS-h. The microtubular cytoskeleton was similarly disorganized on DLC-PDMS-h. Cells on DLC-PDMS-h developed a peculiar form of membrane damage, with nuclear staining by propidium iodide associated with granular calcein staining of the cytoplasm. Active caspase-3 labeling was only seen in cells cultured on DLC-PDMS-h, indicating that these cells undergo apoptosis induced by defective cell adhesion. Results suggest that DLC-PDMS-h coatings might be useful in orthopedic applications where an implant or implant-facet should be protected against bone overgrowth while DLC and DLC-PTFE-h coatings might improve osseointegration. PMID:20197124

  16. L-carvone induces p53, caspase 3 mediated apoptosis and inhibits the migration of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinaki B; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural compounds exists that possesses significant cytotoxic as well as chemopreventive activity through induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of L-carvone, an active component of spearmint (Mentha spicata) was studied on breast cancer (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231) and normal (MCF 10A) cell lines, and insight into its mechanism of action was attained. L-carvone inhibited proliferation of MCF 7 (IC50 1.2 mM) and MDA MB 231 cells (IC50 1.0 mM) and inhibited the migration of breast cancer cell lines. L-carvone induced apoptosis as observed by nuclei fragmentation and the presence of apoptotic bodies in DAPI, AnnexinV/propidium iodide, and TUNEL assays. L-carvone exposure arrested MCF 7 cells in S phase of the cell cycle. DNA damage caused by L-carvone was apparent from the increased tail moment in COMET assay, which could be induced by an increase in ROS that was measured using a fluorescence probe. Glutathione levels were also increased. The increased level of p53, Bad, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP explained p53 and caspase-mediated apoptosis. PMID:24611509

  17. Effects of some endocrine disruptors on the proliferation and viability of human endometrial endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bredhult, Carolina; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie; Olovsson, Matts

    2007-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) pose a potential threat to human reproductive health. We studied the proliferation and viability of human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) in vitro after exposure to 2,2-bis(o,p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB 77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB 126), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bisphenol A (BPA), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 17beta-oestradiol, progesterone, 17alpha-ethynyl oestradiol and levonorgestrel. Cell proliferation was studied using immunocytochemistry for PCNA expression and a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assay. Cell viability was studied by vital staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. HEECs in primary culture responded with increased proliferation to oestradiol and with decreased proliferation to levonorgestrel and the EDCs. Some EDCs also affected cell viability and increased the proportion of necrotic cells. However, the decrease in proliferation in response to DBP and TCDD cannot be explained by cell death. In light of these results, it is possible that the EDCs could have effects in vivo as well as in vitro, and influence processes involving for example endometrial angiogenesis. PMID:17493787

  18. Combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate with diethyldithiocarbamate markedly inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in 3D culture and in immunodeficient mice

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, HUARONG; CAO, KAJIA; MALIK, SAQUIB; ZHANG, QIUYAN; LI, DONGLI; CHANG, RICHARD; WANG, HUAQIAN; LIN, WEIPING; VAN DOREN, JEREMIAH; ZHANG, KUN; DU, ZHIYUN; ZHENG, XI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) alone or in combination on human pancreatic cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in nude mice. Pancreatic cancer cells were treated with either DDTC or TPA alone, or in combination and the number of viable cells was then determined by trypan blue ecxlusion assay and the number of apoptotic cells was determined by morphological assessment by staining the cells with propidium idiode and examining them under a fluorescence microscope. Treatment with DDTC or TPA alone inhibited the growth and promoted the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were more prominent following treatment with TPA in combination with DDTC than following treatment with either agent alone in PANC-1 cells in monolayer cultures and in 3 dimensional (3D) cultures. The potent effects of the combination treatment on PANC-1 cells were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and the decreased expression of Bcl-2 induced by DDTC, as shown by NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression assay and western blot analysis. Furthermore, treatment of nude mice with DDTC + TPA strongly inhibited the growth of PANC-1 xenograft tumors. The results of the present study indicate that the administration of TPA and DDTC in combination may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25847449

  19. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects rat retinal ganglion cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaochun; Chen, Juying; Huang, Wendong; Zeng, Zhi; Yang, Yongfei; Zhu, Banghao

    2013-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) on apoptosis induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). The underlying mechanism was also investigated. RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 10 µmol/l Rb1 for 24 h and exposed to 400 µmol/l cobalt chloride (CoCl2) for 48 h or 600 µmol/l H2O2 for 24 h. The percentage of cells actively undergoing apoptosis was determined by ?ow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The expression of caspases was determined using western blot analysis. CoCl2 and H2O2 treatments significantly increased the apoptotic percentages to 24.5 and 21.63%, respectively. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the total apoptotic percentages to 15.12 and 12.03%, respectively. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, -9 and -8 was increased in the CoCl2-treated group, however, caspase-3 was not increased in the H2O2-treated group. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -9 in the CoCl2-treated group, but reduced only cleaved caspase-9 in the H2O2-treated group. These results suggest that Rb1 may prevent RGC-5 cells from apoptosis against hypoxia and oxidative stress via the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24002069

  20. LR-90 prevents methylglyoxal-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James L.; Singhal, Jyotsana; Rahbar, Samuel; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound known to induce cellular injury and cytoxicity, including apoptosis in vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cell apoptosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the advanced glycation end-product inhibitor LR-90 could prevent MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pre-treated with LR-90 and then stimulated with MGO. Cell morphology, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by light microscopy, MTT assay, and Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining, respectively. Levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspase activities were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. LR-90 dose-dependently prevented MGO-associated HUVEC cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as loss of MMP, increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and 9. Additionally, LR-90 blocked intracellular ROS formation and MAPK (p44/p42, p38, JNK) activation, though the latter seem to be not directly involved in MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis. LR-90 prevents MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis by inhibiting ROS and associated mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades, suggesting that LR-90 possess cytoprotective ability which could be beneficial in prevention of diabetic related-atherosclerosis. PMID:24615331

  1. Detection of Live Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells by PMA-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baoguang; Hu, Zonglin; Elkins, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A unique open reading frame (ORF) Z3276 was identified as a specific genetic marker for E. coli O157:H7. A qPCR assay was developed for detection of E. coli O157:H7 by targeting ORF Z3276. With this assay, we can detect as low as a few copies of the genome of DNA of E. coli O157:H7. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were confirmed by intensive validation tests with a large number of E. coli O157:H7 strains (n = 369) and non-O157 strains (n = 112). Furthermore, we have combined propidium monoazide (PMA) procedure with the newly developed qPCR protocol for selective detection of live cells from dead cells. Amplification of DNA from PMA-treated dead cells was almost completely inhibited in contrast to virtually unaffected amplification of DNA from PMA-treated live cells. Additionally, the protocol has been modified and adapted to a 96-well plate format for an easy and consistent handling of a large number of samples. This method is expected to have an impact on accurate microbiological and epidemiological monitoring of food safety and environmental source. PMID:24513664

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of ranpirnase (onconase) in combination with components of R-CHOP regimen against diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line.

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, Agata; Witkowska, Magdalena; M?dra, Aleksandra; Zwoli?ska, Ma?gorzata; Bogusz, Jakub; Cebula-Obrzut, Barbara; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Robak, Tadeusz; Smolewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Ranpirnase (onconase; ONC) is an endoribonuclease obtained from the frog Rana pipiens. This enzyme exhibits anticancer properties mediated by degradation of cellular RNA and induction of apoptosis. In this study we assessed cytotoxicity of ONC in combination with currently used anticancer drugs on a human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-derived cell line (Toledo). Cytotoxic activity was measured by the exclusion of propidium iodide assay while apoptosis was assessed using the annexin-V binding method. Additionally, flow cytometry was used to assess the decline of mitochondrial potential and to determine activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9. It was observed that in vitro treatment with ONC in combination with rituximab, mafosfamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (drugs corresponding with elements of R-CHOP regimen) resulted in increased cytotoxicity. As a result ONC showed marked cytotoxicity against Toledo cells. Importantly, in combination of ONC with drugs imitating the R-CHOP regimen, this effect was significantly intensified. The main mechanism responsible for this event was induction of apoptosis along a mitochondrial dependent pathway. In conclusion, these data indicate that further preclinical and eventually clinical studies assessing activity of ONC+R-CHOP treatment are warranted. PMID:24379257

  3. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in mouse embryonic stem cells and chemical based reprogramming of somatic cells to sphere cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajanahalli Krishnamurthy, Pavan

    Abstract 1: Silver nanoparticles (Ag Np's) have an interesting surface chemistry and unique plasmonic properties. They are used in a wide variety of applications ranging from consumer products like socks, medical dressing, computer chips and it is also shown to have antimicrobial, anti bacterial activity and wound healing. Ag Np toxicity studies have been limited to date which needs to be critically addressed due to its wide applications. Mouse embryonic stem (MES) cells represent a unique cell population with the ability to undergo both self renewal and differentiation. They exhibit very stringent and tightly regulated mechanisms to circumvent DNA damage and stress response. We used 10 nm coated (polysaccharide) and uncoated Ag Np's to test its toxic effects on MES cells. MES cells and embryoid bodies (EB's) were treated with two concentrations of Ag Np's: 5 microg/ml and 50 ug/ml and exposed for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Increased cell death, ROS production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and alkaline phosphatase (AP) occur in a time and a concentration dependant manner. Due to increased cell death, there is a progressive increase in Annexin V (apoptosis) and Propidium Iodide (PI) staining (necrosis). Oct4 and Nanog undergo ubiquitination and dephosphorylation post-translational modifications in MES cells thereby altering gene expression of pluripotency factors and differentiation of EB's into all the three embryonic germ layers with specific growth factors were also inhibited after Ag Np exposure. Flow cytometry analysis revealed Ag Np's treated cells had altered cell cycle phases correlating with altered self renewal capacity. Our results suggest that Ag Np's effect MES cell self renewal, pluripotency and differentiation and serves as a perfect model system for studying toxicity induced by engineered Ag Np's. Abstract 2: The reprogramming of fibroblasts to pluripotent stem cells and the direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons has been successfully manipulated by ectopic expression of defined factors. We demonstrate that mouse fibroblasts can be converted into sphere cells by detaching fibroblast cells by proteases and then using AlbuMAX I-containing culture medium without genetic alteration. AlbuMAX I is a lipid-rich albumin. Albumin-associated lipids arachidonic acid (AA) and pluronic F-68 were responsible for this effect. The converted colonies were positive for both alkaline phosphatase and stage specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) staining. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the sphere cells were in an intermediate state compared with MES cells and MEF cells. The sphere cells were able to differentiate into tissues representing all three embryonic germ layers following retinoic acid treatment, and also differentiated into smooth muscle cells following treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The study presented a potential novel approach to transdifferentiate mouse fibroblast cells into other cell lineages mediated by AlbuMAX I-containing culture medium.

  4. In vitro senescence and apoptotic cell death of human megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Zauli, G; Vitale, M; Falcieri, E; Gibellini, D; Bassini, A; Celeghini, C; Columbaro, M; Capitani, S

    1997-09-15

    To investigate the fate of human megakaryocytes, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells were purified from the peripheral blood or bone marrow of healthy donors and seeded in serum-free chemically defined suspension cultures. In the presence of thrombopoietin (TPO; 100 ng/mL), CD34-derived cells showed an eightfold numerical expansion and a progressive maturation along the megakaryocytic lineage. Megakaryocyte maturation was characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of a demarcation membrane system and phenotypically by a high surface expression of alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. The number of mature megakaryocytes peaked at days 12 to 15 of culture. On the other hand, the number of platelets released in the culture supernatant by CD34-derived megakaryocytes peaked at days 18 to 21, when a high percentage of megakaryocytes showed the characteristic features of apoptosis, as evaluated by electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated d-UTP-biotin nick end-labeling technique (TUNEL) and uptake of propidium iodide. In other experiments, primary alpha(IIb)beta3+ megakaryocytic cells were directly purified from the bone marrow aspirates of normal donors and seeded in serum-free suspension cultures. In the absence of cytokines, alpha(IIb)beta3+ megakaryocytes progressively underwent apoptotic cell death. The addition of TPO but not interleukin-3 or erythropoietin showed some protection of alpha(IIb)beta3+ cells from apoptosis at early culture times (days 2 to 4), but it did not show any significant effect at later time points. These findings suggest that the terminal phase of the megakaryocyte life span is characterized by the onset of apoptosis, which can be modulated only to a certain extent by TPO. PMID:9310474

  5. Exercise increases pancreatic ?-cell viability in a model of type 1 diabetes through IL-6 signaling.

    PubMed

    Paula, Flavia M M; Leite, Nayara C; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Kurauti, Mirian A; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Zoppi, Claudio C

    2015-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is provoked by an autoimmune assault against pancreatic ? cells. Exercise training enhances ?-cell mass in T1D. Here, we investigated how exercise signals ? cells in T1D condition. For this, we used several approaches. Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exercised. Afterward, islets from control and trained mice were exposed to inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? plus IFN-?). Islets from control mice and ?-cell lines (INS-1E and MIN6) were incubated with serum from control or trained mice or medium obtained from 5-aminoimidazole-4 carboxamide1-?-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-treated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Subsequently, islets and ? cells were exposed to IL-1? plus IFN-?. Proteins were assessed by immunoblotting, apoptosis was determined by DNA-binding dye propidium iodide fluorescence, and NO(•) was estimated by nitrite. Exercise reduced 25, 75, and 50% of the IL-1? plus IFN-?-induced iNOS, nitrite, and cleaved caspase-3 content, respectively, in pancreatic islets. Serum from trained mice and medium from AICAR-treated C2C12 cells reduced ?-cell death, induced by IL-1? plus IFN-? treatment, in 15 and 38%, respectively. This effect was lost in samples treated with IL-6 inhibitor or with serum from exercised IL-6 KO mice. In conclusion, muscle contraction signals ?-cell survival in T1D through IL-6.-Paula, F. M. M., Leite, N. C., Vanzela, E. C., Kurauti, M. A., Freitas-Dias, R., Carneiro, E. M., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C. Exercise increases pancreatic ?-cell viability in a model of type 1 diabetes through IL-6 signaling. PMID:25609426

  6. Identifying contact-mediated, localized toxic effects of MWCNT aggregates on epithelial monolayers: a single-cell monitoring toxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Rotoli, Bianca M; Gatti, Rita; Movia, Dania; Bianchi, Massimiliano G; Di Cristo, Luisana; Fenoglio, Ivana; Sonvico, Fabio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Bussolati, Ovidio

    2015-03-01

    Aggregates of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) impair the barrier properties of human airway cell monolayers. To resolve the mechanism of the barrier alteration, monolayers of Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells were exposed to aggregated MWCNT. At the cell-population level, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was used as an indicator of barrier competence, caspase activity was assessed with standard biochemical assays, and cell viability was investigated by biochemical techniques and high-throughput screening (HTS) technique based on automated epifluorescence microscopy. At cell level, the response to MWCNT was investigated with confocal microscopy, by evaluating cell death (calcein/propidium iodide (PI)), proliferation (Ki-67), and apoptosis (caspase activity). At the cell-population level, exposure to aggregated MWCNT caused a decrease in TEER, which was not associated with a decrease in cell viability or onset of apoptosis even after an 8-d exposure. In contrast, confocal imaging demonstrated contact with MWCNT aggregates triggered cell death after 24 h of exposure. In the presence of a natural surfactant, both TEER decrease and contact-mediated toxicity were mitigated. With confocal imaging, increased proliferation and apoptosis were detected in Calu-3 cells next to the aggregates. Contact-mediated cytotoxicity was recorded in two additional cell lines (BEAS-2B and A549) derived from human airways. Similar results were confirmed by adopting two additional MWCNT preparations with different physico-chemical features. This indicates MWCNT caused localized damage to airway epithelial monolayers in vitro and altered the apoptotic and proliferative rate of epithelial cells in close proximity to the aggregates. These findings provide evidence on the pathway by which MWCNT aggregates impair airway barrier function, and support the use of imaging techniques as a possible regulatory-decision supporting tool to identify effects of aggregated nanomaterials not readily detected at cell population level. PMID:24873759

  7. Combination of BCL11A siRNA with vincristine increases the apoptosis of SUDHL6 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11 A (BCL11A) is associated with human B cell malignancy initiation. Our previous study has shown that downregulation of BCL11A mRNA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is capable of inducing apoptosis in the SUDHL6 cell line. To further explore the effects of BCL11A siRNA on the enhanced cytotoxicity of a chemotherapeutic drug, we investigated the effects of BCL11A siRNA combined with vincristine (VCR) on SUDHL6 cell proliferation and apoptosis. Methods Chemically synthesized BCL11A siRNA was transfected into SUDHL6 cells using the HiPerFect Transfection Reagent in combination with VCR. Cell proliferation was measured by the CCK8 assay. The morphology of apoptotic cells was observed with Hoechst 33258 staining. The rate of cell apoptosis was determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Results After BCL11A siRNA plus VCR treatment, cell proliferation was significantly decreased in comparison with VCR or BCL11A siRNA treatment alone and negative control siRNA plus VCR treatment (P <0.05). The apoptotic rate of BCL11A siRNA plus VCR treated cells was significantly increased compared with BCL11A siRNA and VCR treatment alone and negative control siRNA plus VCR treatment (P <0.05). Conclusions The combination of BCL11A siRNA and VCR increases apoptosis in SUDHL6 cells. Our study implies that BCL11A siRNA in combination with VCR may be a useful approach for improving effective treatment for B cell lymphoma. PMID:24961604

  8. Isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) Moderates Neointimal Hyperplasia Following Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsihlis, Nick D.; Murar, Jozef; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Ahanchi, Sadaf S.; Oustwani, Christopher S.; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) is a nitroxyl (HNO) donor at physiological pH. HNO is a positive inotrope and vasodilator, but little is known about its effect on neointimal hyperplasia. The aims of this study are to determine the effect of IPA/NO on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro, and to determine if IPA/NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Methods VSMC were harvested from the abdominal aortas of male Sprague Dawley rats, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased from ATCC. In vitro, cellular proliferation was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation, cell migration was assessed using the scrape assay, and cell death was assessed using Guava Personal Cell Analysis (PCA). Cell cycle analysis was performed using propidium iodide staining and FACS analysis. Protein expression was assessed using Western blot analysis. Phosphorylated proteins were assessed using immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. In vivo, the carotid artery injury model was performed on male Sprague Dawley rats treated with (n=12) or without (n=6) periadventitial IPA/NO (10 mg). Arteries harvested at 2 weeks were assessed for morphometrics using ImageJ. Inflammation was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Endothelialization was assessed by Evans blue staining of carotid arteries harvested 7 days after balloon injury from rats treated with (n=6) or without (n=3) periadventitial IPA/NO (10 mg). Results In vitro, 1000 ?mol/L IPA/NO inhibited both VSMC (38.7±4.5% inhibition vs. control, P=0.003) and endothelial cell proliferation (54.0±2.9% inhibition vs. control, P=<0.001) without inducing cell death or inhibiting migration. In VSMC, this inhibition was associated with an S-phase cell cycle arrest and increased expression of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. No change was noted in the phosphorylation status of cdk2, cdk4, or cdk6 by IPA/NO. In rodents subjected to the carotid artery balloon injury model, IPA/NO caused significant reductions in neointimal area (298±20 vs. 422±30, P=<0.001) and medial area (311±14 vs. 449±16, P=<0.001) compared to injury alone, and reduced macrophage infiltration to 1.7±0.8 from 16.1±3.5 cells per high power field (P=<0.001). IPA/NO also prevented re-endothelialization compared to injury alone (55.9±0.5% non-endothelialized vs. 21±4.4%, respectively, P=0.001). Lastly, a 50% mortality rate was observed in the IPA/NO-treated groups. Conclusions In summary, while IPA/NO modestly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting VSMC proliferation and macrophage infiltration, it also inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and induced significant mortality in our animal model. Since HNO is being investigated as a treatment for congestive heart failure, our results raise some concerns about the use of IPA/NO in the vasculature and suggest that further studies be conducted on the safety of HNO donors in the cardiovascular system. PMID:20223627

  9. Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from “liponecrosis”, a previously unknown form of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    We identified a form of cell death called “liponecrosis.” It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities—namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis. PMID:24196447

  10. Chimaphilin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Dong; Zou, Yong-Peng; Wang, Peng; Yao, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Yao; Duan, Ming-Hui; Fu, Yu-Jie; Yu, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Chimaphilin, 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is extracted from pyrola [Passiflora incarnata Fisch.]. In this study, the anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms of chimaphilin toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are firstly investigated. Chimaphilin could inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC50 value was 43.30?M for 24h. Chimaphilin markedly induced apoptosis through the investigation of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, nuclear DNA fragmentation, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Flow cytometry assay revealed that chimaphilin triggered a significant generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, western blotting assay showed that chimaphilin suppressed Bcl-2 level and enhanced Bad level, then activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and further activated the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), finally induced cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment test testified that chimaphilin could increase the generation of ROS, then induce cell apoptosis. In general, the present results demonstrated that chimaphilin induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24793375

  11. Britannin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Fallahian, Faranak; Jafari, Seyyed Mehdi; Dolati, Masoumeh; Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hajiahmadi, Sima; Esmaeili, Somayeh

    2015-02-01

    Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells can be a promising treatment method in cancer therapy. Naturally derived products had drawn growing attention as agent in cancer therapy. The main target of anticancer drugs may be distinct, but eventually, they lead to identical cell death pathway, which is apoptosis. Here, we indicated that britannin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Asteraceae family, has antiproliferative activity on the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and caspase-3/9 activity assay confirmed that britannin is able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. The Western blot analysis showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was noticeably decreased in response to britannin treatment, while the expression of Bax protein was increased, which were positively correlated with elevated expression of p53. Moreover, britannin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which in turn triggered the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and the subsequent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol. Taken together, these results suggest that britannin inhibits growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells through the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and may potentially serve as an agent for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25342596

  12. Ginsenoside-Rp1-induced apolipoprotein A-1 expression in the LoVo human colon cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeon; Yoo, Byong Chul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenoside Rp1 (G-Rp1) is a novel ginsenoside derived from ginsenoside Rk1. This compound was reported to have anticancer, anti-platelet, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we examined the molecular target of the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of G-Rp1. Methods To examine the effects of G-Rp1, cell proliferation assays, propidium iodine staining, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting analysis, and a knockdown strategy were used. Results G-Rp1 dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of colorectal cancer LoVo cells and increased their apoptosis. G-Rp1 markedly upregulated the protein level of apolipoprotein (Apo)-A1 in LoVo, SNU-407, DLD-1, SNU-638, AGS, KPL-4, and SK-BR-3 cells. The knockdown of Apo-A1 by its small-interfering RNA increased the levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and p53 and diminished the proliferation of LoVo cells. Conclusion These results suggest that G-Rp1 may act as an anticancer agent by strongly inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis through upregulation of Apo-A1. PMID:25379004

  13. Influence of Uniform and Non-Uniform Regimes of Nanosecond-Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharges on Intracellular Biochemical Processes in 10T1/2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Abraham; Shainsky, Natalie; Park, Daynna; Freeman, Theresa; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander; Miller, Vandana; Fridman, Gregory; Jefferson University Collaboration

    2013-09-01

    Before investigating plasma effects on differentiation, plasma regime limiting cell death must first be determined. We report the effects of dose on cell viability and compare with dose rates. Results allow for the safe operation of plasma in a regime where nanosecond pulsed DBD on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote differentiation with limited cell death. After optimizing plasma parameters, discharge energy and uniformity effects on differentiation in MSCs can be studied. We also report the effects of direct and indirect treatment on cellular behavior. C3H-10T1/2 MSCs were treated in 12 well plates and stained with two fluorescent markers: MitoSOX Red, which detects O2- and propidium iodide, which is a live/dead stain. Dose vs dose rate effects were investigated, and direct vs indirect treatments were performed with nano-pulses at varying doses while keeping power and electric field the same. We show dependence of cell death with dose and not dose rate. Additionally, we demonstrated that direct treatment elicits greater ROS generation compared to that of indirect. A correlation of cell death and ROS generation with treatment dose is required to find optimal operating parameters for nano-plasma treatment of stem cells.

  14. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells treated with Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf and the isolated compound madurensine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, Karlien; Prinsloo, Linda C.; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Lall, Namrita

    In South Africa traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care and therefore it is very important that the medicinal use of plants is scientifically tested for toxicity and effectiveness. It was established that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Crotalaria agatiflora, as well as the isolated compound madurensine, is moderately toxic against leukemic U-937 cells. Light microscopic investigations indicated that symptoms of cell death are induced during treatments, but flow cytometry analysis of treated cells, using annexin-V and propidium iodide, showed that apoptosis and necrosis are insignificantly induced. The Raman results suggested that protein extraction and DNA melting occur in the cells during treatment with the ethanolic extracts (IC50 value 73.9 ?g/mL), drastically changing the molecular content of the cells. In contrast, treatment with madurensine (IC50 value 136.5 ?g/mL), an isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from the ethanolic extract of the leaves, did not have the same effect. The results are also compared to that of cells treated with actinomycin D, a compound known to induce apoptosis. The investigation showed that micro-Raman spectroscopy has great promise to be used for initial screening of samples to determine the effects of different treatments on cancerous cell lines together with conventional methods. The results highlight the fact that for many natural products used for medicinal purposes, the therapeutic effect of the crude plant extract tends to be significantly more effective than the particular action of its individual constituents.

  15. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells treated with Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf and the isolated compound madurensine.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Karlien; Prinsloo, Linda C; Hussein, Ahmed A; Lall, Namrita

    2012-09-01

    In South Africa traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care and therefore it is very important that the medicinal use of plants is scientifically tested for toxicity and effectiveness. It was established that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Crotalaria agatiflora, as well as the isolated compound madurensine, is moderately toxic against leukemic U-937 cells. Light microscopic investigations indicated that symptoms of cell death are induced during treatments, but flow cytometry analysis of treated cells, using annexin-V and propidium iodide, showed that apoptosis and necrosis are insignificantly induced. The Raman results suggested that protein extraction and DNA melting occur in the cells during treatment with the ethanolic extracts (IC(50) value 73.9 ?g/mL), drastically changing the molecular content of the cells. In contrast, treatment with madurensine (IC(50) value 136.5 ?g/mL), an isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from the ethanolic extract of the leaves, did not have the same effect. The results are also compared to that of cells treated with actinomycin D, a compound known to induce apoptosis. The investigation showed that micro-Raman spectroscopy has great promise to be used for initial screening of samples to determine the effects of different treatments on cancerous cell lines together with conventional methods. The results highlight the fact that for many natural products used for medicinal purposes, the therapeutic effect of the crude plant extract tends to be significantly more effective than the particular action of its individual constituents. PMID:22580136

  16. Artemisinin induces caspase-8/9-mediated and Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Gao, Wei-Jie; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin (ARTE), an antimalarial phytochemical component from the sweet wormwood plant, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by inducing cell apoptosis. The aim of this report is to explore the mechanism of ARTE-induced human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell apoptosis. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that ARTE induced cytotoxcity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy fluorescence imaging of cells stained with Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis of cells stained with Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) showed that ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis. Confocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of single living cells expressing SCAT3, SCAT9 or CFP-Bid-YFP and fluorometic substrate assay showed that ARTE induced the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Moreover, inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 completely blocked ARTE-induced apoptosis which was only partially attenuated by caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, silencing Bax and Bak by RNA interference (RNAi) did not attenuate ARTE-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ARTE induces caspase-dependent but Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis in ASTC-a-1 cells. PMID:25214386

  17. Vitamin D Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor Directly Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and uPAR Expression of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bielenberg, Diane R.; Dridi, Sami; Wu, Jason; Jiang, Weihua; Huang, Bin; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Fannon, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth. Its activity, however, has been attributed to indirect mechanisms such as boosting the immune response by activating macrophages and inhibiting the blood vessel growth necessary for the growth of tumors. Methods and Findings In this study we show for the first time that DBP-maf exhibits a direct and potent effect on prostate tumor cells in the absence of macrophages. DBP-maf demonstrated inhibitory activity in proliferation studies of both LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines as well as metastatic clones of these cells. Flow cytometry studies with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that this inhibitory activity is not due to apoptosis or cell death. DBP-maf also had the ability to inhibit migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Finally, DBP-maf was shown to cause a reduction in urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression in prostate tumor cells. There is evidence that activation of this receptor correlates with tumor metastasis. Conclusions These studies show strong inhibitory activity of DBP-maf on prostate tumor cells independent of its macrophage activation. PMID:20976141

  18. The induction of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 is associated with S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qibing; Liu Lulu [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Lu Yingmei [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Tao Rongrong; Huang Jiyun [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Shioda, Norifumi; Moriguchi, Shigeki; Fukunaga, Kohji [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Han Feng, E-mail: changhuahan@zju.edu.c [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Lou Yijia, E-mail: yijialou@zju.edu.c [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2010-05-01

    The pathophysiological relevance of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO)-induced endothelial cell injury remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GSNO-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Morphological evaluation through DAPI staining and propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis. In cultured EA.hy926 endothelial cells, exposure to GSNO led to a time- and dose-dependent apoptotic cascade. When intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured in GSNO-treated cells with the fluorescent probes 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, we observed elevated ROS levels and a concomitant loss in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that GSNO-induced death signaling is mediated through a ROS-mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that peroxynitrite formation and Omi/HtrA2 release from mitochondria were involved in this phenomenon, whereas changes of death-receptor dependent signaling were not detected in the same context. The inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation and Omi/HtrA2 by a pharmacological approach provided significant protection against caspase-3 activation and GSNO-induced cell death, confirming that GSNO triggers the death cascade in endothelial cells in a mitochondria-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that ROS overproduction and loss of mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 play a pivotal role in reactive nitrogen species-induced cell death, and the modulation of these pathways can be of significant therapeutic benefit.

  19. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote activation-induced cell death in Th1-polarized murine CD4+ T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Kirsten C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Wang, Naisyin; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary n-3 PUFAs have been shown to attenuate T-cell-mediated inflammation. To investigate whether dietary n-3 PUFAs promote activation-induced cell death (AICD) in CD4+ T-cells induced in vitro to a polarized T-helper1 (Th1) phenotype, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing either 5% corn oil (CO; n-6 PUFA control) or 4% fish oil (FO) plus 1% CO (n-3 PUFA) for 2 weeks. Splenic CD4+ T-cells were cultured with ?-interleukin-4 (?IL-4), IL-12, and IL-2 for 2 days and then with recombinant (r) IL-12 and rIL-2 for 3 days in the presence of diet-matched homologous mouse serum (HMS) to prevent loss of cell membrane fatty acids, or with fetal bovine serum. After polarization, Th1 cells were reactivated and analyzed for interferon-? and IL-4 by intracellular cytokine staining and for apoptosis by Annexin V/propidium iodide. Dietary FO enhanced Th1 polarization by 49% (P = 0.0001) and AICD by 24% (P = 0.0001) only in cells cultured in the presence of HMS. FO enhancement of Th1 polarization and AICD after culture was associated with the maintenance of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in plasma membrane lipid rafts. In conclusion, n-3 PUFAs enhance the polarization and deletion of proinflammatory Th1 cells, possibly as a result of alterations in membrane micro-domain fatty acid composition. PMID:15145980

  20. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  1. Cryptosporidium Propidium Monoazide-PCR, a Molecular Biology-Based Technique for Genotyping Viable Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium is an important waterborne protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea and death in the immunocompromised. Current methods to monitor for Cryptosporidium oocysts in water are microscopy-based USEPA Methods 1622 and 1623. These methods assess total levels o...

  2. Natural Mineral Particles Are Cytotoxic to Rainbow Trout Gill Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Capitani, Christian; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Pietsch, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L?1) in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay), oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay), and metabolic activity (MTT assay) were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ?2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8–1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6–1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L?1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3–1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L?1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i.) natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii.) their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral species, with clay particles being more cytotoxic, and (iii.) some clays might induce effects comparable to engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24991818

  3. HepaRG CELLS: A HUMAN MODEL TO STUDY MECHANISMS OF ACETAMINOPHEN HEPATOTOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Yan, Hui-Min; Ramachandran, Anup; Murray, Gordon J.; Rollins, Douglas E.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure in Western countries. In the last four decades, much progress has been made in our understanding of APAP-induced liver injury through rodent studies. However, some differences exist in the time course of injury between rodents and human. To study the mechanism of APAP hepatotoxicity in humans, a human-relevant in vitro system is needed. Here we present evidence that the cell line HepaRG is a useful human model for the study of APAP-induced liver injury. Exposure of HepaRG cells to APAP at several concentrations resulted in glutathione depletion, APAP-protein adduct formation, mitochondrial oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation, mitochondrial dysfunction (assessed by JC-1 fluorescence), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Importantly, the time course of LDH release resembled the increase in plasma aminotransferase activity seen in humans following APAP overdose. Based on propidium iodide uptake and cell morphology, the majority of the injury occurred within clusters of hepatocyte-like cells. The progression of injury in these cells involved mitochondrial reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen formation. APAP did not increase caspase activity above untreated control values and a pancaspase inhibitor did not protect against APAP-induced cell injury. These data suggest that key mechanistic features of APAP-induced cell death are the same in human HepaRG cells, rodent in vivo models and primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Thus, HepaRG cells are a useful model to study mechanisms of APAP hepatotoxicity in humans. PMID:21319200

  4. Induction of apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure of resistive barrier cold plasma.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Anderson, Heather; Gonzales, Xavier F

    2014-03-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ambient temperature ionized gas, is gaining extensive interest as a promising addition to anti-tumor therapy primarily due to the ability to generate and control delivery of electrons, ions, excited molecules, UV photons, and reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to a specific site. The heterogeneous composition of CAP offers the opportunity to mediate several signaling pathways that regulate tumor cells. Consequently, the array of CAP generated products has limited the identification of the mechanisms of action on tumor cells. The aim of this work is to assess the cell death response of human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure to CAP generated RNS by utilizing a novel resistive barrier discharge system that primarily produces RNS. The effect of variable treatments of CAP generated RNS was tested in THP-1 cell (human monocytic leukemia cell line), a model for hematological malignancy. The number of viable cells was evaluated with erythrosine-B staining, while apoptosis and necrosis was assessed by endonuclease cleavage observed by agarose gel electrophoresis and detection of cells with the exclusionary dye propidium iodide and fluorescently labeled annexin-V by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Our observations indicate that treatment dosage levels of 45 s of exposure to CAP emitted RNS-induced apoptotic cell death and for higher dosage conditions of ?50 s of exposure to CAP induced necrosis. Overall the results suggest that CAP emitted RNS play a significant role in the anti-tumor potential of CAP. PMID:24022746

  5. A U87-EGFRvIII cell-specific aptamer mediates small interfering RNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XINGMEI; LIANG, HUIYU; TAN, YAN; WU, XIDONG; LI, SHUJI; SHI, YUSHENG

    2014-01-01

    U87-EGFRvIII is a U87 glioma cell line that overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII). In the present study, we investigated whether a DNA aptamer selected against U87-EGFRvIII using cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) could deliver c-Met small interfering RNA (siRNA) into U87-EGFRvIII cells and silence the targeted gene expression. The selected biotinylated aptamer (BA) was coupled to biotinylated c-Met siRNA by streptavidin to deliver siRNA into U87-EGFRvIII cells. c-Met siRNA, transfected with lipofectamine 2000, served as a positive control, while control siRNA, transferred with BA, served as a negative control. Western blotting was performed to detect changes in the c-Met protein expression, and MTT and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodine assays were used to determine changes in the proliferation and apoptosis of U87-EGFRvIII cells, respectively. Similar to the liposome-mediated group, U87-EGFRvIII cells that were transfected with BA-c-Met siRNA experienced a significant decrease in the c-Met protein expression (P<0.05). There were also significant increases in the apoptotic rate (P<0.05) and inhibition rate of cell growth (P<0.01) compared with the negative control group, indicating that BA could deliver c-Met siRNA into U87-EGFRvIII and result in target gene silencing. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that this DNA aptamer, obtained through cell-SELEX, can be used as an efficient and targeted carrier for siRNA delivery, providing a novel approach and strategy for the targeted combination therapy of glioblastoma. PMID:24944794

  6. Dose-dependent thresholds of 10-ns electric pulse induced plasma membrane disruption and cytotoxicity in multiple cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ibey, Bennett L; Roth, Caleb C; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Bernhard, Joshua A; Wilmink, Gerald J; Pakhomova, Olga N

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the LD(50) (50% lethal dose) for cell death, and the ED(50) (50% of cell population staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat, U937, CHO-K1, and GH3) exposed to 10-ns electric pulses (EP). We found that the LD(50) varied substantially across the cell lines studied, increasing from 51 J/g for Jurkat to 1861 J/g for HeLa. PS externalized at doses equal or lower than that required for death in all cell lines ranging from 51 J/g in Jurkat, to 199 J/g in CHO-K1. Pr uptake occurred at doses lower than required for death in three of the cell lines: 656 J/g for CHO-K1, 634 J/g for HeLa, and 142 J/g for GH3. Both Jurkat and U937 had a LD(50) lower than the ED(50) for Pr uptake at 780 J/g and 1274 J/g, respectively. The mechanism responsible for these differences was explored by evaluating cell size, calcium concentration in the exposure medium, and effect of trypsin treatment prior to exposure. None of the studied parameters correlated with the observed results suggesting that cellular susceptibility to injury and death by 10-ns EP was largely determined by cell physiology. In contrast to previous studies, our findings suggest that permeabilization of internal membranes may not necessarily be responsible for cell death by 10-ns EP. Additionally, a mixture of Jurkat and HeLa cells was exposed to 10-ns EP at a dose of 280 J/g. Death was observed only in Jurkat cells suggesting that 10-ns EP may selectively kill cells within a heterogeneous tissue. PMID:21390200

  7. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb C.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Bernhard, Joshua A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Pakhomova, Olga N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the LD50 (50% lethal dose) for cell death, and the ED50 (50% of cell population staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat, U937, CHO-K1, and GH3) exposed to 10-ns electric pulses (EP). We found that the LD50 varied substantially across the cell lines studied, increasing from 51 J/g for Jurkat to 1861 J/g for HeLa. PS externalized at doses equal or lower than that required for death in all cell lines ranging from 51 J/g in Jurkat, to 199 J/g in CHO-K1. Pr uptake occurred at doses lower than required for death in three of the cell lines: 656 J/g for CHO-K1, 634 J/g for HeLa, and 142 J/g for GH3. Both Jurkat and U937 had a LD50 lower than the ED50 for Pr uptake at 780 J/g and 1274 J/g, respectively. The mechanism responsible for these differences was explored by evaluating cell size, calcium concentration in the exposure medium, and effect of trypsin treatment prior to exposure. None of the studied parameters correlated with the observed results suggesting that cellular susceptibility to injury and death by 10-ns EP was largely determined by cell physiology. In contrast to previous studies, our findings suggest that permeabilization of internal membranes may not necessarily be responsible for cell death by 10-ns EP. Additionally, a mixture of Jurkat and HeLa cells was exposed to 10-ns EP at a dose of 280 J/g. Death was observed only in Jurkat cells suggesting that 10-ns EP may selectively kill cells within a heterogeneous tissue. PMID:21390200

  8. Plasma membrane nanoporation as a possible mechanism behind infrared excitation of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Hope T.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Musick, Joshua D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Short infrared (IR) laser pulses have been used to stimulate action potentials in neurons both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon has remained elusive. In vitro studies have found that pulsed IR exposure generates a nearly instant change in capacitance in the plasma membrane, characterized by inward rectification, a common feature in pore-forming exposures, such as electrical pulses and acoustic shock waves. Based on this similarity, we hypothesize that the mechanism of IR stimulation is the formation of short-lived nanopores in the plasma membrane. These transient, small-diameter pores allow the influx of extracellular ions that lead to action potential generation, possibly through activation of secondary messenger pathways or depolarization of the cell membrane resulting in activation of voltage-gated ion channels. Approach. A variety of fluorescent markers are used to observe the cell response to IR stimulation to monitor for effects indicative of nanoporation in other modalities. Main results. We observe rapid, transient rises in intracellular Ca2+, influx of YO-PRO-1 and propidium iodide into the cell signifying membrane permeabilization, cellular blebbing and swelling, and activation of the intracellular phosphoinositides lipid signaling pathway. Significance. This conclusion better explains the experimental observations and limitations of IR-induced neurological stimulation and represents a distinct theoretical shift in the understanding of the mechanism of IR-induced stimulation.

  9. Electroporation of DC-3F cells is a dual process.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Lars H; Frey, Wolfgang; Silve, Aude

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of biological material by pulsed electric fields is a versatile technique in biotechnology and biomedicine used, for example, in delivering DNA into cells (transfection), ablation of tumors, and food processing. Field exposure is associated with a membrane permeability increase usually ascribed to electroporation, i.e., formation of aqueous membrane pores. Knowledge of the underlying processes at the membrane level is predominantly built on theoretical considerations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. However, experimental data needed to monitor these processes with sufficient temporal resolution are scarce. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of millisecond pulsed electric fields on DC-3F cells. Cellular membrane permeabilization was monitored by a conductance increase. For the first time, to our knowledge, it could be established experimentally that electroporation consists of two clearly separate processes: a rapid membrane poration (transient electroporation) that occurs while the membrane is depolarized or hyperpolarized to voltages beyond so-called threshold potentials (here, +201 mV and -231 mV, respectively) and is reversible within ?100 ms after the pulse, and a long-term, or persistent, permeabilization covering the whole voltage range. The latter prevailed after the pulse for at least 40 min, the postpulse time span tested experimentally. With mildly depolarizing or hyperpolarizing pulses just above threshold potentials, the two processes could be separated, since persistent (but not transient) permeabilization required repetitive pulse exposure. Conductance increased stepwise and gradually with depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pulses, respectively. Persistent permeabilization could also be elicited by single depolarizing/hyperpolarizing pulses of very high field strength. Experimental measurements of propidium iodide uptake provided evidence of a real membrane phenomenon, rather than a mere patch-clamp artifact. In short, the response of DC-3F cells to strong pulsed electric fields was separated into a transient electroporation and a persistent permeabilization. The latter dominates postpulse membrane properties but to date has not been addressed by electroporation theory or MD simulations. PMID:25863058

  10. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic acid-induced small intestinal apoptosis, a hallmark of acetylsalicylic acid-induced enteropathy. PMID:22128216

  11. Effect of moderate electric field frequency and growth stage on the cell membrane permeability of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Laleh; Sastry, Sudhir K; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    Changes in growth kinetics and metabolic activity of microorganisms under the presence of a moderate electric field (MEF) have been hypothesized as being due to temporary permeabilization of cell membranes. We investigated herein the effects of frequency and growth stage on cell membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus acidophilus OSU 133 during MEF fermentation. Cells were stained with two fluorescent nucleic acid stains: the green, nonselective, cell membrane permeable SYTO 9, and the red, cell membrane impermeable propidium iodide (PI). Fluorescence exhibition post-treatment was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Total plate counting was done to determine whether or not the permeabilized population represented live cells. Fermentation treatments investigated were conventional (control) and MEF (2 V/cm, 45, 60, 1,000, 10,000 Hz) at 30 degrees C. Studies were conducted at 45 Hz for lag, exponential, and stationary phases of growth. Low frequency MEF treated cells exhibited significantly greater numbers of red cell counts than conventional treatments; further, no significant differences existed in viable counts between MEF and conventional treatments, suggesting that the red counts represent permeabilized live cells. MEF treatments at the early stage of bacterial growth at 45 Hz exhibited the maximum permeabilization followed by treatments at 60 Hz. MEF treated samples at frequencies higher than 60 Hz did not exhibit red fluorescence. Cells at lag phase showed the greatest susceptibility to permeabilization followed by those at exponential phase. No evidence of electroporation was observed during the stationary phase. To our knowledge, these observations provide the first evidence that cell membrane permeabilization occurs under the presence of electric fields as low as those under MEF. PMID:19224558

  12. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic acid-induced small intestinal apoptosis, a hallmark of acetylsalicylic acid-induced enteropathy. PMID:22128216

  13. Crude ethyl acetate extract of marine microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans, induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Su Hua; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Yap, Swee Keong; Loh, Su Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Marine brown diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans and green microalga Nannochloropsis oculata are beneficial materials for various applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. Objective: This study investigated cytotoxicity of different crude solvent extracts from C. calcitrans and N. oculata against various cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was carried out to screen the cytotoxic effects of hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, and methanol extract from C. calcitrans and N. oculata toward various cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry cell cycle was used to determine the cell cycle arrest while the mode of cell death was investigated through acridine orange/propidium iodide (AOPI) staining, Annexin V-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-UTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays. Expression profile of apoptotic and proliferative-related genes was then determined using the multiplex gene expression profiler (GeXP). Results: Crude ethyl acetate (CEA) extract of C. calcitrans inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, with IC50 of 60 ?g/mL after 72 h of treatment. Further studies were conducted to determine the mode of cell death at various concentrations of this extract: 30, 60 and 120 ?g/mL. The mode of cell death was mainly apoptosis as shown through apoptosis determination test. The expression data from GeXP showed that caspase-4 was upregulated while B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2(Bcl-2) was down regulated. Thus, caspase-4 induction endoplasmic reticulum death pathway is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis while Bcl-2 induced S and G2/M cell cycle phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion: CEA extract of C. calcitrans showed the highest cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 via apoptosis. PMID:24696543

  14. Damnacanthal is a potent inducer of apoptosis with anticancer activity by stimulating p53 and p21 genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Muhammad Yusran Abdul; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Subramani, Tamilselvan; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Ahmad, Syahida; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-05-01

    Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone compound, is isolated from the roots of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), which has been used for traditional therapy in several chronic diseases, including cancer. Although noni has long been consumed in Asian and Polynesian countries, the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts several benefits are starting to emerge. In the present study, the effect of damnacanthal on MCF-7 cell growth regulation was investigated. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with damnacanthal for 72 h indicated an antiproliferative activity. The MTT method confirmed that damnacanthal inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 8.2 ?g/ml for 72 h. In addition, the drug was found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint in MCF-7 cells by cell cycle analysis. Damnacanthal induced apoptosis, determined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) dual-labeling, acridine-orange/PI dyeing and caspase-7 expression. Furthermore, damnacanthal-mediated apoptosis involves the sustained activation of p21, leading to the transcription of p53 and the Bax gene. Overall, the present study provided significant evidence demonstrating that p53-mediated damnacanthal induced apoptosis through the activation of p21 and caspase-7. PMID:24765160

  15. Oridonin induces the apoptosis of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells via a mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, MIN; HONG, DUN; BAO, YANFANG; WANG, CHEN; PAN, WEIBO

    2013-01-01

    The selective induction of apoptosis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The antitumor effects of oridonin have been reported in several types of malignant tumors. However, the effects of oridonin on MHCC97-H cells, a highly metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, have not been reported. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oridonin on the apoptosis of MHCC97-H cells and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms that are involved. Compared with the untreated control cells, oridonin significantly decreased (P<0.05) cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Oridonin at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ?M resulted in increased apoptotic Annexin V-positive and propidium iodide-negative cells by 9.5, 15.6, 22.2 and 31.7%, respectively, compared with the control groups (P<0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased by 6.0, 12.9, 18.9 and 27.1% in the MHCC97-H cells that were treated with oridonin at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ?M, respectively, for 24 h compared with the control groups (P<0.05). Oridonin increased the activity of caspase-3 and the expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cytochrome c in the cytoplasm and decreased the Bcl-2:Bax ratio in a concentration-dependent manner. The data indicate that oridonin inhibited the proliferation of the MHCC97-H cells by inducing apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway. This mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis involved a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and the subsequent release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and -9. PMID:24179549

  16. Molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction in skin cancer cells by the centipedegrass extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Centipedegrass extract (CGE) is mainly composed of maysin and its derivatives, which are recognized internationally as natural compounds. Compared to other flavonoids, maysin has a unique structure in that mannose is bound to the flavonoid backbone. CGE exhibits some biological properties in that it can function as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-adipogenic, and insecticidal. Whether CGE has other biological functions, such as anti-cancer activity, is unknown. Methods B16F1 (mouse) and SKMEL-5 (human) cells were treated with CGE, and their subsequent survival was determined using MTT assay. We performed a cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI), and detected apoptosis using double staining with annexin V-FITC/PI. In addition, we examined mitochondrial membrane potentials using flow cytometry, as well as signaling mechanisms with an immunoblotting analysis. Results CGE inhibited skin cancer cell growth by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase, and increased both early and late apoptotic cell populations without affecting normal cells. Furthermore, we observed mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, increased cytochrome-c release, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, and increased poly ADP-ribose polymerase degradation. CGE also downregulated activation of p-AKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), and p-BAD in a time-dependent manner. LY294002 inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) significantly sensitized skin cancer cells, which led to an increase in CGE-induced apoptosis. Conclusions CGE controlled skin cancer cell growth by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3? signaling pathway and activating the effector caspases. This study is the first to demonstrate anti-cancer properties for CGE, and that CGE may be an effective therapeutic agent for treating skin cancer. PMID:24325618

  17. A role of ghrelin in canine mammary carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis and migration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). They are often co-expressed in multiple human tumors and related cancer cell lines what can indicate that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis may have an important role in tumor growth and progression. However, a role of ghrelin in canine tumors remains unknown. Thus, the aim of our study was two-fold: (1) to assess expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer and (2) to examine the effect of ghrelin on carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer tissues and cell lines (isolated from primary tumors and their metastases) was examined using Real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry. For apoptosis analysis the Annexin V and propidium iodide dual staining was applied whereas cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and BrdU incorporation test. The influence of ghrelin on cancer cells migration and invasion was assessed using Boyden chamber assays and wound healing assay. Results The highest expression of ghrelin was observed in metastatic cancers whereas the lowest expression of ghrelin receptor was detected in tumors of the 3rd grade of malignancy. Higher expression of ghrelin and its receptor was detected in cancer cell lines isolated from metastases than in cell lines isolated from primary tumors. In vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to low doses of ghrelin stimulates cellular proliferation, inhibits apoptosis and promotes motility and invasion of canine mammary cancer cells. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor inhibitor ([D-Lys3]-GHRP6) as well as RNA interference enhances early apoptosis. Conclusion The presence of ghrelin and GHS-R in all of the examined canine mammary tumors may indicate their biological role in cancer growth and development. Our experiments conducted in vitro confirmed that ghrelin promotes cancer development and metastasis. PMID:22999388

  18. Cisplatin induces primary necrosis through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 activation in kidney proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seulgee; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with cisplatin for cancer therapy has a major side effect such as nephrotoxicity; however, the role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in necrosis in response to cisplatin nephrotoxicity remains to be defined. Here we report that cisplatin induces primary necrosis through PARP1 activation in kidney proximal tubular cells derived from human, pig and mouse. Treatment with high dose of cisplatin for 4 and 8 hours induced primary necrosis, as represented by the percentage of propidium iodide-positive cells and lactate dehydrogenase release. The primary necrosis was correlated with PARP1 activation during cisplatin injury. Treatment with PJ34, a potent PARP1 inhibitor, at 2 hours after injury attenuated primary necrosis after 8 hours of cisplatin injury as well as PARP1 activation. PARP1 inhibition also reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase and high mobility group box protein 1 from kidney proximal tubular cells at 8 hours after cisplatin injury. Oxidative stress was increased by treatment with cisplatin for 8 hours as shown by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and lipid hydroperoxide assays, but PARP1 inhibition at 2 hours after injury reduced the oxidative damage. These data demonstrate that cisplatin-induced PARP1 activation contributes to primary necrosis through oxidative stress in kidney proximal tubular cells, resulting in the induction of cisplatin nephrotoxicity and inflammation. PMID:25806124

  19. Effects of Fructus ligustri lucidi on the growth, cell integrity, and metabolic activity of the Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Ge, Honghua; Zhou, Zhongze

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural waste has been used in the treatment of cyanobacterial bloom because of its environmental friendly and cost-efficient characteristics. In this work, the effects of Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL) on the growth inhibition, physiological properties, algicidal property, and cell ultrastructure of Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated for the first time. The alga was efficiently inhibited by FLL at the dosages from 0.25 to 4.0 g L(-1), and the Chl-a fluorescence and metabolic activity of cells also declined gradually. During 25 days incubation time, the inhibition ratio of 0.25 g L(-1) dosage increased from 8 to 68 %, the percentage of intact cells decreased from 94.4 to 59.8 %, the inhibition ratio of 2.0 and 4.0 g L(-1) dosages was nearly 100 %, and the cell membranes were completely broken. The results of Chl-a, propidium iodide (PI) staining, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assays were consistent with that of growth inhibition tests. The new medium test with the PI staining test suggested that FLL may act as an algicidal agent which can inhibit the growth of M. aeruginosa in the acute time. Consequently, FLL could be an excellent choice in the treatment of eutrophic water. PMID:25548017

  20. Differential cytotoxicity of long-chain bases for human oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes, oral fibroblasts, and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Christopher; Mehalick, Leslie A; Fischer, Carol L; Lanzel, Emily A; Bates, Amber M; Walters, Katherine S; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Guthmiller, Janet M; Johnson, Georgia K; Wertz, Philip W; Brogden, Kim A

    2015-08-19

    Long-chain bases are present in the oral cavity. Previously we determined that sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. Here, we determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases for oral cells, an important step in considering their potential as antimicrobial agents for oral infections. This information would clearly help in establishing prophylactic or therapeutic doses. To assess this, human oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF), and dendritic cells (DC) were exposed to 10.0-640.0?M long-chain bases and glycerol monolaurate (GML). The effects of long-chain bases on cell metabolism (conversion of resazurin to resorufin), membrane permeability (uptake of propidium iodide or SYTOX-Green), release of cellular contents (LDH), and cell morphology (confocal microscopy) were all determined. GE keratinocytes were more resistant to long-chain bases as compared to GF and DC, which were more susceptible. For DC, 0.2-10.0?M long-chain bases and GML were not cytotoxic; 40.0-80.0?M long-chain bases, but not GML, were cytotoxic; and 80.0?M long-chain bases induced cellular damage and death in less than 20min. The LD50 of long-chain bases for GE keratinocytes, GF, and DC were considerably higher than their minimal inhibitory concentrations for oral pathogens, a finding important to pursuing their future potential in treating periodontal and oral infections. PMID:26005054

  1. Protective effects of a compound isolated from Alnus japonica on oxidative stress-induced death in transformed retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyoung; Choi, Soon Jung; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2013-06-01

    Here, we investigated whether hirsutenone, a compound isolated from Alnus japonica, was able to attenuate oxidative stress-induced death in transformed retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells. Hirsutenone effectively protected RGC-5 cells from oxidative insult induced by, l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) plus glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner, as demonstrated by propidium iodide (PI)/Hoechst 33342 double staining, flow cytometry, and MTT assays. Moreover, hirsutenone inhibited the increase in apoptotic protein expression resulting from BSO plus glutamate. Hirsutenone also effectively inhibited sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. To investigate the effects of hirsutenone in vivo, we used N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) as a negative insult on the retinas of rats. NMDA affects the thinning of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and causes an increase in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive ganglion cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Hirsutenone treatment led to a reduction in NMDA-induced IPL and TUNEL staining of the GCL. In conclusion, hirsutenone isolated from A. japonica may act as neuroprotective agent for conditions such as glaucoma. PMID:23500778

  2. UV irradiation/cold shock-mediated apoptosis is switched to bubbling cell death at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Jung; Lin, Pei-Wen; Lin, Hsin-Ping; Huang, Shenq-Shyang; Lai, Feng-Jie; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Hsu, Li-Jin; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-04-10

    When COS7 fibroblasts and other cells were exposed to UVC irradiation and cold shock at 4°C for 5 min, rapid upregulation and nuclear accumulation of NOS2, p53, WWOX, and TRAF2 occurred in 10-30 min. By time-lapse microscopy, an enlarging gas bubble containing nitric oxide (NO) was formed in the nucleus in each cell that finally popped out to cause "bubbling death". Bubbling occurred effectively at 4 and 22°C, whereas DNA fragmentation was markedly blocked at 4°C. When temperature was increased to 37°C, bubbling was retarded and DNA fragmentation occurred in 1 hr, suggesting that bubbling death is switched to apoptosis with increasing temperatures. Bubbling occurred prior to nuclear uptake of propidium iodide and DAPI stains. Arginine analog N?-LAME inhibited NO synthase NOS2 and significantly suppressed the bubbling death. Unlike apoptosis, there were no caspase activation and flip-over of membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) during bubbling death. Bubbling death was significantly retarded in Wwox knockout MEF cells, as well as in cells overexpressing TRAF2 and dominant-negative p53. Together, UV/cold shock induces bubbling death at 4°C and the event is switched to apoptosis at 37°C. Presumably, proapoptotic WWOX and p53 block the protective TRAF2 to execute the bubbling death. PMID:25779665

  3. Continuous spectroscopic measurements of photo-stimulated release of molecules by nanomachines in a single living cell.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yuen A; Henderson, Bryana L; Lu, Jie; Ferris, Daniel P; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2012-06-01

    The first continuous, real-time spectroscopic monitoring of a photo-driven cargo delivery event from a mesoporous silica-based nanocarrier inside a single living cell is reported. By chemically attaching azobenzene molecules inside the 3 nm pore channels of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (?70 nm diameter), the escape of the cargo molecule [propidium iodide (PI)] from the pore is prevented in the dark but is facilitated by the light-driven isomerization motion. Real-time spectroscopic measurements of a single cell uncover intermediate processes that occur during this intracellular delivery event, from nanomachine activation to the release of PI into the cytosol and to PI's eventual intercalation with nuclear DNA. Changes in PI's fluorescence intensity and the hypsochromic shift of the band maxima are used to identify the local environment of the fluorophore that is being observed in the cell. The ability to precisely initiate a chemical event inside an individual cell and continuously monitor the subsequent biological responses will enhance our understanding of intracellular process upon drug, protein and nucleic acid delivery. PMID:22552632

  4. Multiple nanosecond electric pulses increase the number but not the size of long-lived nanopores in the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Gianulis, Elena; Vernier, P Thomas; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to intense, nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) opens small but long-lived pores in the plasma membrane. We quantified the cell uptake of two membrane integrity marker dyes, YO-PRO-1 (YP) and propidium (Pr) in order to test whether the pore size is affected by the number of nsEP. The fluorescence of the dyes was calibrated against their concentrations by confocal imaging of stained homogenates of the cells. The calibrations revealed a two-phase dependence of Pr emission on the concentration (with a slower rise at<4?M) and a linear dependence for YP. CHO cells were exposed to nsEP trains (1 to 100 pulses, 60ns, 13.2kV/cm, 10Hz) with Pr and YP in the medium, and the uptake of the dyes was monitored by time-lapse imaging for 3min. Even a single nsEP triggered a modest but detectable entry of both dyes, which increased linearly when more pulses were applied. The influx of Pr per pulse was constant and independent of the pulse number. The influx of YP per pulse was highest with 1- and 2-pulse exposures, decreasing to about twice the Pr level for trains from 5 to 100 pulses. The constant YP/Pr influx ratio for trains of 5 to 100 pulses suggests that increasing the number of pulses permeabilizes cells to a greater extent by increasing the pore number and not the pore diameter. PMID:25585279

  5. Apoptosis and necroptosis are induced in rainbow trout cell lines exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Krumschnabel, Gerhard; Ebner, Hannes L; Hess, Michael W; Villunger, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium is an important environmental toxicant that can kill cells. A number of studies have implicated apoptosis as well as necrosis and, most recently, a form of programmed necrosis termed necroptosis in the process of cadmium-mediated toxicity, but the exact mechanism remains ill-defined and may depend on the affected cell type. This study investigated which mode of cell death may be responsible for cell death induction in cadmium-exposed trout cell lines from gill and liver and if this cell death was sensitive to inhibitors of necroptosis or apoptosis, respectively. It was observed that intermediate levels of cadmium that killed approximately 50% of the cells over 96-120h of exposure caused cell death that morphologically resembled apoptosis and was associated with an increase of apoptotic markers such as the number of cells with diminished DNA content (sub-G1 cells), condensed or fragmented nuclei, and elevation of caspase-3 activity. At the same time, however, cells also lost plasma membrane integrity, as indicated by uptake of propidium iodide, showed a decrease of ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, and displayed cell swelling, signs associated with secondary necrosis, or equally possible, necroptotic cell death. Importantly, many of these alterations were at least partly inhibited by the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 and were to a lesser extent also sensitive to the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, indicating that multiple modes of cell death are concurrently induced in cadmium-exposed trout cells, including necroptosis and apoptosis. Cell death appeared to lack concurrent radical formation, consistent with genetically regulated necroptotic cell death, but was characterized by the rapid induction of DNA damage markers, and the early onset of disintegration of the Golgi complex. Comparative experiments evaluating copper-toxicity indicated that in comparison to cadmium much higher concentrations of this metal were required to induce cell death and that neither necrostatin-1 nor a pan-caspase inhibitor conferred protection, suggesting that additional modes of cell death can be triggered in response to poisoning with heavy metals. PMID:20435356

  6. Thermal and nonthermal effects of discontinuous microwave exposure (2.45 gigahertz) on the cell membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Carole; Prorot, Audrey; Chazal, Philippe; Leveque, Philippe; Leprat, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the cell membranes of Escherichia coli of 2.45-GHz microwave (MW) treatment under various conditions with an average temperature of the cell suspension maintained at 37°C in order to examine the possible thermal versus nonthermal effects of short-duration MW exposure. To this purpose, microwave irradiation of bacteria was performed under carefully defined and controlled parameters, resulting in a discontinuous MW exposure in order to maintain the average temperature of the bacterial cell suspensions at 37°C. Escherichia coli cells were exposed to 200- to 2,000-W discontinuous microwave (DW) treatments for different periods of time. For each experiment, conventional heating (CH) in a water bath at 37°C was performed as a control. The effects of DW exposure on cell membranes was investigated using flow cytometry (FCM), after propidium iodide (PI) staining of cells, in addition to the assessment of intracellular protein release in bacterial suspensions. No effect was detected when bacteria were exposed to conventional heating or 200 W, whereas cell membrane integrity was slightly altered when cell suspensions were subjected to powers ranging from 400 to 2,000 W. Thermal characterization suggested that the temperature reached by the microwave-exposed samples for the contact time studied was not high enough to explain the measured modifications of cell membrane integrity. Because the results indicated that the cell response is power dependent, the hypothesis of a specific electromagnetic threshold effect, probably related to the temperature increase, can be advanced. PMID:24907330

  7. Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation of urothelial cells induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis: new insight to magnetic therapy in urology.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, K; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Thor, P J

    2012-08-01

    The evidence of electromagnetic therapy (EMT) efficacy in stress and/or urge urinary incontinence, as well as in detrusor overactivity is generally lacking in the literature. The potential EMT action of neuromuscular tissue depolarization has been described. Because there is no data on the influence of pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the urothelium, we evaluated the effect of PEMF stimulation on rat urothelial cultured cells (RUCC). In our study 15 Wistar rats were used for RUCC preparation. RUCC were exposed to PEMF (50 Hz, 45±5 mT) three times for 4 hours each with 24-hour intervals. The unexposed RUCC was in the same incubator, but in a distance of 35 cm from the PEMF generator. Annexin V-APC (AnV+) labelled was used to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells and propidium iodide (PI+), as standard flow cytometric viability probe to distinguish necrotic cells from viable ones. The results are presented in percentage values. The flow cytometric analysis was carried out on a FACS calibur flow cytometer using Cell-Quest software. In PEMF-unstimulated RUCC, the percentage of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells were 1.24±0.34%, 11.03±1.55%, and 12.43±1.96%, respectively. The percentages of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells obtained after PEMF stimulation were 1.45±0.16% (p=0.027), 7.03±1.76% (p<0.001), and 9.48±3.40% (p=0.003), respectively. The PEMF stimulation of RUCC induces apoptosis (increase of AnV+ cells) and inhibits necrosis (decrease of PI+ cells) of urothelial cells. This leads us to the conclusion that a low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis of rat urothelial cells in culture. PMID:23070089

  8. Downregulation of c-Met expression does not enhance the sensitivity of gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 to gefitinib.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-An; Hu, Chunhong; Li, Wenjuan; Ren, Jing; Zou, Fangwen; Zhou, Dongai; Zou, Wen; Wei, Yajun; Zhou, Ying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of downregulation of the c?Met gene on signal transduction and apoptosis in gastric cancer MKN?45 cells; furthermore, the study aimed to determine whether altered c?Met gene expression affected MKN?45 sensitivity to gefitinib. Three c?Met?specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were synthesized and transfected into MKN?45 cells. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of c?Met and its downstream signaling molecules [phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K) and AKT] were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis 48 h following transfection. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin?V/propidium iodide double staining and fluorescence?activated cell sorting analysis. An MTT assay was performed in order to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of gefitinib on MKN?45 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that 48 h post?transfection with c?Met siRNA, MKN?45 cells showed significantly downregulated expression of c?Met mRNA and protein as well as an increased rate of apoptosis (P<0.05). In addition, following c?Met siRNA transfection mRNA and protein levels of PI3K and AKT were not significantly altered in MKN?45 cells (P>0.05); however, a marked decrease in the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)?PI3K and p?AKT was observed (P<0.05). Furthermore, the IC50 of gefitinib in MKN?45 cells was not significantly decreased. In conclusion, knockdown of the c?Met gene promoted gastric cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited downstream p?PI3K and p?AKT; however, the sensitivity of MKN?45 cells to gefitinib was not increased. PMID:25395073

  9. Synergistic apoptosis-inducing effect of aspirin and isosorbide mononitrate on human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Diao, Yuwen; Liu, Yu; Gao, Ningning; Gao, Dong; Wan, Yanyan; Zhong, Jingjing; Jin, Guangyi

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) are two commonly used drugs, which are clinically applied for the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Recently, aspirin has attracted interest due to its potential application for the treatment of cancer, particularly colon cancer. NO-aspirin, an aspirin derivative containing a covalently bound NO-donating moiety, has been proven to be an effective anti?tumor agent with apoptosis-inducing ability. In the present study, ISMN was used as an NO donor and its synergic effect with aspirin was assessed in human colon cancer cells. In vitro, an MTT assay demonstrated that ISMN had a synergistic effect on the growth inhibitory effects of aspirin on HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells, while the growth of EA.hy926 normal endothelial cells was unaffected. This synergistic anti?tumor effect was further validated in vivo using nude mouse HCT116 cell xenograft model. Observation of nuclear morphology, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining and a caspase-3 activity assay suggested that the combination of the two drugs induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of the apoptotic effect of the drugs was assessed using an NO release assay, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blot analysis and a luciferase reporter assay. It was certified that the increase in the amount of NO release, the decrease in the luciferase promoter activity and the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc in HCT116 cells were affected by aspirin and ISMN in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the present study was the first, to the best of our knowledge, to report on the synergistic apoptosis-inducing effects of aspirin and ISMN in human colon cancer cells, which were mediated via Wnt and NO signaling pathways. The results of the present study will facilitate the development of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:26094902

  10. Photodynamic properties of ZnTPPS(4), ClAlPcS(2) and ALA in human melanoma G361 cells.

    PubMed

    Krestyn, E; Kolarova, H; Bajgar, R; Tomankova, K

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been approved as proper and effective kind of treatment for certain types of cancer and non-malignant diseases. We tested photodynamic effects on G361 human melanoma cells sensitized by zinc-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulphonatophenyl) porphyrine (ZnTPPS(4)), chloraluminium phtalocyanine disulfonate (ClAlPcS(2)) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). In particular, we examined the PDT efficiency depending on applied light dose (0.8; 1.7; 3.3; 6.6; 13.2; 26.4Jcm(-2)). The DNA gel electrophoresis, methylthiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability test, fluorescent microscopy using calcein AM and propidium iodide (PI) staining, and rhodamine 123 mitochondrial membrane potential assay were performed to detect and evaluate the cell death process. We also measured the time course of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and its dependence on sensitizer concentration within continuously irradiated sensitized cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate most significant phototoxic effect of ClAlPcS(2)-PDT in spite of significantly higher ROS production induced by ZnTPPS(4)-PDT on G361 cells. On the other hand, ALA-PDT has a minimal photoeffect and induces negligible ROS formation in G361 cells at the conditions described below. PMID:19720133

  11. Local plasma membrane permeabilization of living cells by nanosecond electric pulses using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary; Payne, Jason A.; Roth, Caleb C.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies provide evidence that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) can trigger the formation of nanopores in the plasma membranes of cells. However, the biophysical mechanism responsible for nanopore formation is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesize that membrane damage induced by nsEPs is primarily dependent on the local molecular composition and mechanical strength of the plasma membrane. To test this hypothesis, we positioned metal-coated, nanoscale cantilever tips using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to deliver nsEPs to localized areas on the surface of the plasma membrane. We conducted computational modeling simulations to verify that the electric field provided by the nsEP is concentrated between the tip and the plasma membrane. The results show that we could effectively deliver nsEPs using the AFM tips at very low voltages. Using scanning electron microscopy we analyzed the tips after applying 10V over 5 seconds duration and found no damage to the tip or loss of platinum coating. As a proof of concept, we applied a 1 and 10V, 5 second pulse to HeLa cells causing large morphological changes. We also applied both a mechanical indention and 600ns electrical pulse stimulus and measured positive propidium ion uptake into the cytoplasm suggesting formation of membrane pores. In future studies, we plan to elucidate the effect that specific, local molecular structures and compositions have on efficacy of electroporation using the newly constructed nano-electrode system.

  12. Delayed mitochondrial dysfunction in apoptotic hair cells in chinchilla cochleae following exposure to impulse noise.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo Hua

    2007-06-01

    Apoptotic death of hair cells (HCs) in the cochlea has been found following exposure to intense noise. The current study was designed to examine the mitochondrial energetic function of HCs during the course of noise-induced apoptosis. Two aspects of the mitochondrial energetic function, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), were examined in HCs of chinchilla cochleae following exposure to a series of 75 pairs of impulse noises at 155 dB pSPL. The results showed that nuclear condensation and uptake of propidium iodide or trypan blue appeared at 10 min after the noise exposure, indicating a rapid progression of HC apoptosis. However, SDH activity was preserved at this time point. As the time elapsed (1 hr or 24 hrs) after the noise exposure, all newly-generated apoptotic HCs showed strong SDH activity, indicating the preservation of SDH activity during the course of apoptosis. Examination of MMP with rhodamine 123 staining revealed that MMP was sustained in the apoptotic HCs having mild nuclear condensation, even after the occurrence of cell membrane leakage. MMP was reduced with further progression of nuclear condensation. These results suggest the presence of a delayed mitochondrial dysfunction in apoptotic HCs following exposure to intense noise. PMID:17268771

  13. Cell-free propagation of Coxiella burnetii does not affect its relative virulence.

    PubMed

    Kuley, Runa; Smith, Hilde E; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Smits, Mari A; Jan Roest, Hendrik I; Bossers, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors. Studies of pathogenicity may benefit from the recent development of an extracellular growth medium for C. burnetii. However, it is crucial to investigate the consistency of the virulence phenotype of strains propagated by the two fundamentally different culturing systems. In the present study, we assessed the viability of C. burnetii and the lipopolysaccaride (LPS) encoding region of the bacteria in both culture systems as indirect but key parameters to the infection potential of C. burnetii. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment-based real-time PCR was used for enumeration of viable C. burnetii which were validated by fluorescent infectious focus forming unit counting assays. Furthermore, RNA isolated from C. burnetiipropagated in both the culture systems was examined for LPS-related gene expression. All thus far known LPS-related genes were found to be expressed in early passages in both culturing systems indicating the presence of predominantly the phase I form of C. burnetii. Finally, we used immune-competent mice to provide direct evidence, that the relative virulence of different C. burnetii strains is essentially the same for both axenic and cell-based methods of propagation. PMID:25793981

  14. Emergence and patterning of the five cell types of the Zea mays anther locule

    PubMed Central

    Kelliher, Timothy; Walbot, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    One fundamental difference between plants and animals is the existence of a germ-line in animals and its absence in plants. In flowering plants the sexual organs (stamens and carpels) are composed almost entirely of somatic cells, a small subset of which switch to meiosis, however, the mechanism of meiotic cell fate acquisition is a long-standing botanical mystery. In the maize (Zea mays) anther microsporangium the somatic tissues consist of four concentric cell layers which surround and support reproductive cells as they progress through meiosis and pollen maturation. Male sterility, defined as the absence of viable pollen, is a common phenotype in flowering plants, and many male sterile mutants have defects in somatic and reproductive cell fate acquisition. However, without a robust model of anther cell fate acquisition based on careful observation of wild type anther ontogeny, interpretation of cell fate mutants is limited. To address this, the pattern of cell proliferation, expansion, and differentiation was tracked in three dimensions over thirty days of wild type (W23) anther development, using anthers stained with propidium iodide (PI) and/or 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) (S-phase label) and imaged by confocal microscopy. The pervading lineage model of anther development claims that new cell layers are generated by coordinated, oriented cell divisions in transient precursor cell types. In reconstructing anther cell division patterns, however, we can only confirm this for the origin of the middle layer (ml) and tapetum, while young anther development appears more complex. We find that each anther cell type undergoes a burst of cell division after specification with a characteristic pattern of both cell expansion and division. Comparisons between two inbreds lines and between ab- and adaxial anther florets indicated near identity: anther development is highly canalized and synchronized. Three classical models of plant organ development are tested and ruled out; however, local clustering of developmental events was identified for several processes, including the first evidence for a direct relationship between the development of ml and tapetal cells. We speculate that small groups of ml and tapetum cells function as a developmental unit dedicated to the development of a single pollen grain. PMID:21070762

  15. Plant cell death caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral elicitors: protective effect of mitochondria-targeted quinones.

    PubMed

    Kiselevsky, D B; Frolova, O Yu; Solovyev, A G; Dorokhov, Yu L; Morozov, S Yu; Samuilov, V D

    2014-12-01

    Chitosan (partially deacetylated chitin), a component of fungal cell walls, caused epidermal cell (EC) death in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tobacco Nicotiana tabacum or Nicotiana benthamiana detected by destruction of cell nuclei. The mitochondria-targeted quinone SkQ1 prevented the destruction of EC nuclei induced by chitosan. Chitosan increased and SkQ1 suppressed the activity of protein kinases in N. benthamiana and P. sativum and eliminated the effect of chitosan. Chitosan induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the guard cells (GC) of pea plants. Treatment with chitosan or H2O2 did not cause destruction of GC nuclei; however, it resulted in disruption of the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane detected by propidium iodide fluorescence. Treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide but not peptidoglycan caused destruction of pea EC nuclei, which was prevented by SkQ1. Leaves of tobacco plants containing the N gene responsible for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. These cells contained a genetic construct with the gene of the helicase domain of TMV replicase (p50); its protein product p50 is a target for the N-gene product. As a result, the hypersensitive response (HR) was initiated. The HR manifested itself in the death of leaves and was suppressed by SkQ3. Treatment of tobacco epidermal peels with the A. tumefaciens cells for the p50 gene expression stimulated the destruction of EC nuclei, which was inhibited by SkQ1 or SkQ3. The p50-lacking A. tumefaciens cells did not induce the destruction of EC nuclei. The protective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants SkQ1 and SkQ3 demonstrates the involvement of mitochondria and their ROS in programmed cell death caused by pathogen elicitors. PMID:25716725

  16. The effects of folate-conjugated gold nanorods in combination with plasmonic photothermal therapy on mouth epidermal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Pandesh, Sajjad; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Habib-Agahi, Mojtaba; Farhadi, Mohammad; Pishghadam, Morteza; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Arami, Sanam; Fedutik, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    The use of lasers has emerged to be highly promising for cancer therapy modalities, most commonly, the photothermal therapy method. Unfortunately, the most common disadvantage of laser therapy is its nonselectivity and requirement of high power density. The use of plasmonic nanoparticles as highly enhanced photoabsorbing agents has thus introduced a much more selective and efficient cancer therapy strategy. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the selective targeting and destruction of mouth epidermal carcinoma cells (KB cells) using the photothermal therapy of folate-conjugated gold nanorods (F-GNRs). Considering the beneficial characteristics of GNRs and overexpression of the folate receptor by KB cells, we selected F-GNRs as a targeted photothermal therapy agent. Cell viability was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using an annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide apoptosis detection kit. No cell damage or cytotoxicity from the individual treatment of laser light or F-GNRs was observed. However, a 56% cell lethality was achieved for KB cells using combined plasmonic photothermal therapy of 20 ?M F-GNRs with seven pulses of laser light and 6-h incubation periods. Cell lethality strongly depends on the concentration of F-GNRs and the incubation period that is mainly due to the induction of apoptosis. This targeted damage is due to the F-GNRs present in the cancer cells strongly absorbing near-infrared laser light and rapidly converting it to heat. This new therapeutic avenue for cancer therapy merits further investigation using in vivo models for application in humans. PMID:24013622

  17. Complex N-glycans are the major ligands for galectin-1, -3, and -8 on Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Potvin, Barry; Carlsson, Susanne; Sturm, David; Leffler, Hakon; Stanley, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    Galectins are implicated in a large variety of biological functions, many of which depend on their carbohydrate-binding ability. Fifteen members of the family have been identified in vertebrates based on binding to galactose (Gal) that is mediated by one or two, evolutionarily conserved, carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). Variations in glycan structures expressed on glycoconjugates at the cell surface may, therefore, affect galectin binding and functions. To identify roles for different glycans in the binding of the three types of mammalian galectins to cells, we performed fluorescence cytometry at 4 degrees C with recombinant rat galectin-1, human galectin-3, and three forms of human galectin-8, to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and 12 different CHO glycosylation mutants. All galectin species bound to parent CHO cells and binding was inhibited >90% by 0.2 M lactose. Galectin-8 isoforms with either a long or a short inter-CRD linker bound similarly to CHO cells. However, a truncated form of galectin-8 containing only the N-terminal CRD bound only weakly to CHO cells and the C-terminal galectin-8 CRD exhibited extremely low binding. Binding of the galectins to the different CHO glycosylation mutants revealed that complex N-glycans are the major ligands for each galectin except the N-terminal CRD of galectins-8, and also identified some fine differences in glycan recognition. Interestingly, increased binding of galectin-1 at 4 degrees C correlated with increased propidium iodide (PI) uptake, whereas galectin-3 or -8 binding did not induce permeability to PI. The CHO glycosylation mutants with various repertoires of cell surface glycans are a useful tool for investigating galectin-cell interactions as they present complex and simple glycans in a natural mixture of multivalent protein and lipid glycoconjugates anchored in a cell membrane. PMID:16319083

  18. Viability analysis and apoptosis induction of breast cancer cells in a microfluidic device: effect of cytostatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Komen, Job; Franke, Henk R.; Andersson, Helene; Vermes, Istvan; van den Berg, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among non-smoking women worldwide. At the moment the treatment regime is such that patients receive different chemotherapeutic and/or hormonal treatments dependent on the hormone receptor status, the menopausal status and age. However, in vitro sensitivity testing of tumor biopsies could rationalize and improve the choice of chemo- and hormone therapy. Lab-on-a-Chip devices, using microfluidic techniques, make detailed cellular analysis possible using fewer cells, enabling working with a patients’ own cells and performing chemo- and hormone sensitivity testing in an ex vivo setting. This article describes the development of two microfluidic devices made in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to validate the cell culture properties and analyze the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells (estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells) in response to the drug staurosporine (SSP). In both cases, cell viability was assessed using the life-stain Calcein-AM (CAAM) and the death dye propidium iodide (PI). MCF-7 cells could be statically cultured for up to 7 days in the microfluidic chip. A 30 min flow with SSP and a subsequent 24 h static incubation in the incubator induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as shown by a disappearance of the aggregate-like morphology, a decrease in CAAM staining and an increase in PI staining. This work provides valuable leads to develop a microfluidic chip to test the chemosensitivity of tumor cells in response to therapeutics and in this way improve cancer treatment towards personalized medicine. PMID:18523888

  19. Cytotoxicity of Anthrax Lethal Toxin to Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells Is Nonapoptotic and Dependent on Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Elias; Darwish, Manal; Timsah, Zahra; Liu, ShiHui; Leppla, Stephen H; Frankel, Arthur E; Abi-Habib, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to target the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells using a recombinant anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx). LeTx consists of protective antigen (PrAg) and lethal factor (LF). PrAg binds cells, is cleaved by furin, oligomerizes, binds three to four molecules of LF, and undergoes endocytosis, releasing LF into the cytosol. LF cleaves MAPK kinases, inhibiting the MAPK pathway. We tested potency of LeTx on a panel of 11 human AML cell lines. Seven cell lines showed cytotoxic responses to LeTx. Cytotoxicity of LeTx was mimicked by the specific mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor U0126, indicating that LeTx-induced cell death is mediated through the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) branch of the MAPK pathway. The four LeTx-resistant cell lines were sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Co-treatment of AML cells with both LeTx and LY294002 did not lead to increased sensitivity, showing a lack of additive/synergistic effects when both pathways are inhibited. Flow cytometry analysis of MAPK pathway activation revealed the presence of phospho-ERK1/2 only in LeTx-sensitive cells. Staining for Annexin V/propidium iodide and active caspases showed an increase in double-positive cells and the absence of caspase activation following treatment, indicating that LeTx-induced cell death is caspase-independent and nonapoptotic. We have shown that a majority of AML cell lines are sensitive to the LF-mediated inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that LeTx-induced cytotoxicity in AML cells is nonapoptotic and dependent on phospho-ERK1/2 levels. PMID:23418614

  20. Synthesis of an anthraquinone derivative (DHAQC) and its effect on induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, SweeKeong; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lim, Kian Lam; Abu, Nadiah; Ho, Wan Yong; Zareen, Seema; Roohani, Kiarash; Ky, Huynh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Lajis, Nordin; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2- carboxylic acid (DHAQC) (2) was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel–Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DHAQC (2) exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2) showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability) value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2) was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal). The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2) for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2) arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an inhibited expression of PLK1 genes. Western blot analysis also indicated that the DHAQC (2) increased BAX, p53, and cytochrome c levels in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently activated apoptosis as observed in annexin V/propidium iodide and cell cycle analyses. These results indicate that DHAQC (2) is a synthetic, cytotoxic, and selective anthraquinone, which is less toxic than the natural product damnacanthal, and which demonstrates potential in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. PMID:25733816

  1. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae induce alterations in the intracellular pH, membrane permeability and culturability of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells.

    PubMed

    Branco, Patrícia; Viana, Tiago; Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2015-07-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) during alcoholic fermentation that are active against several wine-related yeasts (e.g. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii) and bacteria (e.g. Oenococcus oeni). In the present study, the physiological changes induced by those AMPs on sensitive H. guilliermondii cells were evaluated in terms of intracellular pH (pHi), membrane permeability and culturability. Membrane permeability was evaluated by staining cells with propidium iodide (PI), pHi was determined by a fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) technique and culturability by a classical plating method. Results showed that the average pHi of H. guilliermondii cells dropped from 6.5 (healthy cells) to 5.4 (damaged cells) after 20min of exposure to inhibitory concentrations of AMPs, and after 24h 77.0% of the cells completely lost their pH gradient (?pH=pHi-pHext). After 24h of exposure to AMPs, PI-stained (dead) cells increased from 0% to 77.7% and the number of viable cells fell from 1×10(5) to 10CFU/ml. This means that virtually all cells (99.99%) became unculturable but that a sub-population of 22.3% of the cells remained viable (as determined by PI staining). Besides, pHi results showed that after 24h, 23% of the AMP-treated cells were sub-lethally injured (with 0cells, disturbing the pHi homeostasis and inducing a loss of culturability. PMID:25897995

  2. Resolution of fluorescence signals from cells labeled with fluorochromes having different lifetimes by phase-sensitive flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometric method has been developed that uses phase-sensitive detection to separate signals from simultaneous fluorescence emissions in cells labeled with fluorochromes having different fluorescence decay lifetimes. CHO cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). These dyes bind to DNA and protein and the fluorescence lifetimes of the bound dyes are 15.0 and 3.6 ns, respectively. Cells were analyzed as they passed through a modulated (sinusoidal) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence was measured using only a long-pass filter to block scattered laser excitation light and a single photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence detector output signals were processed by dual-channel phase-sensitive detection electronics and the phase-resolved PI and FITC signals were displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate plots. By shifting the phase of one detector channel reference signal by [pi]/2 + [phi][sub 1] degrees and the phase of the other detector channel reference signal by -[pi]/2 + [phi][sub 2] degrees, where [phi][sub 1] and [phi][sub 2] are the phase shifts associated with the PI and FITC lifetimes, the PI and FITC signals were separately resolved at their respective phase-sensitive detector outputs. This technology is also applicable to suppressing by cellular autofluorescence, unbound/free dye, nonspecific dye binding, and Raman and Rayleigh scattering. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  3. The marine toxin palytoxin induces necrotic death in HaCaT cells through a rapid mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Marco; Sosa, Silvio; Pacor, Sabrina; Tubaro, Aurelia; Florio, Chiara

    2014-09-17

    Palytoxin (PLTX) is one of the most toxic algal biotoxin known so far. It transforms the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase into a cationic channel inducing a massive intracellular Na(+) influx. However, from a mechanistic point of view, the features and the intracellular pathways leading to PLTX-induced cell death are still not completely characterized. This study on skin HaCaT keratinocytes demonstrates that PLTX induces necrosis since propidium iodide uptake was observed already after 1 h toxin exposure, an effect that was not lowered by toxin removal. Furthermore, necrotic-like morphological alterations were evidenced by confocal microscopy. Apoptosis occurrence was excluded since no caspases 3/7, caspase 8, and caspase 9 activation as well as no apoptotic bodies formation were recorded. Necrosis was preceded by a very early mitochondrial damage as indicated by JC-1 fluorescence shift, recorded already after 5 min toxin exposure. This shift was totally abolished when Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions were withdrawn from culture medium, whereas cyclosporine-A was ineffective, excluding the occurrence of a controlled biochemical response. These results clearly establish necrosis as the primary mechanism for PLTX-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. The rapidity of mitochondrial damage and the consequent irreversible necrosis rise serious concerns about the very fast onset of PLTX toxic effects. PMID:25066017

  4. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) seed extracts in oral carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Hung; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Zong-Shiow; Lin, Ching-Gong; Yang, Ming-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Tsai, Wan-Chi

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that certain phytochemicals possess cancer chemopreventive properties. In this study, the antiproliferative activity of extracts from different parts of the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) plant was evaluated for its effect on human oral carcinoma cell lines. The cytotoxicities of various plant extract concentrations were examined and the 50% maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined. Water extracts of jaboticaba seeds showed concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects. Annexin V/propidium iodide positivity with active caspase-3 induction indicated that the treated cells underwent apoptosis. Several important regulatory proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bid, and survivin) involved in apoptosis were also evaluated. The antioxidant activity of jaboticaba was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and the drug concentration eliciting 50% maximum stimulation (SC50) was determined. The present findings suggest that water extracts of jaboticaba seeds exhibit an antiproliferative effect against oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through downregulating survivin expression and thereby activating caspase-mediated Bid cleavage. PMID:25197631

  5. Class specific inhibition of house dust mite proteinases which cleave cell adhesion, induce cell death and which increase the permeability of lung epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Helen L; Wan, Hong; Cannell, Mark B; Thompson, Philip J; Garrod, David R; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Clive

    1998-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens with cysteine and serine proteinase activity are risk factors for allergic sensitization and asthma. A simple method to fractionate proteinase activity from HDM faecal pellets into cysteine and serine class activity is described. Both proteinase fractions increased the permeability of epithelial cell monolayers. The effects of the serine proteinase fraction were inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulphonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). The effects of the cysteine proteinase fraction could be inhibited by E-64. No reciprocity of action was found. Treatment of epithelial monolayers with either proteinase fraction caused breakdown of tight junctions (TJs). AEBSF inhibited TJ breakdown caused by the serine proteinase fraction, whereas E-64 inhibited the cysteine proteinase fraction. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteinases induced DNA cleavage which was inhibited by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-250. Compound E-64 inhibited DNA fragmentation caused by the cysteine proteinase fraction, but was without effect on the serine proteinase fraction. Staining of proteinase-treated cells with annexin V (AV) and propidium iodide (PI) revealed a diversity of cellular responses. Some cells stained only with AV indicating early apoptosis, whilst others were dead and stained with both AV and PI. HDM proteinases exert profound effects on epithelial cells which will promote allergic sensitization; namely disruption of intercellular adhesion, increased paracellular permeability and initiation of cell death. Attenuation of these actions by proteinase inhibitors leads to the conclusion that compounds designed to be selective for the HDM enzymes may represent a novel therapy for asthma. PMID:9720772

  6. Eugenol triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells through E2F1/survivin down-regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a major health problem that threatens the lives of millions of women worldwide each year. Most of the chemotherapeutic agents that are currently used to treat this complex disease are highly toxic with long-term side effects. Therefore, novel generation of anti-cancer drugs with higher efficiency and specificity are urgently needed. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were treated with eugenol and cytotoxicity was measured using the WST-1 reagent, while propidium iodide/annexinV associated with flow cytometry was utilized in order to determine the induced cell death pathway. The effect of eugenol on apoptotic and pro-carcinogenic proteins, both in vitro and in tumor xenografts was assessed by immunoblotting. While RT-PCR was used to determine eugenol effect on the E2F1 and survivin mRNA levels. In addition, we tested the effect of eugenol on cell proliferation using the real-time cell electronic sensing system. Results Eugenol at low dose (2 ?M) has specific toxicity against different breast cancer cells. This killing effect was mediated mainly through inducing the internal apoptotic pathway and strong down-regulation of E2F1 and its downstream antiapoptosis target survivin, independently of the status of p53 and ER?. Eugenol inhibited also several other breast cancer related oncogenes, such as NF-?B and cyclin D1. Moreover, eugenol up-regulated the versatile cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 protein, and inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Importantly, these anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were also observed in vivo in xenografted human breast tumors. Conclusion Eugenol exhibits anti-breast cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it could be used to consolidate the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer through targeting the E2F1/survivin pathway, especially for the less responsive triple-negative subtype of the disease. PMID:24330704

  7. Murine leukemia P388 vinorelbine-resistant cell lines are sensitive to vinflunine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Kruczynski, Anna; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    The work presented here was initiated to explore the mechanisms underlying vinorelbine resistance in two previously established murine leukemia P388 cell lines (N.63 and N2.5). IC(50) measurements demonstrated that the vinorelbine-resistant cell line N.63 was sensitive to both vinblastine and vinflunine. In addition, vinorelbine-resistant cell line N2.5 retained sensitivity to vinflunine. We used flow cytometry with propidium iodide to measure G2/M arrest in response to drug treatment. Annexin V labeling was used as a marker of apoptosis and JC-1 dye labeling as a marker of mitochondrial membrane depolarization to explore differential responses that might help explain the absence of cross resistance to vinflunine. At equipotent (10X IC(50)) doses, after 8 h of drug treatment, vinflunine induced G2/M arrest in a significantly larger fraction of vinorelbine- resistant cells compared to vinorelbine. At the same drug doses, at 16 h after initiation of drug treatment, vinflunine induced a statistically significant greater apoptotic response and mitochondrial depolarization. The mitochondrial depolarization at 16 h was confirmed by Western blotting that showed release of cytochrome c. Comparison of apoptotic and mitochondrial depolarization responses in vinorelbine-resistant cells upon exposure to vinorelbine, vinblastine and vinflunine demonstrated the following pattern of drug activity: vinflunine > vinblastine > vinorelbine, confirming the importance of a antimitotic-induced mitochondria-mediated pathways in these P388 cell lines. We conclude that vinflunine may be preferred for treatment of specific cancers compared to other vinca alkaloids due to its enhanced effects on apoptotic pathways that follow G2/M arrest. PMID:18071633

  8. Thymoquinone Inhibits Murine Leukemia WEHI-3 Cells In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ali Salim, Landa Zeenelabdin; Othman, Rozana; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al-Jashamy, Karim; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Omer, Fatima Abd Elmutaal Ahmed; Mohan, Syam

    2014-01-01

    Background Thymoquinone is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa (Black Seed). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic effects of thymoquinone on WEHI-3 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of thymoquinone was assessed using an MTT assay, while the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on murine WEHI-3 cell growth was due to the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by chromatin condensation dye, Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining. In addition, Annexin V staining for early apoptosis was performed using flowcytometric analysis. Apoptosis was found to be associated with the cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Expression of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 proteins were observed by western blotting. The effects of thymoquinone on BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were indicated by the decrease in the body, spleen and liver weights of the animal, as compared to the control. Conclusion Thymoquinone promoted natural killer cell activities. This compound showed high toxicity against WEHI-3 cell line which was confirmed by an increase of the early apoptosis, followed by up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2, and down-regulation of the apoptotic protein, Bax. On the other hand, high reduction of the spleen and liver weight, and significant histopathology study of spleen and liver confirmed that thymoquinone inhibited WEHI-3 growth in the BALB/c mice. Results from this study highlight the potential of thymoquinone to be developed as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID:25531768

  9. Acute Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with increased percentages of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Baldé, A T; Sarthou, J L; Roussilhon, C

    1995-05-01

    The impact of acute malaria infection on the level of spontaneous apoptosis, i.e., the percentage of apoptotic cells detectable in lymphocytes cultured without any exogenous stimulus for 3 days in vitro, was evaluated. Quantitation of apoptosis was performed by staining of lymphocyte nuclei with propidium iodide and analysis of the fluorescence by cytometry. The mean apoptosis of 23 HIV-negative patients (15 Africans and 8 Europeans) determined during a confirmed Plasmodium falciparum attack was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 23.5-30.7%) i.e., 2.2 times the mean level found in 49 controls (12.4%, CI = 11.1-13.6). These controls included age- and sex-matched Africans (n = 37) and Europeans (n = 12) differing only by their previous level of exposure to P. falciparum. Naive (European) as well as previously exposed (African) subjects showed dramatically elevated levels of spontaneous apoptosis during the malaria attack (mean = 22.5%, CI = 20.7-24.4 for Europeans; mean = 29.7%, CI = 24.6-34.7 for Africans). Such unusually raised levels were observed for at least 1.5 months and were probably detectable for longer periods as suggested by the fact that the mean level of spontaneous apoptosis in healthy Africans was basically higher (13.8%, CI = 12.5-15) than the one found in healthy Europeans (8.2%, CI = 6.3-10.1) (P = 0.0001). Selective immunomagnetic cell isolations carried out immediately before apoptosis quantitation showed that this process affected not only the alpha beta T cells (CD4+ T cells as well as CD8+ T cells) but also the gamma delta T cells and the B-lymphocyte subset.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7590929

  10. Bile Acids Induce Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury and Pancreatitis by Activating Calcineurin*

    PubMed Central

    Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Wang, Dong; Orabi, Abrahim I.; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Luo, Yuhuan; Javed, Tanveer A.; Eisses, John F.; Mahmood, Syeda M.; Jin, Shunqian; Singh, Vijay P.; Ananthanaravanan, Meena; Perides, George; Williams, John A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute pancreatitis in both children and adults. A proposed mechanism is the reflux of bile into the pancreatic duct. Bile acid exposure causes pancreatic acinar cell injury through a sustained rise in cytosolic Ca2+. Thus, it would be clinically relevant to know the targets of this aberrant Ca2+ signal. We hypothesized that the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin is such a Ca2+ target. To examine calcineurin activation, we infected primary acinar cells from mice with an adenovirus expressing the promoter for a downstream calcineurin effector, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). The bile acid taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate (TLCS) was primarily used to examine bile acid responses. TLCS caused calcineurin activation only at concentrations that cause acinar cell injury. The activation of calcineurin by TLCS was abolished by chelating intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM) or the three specific calcineurin inhibitors FK506, cyclosporine A, or calcineurin inhibitory peptide prevented bile acid-induced acinar cell injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake. The calcineurin inhibitors reduced the intra-acinar activation of chymotrypsinogen within 30 min of TLCS administration, and they also prevented NF-?B activation. In vivo, mice that received FK506 or were deficient in the calcineurin isoform A? (CnA?) subunit had reduced pancreatitis severity after infusion of TLCS or taurocholic acid into the pancreatic duct. In summary, we demonstrate that acinar cell calcineurin is activated in response to Ca2+ generated by bile acid exposure, bile acid-induced pancreatic injury is dependent on calcineurin activation, and calcineurin inhibitors may provide an adjunctive therapy for biliary pancreatitis. PMID:23148215

  11. Wear particles derived from metal hip implants induce the generation of multinucleated giant cells in a 3-dimensional peripheral tissue-equivalent model.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debargh K; Potnis, Pushya A; Rhodes, Kelly; Wood, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) are formed by the fusion of 5 to 15 monocytes or macrophages. MGCs can be generated by hip implants at the site where the metal surface of the device is in close contact with tissue. MGCs play a critical role in the inflammatory processes associated with adverse events such as aseptic loosening of the prosthetic joints and bone degeneration process called osteolysis. Upon interaction with metal wear particles, endothelial cells upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that enhance a localized immune response. However, the role of endothelial cells in the generation of MGCs has not been completely investigated. We developed a three-dimensional peripheral tissue-equivalent model (PTE) consisting of collagen gel, supporting a monolayer of endothelial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on top, which mimics peripheral tissue under normal physiological conditions. The cultures were incubated for 14 days with Cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr ASTM F75, 1-5 micron) wear particles. PBMC were allowed to transit the endothelium and harvested cells were analyzed for MGC generation via flow cytometry. An increase in forward scatter (cell size) and in the propidium iodide (PI) uptake (DNA intercalating dye) was used to identify MGCs. Our results show that endothelial cells induce the generation of MGCs to a level 4 fold higher in 3-dimentional PTE system as compared to traditional 2-dimensional culture plates. Further characterization of MGCs showed upregulated expression of tartrate resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) and dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein, (DC-STAMP), which are markers of bone degrading cells called osteoclasts. In sum, we have established a robust and relevant model to examine MGC and osteoclast formation in a tissue like environment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. With endothelial cells help, we observed a consistent generation of metal wear particle- induced MGCs, which heralds metal on metal hip failures. PMID:25894745

  12. Corosolic acid enhances 5?fluorouracil?induced apoptosis against SNU?620 human gastric carcinoma cells by inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Su; Park, Jun Beom; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Kim, Ji Yeon; Sul, Ji Young

    2015-09-01

    5?Fluorouracil (5?FU), one of the oldest anticancer therapeutic agents, is increasingly being administered in cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, the anticancer effects of 5?FU combined with corosolic acid (CRA) were determined in SNU?620 human gastric carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms were examined. A combination treatment of 5?FU and CRA inhibited the viability of cells additively. Furthermore, apoptotic activity following combination treatment was found to be stronger than that of the single treatments, as observed using an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. The protein level of Bcl?2 was decreased significantly by the combination treatment, whereas the protein level of Bim was increased. The release of mitochondrial cytochrome c was increased as a result of the combination treatment, however, the combination treatment additively increased caspase?3 and poly?(ADP?ribose) polymerase cleavages. Additionally, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is highly activated in gastric cancer, was regulated by 5?FU and CRA, and additive mTOR/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E?binding protein 1 (4?EBP1) inhibition was observed with the combination treatment. Additional rapamycin treatment along with the combination treatment of 5?FU and CRA showed a more marked inhibition of mTOR/4?EBP1 in the cells, as well as increased apoptosis and antiproliferation. Thus, these data indicate that CRA enhances the anticancer activities of 5?FU via mTOR inhibition in SNU?620 human gastric carcinoma cells. PMID:26100106

  13. Rapid preparation of rodent testicular cell suspensions and spermatogenic stages purification by flow cytometry using a novel blue-laser-excitable vital dye

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Santiñaque, Federico F.; Folle, Gustavo A.; Souza, Elisa; López-Carro, Beatriz; Geisinger, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Availability of purified or highly enriched fractions representing the various spermatogenic stages is a usual requirement to study mammalian spermatogenesis at the molecular level. Fast preparation of high quality testicular cell suspensions is crucial when flow cytometry (FCM) is chosen to accomplish the stage/s purification. Formerly, we reported a method to rapidly obtain good quality rodent testicular cell suspensions for FCM analysis and sorting. Using that method we could distinguish and purify early meiocytes (leptotene/zygotene stages, L/Z) from more advanced ones (pachytene, P) in guinea pig, which presents an unusually high content of early stages. Here we present an upgrade of that method with improvements that enabled the obtainment of high-purity meiotic substages also from mouse testis, namely:•Shortening of the mechanical disaggregation time to optimize the integrity of the suspension.•Elimination of the 25 ?m-filtration step to ensure the presence of large P cells.•Inclusion of a non-cytotoxic, DNA-specific, 488 nm-excitable vital fluorochrome (Vybrant DyeCycle Green [VDG], Invitrogen) instead of Hoechst 33342 (requires UV laser, which can damage nucleic acids) or propidium iodide (usually related to dead/damaged cells). As far as we know, this is the first report on the use of this fluorochrome for the discrimination and purification of meiotic prophase I substages.

  14. Patterns of in vitro cell-death, metaloproteinase-9 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes induced by the BCG vaccine, Moreau strain.

    PubMed

    Simas, C J A; Silva, D P H; Ponte, C G G; Castello-Branco, L R R; Antas, P R Z

    2011-09-01

    Mononuclear cells have been implicated in the primary inflammatory response against mycobacteria. Yet, little is known about the interaction of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) with human monocytes. Here, we investigated the potential of BCG Moreau strain to induce in vitro specific cell-death utilizing a flow cytometry approach that revealed an increase in apoptosis events in BCG-stimulated monocytes from healthy adults. We also detected a concomitant release of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), but not metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. In addition, annexin V-propidium iodide double staining demonstrated an enhancement of monocytes necrosis, but not apoptosis, following BCG Moreau strain stimulation of umbilical vein cells from naïve, neonate. This pattern was paralleled by different pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as MMP-9 induction when compared to the adults. Our findings support the hypothesis that BCG induces distinct cell-death patterns during the maturation of the immune system and that this pattern might set the stage for a subsequent antimycobacterial immune response that might have profound effects during vaccination. PMID:21745518

  15. Epithelial Cells Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

  16. Radiosensitization Effect of STI-571 on Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Won [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wen, Jing [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong-Baeck [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Seung Min; Park, Seung Woo [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Si Young, E-mail: sysong@yuhs.a [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To examine STI-571-induced radiosensitivity in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Bxpc-3, Capan-1, and MiaPaCa-2) exhibiting different expression levels of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) and showing different K-ras mutation types were used. For evaluation of the antitumor activity of STI-571 in combination with radiation, clonogenic survival assays, Western blot analysis, and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay with microscopic evaluation by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were conducted. Results: Dramatic phosphorylated (p)-c-Kit and p-PDGFRbeta attenuation, a modest dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition, and significant radiosensitization were observed after STI-571 treatment in view of apoptosis, although the levels of growth inhibition and increased radiosensitization were different according to cell lines. The grades of radiosensitivity corresponded to the attenuation levels of p-c-Kit and p-PDGFRbeta by STI-571, particularly to those of p-c-Kit, and the radiosensitivity was partially affected by K-ras mutation in pancreatic cancer cells. Among downstream pathways associated with c-Kit or PDGFRbeta, p-PLCgamma was more closely related to radiosensitivity compared with p-Akt1 or p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1. Conclusion: STI-571 enhances radiation response in pancreatic cancer cells. This effect is affected by the attenuation levels of p-c-Kit or p-PDGFRbeta, and K-ras mutation status. Among them, p-c-Kit plays more important roles in the radiosensitivity in pancreatic cancer compared with p-PDGFRbeta or K-ras mutation status.

  17. Oridonin induces apoptosis and autophagy in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells partly via NO-ERK-p53 positive-feedback loop signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuan-chao; Wang, Hong-ju; Xu, Lei; Liu, Wei-wei; Liu, Bin-bin; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Intracellular NO level, SubG1 cell ratio and autophagy cell ratios were analyzed with flow cytometry after diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA), propidium iodide (PI) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. Protein expression was examined using Western blot analysis. Results: Exposure of L929 cells to oridonin (50 ?mol/L) for 24 h led to intracellular NO production. Pretreatment with NOS inhibitor 1400w or L-NAME inhibited oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in L929 cells. The pretreatment decreased the apoptosis-related protein Bax translocation and cytochrome c release, increased Bcl-2 level, reversed the autophagy-associated protein Beclin 1 increase and conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II. Furthermore, pretreatment with NO scavenger DTT completely inhibited oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in L929 cells. In addition, oridonin (50 ?mol/L) activated ERK and p53 in L929 cells, and the interruption of ERK and p53 activation by PD 98059, pifithrin-?, or ERK siRNA decreased oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy. The inhibition of NO production reduced oridonin-induced ERK and p53 activation, and NO production was down-regulated by blocking ERK and p53 activation. Conclusion: NO played a pivotal role in oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in L929 cells. Taken together with our previous finding that ERK contributes to p53 activation, it appears that NO, ERK, and p53 form a positive feedback loop. Consequently, we suggest that oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy are modulated by the NO-ERK-p53 molecular signaling mechanism in L929 cells. PMID:22842735

  18. The Antimicrobial Domains of Wheat Puroindolines Are Cell-Penetrating Peptides with Possible Intracellular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Rebecca L.; Palombo, Enzo A.; Panozzo, Joseph F.; Bhave, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    The puroindoline proteins (PINA and PINB) of wheat display lipid-binding properties which affect the grain texture, a critical parameter for wheat quality. Interestingly, the same proteins also display antibacterial and antifungal properties, attributed mainly to their Tryptophan-rich domain (TRD). Synthetic peptides based on this domain also display selectivity towards bacterial and fungal cells and do not cause haemolysis of mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms of these activities are unclear, thus limiting our understanding of the in vivo roles of PINs and development of novel applications. This study investigated the mechanisms of antimicrobial activities of synthetic peptides based on the TRD of the PINA and PINB proteins. Calcein dye leakage tests and transmission electron microscopy showed that the peptides PuroA, Pina-M and Pina-W?F selectively permeabilised the large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) made with negatively charged phospholipids mimicking bacterial membranes, but were ineffective against LUVs made with zwitterionic phospholipids mimicking eukaryotic membranes. Propidium iodide fluorescence tests of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells showed the peptides were able to cause loss of membrane integrity, PuroA and Pina-M being more efficient. Scanning electron micrographs of PINA-based peptide treated yeast cells showed the formation of pits or pores in cell membranes and release of cellular contents. Gel retardation assays indicated the peptides were able to bind to DNA in vitro, and the induction of filamental growth of E. coli cells indicated in vivo inhibition of DNA synthesis. Together, the results strongly suggest that the PIN-based peptides exert their antimicrobial effects by pore formation in the cell membrane, likely by a carpet-like mechanism, followed by intracellular mechanisms of activity. PMID:24098387

  19. Hypofractionated radiotherapy induces miR-34a expression and enhances apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhixiong; Wang, Bin; Tao, Dan; Huang, Ying; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a relatively radiosensitive disease. However, the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy are not always satisfactory due to radioresistance. The hypofractionated schema is currently widely used in clinical practice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypofractionated radiotherapy on NPC cells and explored the mechanisms involved. In addition, we aimed to determine the role of miR-34a in the effects of hypofractionated radiotherapy and whether these effects occur in a p53-dependent manner. For this purpose, we used CNE1 and CNE2 NPC cells which were subjected to hyperfractionated and hypofractionated radiotherapy. The viability of the cells was measured by MTT assay and acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) staining was used to observe morphological changes. In addition, Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry were used to determine the number of apoptotic cells and mRNA and protein expression was measured by qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The results revealed that hypofractionated radiotherapy enhanced apoptosis and increased the expression of miR-34a and p53 in the NPC cells. In addition, it stimulated p53 promoter activity and downregulated the protein expression of c-Myc in the human NPC cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of miR-34a suppressed the growth inhibitory effects induced by hypofractionated radiotherapy. Thus, our results suggest that the enhanced apoptosis of NPC cells may be associated with the miR-34a-mediated suppression of c-Myc in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:25231528

  20. Scanning force microscopical examination of metaphase chromosomes after in-situ hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastavrou, Georg; Rinke, Bernd; Hausmann, Michael; Cremer, Christoph G.

    1996-12-01

    Chromosomes play a fundamental role in heredity. This reasons the interest in new highly resolving microscopical techniques for their analysis. New preparation techniques have offered a direct approach to detect specific nucleic acid sequences by in situ hybridization. Labelled DNA probes detected by fluorochrome conjugates make it possible to visualize regions down to single genes by light microscopy. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) provides the possibility to image surfaces of biological objects with a resolution one to two orders of magnitude better than a classical fluorescence light microscope. Here, air dried human metaphase chromosomes were examined by SFM before and after in situ hybridization. Different hybridization protocols were compared in their influence on chromosomal morphology. An immunogold technique was introduced for topographic labeling detection by SFM. By propidium iodide staining, identically the same chromosomes which were already examined by SFM were visualized by high resolution confocal light microscopy. The SFM results suggest that the hybridization procedure induced alterations in the overall chromosomal morphology which were not directly detectable by the fluorescence image in light microscopy. Using the immunogold labelling technique and silver enhancement, it was possible to study hybridization features and chromosomal morphology at high resolution simultaneously by SFM. The application of this approach may offer possibilities to investigate the hybridization mechanisms and to develop new hybridization protocols inducing minimal ultrastructural effects on the chromosomes.

  1. Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2009-12-01

    Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation. PMID:20738689

  2. Beneficial impact of L-carnitine in liver: a study in a rat model of syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, P; Viswanathan, P; Anuradha, C V

    2008-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore whether L-carnitine (CA) regulates insulin signaling and modulates the changes in liver in a well-characterized insulin resistant rat model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups I and IV animals received starch-based control diet, while groups II and III rats were fed a high fructose-diet (60 g/100 g). Groups III and IV animals additionally received CA (300 mg/kg/day i.p). After a period of 60 days hepatic tyrosine phosphorylation status was determined by assaying protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities. Oxidative damage was monitored by immunohistochemical localization of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and dinitrophenol (DNP)-protein adducts. In addition protein kinase C beta II (PKC beta II) expression, propidium iodide staining of isolated hepatocytes and histology of liver tissue were determined to examine liver integrity. Fructose-fed rats displayed reduced insulin action, increased expression of PKC beta II, altered histology, fragmentation of hepatocyte nuclear DNA, and accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins. Simultaneous treatment with CA alleviated the abnormalities associated with fructose feeding. In summary the data suggest that elevated oxidative damage and PKC expression could in part induce insulin resistance and CA has beneficial impact on liver during insulin resistance with modulatory effects at the post-receptor level. PMID:17713746

  3. Assessment of ploidy stability of the somatic embryogenesis process in Quercus suber L. using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, J; Pinto, G; Lopes, T; Dolezel, J; Santos, C

    2005-08-01

    Flow cytometry analyses were used to verify the ploidy stability of Quercus suber L. somatic embryogenesis process. Leaf explants of two adult cork oak trees (QsG0 and QsG5) of the North of Portugal were inoculated on MS medium with 2,4-D and zeatin. After 3 months, calluses with embryogenic structures were isolated and transferred to fresh MS medium without growth regulators and somatic embryo evolution was followed. Morphologically normal somatic embryos (with two cotyledons) and abnormal somatic embryos (with one or three cotyledons) were used in this assay. Flow cytometry combined with propidium iodide staining was employed to estimate DNA ploidy levels and nuclear DNA content of somatic embryos and leaves from mother plants. No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected among embryos, and between the embryos and the mother plants. Also, after conversion of these embryos, no significant morphological differences were observed among the somatic embryo-derived plants. These results and further studies using converted plantlet leaves and embryogenic callus tissue indicate that embryo cultures and converted plantlets were stable with regard to ploidy level. As no major somaclonal variation was detected our primary goal of "true-to-type" propagation of cork oak using somatic embryogenesis was assured at this level. The estimation of the 2C nuclear DNA content for this species is similar to the previously obtained value. PMID:15744492

  4. Effect of bisphosphonates on viability, proliferation, and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Van Offel, J F; Schuerwegh, A; Bridts, C; Stevens, W; De Clerck, L S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study the influence of BP on articular chondrocytes in vitro and to investigate whether BP can prevent steroid-induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. Methods: Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured and incubated with different concentrations of clodronate, pamidronate, risedronate, or dexamethasone. In the second part of the study, BP were added to the chondrocyte cultures one hour before co-incubation with dexamethasone. Viability and proliferation were evaluated using propidium iodide staining and tritium labelled thymidine incorporation. Apoptosis was measured with annexin V staining or the TUNEL method. Results: Only high concentrations (>10-6 mol/l) of clodronate, pamidronate, and risedronate induced a decrease in the viability and proliferation of chondrocytes. None of the BP at concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-3 mol/l induced apoptosis. Growth retardation and apoptosis induced by dexamethasone (10-7 mol/l) was prevented by addition of pamidronate (10-6 mol/l) or risedronate (10-8 or 10-6 mol/l). Conclusion: Bisphosphonates in therapeutic concentrations are safe for articular chondrocytes in vitro. Moreover, pamidronate and risedronate prevent dexamethasone-induced growth retardation and apoptosis of chondrocytes. These findings add evidence for a chondroprotective effect of nitrogen-containing BP, especially in patients treated with corticosteroids. PMID:12228165