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1

NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

2

Novel Characteristics of Glutamate-Induced Cell Death in Primary Septohippocampal Cultures: Relationship to Calpain and Caspase3 Protease Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies examined the phenotypic characteristics of glutamate-induced cell death and their relationship to calpain and caspase-3 activation. Cell viability was assessed by fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. Calpain and caspase-3 activity was inferred from signature proteolytic fragmentation of ?-spectrin. Characterization of cell death phenotypes was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and DNA fragmentation assays. Exposure of

Xiurong Zhao; Jennifer K. Newcomb; Brian R. Pike; Kevin K. W. Wang; Domenico d'Avella; Ronald L. Hayes

2000-01-01

3

Modified Annexin V/Propidium Iodide Apoptosis Assay For Accurate Assessment of Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Studies of cellular apoptosis have been significantly impacted since the introduction of flow cytometry-based methods. Propidium iodide (PI) is widely used in conjunction with Annexin V to determine if cells are viable, apoptotic, or necrotic through differences in plasma membrane integrity and permeability1,2. The Annexin V/ PI protocol is a commonly used approach for studying apoptotic cells3. PI is used more often than other nuclear stains because it is economical, stable and a good indicator of cell viability, based on its capacity to exclude dye in living cells 4,5. The ability of PI to enter a cell is dependent upon the permeability of the membrane; PI does not stain live or early apoptotic cells due to the presence of an intact plasma membrane 1,2,6. In late apoptotic and necrotic cells, the integrity of the plasma and nuclear membranes decreases7,8, allowing PI to pass through the membranes, intercalate into nucleic acids, and display red fluorescence 1,2,9. Unfortunately, we find that conventional Annexin V/ PI protocols lead to a significant number of false positive events (up to 40%), which are associated with PI staining of RNA within the cytoplasmic compartment10. Primary cells and cell lines in a broad range of animal models are affected, with large cells (nuclear: cytoplasmic ratios <0.5) showing the highest occurrence10. Herein, we demonstrate a modified Annexin V/ PI method that provides a significant improvement for assessment of cell death compared to conventional methods. This protocol takes advantage of changes in cellular permeability during cell fixing to promote entry of RNase A into cells following staining. Both the timing and concentration of RNase A have been optimized for removal of cytoplasmic RNA. The result is a significant improvement over conventional Annexin V/ PI protocols (< 5% events with cytoplasmic PI staining).

Rieger, Aja M.; Nelson, Kimberly L.; Konowalchuk, Jeffrey D.; Barreda, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

4

Quantification of Electroporation-Mediated Propidium Iodide Delivery into 3T3 Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroporation is an effective means to deliver exogenous molecules into the cellular cytoplasm, while simultaneously maintaining cell viability and functionality. In this technique, an applied electric field transiently permeabilizes the cellular membrane to enable molecular exchange. The main objective of the current work is to identify the transport mechanisms involved during electroporation, and to quantify the amount of molecules delivered into the cellular cytoplasm. An optical diagnostic system is developed to examine the transport of Propidium Iodide (PI) into 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Upon entering the permeabilized cell, PI binds to DNA/RNA within the cytoplasm to emit fluorescence, which is measured to track the dynamic accumulation of the dye within the cell. The results show that the total fluorescence intensity increases with a decreasing buffer electrical conductivity. The data are compared with numerical simulations, which reveals good agreement. The experimental observations and numerical analysis demonstrate that: 1) Electrophoresis plays a dominant role in mediating the transport. 2) An electrokinetic mechanism, field-amplified sample stacking, controls the achievable delivery efficiency. The study in this work is an important step toward the quantification as well as the eventual improvement of this useful technique.

Sadik, Mohamed M.; Li, Jianbo; Shan, Jerry W.; Shreiber, David I.; Lin, Hao

2010-11-01

5

Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in Human SCM1 Gastric Cancer Cells: Activation of p38 MAP Kinase and Caspase3 Pathways without Involvement of [Ca2+]i Elevation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative in some vaccines. The effect of thimerosal on human gastric cancer cells is unknown. This study shows that in cultured human gastric cancer cells (SCM1), thimerosal reduced cell viability in a concen- tration- and time-dependent manner. Thimerosal caused apopto- sis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that thimer-

Shiuh-Inn Liu; Chorng-Chih Huang; Chun-Jen Huang; Being-Whey Wang; Po-Min Chang; Y.-C. Fang; W.-C. Chen; J.-L. Wang; Y.-C. Lu; S.-T. Chu; C.-T. Chou; C.-R. Jan

2007-01-01

6

Quantification of viable Legionella pneumophila cells using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

One of the greatest challenges of implementing fast molecular detection methods as part of Legionella surveillance systems is to limit detection to live cells. In this work, a protocol for sample treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been optimized and validated for L. pneumophila as an alternative of the currently used time-consuming culture method. Results from PMA-qPCR were compared with culture isolation and traditional qPCR. Under the conditions used, sample treatment with 50 ?M PMA followed by 5 min of light exposure were assumed optimal resulting in an average reduction of 4.45 log units of the qPCR signal from heat-killed cells. When applied to environmental samples (including water from cooling water towers, hospitals, spas, hot water systems in hotels, and tap water), different degrees of correlations between the three methods were obtained which might be explained by different matrix properties, but also varying degrees of non-culturable cells. It was furthermore shown that PMA displayed substantially lower cytotoxicity with Legionella than the alternative dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) when exposing live cells to the dye followed by plate counting. This result confirmed the findings with other species that PMA is less membrane-permeant and more selective for the intact cells. In conclusion, PMA-qPCR is a promising technique for limiting detection to intact cells and makes Legionella surveillance data substantially more relevant in comparison with qPCR alone. For future research it would be desirable to increase the method's capacity to exclude signals from dead cells in difficult matrices or samples containing high numbers of dead cells. PMID:21329735

Yáñez, M Adela; Nocker, Andreas; Soria-Soria, Elena; Múrtula, Raquel; Martínez, Lorena; Catalán, Vicente

2011-02-15

7

Comparison of propidium monoazide with ethidium monoazide for differentiation of live vs. dead bacteria by selective removal of DNA from dead cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differentiation between live and dead bacterial cells presents an important challenge in many microbiological applications. Due to the persistence of DNA in the environment after cells have lost viability, DNA-based detection methods cannot differentiate whether positive signals originate from live or dead bacterial targets. We present here a novel chemical, propidium monoazide (PMA), that (like propidium iodide) is highly

Andreas Nocker; Ching-Ying Cheung; Anne K. Camper

2006-01-01

8

The improved survival of hematopoietic cells cultured with a fusion protein of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and interleukin 3 (IL3) is associated with increases in Bcl-xL and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the antiapoptotic activity of a recombinant chimera of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and interleukin (IL)-3 with the corresponding equimolar mixture of the individual components based on changes in several factors associated with survival in the CD34 human he- matopoietic cell line TF-1. Propidium iodide- stained cells analyzed by fluorescein-activated cell sorter indicated that the chimera was more

Marcos R. DiFalco; Suhad Ali; Luis Fernando Congote

2003-01-01

9

Flow cytometric phase-resolved discrimination of damaged/dead cells by propidium iodide uptake in macrophages having phagocytized fluorescent microspheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instilled particle burdens of uniform green-yellow fluorescent microspheres phagocytized by rat alveolar (lung) macrophages and cell viability, as indexed by propidium iodide uptake (red fluorescence), were assessed using flow cytometry. Since the spectral emission from phagocytized microspheres partially overlapped the propidium iodide fluorescence and interfered with the conventional flow cytometric measurement of damaged/dead cells without subtractive compensation, this caused errors when estimating the percentage of non-viable, propidium iodide positive, phagocytic macrophages. The interference was eliminated by employing phase-sensitive detection in the red fluorescence measurement channel based on differences in lifetimes between the fluorescent microspheres and propidium iodide. In addition, intrinsic cellular autofluorescence, whose fluorescence lifetime is approximately the same as the phagocytized microspheres, also was eliminated in the measurement process. Since there was no detectable spectral interference of propidium iodide in the green fluorescence (particle phagocytosis) measurement channel, conventional fluorescence detection was employed.

Steinkamp, John A.; Valdez, Yolanda E.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

2001-05-01

10

Enumeration of Viable Listeria monocytogenes Cells by Real-Time PCR with Propidium Monoazide and Ethidium Monoazide in the Presence of Dead Cells? †  

PubMed Central

Propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium monoazide were used for enumeration of viable Listeria monocytogenes cells in the presence of dead cells. PMA had no antimicrobial effect on L. monocytogenes. Viable cell counts were linearly related to real-time PCR threshold cycle values for PMA-treated cells from planktonic and biofilm sources over a 4-log range.

Pan, Y.; Breidt, F.

2007-01-01

11

Enumeration of Viable Listeria monocytogenes Cells by Real-Time PCR with Propidium Monoazide and Ethidium Monoazide in the Presence of Dead Cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium monoazide were used for enumeration of viable Listeria monocytogenes cells in the presence of dead cells. PMA had no antimicrobial effect on L. monocytogenes. Viable cell counts were linearly related to real-time PCR threshold cycle values for PMA-treated cel...

12

Kinetic Analysis of Nanoparticulate Polyelectrolyte Complex Interactions with Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

A non-toxic, nanoparticulate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) drug delivery system was formulated to maintain suitable physicochemical properties at physiological pH. Toxicity, binding, and internalization were evaluated in relevant microvascular endothelial cells. PEC were non-toxic, as indicated by cell proliferation studies and propidium iodide staining. Inhibitor studies revealed that PEC were bound, in part, via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and internalized through macropinocytosis. A novel, flow cytometric, Scatchard protocol was established and showed that PEC, in the absence of surface modification, bind cells non-specifically with positive cooperativity, as seen by graphical transformations.

Hartig, Sean M.; Greene, Rachel; Carlesso, Gianluca; Higginbotham, James N.; Khan, Wasif N.; Prokop, Ales; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

2007-01-01

13

2-methoxyjuglone induces apoptosis in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits in vivo antitumor activity in a H22 mouse hepatocellular carcinoma model.  

PubMed

In order to discover anticancer agents from natural sources, an ethanol-soluble extract of the root bark of Juglans cathayensis was investigated and showed cytotoxic effects against various human cancer cell lines. A subsequent phytochemical study on the EtOAc-soluble fraction determined 2-methoxyjuglone (1) as one of the main active constituents. Compound 1 was shown to be cytotoxic against HepG2 cells. Morphological features of apoptosis were observed in 1-treated HepG2 cells, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis with propidium iodide staining showed that 1 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometric analysis with annexin V and propidium iodide staining demonstrated that 1 induced HepG2 cell apoptotic events in a dose-dependent manner (0-8 ?g/mL). Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins revealed that 1 induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent activation of the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade pathway (intrinsic pathway). An in vivo experiment using tumor-bearing mice showed that treatment with 1 at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg per day decreased the tumor mass by 56% and 67%, respectively. PMID:23597099

Yu, Heng-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Qiong; Li, Xue-; Zeng, Fan-Bo; Ruan, Han-Li

2013-04-18

14

Interactions of the plasma needle with cells in culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-thermal atmospheric plasma source (plasma needle) has been developed. This plasma operates at room temperature, low voltages and power levels, so it can be applied for fine treatment of organic material. In this work the impact of the plasma needle on living cells is explored. For this purpose CHO-K1 (Chinese hamster ovary) cells in culture have been plasma-treated and their responses have been recorded by means of propidium iodide staining. Plasma treatment at low to intermediate power levels leads to damage of the DNA in the cell nucleus, which causes cell death. Characteristic features are high precision of plasma action (influenced cells are strictly localized) and induction of cell death without destroying the cell integrity. Possibilities of using plasma treatment for removal of unwanted cells (e.g. cancer cells) will be investigated.

Stoffels, E.; Broers, J. L. V.; Kunts, S.; Cornelis, R. A. A.; Caubet, V.; Ramaekers, F. C. S.

2002-10-01

15

Quantitative detection of viable Bifidobacterium bifidum BF-1 cells in human feces by using propidium monoazide and strain-specific primers.  

PubMed

We developed a PCR-based method to detect and quantify viable Bifidobacterium bifidum BF-1 cells in human feces. This method (PMA-qPCR) uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to distinguish viable from dead cells and quantitative PCR using a BF-1-specific primer set designed from the results of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. During long-term culture (10 days), the number of viable BF-1 cells detected by counting the number of CFU on modified MRS agar, by measuring the ATP contents converted to CFU, and by using PMA-qPCR decreased from about 10(10) to 10(6) cells/ml; in contrast, the total number of (viable and dead) BF-1 cells detected by counting 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindolee (DAPI)-stained cells and by using qPCR without PMA and reverse transcription-qPCR remained constant. The number of viable BF-1 cells in fecal samples detected by using PMA-qPCR was highly and significantly correlated with the number of viable BF-1 cells added to the fecal samples, within the range of 10(5.3) to 10(10.3) cells/g feces (wet weight) (r > 0.99, P < 0.001). After 12 healthy subjects ingested 10(10.3) to 10(11.0) CFU of BF-1 in a fermented milk product daily for 28 days, 10(4.5 ± 1.5) (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) BF-1 CFU/g was detected in fecal samples by using strain-specific selective agar; in contrast, 10(6.2 ± 0.4) viable BF-1 cells/g were detected by using PMA-qPCR, and a total of 10(7.6 ± 0.7) BF-1 cells/g were detected by using qPCR without PMA. Thus, the number of viable BF-1 cells detected by PMA-qPCR was about 50 times higher (P < 0.01) than that detected by the culture-dependent method. We conclude that strain-specific PMA-qPCR can be used to quickly and accurately evaluate viable BF-1 in feces. PMID:23354719

Fujimoto, Junji; Watanabe, Koichi

2013-01-25

16

Quantitative Detection of Viable Bifidobacterium bifidum BF-1 Cells in Human Feces by Using Propidium Monoazide and Strain-Specific Primers  

PubMed Central

We developed a PCR-based method to detect and quantify viable Bifidobacterium bifidum BF-1 cells in human feces. This method (PMA-qPCR) uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to distinguish viable from dead cells and quantitative PCR using a BF-1-specific primer set designed from the results of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. During long-term culture (10 days), the number of viable BF-1 cells detected by counting the number of CFU on modified MRS agar, by measuring the ATP contents converted to CFU, and by using PMA-qPCR decreased from about 1010 to 106 cells/ml; in contrast, the total number of (viable and dead) BF-1 cells detected by counting 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindolee (DAPI)-stained cells and by using qPCR without PMA and reverse transcription-qPCR remained constant. The number of viable BF-1 cells in fecal samples detected by using PMA-qPCR was highly and significantly correlated with the number of viable BF-1 cells added to the fecal samples, within the range of 105.3 to 1010.3 cells/g feces (wet weight) (r > 0.99, P < 0.001). After 12 healthy subjects ingested 1010.3 to 1011.0 CFU of BF-1 in a fermented milk product daily for 28 days, 104.5 ± 1.5 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) BF-1 CFU/g was detected in fecal samples by using strain-specific selective agar; in contrast, 106.2 ± 0.4 viable BF-1 cells/g were detected by using PMA-qPCR, and a total of 107.6 ± 0.7 BF-1 cells/g were detected by using qPCR without PMA. Thus, the number of viable BF-1 cells detected by PMA-qPCR was about 50 times higher (P < 0.01) than that detected by the culture-dependent method. We conclude that strain-specific PMA-qPCR can be used to quickly and accurately evaluate viable BF-1 in feces.

Fujimoto, Junji

2013-01-01

17

Method to quantify live and dead cells in multi-species oral biofilm by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide  

PubMed Central

Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique in analysing environmental and clinical microbiological samples. However, its main limitation was its inability to discriminate between live and dead cells. Recently, propidium monoazide (PMA) together with qPCR has been used to overcome this problem, with good results for different bacterial species in different types of samples. Our objective was to implement this technique for analysing mortality in multi-species oral biofilms formed in vitro with five oral bacteria: Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia. We also tested its effectiveness on biofilms treated with an antiseptic solution containing 0.07% w/w cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Standardisation of the qPCR-PMA method was performed on pure, heat-killed planktonic cultures of each species, detecting mortality higher than 4 log in S. oralis, S. gordonii and F. nucleatum and higher than 2 for V. parvula and P. intermedia. We obtained similar results for all species when using CPC. When we analysed biofilms with qPCR-PMA, we found that the mortality in the non-CPC treated multi-species biofilms was lower than 1 log for all species. After treatment with CPC, the viability reduction was higher than 4 log in S. oralis and S. gordonii, higher than 3 log in F. nucleatum and P. intermedia and approximately 2 in V. parvula. In short, we standardised the conditions for using qPCR-PMA in 5 oral bacterial species and proved its usefulness for quantification of live and dead cells in multi-species oral biofilms formed in vitro, after use of an antiseptic.

2013-01-01

18

Limitations in the Use of Fluorescein Diacetate/Propidium Iodide (FDA/PI) and Cell Permeable Nucleic Acid Stains for Viability Measurements of Isolated Islets of Langerhans  

PubMed Central

Background A review of current literature shows that the combined use of the cell permeable esterase-substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and the cell impermeant nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI) to be one of the most common fluorescence-based methods to assess the viability of isolated islets of Langerhans, and it is currently used for islet product release prior to transplantation in humans. However, results from this assay do not correlate with islet viability and function or islet transplantation success in animals or humans (Eckhard et al. 2004; Ricordi et al. 2001). This may be in part attributed to considerable differences as well as discrepancies in the use of these reagents on islets. We critically surveyed the literature and evaluated the impact of a number of variables associated with the use of FDA/PI to determine their reliability in assessing islet cell viability. In addition, we evaluated other fluorescent stains, such as SYTO®13, SYTO®24 and SYBR®14 as possible alternatives to FDA. Results We found that the stability of stains in storage and stock solutions, the number of islets stained, concentration of stains, staining incubation time, the buffer/media used, and the method of examining islets were significant in the final scoring of viability. For archival file photos, the exposure time and camera/software settings can also impact interpretation of viability. Although our results show that FDA does detect intracellular esterase activity and staining with PI does assess cell membrane integrity, the results obtained from using these stains did not correlate directly with expected islet function and viability per transplantation into diabetic athymic nude mice (Papas et al. 2007). In addition, the use of two nucleic acid stains, such as SYTO®13 and PI, for live/dead scoring exhibited staining anomalies which limit their accuracy in assessing islet viability. Conclusions From a review of the literature and from our observations on the impact of reagent handling and various staining and imaging parameters used to visually evaluate islets, consistent interpretation of islet cell membrane integrity and viability is dependent upon a number of factors. We discuss the utility and limitations of these reagents in evaluating islet cell membrane integrity and viability.

Boyd, Vinc; Cholewa, Olivia Maria; Papas, Klearchos K.

2010-01-01

19

Flow cytometric determination of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its correlation with cell survival  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster M3-1 cells were irradiated with several doses of x rays or ..cap alpha.. particles from /sup 238/Pu. Propidium iodide-stained chromosome suspensions were prepared at different times after irradiation; cells were also assayed for survival. The DNA histograms of these chromosomes showed increased background counts with increased doses of radiation. This increase in background was cell-cycle dependent and was correlated with cell survival. The correlation between radiation-induced chromosome damage and cell survival was the same for X rays and ..cap alpha.. particles. Data are presented which indicate that flow cytometric analysis of chromosomes of irradiated cell populations can be a useful adjunct to classical cytogenic analysis of irradiation-induced chromosomal damage by virtue of its ability to express and measure chromosomal damage not seen by classical cytogenic methods.

Welleweerd, J.; Wilder, M.E.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

1984-07-01

20

The Arctic Alzheimer mutation enhances sensitivity to toxic stress in human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The E693G (Arctic) mutation of the amyloid precursor protein was recently found to lead to early-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Swedish family. In the present study, we report that the Arctic mutation decreases cell viability in human neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability, as measured by the MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, was further compromised following exposure to calcium ionophore A23187, microtubule-binding colchicine or oxidative stress inducer hydrogen peroxide. The manner of cell death was found to be apoptotic. During apoptosis, cells with the Arctic mutation also decreased their secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein. The enhanced sensitivity to toxic stress in cells with the Arctic mutation most likely contributes to the pathogenic pathway leading to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12052536

Sennvik, Kristina; Nilsberth, Camilla; Stenh, Charlotte; Lannfelt, Lars; Benedikz, Eirikur

2002-06-21

21

[Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cell line BE(2) -C and its mechanism].  

PubMed

This study is to explore the inhibitory effect of methyl jasmonate on cell proliferation and expression of XIAP and survivin of human neuroblastoma cell line BE(2)-C. After cultivation of 1 - 2 mmol x L(-1) jasmonates with BE (2) -C cells for 6 - 24 h, the growth inhibiting rates of BE (2) -C cells were studied by MTT colorimetry. Cell proliferation was detected by colony formation assay. Cell cycle phases were assayed by propidium iodide staining flow cytometery. Cell apoptosis was inspected by acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining, Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining, and Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining flow cytometry. Expressions of cyclin D1, XIAP and survivin were determined by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Methyl jasmonate inhibited the growth of BE(2)-C cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After addition of 1, 1.5 and 2 mmol x L(-1) of methyl jasmonate for 24 h, the inhibiting rates of cell growth reached 20.6% - 85.5% (P < 0.01), and the IC50 was 1.35 mmol x L(-1). The cell cycles were arrested at S phase. A part of cells presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The early apoptotic rates were 13.51%, 17.32%, 24.59% (P < 0.01) and the cell death rates were 29.36% , 54.73% , 75.52% (P < 0.01), respectively. The expression of XIAP and survivin mRNA were downregulated by 18.5% - 68.9% , 22.4% - 48.7% (P < 0.05), respectively, without change in that of cyclin D1. The results indicated that methyl jasmonate could significantly inhibit the growth of BE(2) -C cells through inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, downregulating the expression of XIAP and survivin might be one of its molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:18822959

Jiang, Guo-Song; Tong, Qiang-Song; Zeng, Fu-Qing; Hu, Bo; Zheng, Li-Duan; Cai, Jia-Bin; Liu, Yuan

2008-06-01

22

Exploratory study on the effects of biodegradable nanoparticles with drugs on malignant B cells and on a human/mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if Rituximab coated Biodegradable Nanoparticles (BNPs) loaded with Chlorambucil and Hydroxychloroquine could induce apoptosis of B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL), MEC-1 and BJAB cells in vitro and evaluate their toxic and therapeutic effects on a Human/Mouse Model of Burkitt Lymphoma at an exploratory, proof of concept scale. We found that Rituximab-Chlorambucil-Hydroxychloroquine BNPs induce a decrease in cell viability of malignant B cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mediated cytotoxicity resulted from apoptosis, and was confirmed by monitoring the B-CLL cells after Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Additional data revealed that these BNPs were non toxic for healthy animals, and had prolonged survival in this mice model of human lymphoma. PMID:20925646

Marín, Gustavo H; Mansilla, Eduardo; Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Núñez, Luis; Larsen, Gustavo; Tau, José M; Maceira, Alberto; Spretz, Ruben; Mertz, Carol; Ingrao, Sabrina; Tripodo, Claudio; Tedesco, Francesco; Macor, Paolo

2010-11-01

23

Assessing yeast viability from cell size measurements?  

PubMed

During microbial cell cultures, environmental conditions affect cell physiology and subsequently process efficiency. Physiological changes result in changing cell morphology, such as cell size variations. The aim of this work was to study cell size evolution of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae population exposed to various stresses during alcoholic batch fermentations, and to evaluate the potential use of cell size measurements to infer cell viability. During a reference culture, without perturbation, viability as assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI) remained 100% and mean cell diameter was found to be above 5microm. A rapid temperature shift from 33 to 43 degrees C at 50gl(-1) of ethanol resulted in an immediate arrest of growth and triggered a progressive loss of viability from 100% to 0% and a decrease of mean cell diameter from 5.2 to 3.7microm. Cell size distribution curves obtained with a cell counter showed an increasing subpopulation of significantly smaller cells. At single-cell level, combined microscopy size measurements and PI staining showed that this subpopulation was exclusively composed of dead cells. Similar results were obtained after acetic acid or furfural additions. Accordingly, a multivariate data analysis was achieved to estimate the ratio of dead cells from cell size distributions obtained using the cell counter. PMID:20599572

Tibayrenc, Pierre; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence; Roger, Jean-Michel; Ghommidh, Charles

2010-06-25

24

Survival of host-associated bacteroidales cells and their relationship with Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and adenovirus in freshwater microcosms as measured by propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The ideal host-associated genetic fecal marker would be capable of predicting the presence of specific pathogens of concern. Flowthrough freshwater microcosms containing mixed feces and inocula of the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and adenovirus were placed at ambient temperature in the presence and absence of diurnal sunlight. The total Enterococcus DNA increased during the early periods (23 h) under sunlight exposure, even though cultivable Enterococcus and DNA in intact cells, as measured by propidium monoazide (PMA), decreased with first-order kinetics during the entire period. We found a significant difference in the decay of host-associated Bacteroidales cells between sunlight exposure and dark conditions (P value < 0.05), whereas the persistence of host-associated Bacteroidales DNA was comparable. The 2-log reduction times of adenovirus were 72 h for sunlight exposure and 99 h for dark conditions with similar decay rate constants (P value = 0.13). The persistences of fecal Bacteroidales cells and Campylobacter cells exposed to sunlight were similar, and host-associated Bacteroidales DNA and waterborne pathogen DNA were degraded at comparable rates (P values > 0.05). Overall, the ratio of quantitative PCR (qPCR) cycle threshold (C(T)) values with and without PMA treatment was indicative of the time elapsed since inoculation of the microcosm with (i) fecal material from different animal sources based on host-associated Bacteroidales and (ii) pure cultures of bacterial pathogens. The use of both PMA-qPCR and qPCR may yield more realistic information about recent sources of fecal contamination and result in improved prediction of waterborne pathogens and assessment of health risk. PMID:22139002

Bae, Sungwoo; Wuertz, Stefan

2011-12-02

25

Lysosomal membrane permeabilization induces cell death in human mast cells.  

PubMed

Mast cells (MC) have pathogenic roles in numerous disorders, and strategies that stabilize MC or induce MC apoptosis are therefore emerging as possible therapeutic regimens. A typical feature of MC is their high content of secretory lysosomes (granules), containing numerous components such as biogenic amines, cytokines, serglycin proteoglycan and proteases. Damage to the secretory lysosomes will thus lead to leakage of these compounds, including the proteases, into the cytosol, and this could potentially trigger apoptosis. Here, we evaluated whether MC are sensitive to cell death induced by secretory lysosome destabilization, induced by the lysosomotropic agent Leu-Leu-OMe (LLME). Human MC were sensitive to LLME-induced cell death. In contrast, fibroblasts and HEK-293 cells were largely resistant. As judged by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, LLME caused apoptotic cell death, and this was supported by induction of caspase-3-like activity, detection of activated caspase-3 by immunoblot analysis and reduced cell death in the presence of a caspase inhibitor. In support of a role for serglycin in regulating LLME-induced cell death, the survival rate of various cell types correlated negatively with the level of serglycin expression. In summary, this study introduces the concept of using lysosomotropic agents to induce cell death of human MC. PMID:21645032

Melo, F R; Lundequist, A; Calounova, G; Wernersson, S; Pejler, G

2011-10-01

26

HPC viability measurement: trypan blue versus acridine orange and propidium iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A reliable, validated method for rapidly determining HPC viability is essential for clinical cell en- gineering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A fluorometric cell viability assay using acridine orange and propidium io- dide (AO\\/PI) was compared to the current standard, trypan blue (TB) exclusion. Viable cells stained with AO\\/ PI fluoresce green under darkfield fluorescence micros- copy, while nonviable cells

K. Mascotti; J. McCullough; S. R. Burger

2000-01-01

27

Pleiotropic effects of cadmium in mesangial cells  

SciTech Connect

The mesangial cell of the renal glomerulus is exposed to circulating toxic substances and is a target involved in the glomerular component of chronic occupational and environmental exposure to cadmium. We review evidence for the involvement of cadmium in mesangial cell pathology, including effects on cell signaling, oncogene expression, and cell death. Previously we have shown that cadmium can inhibit apoptosis initiated through both the extrinsic (death ligand receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways, whereas exposure of mesangial cells to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} for 6 h initiates caspase-independent cell death through both apoptotic and apoptotic-like (annexin V positive, propidium iodide staining) mechanisms. Apoptotic death is dependent upon activation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). In the present study we show that low level exposure of mesangial cells to Cd{sup 2+} (0.5 {mu}M) initiates cell survival signals including PI3 kinase/Akt signaling, also dependent on CaMK-II, that are eventually overcome resulting in caspase-dependent cell death. These studies underscore the roles of cell signaling in various modes of cell death, and in particular the central role of CaMK-II in cadmium toxicology of the mesangial cell.

Xiao Weiqun; Liu Ying [University of Toronto, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 1 King's College Circle , Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A8 (Canada); Templeton, Douglas M. [University of Toronto, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 1 King's College Circle , Toronto, Ont., M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

2009-08-01

28

Piperine impairs cell cycle progression and causes reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in rectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Piperine, an alkaloid phytochemical found in the fruit of black and long pepper plants, is reported to inhibit the growth of cancer cells; however, the mechanism of action in human cancer cells is not clear. In this study we investigated the effect of piperine on the growth of HRT-18 human rectal adenocarcinoma cells. MTT assays showed that piperine inhibited the metabolic activity of HRT-18 cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, suggesting a cytostatic and/or cytotoxic effect. Flow cytometric analysis of Oregon Green 488-stained and propidium iodide-stained HRT-18 cells showed that piperine inhibited cell cycle progression. Piperine also caused HRT-18 cells to die by apoptosis, as determined by Annexin-V-FLUOS staining and characteristic changes in cell morphology. Flow cytometric analysis of dihydroethidium- and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate-stained HRT-18 cells showed increased production of reactive oxygen species in piperine-treated cells. Furthermore, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reduced apoptosis in cultures of piperine-treated HRT-18 cells, indicating that piperine-induced cytotoxicity was mediated at least in part by reactive oxygen species. The cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of piperine on rectal cancer cells suggest that this dietary phytochemical may be useful in cancer treatment. PMID:23063564

Yaffe, Paul B; Doucette, Carolyn D; Walsh, Mark; Hoskin, David W

2012-10-11

29

Multinucleation and cell dysfunction induced by amorphous silica nanoparticles in an L-02 human hepatic cell line  

PubMed Central

Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are one of the most important nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a variety of fields. Therefore, their effects on human health and the environment have been addressed in a number of studies. In this work, the effects of amorphous SNPs were investigated with regard to multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells. Our results show that L-02 cells had an abnormally high incidence of multinucleation upon exposure to silica, that increased in a dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining showed that multinucleated cells were arrested in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Increased multinucleation in L-02 cells was associated with increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage on flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, which might have led to failure of cytokinesis in these cells. Further, SNPs inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in exposed cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells might be a failure to undergo cytokinesis or cell fusion in response to SNPs, and the increase in cellular reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the apoptosis seen in both mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells.

Wang, Wen; Li, Yang; Liu, Xiaomei; Jin, Minghua; Du, Haiying; Liu, Ying; Huang, Peili; Zhou, Xianqing; Yuan, Lan; Sun, Zhiwei

2013-01-01

30

Effect of plasma needle on cultured cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate a possible application of plasma in fine surgery, we studied the effects of a small atmospheric glow discharge on living cultured cells. The plasma source used for this purpose was the "plasma needle". Plasma needle is a small (below 1mm) non-thermal radio-frequency glow, operating in helium mixtures with air at ambient pressure. Plasma treatment of cultured cells resulted in detachment of the cells. Viability tests using propidium iodide staining in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that detached cells as well as surrounding cells remained alive. When the cells received a low dose of plasma treatment, they reattached within a few hours to the surface of the culture flask and to each other. Removal of cells with high precision, without damage to adjacent cells, promises to become a new surgical technique. For investigation of the mechanism causing this detachment we investigated the gas mixture of the plasma with Raman scattering measurements. Radicals diffusing from the plasma into a liquid were detected by means of fluorescent probe in combination with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

Kieft, I. E.; Dvinskikh, N. A.; Broers, Jos L. V.; Slaaf, Dick W.; Stoffels, Eva

2004-05-01

31

Bisphosphonates regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and pro-osteoclastic expression in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Bisphosphonates are well established in the management of cancer-induced skeletal complications. Recent studies suggest that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) promote the apoptosis of cancer cells as well as osteoclasts in bone metastatic sites. To investigate whether N-BPs exhibit a direct antitumor effect on osteoclasts, the current study investigated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on MG-63 cells in vitro. MG-63 cells were treated with ZOL. The inhibitory effect of ZOL on the growth of MG-63 cells was measured by MTT assay. ZOL-induced apoptosis of the MG-63 cells was examined by Hoechst 33258 staining, electron microscopy, Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting analysis were employed to assess the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL). The MTT assay showed that ZOL induced a distinct dose- and time-dependent reduction of cell viability with an IC50 value of 52.37±1.0 ?M for 72 h. Flow cytometric analysis further revealed that the cell apoptosis was induced by arrest of the cell cycle in the G1 phase. RT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that ZOL upregulated OPG expression. These results suggest that ZOL has direct effects on osteosarcoma cell growth and apoptosis. Increased OPG expression is an indirect effect, possibly via changes in the local microenvironment.

CHANG, JUN; WANG, WEI; ZHANG, HUI; HU, YONG; YIN, ZONGSHENG

2012-01-01

32

Involvement of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 in paeoniflorin-induced human hepatoma cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to play an important role in tumor development and progression. PGE2 mediates its biological activity by binding any one of four prostanoid receptors (EP1 through EP4). The present study was designed to determine the role of the EP2 receptor during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and the effect of paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside. The proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to the selective EP2 receptor agonists butaprost and paeoniflorin. Apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was also quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the EP2 receptor and cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 was determined by western blotting. Butaprost significantly increased proliferation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells stimulated by butaprost at multiple time points (24, 48, and 72 h). Paeoniflorin induced apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, which was quantified by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. Our results indicate that the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 was significantly increased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells after stimulation by butaprost. Paeoniflorin significantly decreased the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells on addition of butaprost. Our results show that the PGE2 receptor subtype EP2 may play a vital role in the survival of both HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin, which may be a promising agent in the treatment of liver cancer, induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by downregulating EP2 expression and also increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, thus upregulating the activation of caspase-3. PMID:23069790

Hu, Shanshan; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Di; Jin, Juan; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Huaxun; Wang, Qingtong

2013-02-01

33

Discrimination of Viable and Dead Fecal Bacteroidales Bacteria by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide?  

PubMed Central

Propidium monoazide (PMA) was optimized to discriminate between viable and dead Bacteroides fragilis cells and extracellular DNA at different concentrations of solids using quantitative PCR. Conditions of 100 ?M PMA and a 10-min light exposure also excluded DNA from heat-treated cells of nonculturable Bacteroidales in human feces and wastewater influent and effluent.

Bae, Sungwoo; Wuertz, Stefan

2009-01-01

34

Therapeutic and radiosensitizing effects of armillaridin on human esophageal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Background. Armillaridin (AM) is isolated from Armillaria mellea. We examined the anticancer activity and radiosensitizing effect on human esophageal cancer cells. Methods. Human squamous cell carcinoma (CE81T/VGH and TE-2) and adenocarcinoma (BE-3 and SKGT-4) cell lines were cultured. The MTT assay was used for cell viability. The cell cycle was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was measured by DiOC6(3) staining. The colony formation assay was performed for estimation of the radiation surviving fraction. Human CE81T/VGH xenografts were established for evaluation of therapeutic activity in vivo. Results. AM inhibited the viability of four human esophageal cancer cell lines with an estimated concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) which was 3.4-6.9??M. AM induced a hypoploid cell population and morphological alterations typical of apoptosis in cells. This apoptosis induction was accompanied by a reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. AM accumulated cell cycle at G2/M phase and enhanced the radiosensitivity in CE81T/VGH cells. In vivo, AM inhibited the growth of CE81T/VGH xenografts without significant impact on body weight and white blood cell counts. Conclusion. Armillaridin could inhibit growth and enhance radiosensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells. There might be potential to integrate AM with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer treatment. PMID:23864890

Chi, Chih-Wen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Yu-Jen

2013-06-24

35

Transmembrane T-cell receptor peptides inhibit B- and natural killer-cell function  

PubMed Central

A synthetic hydrophobic peptide (core peptide; CP) containing two positively charged amino acids, lysine and arginine was derived from the transmembrane sequence of the T-cell receptor (TCR) ? chain and has been shown to inhibit T-cell-mediated inflammation. In this study, we investigated the specificity of CP (10 ?m) on lymphocyte function and found that it significantly inhibited interleukin-2 production in T cells and natural killer cytotoxicity by 46–58% compared to positive control. CP had no effects on B-cell proliferative responses when used at these concentrations; however, it suppressed B-cell proliferation at higher concentrations (50 ?m). Inhibition by CP was not the result of membrane pore formation or cytotoxicity when examined by trypan blue, propidium iodide staining or transmission electron microscopy. CP analogues, with both lysine and arginine replaced by neutral or negatively charged amino acids, or by randomly distributing charges in the peptide sequence, had no effect on lymphocyte function. These results suggest that peptide inhibition is affected by its structure and charge interactions, and may involve common signalling molecules in T, B and natural killer cells. The potential of the immuno-inhibitory effects of CP as a novel anti-inflammatory peptide in therapy should be further explored.

Huynh, Nghi T; Ffrench, Rosemary A; Boadle, Ross A; Manolios, Nicholas

2003-01-01

36

Removal of Free Extracellular DNA from Environmental Samples by Ethidium Monoazide and Propidium Monoazide?  

PubMed Central

Recently, new DNA extraction techniques (using ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide) have been developed to discriminate between alive and dead bacterial cells. Nevertheless, for complex environmental samples, no data are available yet. In the present study, these new methods were applied to anaerobic-fermentor sludge and the results were compared to a conventional microbiological approach.

Wagner, Andreas O.; Malin, Cornelia; Knapp, Brigitte A.; Illmer, Paul

2008-01-01

37

Hyperoxia inhibits proliferation of Mv1Lu epithelial cells independent of TGF-beta signaling.  

PubMed

High concentrations of O(2) inhibit epithelial cell proliferation that resumes on recovery in room air. To determine whether growth arrest is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), changes in cell proliferation during exposure to hyperoxia were assessed in the mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu and the clonal variant R1B, which is deficient for the type I TGF-beta receptor. Mv1Lu cells treated with TGF-beta accumulated in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle as determined by propidium iodide staining, whereas proliferation of R1B cells was unaffected by TGF-beta. In contrast, hyperoxia inhibited proliferation of both cell lines within 24 h of exposure through an accumulation in the S phase. Mv1Lu cells treated with TGF-beta and exposed to hyperoxia accumulated in the G(1) phase, suggesting that TGF-beta can inhibit the S phase accumulation observed with hyperoxia alone. Cyclin A was detected in cultures exposed to room air or growth arrested by hyperoxia while decreasing in cells growth arrested in the G(1) phase by TGF-beta. Finally, hyperoxia failed to activate a TGF-beta-dependent transcriptional reporter in both Mv1Lu and R1B cells. These findings reveal that simple growth arrest by hyperoxia involves a defect in S phase progression that is independent of TGF-beta signaling. PMID:10600888

Rancourt, R C; Staversky, R J; Keng, P C; O'Reilly, M A

1999-12-01

38

Damage in Escherichia coli Cells Treated with a Combination of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Subzero Temperature?  

PubMed Central

The relationship between membrane permeability, changes in ultrastructure, and inactivation in Escherichia coli strain K-12TG1 cells subjected to high hydrostatic pressure treatment at room and subzero temperatures was studied. Propidium iodide staining performed before and after pressure treatment made it possible to distinguish between reversible and irreversible pressure-mediated cell membrane permeabilization. Changes in cell ultrastructure were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which showed noticeable condensation of nucleoids and aggregation of cytosolic proteins in cells fixed after decompression. A novel technique used to mix fixation reagents with the cell suspension in situ under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and subzero-temperature conditions made it possible to show the partial reversibility of pressure-induced nucleoid condensation. However, based on visual examination of TEM micrographs, protein aggregation did not seem to be reversible. Reversible cell membrane permeabilization was noticeable, particularly for HHP treatments at subzero temperature. A correlation between membrane permeabilization and cell inactivation was established, suggesting different mechanisms at room and subzero temperatures. We propose that the inactivation of E. coli cells under combined HHP and subzero temperature occurs mainly during their transiently permeabilized state, whereas HHP inactivation at room temperature is related to a balance of transient and permanent permeabilization. The correlation between TEM results and cell inactivation was not absolute. Further work is required to elucidate the effects of pressure-induced damage on nucleoids and proteins during cell inactivation.

Moussa, Marwen; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

2007-01-01

39

Effects of nano-second electrical pulses (nsPEFs) on cell cycle progression and susceptibility at various phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to nano-second pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) has been shown to cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and blebbing of the plasma membrane. Recovery from nsPEF exposure is likely dependent on multiple factors, including exposure parameters, length of time between pulses, and extent of cellular damage. As cells progress through the cell cycle, variations in DNA and nucleus structure, cytoskeletal arrangement, and elasticity of cell membrane could cause nsPEFs to affect cells differently during different cell cycle phases. To better understand the impact of nsPEF on cell cycle, we investigated CHO cell cycle progression following varying intensities of nsPEFexposures. Cell populations were examined post exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 100, 150, or 200kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis to determine cell cycle phase. Populations exhibited arrest in G2/M phase, but not in G1 phase at 1h post-exposure that increased in severity and duration with increasing exposure dose. Recovery from arrest was complete after 12h, and populations did not exhibit an increase in apoptosis as a result of exposure. Post exposure arrest in G2/M phase may indicate that nsPEF-induced damage is not significant to cause G1 arrest or that mitotic checkpoints are more important regulators of cell cycle progression after nsPEF exposure.

Mahlke, Megan A.; Thompson, Gary; Estlack, Larry; Navara, Christopher; Ibey, Bennett L.

2013-02-01

40

Berbamine induces apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 by loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and caspase activation*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effect of berbamine on human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721. Methods: The effects of 24 h and 48 h incubation with different concentrations (0~64 ?g/ml) of the berbamine on SMMC7721 cells were evaluated using 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hoechst 33258 staining was conducted to distinguish the apoptotic cell, and the appearance of sub-G1 stage was determined by PI (propidium iodide) staining, the percentage of apoptotic cell was determined by flow cytometry following annexin V/PI staining. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m); the expression of activated caspase3 and caspase9 was analyzed by Western-blot. Results: The proliferation of SMMC7721 was decreased after treatment with berbamine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berbamine could induce apoptosis in SMMC7721 cells and could cause cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, to induce loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m) and activate caspase3 and caspase9. Berbamine-induced apoptosis could be blocked by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Conclusion: Berbamine exerts antiproliferative effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC7721 cells. The anticancer activity of berbamine could be attributed partly to its inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and caspase activation.

Wang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Jia-wei; Lu, Qing-hua; Xu, Rong-zhen; Dong, Qing-hua

2007-01-01

41

The mTOR inhibitor AZD8055 inhibits proliferation and glycolysis in cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of AZD8055 on proliferation, apoptosis and glycolysis in the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa and to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of action. HeLa human cervical cancer cells were treated with 10 nM AZD8055 for 24, 48 or 72 h. MTT was used to determine cell proliferation. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining was used to determine cell apoptosis analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Glycolytic activity was determined by measuring the activity of the key enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate production. RNA and protein expression were examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Treatment with AZD8055 inhibited proliferation and glycolysis, and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. During the prolonged treatment with AZD8055, the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) C1 substrates p70S6K and phosphorylation of the mTORC2 substrate Akt were deregulated, suggesting that the activity of mTOR was downregulated. Furthermore, our study showed that the expression of miR-143 was upregulated in a time-dependent manner in HeLa cells treated with AZD8055. In summary, the present study reveals a novel antitumor mechanism of AZD8055 in HeLa human cervical cancer cells.

LI, SHAORU; LI, YAN; HU, RUILI; LI, WEIHUA; QIU, HAIFENG; CAI, HONGHUA; WANG, SHIJIN

2013-01-01

42

The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)  

PubMed Central

Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24?h and 48?h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy.

Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

2013-01-01

43

Aldosterone induces p21-regulated apoptosis via increased synthesis and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-? in human proximal tubular cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Aldosterone has been shown to mediate p21-dependent cellular senescence in rat kidney proximal tubules in vivo and in cultured human proximal tubular cells. p21-induced senescent cells expressed higher levels of apoptotic cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), compared to non-senescent cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that aldosterone increases proximal tubular apoptosis by increasing the secretion of apoptosis-inducing factors through a p21-dependent mechanism.Human proximal tubular cells were incubated with aldosterone (10 nmol/L) and cell senescence was detected by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining and expression of p21. Apoptosis was analysed by terminal nick-end labelling and annexin/propidium iodide staining. p21 localisation was observed by immunofluorescence.Aldosterone for 3 or 5 days increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining, expression of p21 and TNF-? mRNAs, and secretion of TNF-? into the culture medium. These changes were abolished by gene silencing of p21. Aldosterone failed to increase apoptotic cells at day 3, but did increase them at day 5. Neutralising antibody against TNF-? prevented the aldosterone-induced apoptotic changes. Aldosterone did not affect the localisation of p21.These findings indicate that aldosterone increases TNF-? synthesis and secretion in proximal tubular cells via p21/senescence-dependent cell phenotypic changes, and that secreted TNF-? plays an important role as a paracrine factor in mediating cell apoptosis, indicating a possible involvement in aldosterone-induced renal damage.

Kitada, Kento; Nakano, Daisuke; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

2012-01-01

44

Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72?h of incubation). Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM) also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53?mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug.

Leong, Ooi Kheng; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

2011-01-01

45

Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72?h of incubation). Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM) also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53?mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug. PMID:19541726

Leong, Ooi Kheng; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

2011-01-11

46

Quantitation of the effects of disruption of catabolite (de)repression genes on the cell cycle behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

We have studied the effect of disrupting catabolite (de)repression genes SNF1, SNF4, and MIG1 on the cell cycle behavior of the CEN. PK122 wild type (WT) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by flow cytometry in glucose-limited chemostat cultures or batch growth in the presence of different carbon sources. Through a combination of flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells and mathematical modeling we showed that the deletion of the SNF4 gene provoked a decrease in the length of G1 with respect to the WT strain along with a smaller difference in the cell cycle length of parent and daughter cells. snf1 and mig1 mutants exhibited slightly shorter G1 respect to the WT. Additionally, in the mig1 mutant the cell cycle length of parent and daughter cells was slightly altered. The results obtained are in agreement with the view that the SNF4 gene is involved in the regulation of cell cycle in yeast. PMID:9841784

Aon, M A; Cortassa, S

1999-01-01

47

Involvement of mitochondria and metacaspase elevation in harpin Pss-induced cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Expression of a proteinaceous elicitor harpin(Pss,) encoded by hrpZ of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61, under GAL1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187 resulted in galactose-inducible yeast cell death (YCD). Extracellular treatment of harpin did not affect the growth of yeast. The observed YCD was independent of the stage of cell cycle. "Petite" mutant of S. cerevisiae Y187 pYEUT-hrpZ was insensitive to cell death indicating the involvement of mitochondria in this YCD. Loss in mitochondrial potential, but no leakage of Cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, were notable features in harpin(Pss)-induced YCD. Cyclosporin A had no effect on hrpZ expressing yeast cells, further confirmed that there was no release of Cytochrome c. Elevation of caspase activity has been reported for the first time in this form of cell death induced by harpin expression. Release of reactive oxygen species and clear loss of membrane integrity were evident with the absence of nuclear fragmentation and chromosomal condensation, while annexin V and propidium iodide staining showed features typical of necrosis. PMID:19507234

Sripriya, Paranthaman; Vedantam, Lakshmi Vasudev; Podile, Appa Rao

2009-08-15

48

Effects of STAT3 Gene Silencing and Rapamycin on Apoptosis in Hepatocarcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways are important for regulating apoptosis, and are frequently activated in cancers. In this study, we targeted STAT3 and mTOR in human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells and examined the subsequent alterations in cellular apoptosis. The expression of STAT3 was silenced with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmid. The activity of mTOR was inhibited using rapamycin. Following treatment, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry and Hoechst33258 immunofluorescence staining was used to examine cellular apoptosis. JC-1 staining was used to monitor depolarization of mitochondrial membrane (??m). Furthermore, the expression of activated caspase 3 protein was analyzed by Western blotting. Compared to non-treated or control siRNA-transfected cells, significantly higher levels of apoptosis were detected in siSTAT3-transfected or rapamycin-treated cells (P < 0.05), which was further enhanced in cells targeted for both molecules (P < 0.05). The pro-apoptotic effects were accompanied with concomitant depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and up-regulation of activated caspase 3. Combined treatments using rapamycin and STAT3 gene silencing significantly increases apoptosis in Bel-7402 cells, displaying more dramatic effect than any single treatment. This study provides evidence for targeting multiple molecules in cancer therapy.

Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jun-Wei; Lv, Guo-Yue; Xie, Shu-Li; Wang, Guang-Yi

2012-01-01

49

Paeonol prevents excitotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells via downregulation of ERK activation and inhibition of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Paeonol, an active component of Moutan Cortex, has been recognized as a potential neuroprotective drug. In the present study, an injury model based on glutamate-induced cell death of rat pheochromocytoma cells was used to investigate the neuroprotective potential of paeonol and its mechanism of action. Our findings showed that paeonol dose-dependently prevented glutamate-induced cell death as evidenced by cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and trypan blue exclusion. In addition, flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells revealed that paeonol pretreatment reduced the level of glutamate-induced apoptosis in pheochromocytoma cells. Paeonol was also able to decrease the glutamate-induced injury of mitochondria by normalization of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. The glutamate-induced activity of caspase-3 and p-ERK were dose-dependently reduced by paeonol pretreatments. Taken together, our data suggest that paeonol develops its neuroprotective effect against glutamate neurotoxicity through inhibition of the apoptotic signaling pathway and upregulation of the p-ERK pathway. PMID:21509715

Wang, Xuncui; Zhu, Guoqi; Yang, Shu; Wang, Xiu; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiaoxiang; Li, Qinglin

2011-04-20

50

Apoptotic effects of Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human breast carcinoma T-47D cells mediated by c-myc-, p53-, and caspase-3-dependent pathways.  

PubMed

The chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced a significant growth inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells as compared with other extracts with an EC(50) value of 3.8 microg/mL. An analysis of cell death mechanisms indicated that the extract elicited an apoptotic cell death. mRNA expression analysis revealed the coregulation of apoptotic genes, that is, c-myc , p53, and caspase-3. The c-myc was significantly induced by the chloroform extract at the earlier phase of treatment, followed by p53 and caspase-3. Biochemical assay and ultrastructural observation displayed typical apoptotic features in the treated cells, including DNA fragmentation, blebbing and convolution of cell membrane, clumping and margination of chromatin, and production of membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. The presence of different stages of apoptotic cell death and phosphatidylserine externalization were further reconfirmed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Thus, the results from this study strongly suggest that the chloroform extract of P. minima induced apoptotic cell death via p53-, caspase-3-, and c-myc-dependent pathways. PMID:20150224

Ooi, Kheng Leong; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Lim, Chui Hun; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza

2010-02-11

51

Intracellular pH distribution as a cell health indicator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Internal pH regulation is vital for many cell functions, including transport mechanisms and metabolic enzyme activity. More specifically, transport mechanisms are to a wide degree governed by internal pH distributions. We introduce the term standard deviation of the intracellular pH (s.d.(pHint)) to describe the internal pH distributions. The cellular pH distributional response to external stress such as heat has not previously been determined. In this study, the intracellular pH (pHi) and the s.d.(pHint) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to supralethal temperatures were measured using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM). An exponential decline in pHi was observed after an initial small decline. For the first time, we report the use of FRIM for determining in vivo plasma membrane proton permeability coefficients in yeast. Furthermore, the exponential decay of pHi and the rupture of the cell plasma membrane, as measured by propidium iodide staining, at 70°C were not simultaneous but were separated by a significant temporal difference. Finally, a nonlinear relationship between the pHi and s.d.(pHint) was found; i.e. the s.d.(pHint) was significantly more sensitive to supralethal temperatures than pHi. s.d.(pHint) is therefore proposed as an early health/vitality indicator in S. cerevisiae cells exposed to heat stress.

Aabo, Thomas; Gluckstad, Jesper; Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Arneborg, Nils

2011-01-01

52

Raman micro-spectroscopic analysis of cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells in the presence of roscovitine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman micro-spectroscopic analysis of cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells in the presence of roscovitine, [seliciclib, 2-(1-ethyl-2-hydroxy-ethylamino)-6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine], a promising drug candidate in cancer therapy, has been performed for the first time. The aim of this study was to investigate modulations in colon cancer cells induced by roscovitine. Raman spectra of the cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with roscovitine at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 ?M) were recorded in the range 400-1850 cm -1. It was shown that the second derivative profile of the experimental spectrum gives valuable information about the wavenumbers and band widths of the vibrational modes of cell components, and it eliminates the appearance of false peaks arising from incorrect baseline corrections. In samples containing roscovitine, significant spectral changes were observed in the intensities of characteristic protein and DNA bands, which indicate roscovitine-induced apoptosis. Roscovitine-induced apoptosis was also assessed by flow cytometry analysis, and analysis of propidium iodide staining. We observed some modifications in amide I and III bands, which arise from alterations in the secondary structure of cell proteins caused by the presence of roscovitine.

Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Balci, K.; Akyuz, T.; Coker, A.; Arisan, E. D.; Palavan-Unsal, N.; Ozalpan, A.

2011-05-01

53

CXCL12 Chemokine Expression and Secretion Regulates Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Anoikis through Bim-Mediated Intrinsic Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to anoikis, apoptosis triggered by a loss of cellular adhesion to the underlying extracellular matrix, is a hallmark of metastatic cancer. Previously we have shown re-establishment of CXCL12 expression in colorectal carcinoma cells inhibits metastasis by enhancing anoikis sensitivity. The objective of these studies was to define the signaling mechanisms regulating CXCL12-mediated anoikis. Methodology/Principal Findings Adhesion, examined by crystal violet staining, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoblot analysis indicated decreased focal adhesion signaling corresponding with loss of adhesion in cells constitutively simulated by CXCL12. Loss of adhesion was inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment, indicating CXCL12 regulating anoikis through G?i-protein coupled receptors. Non-adherent HCT116 and HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells expressing CXCL12 exhibited enhanced anoikis sensitivity by propidium iodide staining, caspase activity assays, and immunoblot compared to GFP control cells. CXCL12 producing carcinomas cultured on poly-HEMA displayed heightened Bim and loss of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 preceding cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation. RNAi knockdown of Bim reversed anoikis sensitivity of CXCL12-expressing cells and fostered increased soft-agar foci formation and hepatic tumors in an orthotopic mouse model of metastasis. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate CXCL12 provides a barrier to metastasis by increasing anoikis via activation of a Bim-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These results underscore the importance of retaining CXCL12 expression to sensitize colorectal carcinomas to anoikis and minimize tumor progression.

Drury, Luke J.; Wendt, Michael K.; Dwinell, Michael B.

2010-01-01

54

PARP determines the mode of cell death in skin fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, exposed to sulfur mustard.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard is cytotoxic to dermal fibroblasts as well as epidermal keratinocytes. We demonstrated that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) modulates Fas-mediated apoptosis, and other groups and we have shown that PARP plays a role in the modulation of other types of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. We have now utilized primary dermal fibroblasts, immortalized fibroblasts, and keratinocytes derived from PARP(-/-) mice and their wildtype littermates (PARP(+/+)) to determine the contribution of PARP to sulfur mustard toxicity. Following sulfur mustard exposure, primary skin fibroblasts from PARP-deficient mice demonstrated increased internucleosomal DNA cleavage, caspase-3 processing and activity, and annexin V positivity, compared to those derived from PARP(+/+) animals. Conversely, propidium iodide staining, PARP cleavage patterns, and random DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-dependent increase in necrosis in PARP(+/+) but not PARP(-/-) cells. Using immortalized PARP(-/-) fibroblasts stably transfected with the human PARP cDNA or with empty vector alone, we show that PARP inhibits markers of apoptosis in these cells as well. Finally, primary keratinocytes were derived from newborn PARP(+/+) and PARP(-/-) mice and immortalized with the E6 and E7 genes of human papilloma virus. In contrast to fibroblasts, keratinocytes from both PARP(-/-) and PARP(+/+) mice express markers of apoptosis in response to sulfur mustard exposure. The effects of PARP on the mode of cell death in different skin cell types may determine the severity of vesication in vivo, and thus have implications for the design of PARP inhibitors to reduce sulfur mustard pathology. PMID:11886524

Rosenthal, D S; Simbulan-Rosenthal, C M; Liu, W F; Velena, A; Anderson, D; Benton, B; Wang, Z Q; Smith, W; Ray, R; Smulson, M E

2001-12-01

55

Ajulemic acid, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid acid, suppresses osteoclastogenesis in mononuclear precursor cells and induces apoptosis in mature osteoclast-like cells.  

PubMed

Oral administration of ajulemic acid (AjA), a cannabinoid acid devoid of psychoactivity, prevents joint tissue injury in rats with adjuvant induced arthritis. Because activation of osteoclasts is central to the pathogenesis of bone erosion in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we investigated the influence of AjA on osteoclast differentiation and survival. Osteoclast cultures were established by stimulation of RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse bone marrow cultures with receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Simultaneous addition of AjA (15 and 30 microM) and RANKL to both culture systems significantly suppressed development of multinucleated osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis) in a dose dependent manner, as determined by quantification of multinuclear, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells. AjA impaired growth of RAW264.7 monocytes and prevented further osteoclast formation in cultures in which osteoclastogenesis had already begun. Reduction by AjA of both monocyte growth and osteoclast formation was associated with apoptosis, assayed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and caspase activity. The anti-osteoclastogenic effects of AjA did not require the continuous presence of AjA in the cell cultures. Based on these findings, we propose that AjA or other nonpsychoactive synthetic analogs of Cannabis constituents may be useful therapy for diseases such as RA and osteoporosis in which bone resorption is a central feature. PMID:17786950

George, Kerri L; Saltman, Laura H; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Zurier, Robert B

2008-03-01

56

Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation  

SciTech Connect

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

Chou, C.-T. [Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan (China); He Shiping [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan (China); Jan, C.-R. [Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

2007-02-01

57

Rapid assessment of islet viability with acridine orange and propidium iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A simple, rapid method for estimating the viability of isolated islets of Langerhans with fluorescent dyes is described. Low\\u000a concentrations of acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO\\/PI) were used to visualize living and dead islet cells simultaneously.\\u000a AO\\/PI-stained islets can be divided into three distinct groups. Group A islets fluoresce green, contain insulin, and have\\u000a normal ultrastructure; group C islets

Harvey L. Bank

1988-01-01

58

Involvement of Mst1 in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian sterile 20-kinase 1 (Mst1), a member of the sterile-20 family protein kinase, plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. However, little is know about the physiological activator of Mst1 and the role of Mst1 in endothelial cells (ECs). We examined whether Mst1 is involved in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of ECs. Western blot analysis revealed that TNF-{alpha} induced activation of caspase 3 and Mst1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TNF-{alpha}-induced Mst1 activation is almost completely prevented by pretreatment with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase 3 inhibitor. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 and fluorescence-activated cell sorting of propidium iodide-stained cells showed that TNF-{alpha} induced apoptosis of EC. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, also inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced activation of Mst1 and caspase 3, as well as apoptosis. Knockdown of Mst1 expression by short interfering RNA attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis but not cleavage of caspase 3. These results suggest that Mst1 plays an important role in the induction of TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis of EC. However, positive feedback mechanism between Mst1 and caspase 3, which was shown in the previous studies, was not observed. Inhibition of Mst1 function may be beneficial for maintaining the endothelial integrity and inhibition of atherogenesis.

Ohtsubo, Hideki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, 812-8582 Fukuoka (Japan); Ichiki, Toshihiro [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, 812-8582 Fukuoka (Japan)], E-mail: ichiki@cardiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Imayama, Ikuyo; Ono, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Kae; Hashiguchi, Yasuko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, 812-8582 Fukuoka (Japan); Sadoshima, Junichi [Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (United States); Sunagawa, Kenji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, 812-8582 Fukuoka (Japan)

2008-03-07

59

DNA alteration and programmed cell death during ageing of sunflower seed  

PubMed Central

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed viability is affected by moisture content (MC) during ageing and is related to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and changes in energy metabolism. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of ageing on DNA alteration events by RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis and to determine whether loss of seed viability might correspond to a controlled programmed cell death (PCD). Ageing of sunflower seeds was carried out at 35?°C for 7?d at different MCs. The higher the MC, the lower was the seed viability. RAPD analysis showed that DNA alterations occurred during ageing especially in seeds containing a high MC. In addition, PCD, as revealed by DNA fragmentation and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay, was detected in aged seeds at MCs which resulted in ?50% seed viability. At the cellular level, TUNEL assay and propidium iodide staining showed that cell death concerns all the cells of the embryonic axis. The quantification of the adenylate pool highlights mitochondrial dysfunction in aged seeds containing a high MC. The involvement of oxidative burst, mitochondria dysfunction, and PCD in seed loss of viability is proposed.

El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Mazuy, Claire; Corbineau, Francoise; Bailly, Christophe

2011-01-01

60

MicroRNA-204 increases sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells to cisplatin and is associated with a favourable clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuroblastoma remains a major cause of cancer-linked mortality in children. miR-204 has been used in microRNA expression signatures predictive of neuroblastoma patient survival. The aim of this study was to explore the independent association of miR-204 with survival in a neuroblastoma cohort, and to investigate the phenotypic effects mediated by miR-204 expression in neuroblastoma. Methods: Neuroblastoma cell lines were transiently transfected with miR-204 mimics and assessed for cell viability using MTS assays. Apoptosis levels in cell lines were evaluated by FACS analysis of Annexin V-/propidium iodide-stained cells transfected with miR-204 mimics and treated with chemotherapy drug or vehicle control. Potential targets of miR-204 were validated using luciferase reporter assays. Results: miR-204 expression in primary neuroblastoma tumours was predictive of patient event-free and overall survival, independent of established known risk factors. Ectopic miR-204 expression significantly increased sensitivity to cisplatin and etoposide in vitro. miR-204 direct targeting of the 3? UTR of BCL2 and NTRK2 (TrkB) was confirmed. Conclusion: miR-204 is a novel predictor of outcome in neuroblastoma, functioning, at least in part, through increasing sensitivity to cisplatin by direct targeting and downregulation of anti-apoptotic BCL2. miR-204 also targets full-length NTRK2, a potent oncogene involved with chemotherapy drug resistance in neuroblastoma.

Ryan, J; Tivnan, A; Fay, J; Bryan, K; Meehan, M; Creevey, L; Lynch, J; Bray, I M; O'Meara, A; Davidoff, A M; Stallings, R L

2012-01-01

61

Desipramine-induced apoptosis in human PC3 prostate cancer cells: activation of JNK kinase and caspase-3 pathways and a protective role of [Ca2+]i elevation.  

PubMed

The antidepressant desipramine has been shown to induce a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) and cytotoxicity in human PC3 prostate cancer cells, but the mechanisms underlying its cytotoxic effect is unclear. Cell viability was examined by WST-1 assays. Apoptosis was assessed by propidium iodide staining and an increase in caspase-3 activation. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was analyzed by immunoblotting. Desipramine caused cell death via apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Immunoblotting data revealed that desipramine activated the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SP600125 (a selective JNK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca2+ chelator, to prevent desipramine-induced [Ca2+]i rises worsened desipramine-induced cytotoxicity. Immunoblotting data suggest that BAPTA/AM pretreatment enhanced desipramine-evoked JNK phosphorylation and caspase-3 cleavage. The results suggest that in PC3 cells, desipramine caused apoptosis via inducing JNK-associated caspase-3 activation, and [Ca2+]i rises may slow down or alleviate desipramine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:18606486

Chang, Hong-Chiang; Huang, Chorng-Chih; Huang, Chun-Jen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Liu, Shiuh-In; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Chang, Hong-Tai; Huang, Jong-Khing; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Jan, Chung-Ren

2008-05-27

62

Ginkgolide B promotes proliferation and functional activities of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: involvement of Akt/eNOS and MAPK/p38 signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to neovascularization in various diseases, and represent a very interesting alternative cell source for enhancing vasculogenesis in regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ginkgolide B (GB) on proliferation and differentiation of EPCs, and the involved signaling pathway in vitro. EPC proliferation, migration, adhesion and angiogenesis activities were assessed with the WST-8 assay, Transwell chamber assay, cell counting and angiogenesis kit, respectively. Apoptosis was detected with annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The protein expression of angiogenesis-related makers was detected by Western blot, and related gene expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that GB promoted the proliferation and endothelial gene expression, and markedly enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration response and the capability to incorporate into the vascular networks in EPCs. GB protected EPCs from H2O2-induced cell death. GB induced the phosphorylation of eNOS, Akt and p38, which in turn promoted cell proliferation and function. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that GB, at a near medical applied dose, increases the number and functional activities of EPCs with involvement of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/p38 signal pathways. These ?ndings raise the intriguing possibility that GB may play an important role in the protection and revascularization of blood vessels. PMID:21623570

Tang, Yubo; Huang, Baoding; Sun, Laibao; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xuenong

2011-05-28

63

Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate activates EGFR/ERK signalling pathway and promotes cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (IRTKS) is closely associated with actin remodelling and membrane protrusion, but its role in the pathogenesis of malignant tumours, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is still unknown. In this study, we showed that IRTKS was frequently upregulated in HCC samples, and its expression level was significantly associated with tumour size. Enforced expression of IRTKS in human HCC cell lines significantly promoted their proliferation and colony formation in vitro, and their capacity to develop tumour xenografts in vivo, whereas knockdown of IRTKS resulted in the opposite effects. Furthermore, the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analyses and propidium iodide staining indicated that IRTKS can promote the entry into S phase of cell cycle progression. Significantly, IRTKS can interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), results in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). By contrast, inhibition of ERK activation can attenuate the effects of IRTKS overexpression on cellular proliferation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IRTKS promotes the proliferation of HCC cells by enhancing EGFR-ERK signalling pathway. PMID:23693078

Wang, Yu-Ping; Huang, Li-Yu; Sun, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Zhuang-Zhuang; Fang, Jia-Zhu; Wei, Bao-Feng; Wu, Bing-Hao; Han, Ze-Guang

2013-05-18

64

CYP1A and POR gene mediated mitochondrial membrane damage induced by carbon nanoparticle in human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NPs) can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems, furthermore small carboxyl polystyrene NPs induce hemolysis, activate platelets and induce inflammation in human blood. Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are known to interfere with cellular metabolism, specific cellular functions and moreover may cause cellular toxicity. We aimed to study the influence of CNPs on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane damage and intracellular gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). CNPs cause a dose and time dependent growth inhibition in hMSCs at a dose range from 50 to 400?g/mL. Exposure of CNPs toxic doses viz., 50?g/mL (D1) and 100?g/mL (D2) decreased intracellular mitochondrial membrane potential compared to control. CNPs treated cells were found to lose their morphology due to cell membrane damage have been confirmed by propidium iodide staining and fluorescence microscopic analysis. Oxidative stress responsive genes like GSTM3 and GSR1 expression have increased a fold when compared to control, interim there is no change were observed in SOD and GPx. We found an increased expression of CYP1A and POR genes by at least 2- fold, which is involved in mitochondrial trans-membrane potential. In conclusion, routine and high exposure of CNPs to hMSCs increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage. PMID:23624273

Alshatwi, Ali A; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Lei, K A

2013-04-03

65

Amyloid-like aggregates of neuronal tau induced by formaldehyde promote apoptosis of neuronal cells  

PubMed Central

Background The microtubule associated protein tau is the principle component of neurofibrillar tangles, which are a characteristic marker in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease; similar lesions are also observed after chronic alcohol abuse. Formaldehyde is a common environmental contaminant and also a metabolite of methanol. Although many studies have been done on methanol and formaldehyde intoxication, none of these address the contribution of protein misfolding to the pathological mechanism, in particular the effect of formaldehyde on protein conformation and polymerization. Results We found that unlike the typical globular protein BSA, the natively-unfolded structure of human neuronal tau was induced to misfold and aggregate in the presence of ~0.01% formaldehyde, leading to formation of amyloid-like deposits that appeared as densely staining granules by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and bound the amyloid-specific dyes thioflavin T and Congo Red. The amyloid-like aggregates of tau were found to induce apoptosis in the neurotypic cell line SH-SY5Y and in rat hippocampal cells, as observed by Hoechst 33258 staining, assay of caspase-3 activity, and flow cytometry using Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. Further experiments showed that Congo Red specifically attenuated the caspase-3 activity induced by amyloid-like deposits of tau. Conclusion The results suggest that low concentrations of formaldehyde can induce human tau protein to form neurotoxic aggregates, which could play a role in the induction of tauopathies.

Nie, Chun Lai; Wang, Xing Sheng; Liu, Ying; Perrett, Sarah; He, Rong Qiao

2007-01-01

66

Toxicity of surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles toward lung alveolar epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In vitro cytotoxicity and inflammatory response following exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have been investigated on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Three different PLGA NPs (230 nm) were obtained using different stabilizers (polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan, or Pluronic(®) F68) to form respectively neutral, positively or negatively charged NPs. Polystyrene NPs were used as polymeric but non-biodegradable NPs, and titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) as inorganic NPs, for comparison. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial activity as well as membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, propidium iodide staining). The cytotoxicity of PLGA-based and polystyrene NPs was lower or equivalent to the one observed after exposure to titanium dioxide NPs. The inflammatory response, evaluated through the release of the IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-? cytokines, was low for all NPs. However, some differences were observed, especially for negative PLGA NPs that led to a higher inflammatory response, which can be correlated to a higher uptake of these NPs. Taken together, these results show that both coating of PLGA NPs and the nature of the core play a key role in cell response. PMID:23747506

Grabowski, Nadège; Hillaireau, Hervé; Vergnaud, Juliette; Santiago, Letícia Aragão; Kerdine-Romer, Saadia; Pallardy, Marc; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias

2013-06-06

67

Cytotoxicity of direct current with antibacterial agents against host cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of iontophoresis treatment using direct current (DC) with or without antibacterial agents. The following antibacterial agents were used: diamine silver fluoride (AgF); sodium fluoride (NaF); and iodine zinc iodide (JJZ). The cytotoxic activity of DC with or without antibacterial agents against human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) was evaluated by the 3-[4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It was noted that DC (2 mA) killed PMNs in a time-dependent manner and the cytotoxicity was enhanced when DC was combined with antibacterial agents. The toxic effect of antibacterial agents was in the order: AgF>JJZ>NaF. The death of PMNs by DC was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. DC appeared to induce necrosis rather than apoptosis of PMNs. These results suggest that iontophoresis treatment using DC and antibacterial agents may induce necrotic cytotoxicity in host cells around periapical lesions. PMID:16186758

Nakamura, Yuko; Takahashi, Keiso; Shimetani, Akiko; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Hirofumi

2005-10-01

68

Hepatitis C Virus Subgenomic Replicons in the Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects liver cells and its replication in other cells is incompletely defined. Human hepatoma Huh-7 cells harboring subgenomic HCV replicons were used in somatic cell fusion experiments with human embryonic kidney 293 cells as a means of examining the permissiveness of 293 cells for HCV subgenomic RNA replication. 293 cells were generally not permissive for replication of Huh-7 cell-adapted replicons. However, upon coculturing of the two cell lines, we selected rare replicon-containing cells, termed 293Rep cells, that resembled parental 293 cells. Direct metabolic labeling of cells with 33P in the presence of actinomycin D and Northern blotting to detect the negative strand of the replicon demonstrated functional RNA replicons in 293Rep cells. Furthermore, Western blots revealed that 293Rep cells expressed the HCV nonstructural proteins as well as markers of the naïve 293 cells but not Huh-7 cells. Propidium iodide staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of 293Rep cells revealed that clone 293Rep17 closely resembled naïve 293 cells. Transfection of total RNA from 293Rep17 into naïve 293 cells produced replicon-containing 293 cell lines with characteristics distinct from those of Huh-7-derived replicon cell lines. Relative to Huh-7 replicons, the 293 cell replicons were less sensitive to inhibition by alpha interferon and substantially more sensitive to inhibition by poly(I)-poly(C) double-stranded RNA. This study established HCV subgenomic replicons in nonhepatic 293 cells and demonstrated their utility in expanding the study of cellular HCV RNA replication.

Ali, Samir; Pellerin, Charles; Lamarre, Daniel; Kukolj, George

2004-01-01

69

Novel Photosensitizers Trigger Rapid Death of Malignant Human Cells and Rodent Tumor Transplants via Lipid Photodamage and Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptotic cascades may frequently be impaired in tumor cells; therefore, the approaches to circumvent these obstacles emerge as important therapeutic modalities. Methodology/Principal Findings Our novel derivatives of chlorin e6, that is, its amide (compound 2) and boronated amide (compound 5) evoked no dark toxicity and demonstrated a significantly higher photosensitizing efficacy than chlorin e6 against transplanted aggressive tumors such as B16 melanoma and M-1 sarcoma. Compound 5 showed superior therapeutic potency. Illumination with red light of mammalian tumor cells loaded with 0.1 µM of 5 caused rapid (within the initial minutes) necrosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. The laser confocal microscopy-assisted analysis of cell death revealed the following order of events: prior to illumination, 5 accumulated in Golgi cysternae, endoplasmic reticulum and in some (but not all) lysosomes. In response to light, the reactive oxygen species burst was concomitant with the drop of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, the dramatic changes of mitochondrial shape and the loss of integrity of mitochondria and lysosomes. Within 3–4 min post illumination, the plasma membrane became permeable for propidium iodide. Compounds 2 and 5 were one order of magnitude more potent than chlorin e6 in photodamage of artificial liposomes monitored in a dye release assay. The latter effect depended on the content of non-saturated lipids; in liposomes consisting of saturated lipids no photodamage was detectable. The increased therapeutic efficacy of 5 compared with 2 was attributed to a striking difference in the ability of these photosensitizers to permeate through hydrophobic membrane interior as evidenced by measurements of voltage jump-induced relaxation of transmembrane current on planar lipid bilayers. Conclusions/Significance The multimembrane photodestruction and cell necrosis induced by photoactivation of 2 and 5 are directly associated with membrane permeabilization caused by lipid photodamage.

Moisenovich, Mikhail M.; Ol'shevskaya, Valentina A.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Ramonova, Alla A.; Nikitina, Roza G.; Tatarskiy, Victor V.; Kaplan, Mikhail A.; Kalinin, Valery N.; Kotova, Elena A.; Uvarov, Oleg V.; Agapov, Igor I.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Shtil, Alexander A.

2010-01-01

70

PMA and Ionomycin Induce Glioblastoma Cell Death: Activation-Induced Cell-Death-Like Phenomena Occur in Glioma Cells.  

PubMed

Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io) can induce T cell activation and proliferation. Furthermore, they stimulate activation-induced cell death (AICD) in mature lymphocytes via Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) up-regulation. In this study, we explored the influence of PMA/Io treatment on glioblastoma cells, and found that AICD-like phenomena may also occur in glioma. Using the MTT assay and cell counting, we demonstrated that treatment of PMA/Io significantly inhibited the proliferation of glioma cell lines, U87 and U251. TUNEL assays and transmission electron microscopy revealed that PMA/Io markedly induced U87 and U251 cell apoptosis. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry showed that treatment with PMA/Io resulted in an arrestment of cell cycle and an increase in cell death. Using real-time PCR and western blot, we found that PMA/Io up-regulated the expression of Fas and FasL at both mRNA and protein level, which confirmed that PMA/Io induced glioma cell death. Specific knockdown of NFAT1 expression by small hairpin RNA greatly reduced the PMA/Io induced cell death and apoptosis by inhibition of FasL expression. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of NFAT1 significantly correlated with the expression of Fas. The coexistence of Fas with NFAT1 in vivo provides the background for AICD-like phenomena to occur in glioma. These findings demonstrate that PMA/Io can induce glioblastoma cell death through the NFAT1-Fas/FasL pathway. Glioma-related AICD-like phenomena may provide a novel avenue for glioma treatment. PMID:24130787

Han, Sheng; Tie, Xinxin; Meng, Lingxuan; Wang, Yunjie; Wu, Anhua

2013-10-09

71

PMA and Ionomycin Induce Glioblastoma Cell Death: Activation-Induced Cell-Death-Like Phenomena Occur in Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io) can induce T cell activation and proliferation. Furthermore, they stimulate activation-induced cell death (AICD) in mature lymphocytes via Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) up-regulation. In this study, we explored the influence of PMA/Io treatment on glioblastoma cells, and found that AICD-like phenomena may also occur in glioma. Using the MTT assay and cell counting, we demonstrated that treatment of PMA/Io significantly inhibited the proliferation of glioma cell lines, U87 and U251. TUNEL assays and transmission electron microscopy revealed that PMA/Io markedly induced U87 and U251 cell apoptosis. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry showed that treatment with PMA/Io resulted in an arrestment of cell cycle and an increase in cell death. Using real-time PCR and western blot, we found that PMA/Io up-regulated the expression of Fas and FasL at both mRNA and protein level, which confirmed that PMA/Io induced glioma cell death. Specific knockdown of NFAT1 expression by small hairpin RNA greatly reduced the PMA/Io induced cell death and apoptosis by inhibition of FasL expression. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of NFAT1 significantly correlated with the expression of Fas. The coexistence of Fas with NFAT1 in vivo provides the background for AICD-like phenomena to occur in glioma. These findings demonstrate that PMA/Io can induce glioblastoma cell death through the NFAT1-Fas/FasL pathway. Glioma-related AICD-like phenomena may provide a novel avenue for glioma treatment.

Han, Sheng; Tie, Xinxin; Meng, Lingxuan; Wang, Yunjie; Wu, Anhua

2013-01-01

72

Oxovanadium complexes with quinoline and pyridinone ligands: syntheses of the complexes and effect of alkyl chains on their apoptosis-inducing activity in leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Vanadium complexes with quinoline ligands (1b-g) and pyridinone ligands (2b-d) were synthesized, and the effect of the length and shape of alkyl chains on the antiproliferative activity toward U937 cells was studied. For the synthesis of the vanadium complexes, quinoline and pyridinone ligands were prepared and then treated with VOSO(4) or VO(acac)(2). The vanadyl(IV) complexes were characterized by IR, ESR, and UV-vis spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The antiproliferative activity of 1a-g toward U937 cells showed little dependence on the length and shape of the alkyl chain. In contrast, a good correlation was found between the IC(50) values and partition coefficients (logP) values of 2a-c. Among them, 2c showed the highest inhibitory activity, and its IC(50) value was smaller than that of cisplatin. The apoptosis-inducing ability of 2b and 2c was supported by annexin V-propidium iodide staining experiments and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. Inhibitors of caspase-3, -8, and -9 did not affect the antiproliferative activity of 2c, indicating that the apoptosis induced by 2c was via a caspase-independent pathway. PMID:22472041

Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumura, Yuriko; Tokuoka, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Akihiro

2012-03-14

73

Arecoline induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Betel quid (BQ) chewing is a common oral habit in South Asia and Taiwan. BQ consumption may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), and periodontitis as well as systemic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.). However, little is known about the toxic effect of BQ components on endothelial cells that play important roles for angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, tissue fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases. EAhy 926 (EAHY) endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline, a major BQ alkaloid, for various time periods. Cytotoxicity was estimated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle distribution of EAHY cells residing in sub-G0/G1, G0/G1, S-, and G2/M phases was analyzed by propidium iodide staining of cellular DNA content and flow cytometry. Some EAHY cells retracted, became round-shaped in appearance, and even detached from the culture plate after exposure to higher concentrations of arecoline (> 0.4 mM). At concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, arecoline induced significant cytotoxicity to EAHY cells. At similar concentrations, arecoline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to arecoline (0.1 mM) for 12 and 21 days significantly suppressed the proliferation of EAHY cells, whereas EAHY cells showed adaptation and survived when exposed to 0.05 mM arecoline. These results suggest that BQ components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and BQ chewing-related cardiovascular diseases via toxicity to oral or systemic endothelial cells, leading to impairment of vascular function. During BQ chewing, endothelial damage may be induced by areca nut components and associate with the pathogenesis of OSF, periodontitis, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21847594

Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Chang, Mei-Chi; Su, Cheng-Yao; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

2011-08-17

74

Endothelial cell apoptosis in brown adipose tissue of rats induced by hyperinsulinaemia: the possible role of TNF-?  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hyperinsulinaemia, which frequently precedes insulin resistance syndrome (obesity, diabetes), induces apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and causes BAT atrophy and also, to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying ECs death. In order to induce hyperinsuli-naemia, adult male rats of Wistar strain were treated with high dose of insulin (4 U/kg, intraperitonely) for one or three days. Examinations at ultrastructural level showed apoptotic changes of ECs, allowing us to point out that changes mainly but not exclusively, occur in nuclei. Besides different stages of condensation and alterations of the chromatin, nuclear fragmentation was also observed. Higher number of ECs apoptotic nuclei in the BAT of hyperinsulinaemic rats was also confirmed by propidium iodide staining. Immunohistochemical localization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) revealed increased expression in ECs of BAT of hyperinsulinaemic animals, indicating its possible role in insulin-induced apoptotic changes. These results suggest that BAT atrophy in hyperinsulinaemia is a result of endothelial and adipocyte apoptosis combined, rather than any of functional components alone.

Markelic, M.; Velickovic, K.; Golic, I.; Otasevic, V.; Stancic, A.; Jankovic, A.; Vucetic, M.; Buzadzic, B.; Korac, B.; Korac, A.

2011-01-01

75

Sarcophine-diol, a Chemopreventive Agent of Skin Cancer, Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis through Extrinsic Pathway in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma A431 Cells1  

PubMed Central

Sarcophine-diol (SD), a structural modifications of sarcophine, has shown chemopreventive effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted skin tumor developments in mice. Tumorigenesis is associated with uncontrolled cell growth and loss of apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of SD on cell growth and apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells were determined to assess whether SD could inhibit cell growth and/or induce apoptosis, thus elucidating possible mechanism of action. MTT assay was used for cell viability; bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay was used for cell proliferation; fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of annexin V/propidium iodide staining and TUNEL assay were used for determining apoptotic cells; Western blot analysis was used for determining the expression of caspase-3 and colorimetric caspase activity assays were used for determination of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity. The results showed that SD treatment at concentration of 200 to 600 µM resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation in A431 cells, which largely inhibited cell growth. Sarcophine-diol treatment induced a strong apoptosis and significantly (P < .05) increased DNA fragmentation in A431 cells. Furthermore, SD treatment significantly (P < .05) increased the activity and expression of caspase-3 through activation of upstream caspase-8 in A431 cells rather than the activation of caspase 9. Sarcophine-diol treatment is relatively much less cytotoxic in monkey kidney normal CV-1 cells. These results suggest that SD decreases cell growth and induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent extrinsic pathway in A431 cells, and this may contribute to its overall chemopreventive effects in mouse skin cancer models.

Zhang, Xiaoying; Bommareddy, Ajay; Chen, Wei; Khalifa, Sherief; Kaushik, Radhey S; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

2009-01-01

76

Curcumin induces apoptosis-independent death in oesophageal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing and survival rates remain extremely poor. Natural agents with potential for chemoprevention include the phytochemical curcumin (diferuloylmethane). We have examined the effects of curcumin on a panel of oesophageal cancer cell lines. Methods: MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and propidium iodide staining were used to assess viability and DNA content, respectively. Mitotic catastrophe (MC), apoptosis and autophagy were defined by both morphological criteria and markers such as MPM-2, caspase 3 cleavage and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining. Cyclin B and poly-ubiquitinated proteins were assessed by western blotting. Results: Curcumin treatment reduces viability of all cell lines within 24?h of treatment in a 5–50??M range. Cytotoxicity is associated with accumulation in G2/M cell-cycle phases and distinct chromatin morphology, consistent with MC. Caspase-3 activation was detected in two out of four cell lines, but was a minor event. The addition of a caspase inhibitor zVAD had a marginal or no effect on cell viability, indicating predominance of a non-apoptotic form of cell death. In two cell lines, features of both MC and autophagy were apparent. Curcumin-responsive cells were found to accumulate poly-ubiquitinated proteins and cyclin B, consistent with a disturbance of the ubiquitin–proteasome system. This effect on a key cell-cycle checkpoint regulator may be responsible for the mitotic disturbances and consequent cytotoxicity of this drug. Conclusion: Curcumin can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not reliant on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of oesophageal cancer.

O'Sullivan-Coyne, G; O'Sullivan, G C; O'Donovan, T R; Piwocka, K; McKenna, S L

2009-01-01

77

Protein kinase C-beta inhibition induces apoptosis and inhibits cell cycle progression in AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells  

PubMed Central

AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) constitutes an aggressive variety of lymphomas characterized by increased extranodal involvement, relapse rate and resistance to chemotherapy. PKC? targeting showed promising results in preclinical and clinical studies involving a wide variety of cancers, but studies describing the role of PKC? in AIDS-NHL are primitive if not lacking. In the present study, three AIDS-NHL cell lines were examined: 2F7 (AIDS-Burkitt Lymphoma), BCBL-1 (AIDS-Primary Effusion Lymphoma) and UMCL01-101 (AIDS-Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated expression of PKC?1 and PKC?2 in 2F7 and UMCL01-101 cells, and PKC?1 alone in BCBL-1 cells. The viability of 2F7 and BCBL-1 cells decreased significantly in the presence of PKC?-selective inhibitor at IC50 of 14 ?M and 15 ?M, respectively, as measured by MTS assay. In contrast, UMCL01-101 cells were relatively resistant. As determined using flow cytometric TUNEL assay with propidium iodide staining, the responsiveness of sensitive cells was associated with apoptotic induction and cell cycle inhibition. PKC?-selective inhibition was observed not to affect AKT phosphorylation, but to induce a rapid and sustained reduction in the phosphorylation of GSK3?, ribosomal protein S6, and mTOR in sensitive cell lines. The results indicate that PKC? plays an important role in AIDS-related NHL survival, and suggest that PKC? targeting should be considered in a broader spectrum of NHL. The observations in BCBL-1 were unexpected in the absence of PKC?2 expression and implicate PKC?1 as a regulator in those cells.

Saba, Nakhle S.; Levy, Laura S.

2011-01-01

78

Delayed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Induced Apoptosis in Cells Expressing Truncated Forms of CD4  

PubMed Central

It has been reported previously that cells expressing a truncated form of CD4 which lacks the cytoplasmic tail of the molecule (truncation at position 402) were not sensitive to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-induced apoptosis in an acute-phase model of infection (J. Corbeil, M. Tremblay, and D. D. Richman, J. Exp. Med. 183:39–48, 1996). The role played by the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 in HIV-1-induced apoptosis was reexamined here with clones of A2.01 cells expressing different forms of CD4 and the DNA intercalant YOPRO-1 assay. Six days after virus exposure, we found evidence of apoptosis in A2.01 cells expressing the wild-type CD4 (A2.01/CD4), whereas enhanced apoptosis remained absent in cultures of A2.01/CD4.401 and A2.01/CD4.403 cells (A2.01 cells which express CD4.401 and CD4.403 molecules with truncations at positions 401 and 403, respectively). However, cell death by apoptosis measured with YOPRO-1 was found in cultures of A2.01/CD4.401 and A2.01/CD4.403 cells 15 days after virus exposure. This result was confirmed with a terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay and propidium iodide staining. The long lag time postinfection required for apoptosis to be observed in cultures of infected cells expressing truncated forms of CD4 was due to the delayed viral replication in these cells, as shown by monitoring of the viral reverse transcriptase activity and HIV-1 p24gag antigen expression. These results emphasize the relationship between virus replication and cell death by apoptosis.

Guillerm, Claire; Coudronniere, Nolwenn; Robert-Hebmann, Veronique; Devaux, Christian

1998-01-01

79

The SH Integral Membrane Protein of the Paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5 Is Required To Block Apoptosis in MDBK Cells  

PubMed Central

In some cell types the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) causes little cytopathic effect (CPE) and infection continues productively for long periods of time; e.g., SV5 can be produced from MDBK cells for up to 40 days with little CPE. SV5 differs from most paramyxoviruses in that it encodes a small (44-amino-acid) hydrophobic integral membrane protein (SH). When MDBK cells were infected with a recombinant SV5 containing a deletion of the SH gene (rSV5?SH), the MDBK cells exhibited an increase in CPE compared to cells infected with wild-type SV5 (recovered from cDNA; rSV5). The increased CPE correlated with an increase in apoptosis in rSV5?SH-infected cells over mock-infected and rSV5-infected cells when assayed for annexin V binding, DNA content (propidium iodide staining), and DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay). In rSV5?SH-infected MDBK cells an increase in caspase-2 and caspase-3 activities was observed. By using peptide inhibitors of individual caspases it was found that caspase-2 and caspase-3 were activated separately in rSV5?SH-infected cells. Expression of caspase-2 and -3 in rSV5?SH-infected MDBK cells appeared not to require STAT1 protein, as STAT1 protein could not be detected in SV5-infected MDBK cells. When mutant mice homologous for a targeted disruption of STAT1 were used as a model animal system and infected with the viruses it was found that rSV5?SH caused less mortality than wild-type rSV5, consistent with the notion of clearance of apoptotic cells in a host species.

He, Biao; Lin, Grace Y.; Durbin, Joan E.; Durbin, Russell K.; Lamb, Robert A.

2001-01-01

80

Infrasound sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to Cisplatin-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The development of nontoxic agents that can selectively enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy is an important aim in oncology. This study evaluates the ability of infrasound exposure to sensitize glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The infrasound was delivered using a device designed to replicate the unique infrasound emissions measured during external Qigong treatments. Human glioblastoma cell lines harboring wild-type p53 (U87) or mutant p53 (U251, SF210, and SF188) were treated in culture with cisplatin, infrasound emissions, or the combination of the 2 agents. Induction of apoptosis was quantified after 24 hours by flow cytometry following annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Infrasound emissions alone, delivered at moderate levels (~10 mPa) with dynamic frequency content (7-13 Hz), did not induce apoptosis, yet combining infrasound with cisplatin augmented the induction of apoptosis by cisplatin in all the 4 cell lines ( : < .05). Increased cellular uptake of the fluorophore calcein associated with infrasound exposure was quantified by fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry, demonstrating increased cell membrane permeability. The 4 cell lines differed in the degree to which infrasound exposure increased calcein uptake, and these differences were predictive of the extent to which infrasound enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. When exposed to specific frequencies, membrane permeabilization also appeared to be differentially responsive for each cell line, suggesting the potential for selective targeting of tissue types using isolated infrasonic frequencies. Additionally, the pressure amplitudes used in this study were several orders of magnitude less than those used in similar studies involving ultrasound and shock waves. The results of this study provide support for using infrasound to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin in a clinical setting. PMID:23165942

Rachlin, Kenneth; Moore, Dan H; Yount, Garret

2012-11-19

81

Alcohol exposure alters cell cycle and apoptotic events during early neurulation  

PubMed Central

Background: Fetal alcohol exposure causes growth deficits, microencephaly, and neurological abnormalities. Although the effects of alcohol on developmental delay and growth-related deficits have been hypothesized, little is understood about how alcohol alters, in particular, the cyclin pathway within the cell cycle, which is critical to proliferation and apoptotic control. In this study, we examined cell cycle proteins pertinent to the G1–S phase transition and apoptosis, to determine if cell cycle misregulation can be attributed to apoptotic induction and growth defects. Methods: We examined cell cycle regulation during G1 and S-phase, and DNA fragmentation damage, using E14 dorsal root ganglia neural stem cells (DRG-NC), and cultured mouse embryos exposed to 200 and 400 mg/dl ethanol. Results: Alcohol-exposed DRG-NC demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in cells expressing increased cyclin D1 protein, and increased DNA fragmentation. Western blot analysis, using embryos, demonstrated an overexpression of cyclin D1, D2, and E2F1, key G1 to S-phase cell cycle regulatory components, and increases in p53, linking the cell cycle and apoptotic pathways. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation indicated reduced DNA synthesis and growth in several embryonic regions. Propidium iodide staining demonstrated decreases in DNA content and increases in DNA fragmentation in several embryonic tissues. Conclusions: This study indicated that retarded growth of DRG-NC and embryos, induced by alcohol, is associated with altered expression of cell cycle and apoptotic proteins and concurrent inhibition of proliferation and increased DNA fragmentation. We suggest that alcohol induces an increase in cyclin D1 expression, premature S-phase entry, and disjointed DNA synthesis with increased apoptosis.

Anthony, Bruce; Zhou, Feng C.; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Goodlett, Charles R.; Ruiz, Joseph

2008-01-01

82

Ursolic acid promotes cancer cell death by inducing Atg5-dependent autophagy.  

PubMed

Ursolic acid (UA) has been reported to possess anticancer activities. Although some of the anticancer activities of UA have been explained by its apoptosis-inducing properties, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer actions are largely unknown. We have found that UA-activated autophagy induced cytotoxicity and reduced tumor growth of cervical cancer cells TC-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. UA did not induce apoptosis of TC-1 cells in vitro as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining, DNA fragmentation, and Western blot analysis of the apoptosis-related proteins. We found that UA increased punctate staining of light chain 3 (LC3), which is an autophagy marker. LC3II, the processed form of LC3I which is formed during the formation of double membranes, was induced by UA treatment. These results were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of autophagy, and a small interfering RNA (siRNA) for autophagy-related genes (Atg5) reduced LC3II and simultaneously increased the survival of TC-1 cells treated with UA. We also found that LC3II was significantly reduced and that survival was increased in Atg5-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells compared to Atg5+/+ MEF cells under UA treatment. However, silencing BECN1 by siRNA affected neither the expression of LC3II nor the survival of TC-1 cells under UA treatment. These results suggest that autophagy is a major mechanism by which UA kills TC-1 cells. It is Atg5 rather than BECN1 that plays a crucial role in UA-induced autophagic cell death in TC-1 cells. The activation of autophagy by UA may become a potential cancer therapeutic strategy complementing the apoptosis-based therapies. Furthermore, regulation of Atg5 may improve the efficacy of UA in cancer treatment. PMID:23737395

Leng, Shuilong; Hao, Yanli; Du, Daobing; Xie, Shanyan; Hong, Lepeng; Gu, Haigang; Zhu, Xiao; Zhang, Jinfang; Fan, Daping; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

2013-07-16

83

Upregulation of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor in glial cells is associated with ischemia-induced glial activation  

PubMed Central

Background Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a 20 kDa secreted protein, was originally derived from a rat mesencephalic type-1 astrocyte cell line. MANF belongs to a novel evolutionally conserved family of neurotrophic factors along with conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor. In recent years, ever-increasing evidence has shown that both of them play a remarkable protective role against various injuries to neurons in vivo or in vitro. However, the characteristics of MANF expression in the different types of glial cells, especially in astrocytes, remain unclear. Methods The model of focal cerebral ischemia was induced by rat middle cerebral artery occlusion. Double-labeled immunofluorescent staining was used to identify the types of neural cells expressing MANF. Primarily cultured glial cells were used to detect the response of glial cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulation. Propidium iodide staining was used to determine dead cells. Reverse transcription PCR and western blotting were used to detect the levels of mRNA and proteins. Results We found that MANF was predominantly expressed in neurons in both normal and ischemic cortex. Despite its name, MANF was poorly expressed in glial cells, including astrocytes, in normal brain tissue. However, the expression of MANF was upregulated in the glial cells under focal cerebral ischemia, including the astrocytes. This expression was also induced by several endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers and nutrient deprivation in cultured primary glial cells. The most interesting phenomenon observed in this study was the pattern of MANF expression in the microglia. The expression of MANF was closely associated with the morphology and state of microglia, accompanied by the upregulation of BIP/Grp78. Conclusions These results indicate that MANF expression was upregulated in the activated glial cells, which may contribute to the mechanism of ischemia-induced neural injury.

2012-01-01

84

Pathological Cyclic Strain-Induced Apoptosis in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells through the RhoGDI?/Caspase-3/PARP Pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells incur changes in morphology and express proteins in response to cyclic strain. However, it is not clear whether cyclic strain, especially excessive cyclic strain, induces PDL cell apoptosis and if so, what mechanism(s) are responsible. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which pathological levels of cyclic strain induce human PDL cell apoptosis. Materials and Methods Human PDL cells were obtained from healthy premolar tissue. After three to five passages in culture, the cells were subjected to 20% cyclic strain at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 6 or 24 h using an FX-5000T system. Morphological changes of the cells were assessed by inverted phase-contrast microscopy, and apoptosis was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results The number of apoptotic human PDL cells increased in a time-dependent manner in response to pathological cyclic strain. The stretched cells were oriented parallel to each another with their long axes perpendicular to the strain force vector. Cleaved caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) protein levels increased in response to pathological cyclic strain over time, while Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (RhoGDI?) decreased. Furthermore, knock-down of RhoGDI? by targeted siRNA transfection increased stretch-induced apoptosis and upregulated cleaved caspase-3 and PARP protein levels. Inhibition of caspase-3 prevented stretch-induced apoptosis, but did not change RhoGDI? protein levels. Conclusion The overall results suggest that pathological-level cyclic strain not only influenced morphology but also induced apoptosis in human PDL cells through the RhoGDI?/caspase-3/PARP pathway. Our findings provide novel insight into the mechanism of apoptosis induced by pathological cyclic strain in human PDL cells.

Wang, Tingle; Song, Meng; Chen, Wantao

2013-01-01

85

Aldosterone induces p21-regulated apoptosis via increased synthesis and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-? in human proximal tubular cells.  

PubMed

1. Aldosterone has been shown to mediate p21-dependent cellular senescence in rat kidney proximal tubules in vivo and in cultured human proximal tubular cells. The p21-induced senescent cells express higher levels of apoptotic cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? compared with non-senescent cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that aldosterone increases proximal tubular apoptosis by increasing the secretion of apoptosis-inducing factors through a p21-dependent mechanism. 2. Human proximal tubular cells were incubated with aldosterone (10 nmol/L) and cell senescence was detected by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining and expression of p21. Apoptosis was analysed by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling and annexin/propidium iodide staining, whereas p21 localization was determined by immunofluorescence. 3. Exposure of cells to aldosterone for 3 or 5 days increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining, p21 and TNF-? mRNA expression and secretion of TNF-? into the culture medium. These changes were abolished by gene silencing of p21. Aldosterone failed to increase the number of apoptotic cells on day 3, but did increase them on day 5. A neutralizing antibody against TNF-? prevented the aldosterone-induced apoptotic changes. Aldosterone did not affect localization of p21. 4. These findings indicate that aldosterone increases TNF-? synthesis and secretion in proximal tubular cells via p21/senescence-dependent cell phenotypic changes and that the TNF-? secreted plays an important role as a paracrine factor in mediating cell apoptosis, indicating a possible involvement in aldosterone-induced renal damage. PMID:23013131

Kitada, Kento; Nakano, Daisuke; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

2012-10-01

86

The crosstalk: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes rich in regulatory T cells suppressed cancer-associated fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The interactions between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cancer cells play important roles in cancer progression and metastasis. However, studies related to the crosstalk between CAFs and TILs in tumor microenvironment (TME) are still lacking. In this study, we mainly investigated the interactions between CAFs and TILs. Material and methods. The distribution of TILs rich in regulatory T cells (Tregs) in breast cancer tissues was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-CD3, anti-Foxp3, and anti-?-smooth muscle actin antibodies. Homologous CAFs/normal fibroblasts (NFs) and TILs cultured in vitro were identified and detected using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry (FCM). The direct interaction among these cell types was studied via a factorial design in a co-cultured system. Their indirect interaction was assayed using Transwell plates. The cell cycle and apoptosis of CAFs/NFs co-cultured with TILs was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. Results. Histochemistry demonstrated most of the TILs including Tregs, were distributed in the cancer stroma, adjoining to CAFs. This finding implies that both cell types interact closely in the TME. Identification of the cultured cells showed that CAFs maintained their activated phenotype within limited passages in vitro, and that the TILs population contained a high percentage of Tregs. Data analysis of the factorial design suggests significant interactions among CAFs, NFs, and TILs in both direct and indirect contact ways. The CAFs and NFs were suppressed signally by TILs, which are probably induced by the secretory cytokines derived from TILs or Tregs. Although apoptosis was not detected in CAFs/NFs, the cell cycle assay suggested that the CAFs/NFs were arrested in the G2/M phase by the TILs and their secretory cytokines. Conclusion. CAFs and NFs were dramatically suppressed by Tregs-rich TILs. This suggests the interaction between TILs and CAFs might modify the TME in an unknown manner. PMID:23336253

Fu, Zhixuan; Zuo, Yong; Li, Dongbo; Xu, Wenhong; Li, Dan; Chen, Huarong; Zheng, Shu

2013-01-22

87

Inhibitory effect of schisandrin B on free fatty acid-induced steatosis in L-02 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced steatosis in L-02 cells. METHODS: Cellular steatosis was induced by incubating L-02 cells with a FFA mixture (oleate and palmitate at the ratio of 2:1) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dmethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Cellular total lipid was determined using a photocolorimetric method after Nile red staining, and triglyceride content was measured using an enzymatic kit. To study the effects of Sch B on steatosis, L-02 cells were treated with Sch B (1-100 ?mol/L) in the absence or presence of 1 mmol/L FFA for 24 h, and cellular total lipid and triglyceride levels were measured. To explore the mechanisms of action of Sch B in the steatotic L-02 cells, mRNA levels of several regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism including adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and PPAR-? were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein levels of ADRP and SREBP-1 were measured by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Treatment with 1 mmol/L FFA for 24 h induced intracellular lipid accumulation in L-02 cells comparable to that in human steatotic livers without causing apparent apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Sch B mitigated cellular total lipid and triglyceride accumulations in the steatotic L-02 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that treatment of L-02 cells with 100 ?mol/L Sch B reverted the FFA-stimulated up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1. CONCLUSION: Sch B inhibits FFA-induced steatosis in L-02 cells by, at least in part, reversing the up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1.

Chu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Hui; Ye, Yan; Chan, Ping-Kei; Pan, Si-Yuan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

2011-01-01

88

The role of cbl family of ubiquitin ligases in gastric cancer exosome-induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles with immunomodulatory functions, which are released by a diverse range of living cells. Although recent studies have shown that tumor-derived exosomes can suppress the function of T cells, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Casitas B lineage lymphoma (cbl) family of ubiquitin ligases in gastric cancer exosome-induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS. By serial centrifugation and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, we isolated and purified the exosomes from gastric cancer SGC7901 cells, and identified them by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Cell apoptosis was detected using propidium iodide staining. Western blotting and RT-PCR was exploited to evaluate the expression of proteins and mRNA, respectively. RESULTS. Gastric cancer exosomes induced Jurkat T cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner and activated caspases 3, 8 and 9. The expression of Cbl-b and c-Cbl was up-regulated during exosome-induced apoptosis of cells. Meanwhile, exosomes induced ubiquitination of the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and reduced downstream Akt activity. Inhibition of proteasome led to partial restoration of Akt activity and cell apoptosis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS. The Cbl family of ubiquitin ligases might be involved in regulation of exosome-induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells by increasing PI3K proteasome degradation, inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling, thus mediating some effects of caspase activation. PMID:19863226

Qu, Jing-Lei; Qu, Xiu-Juan; Qu, Jing-Lei; Qu, Xiu-Juan; Zhao, Ming-Fang; Teng, Yue-E; Zhang, Ye; Hou, Ke-Zuo; Jiang, You-Hong; Yang, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yun-Peng

2009-01-01

89

Suppression of apoptosis in hematopoietic factor-dependent progenitor cell lines by expression of the FAC gene.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous, inherited blood disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital malformations, and a predisposition to leukemias. Because FA cells are hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents and have chromosomal instability, FA has been viewed as a disorder of DNA repair. However, the exact cellular defect in FA cells has not been identified. Sequence analysis of the gene defective in group C patients (FAC) has shown no significant homologies to other known genes. The FAC protein has been localized to the cytoplasm, indicating that FAC may either play an indirect role in DNA repair or is involved in a different cellular pathway. Recent evidence has indicated that FA cells may be predisposed to apoptosis, especially after treatment with DNA cross-linking agents. The demonstration that genes can suppress apoptosis has been accomplished by overexpression of such genes in growth factor-dependent cell lines that die by apoptosis after factor withdrawal. Using retroviral-mediated gene transfer, we present evidence that expression of FAC in the hematopoietic factor-dependent progenitor cell lines 32D and MO7e can suppress apoptosis induced by growth factor withdrawal. Flow cytometry and morphologic analysis of propidium iodide stained cells showed significantly lower levels of apoptosis in FAC-retroviral transduced cells after growth factor deprivation. Expression of FAC in both cell lines promoted increased viability rather than proliferation, which is consistent with other apoptosis-inhibiting genes such as Bcl-2. These findings imply that FAC may act as a mediator of an apoptotic pathway initiated by growth factor withdrawal. Furthermore, the congenital malformations and hematologic abnormalities characterizing FA may be related to an increased predisposition of FA progenitor cells to undergo apoptosis, particularly in the absence of extracellular signals. PMID:8977247

Cumming, R C; Liu, J M; Youssoufian, H; Buchwald, M

1996-12-15

90

Nanosponge-encapsulated camptothecin exerts anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent DNA Topoisomerase I inhibitor with anti-tumor activity in hematological and solid tumors. However, it did not reach clinical use because of its poor solubility and high degrability. ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge (CN) have been demonstrated to be able to increase the solubility of lipophilic compounds and to protect them from degradation. In the present study, we evaluated whether ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge carriers can overcome CPT chemical disadvantages and improve the in vitro anti-tumor efficacy in the androgen refractory models of prostate cancer DU145 and PC-3 and the androgen sensitive model LNCaP. Camptothecin-loaded ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge (CN-CPT) showed sizes of about 400 nm, spherical shape and a drug loading of 38%. HPLC analysis, performed on the cell pellet after treatment with CN-CPT revealed that CPT concentration increased over time indicating a prolonged release of the drug. Moreover, CN-CPT inhibited Topoisomerase I activity, and induced DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest more effectively than CPT, indicating that the CN-CPT formulation does not affect activity of the drug. Moreover, Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining showed an induction of cell death at low concentrations that were not effective for CTP. LNCaP cells were less sensitive to CPT than PC-3 and DU145 cells, but CN-CPT still exerted higher anti-proliferative activity and DNA damage ability than CPT. The experiments performed in LNCaP cells demonstrated that CN-CPT treatment inhibited expression of the androgen receptor at doses where CPT was ineffective. Our results demonstrated the higher anti-tumor effectiveness of CN-CPT compare to CPT in prostate cancer cells, supporting the relevance of future studies for the use of the ?-Cyclodextrin nanosponge to deliver anticancer drugs in vivo. PMID:22917641

Minelli, Rosalba; Cavalli, Roberta; Ellis, Leigh; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Trotta, Francesco; Ciamporcero, Eric; Barrera, Giuseppina; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Chiara; Pili, Roberto

2012-08-15

91

Induction of apoptosis by ginger in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) is a commonly used medicinal herb throughout the world. Although some studies have demonstrated its antitumour activities on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, the exact mechanism is not fully elucidated. Hence, the present study was designed to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of saline extract prepared from ginger extract on HEp-2 cell line. The cytotoxic effect of the drug was confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cell counting and estimation of protein, DNA and RNA. Meanwhile, propidium iodide staining and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed for determining the induction of apoptosis. In addition, superoxide radical generation, nitrite formation and glutathione studies show involvement of free radicals. The present results show that the extract exerts dose-dependent suppression of cell proliferation; the IC(50) value was found to be 900 microg/ml. At a dose of 250 microg/ml, marked morphological changes including cell shrinkage and condensation of chromosomes were observed. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA from HEp-2 cells treated with 250 microg/ml ginger powder for 24 hr showed marked DNA ladder pattern. The involvement of free radicals was confirmed by increased superoxide production, decreased nitrate formation and depletion of glutathione in ginger-treated cells. Further screening of active components using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed the presence of clavatol, geraniol and pinostrobin in the extract. The results of the present study suggest that ginger might be useful as a potential antitumour agent. PMID:17448115

Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Arul Diana Christie, Swamidurai; Ramkuma, Kunga Mohan

2007-05-01

92

A Novel Peptide to Treat Oral Mucositis Blocks Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: No effective agents currently exist to treat oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemoradiation for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. We identified a novel 21-amino acid peptide derived from antrum mucosal protein-18 that is cytoprotective, mitogenic, and motogenic in tissue culture and animal models of gastrointestinal epithelial cell injury. We examined whether administration of antrum mucosal protein peptide (AMP-p) could protect against and/or speed recovery from OM. Methods and Materials: OM was induced in established hamster models by a single dose of radiation, fractionated radiation, or fractionated radiation together with cisplatin to simulate conventional treatments of head-and-neck cancer. Results: Daily subcutaneous administration of AMP-p reduced the occurrence of ulceration and accelerated mucosal recovery in all three models. A delay in the onset of erythema after irradiation was observed, suggesting that a protective effect exists even before injury to mucosal epithelial cells occurs. To test this hypothesis, the effects of AMP-p on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis were studied in an endothelial cell line (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells) as well as an epithelial cell line (human adult low-calcium, high-temperature keratinocytes; HaCaT) used to model the oral mucosa. AMP-p treatment, either before or after cell monolayers were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, protected against development of apoptosis in both cell types when assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry or ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the ability of AMP-p to attenuate radiation-induced OM could be attributable, at least in part, to its antiapoptotic activity.

Wu Xiaoyan; Chen Peili [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sonis, Stephen T. [Division of Oral Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biomodels, Watertown, Massachusetts (United States); Lingen, Mark W. [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Berger, Ann [NephRx Corporation, Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States); Toback, F. Gary, E-mail: gtoback@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

2012-07-01

93

Resident bacteria on leaves enhance survival of immigrant cells of Salmonella enterica.  

PubMed

Although Salmonella enterica apparently has comparatively low epiphytic fitness on plants, external factors that would influence its ability to survive on plants after contamination would be of significance in the epidemiology of human diseases caused by this human pathogen. Viable population sizes of S. enterica applied to plants preinoculated with Pseudomonas syringae or either of two Erwinia herbicola strains was ?10-fold higher than that on control plants that were not precolonized by such indigenous bacteria when assessed 24 to 72 h after the imposition of desiccation stress. The protective effect of P. fluorescens, which exhibited antibiosis toward S. enterica in vitro, was only ?50% that conferred by other bacterial strains. Although S. enterica could produce small cellular aggregates after incubation on wet leaves for several days, and the cells in such aggregates were less susceptible to death upon acute dehydration than solitary cells (as determined by propidium iodide staining), most Salmonella cells were found as isolated cells when it was applied to leaves previously colonized by other bacterial species. The proportion of solitary cells of S. enterica coincident with aggregates of cells of preexisting epiphytic species that subsequently were judged as nonviable by viability staining on dry leaves was as much as 10-fold less than those that had landed on uncolonized portions of the leaf. Thus, survival of immigrant cells of S. enterica on plants appears to be strongly context dependent, and the presence of common epiphytic bacteria on plants can protect such immigrants from at least one key stress (i.e., desiccation) encountered on leaf surfaces. PMID:23506362

Poza-Carrion, Cesar; Suslow, Trevor; Lindow, Steven

2013-04-01

94

The application of image cytometry to viability assessment in dual fluorescence-stained fish spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of spermatozoa has been assessed using SYBR 14 staining for DNA of living cells and propidium iodide staining for DNA of degenerate cells. This dual staining was performed on four fish species (Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; tench, Tinca tinca and wels, Silurus glanis) and the proportions of live and dead spermatozoa were assessed by

Martin Flajšhans; Jacky Cosson; Marek Rodina; Otomar Linhart

2004-01-01

95

Evidence of synergistic/additive effects of sildenafil and erythropoietin in enhancing survival and migration of hypoxic endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Endothelial cell dysfunction is a common event to several pathologies including pulmonary hypertension, which is often associated with hypoxia. As the endothelium plays an essential role in regulating the dynamic interaction between pulmonary vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, this cell type is fundamental in the development of vascular remodeling and increased vascular resistance. We investigated the protective effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, given in combination with erythropoietin (Epo), as it has been demonstrated that both drugs have antiapoptotic effects on several cell types. Specifically, we examined the viability and angiogenic properties of rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells upon exposure to either 21% or 1% oxygen, in presence of sildenafil (1 and 100 nM) and Epo (5 and 20 U/ml) alone or in combination (1 nM and 20 U/ml). Cell proliferation and viability were analyzed by Trypan blue staining, MTT assay, and Annexin V/propidium iodide stainings. In all assays, the ability of the combination treatment in improving cell viability was superior to that of either drug alone. The angiogenic properties were studied using a migration and a 3D collagen assay, and the results revealed increases in the migration potential of endothelial cells as well as the ability to form tube-like structures in response to sildenafil and the combination treatment. We therefore conclude that both drugs exert protective effects on endothelial cells on hypoxia and that sildenafil enhances the migratory and angiogenic properties, especially in hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we present evidence of possible additive or synergistic effects of both drugs. PMID:23204066

Gammella, Elena; Leuenberger, Caroline; Gassmann, Max; Ostergaard, Louise

2012-11-30

96

Protective Effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 on High Glucose-Induced Pancreatic ?-Cell Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Glucose toxicity that is caused by chronic exposure to a high glucose concentration leads to islet dysfunction and induces apoptosis in pancreatic ?-cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been identified as an anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective gene. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether HO-1 up-regulation when using metalloprotophyrin (cobalt protoporphyrin, CoPP) could protect pancreatic ?-cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the CoPP-induced mRNA expression of HO-1. Cell viability of INS-1 cells cultured in the presence of CoPP was examined by acridine orange/propidium iodide staining. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using flow cytometry. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was determined following incubation with CoPP in different glucose concentrations. Results CoPP increased HO-1 mRNA expression in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Overexpression of HO-1 inhibited caspase-3, and the number of dead cells in the presence of CoPP was significantly decreased when exposed to high glucose conditions (HG). CoPP also decreased the generation of intracellular ROS by 50% during 72 hours of culture with HG. However, decreased GSIS was not recovered even in the presence of CoPP. Conclusion Our data suggest that CoPP-induced HO-1 up-regulation results in protection from high glucose-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells; however, glucose stimulated insulin secretion is not restored.

Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Young-Eun; Lee, Esder; Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Moon, Sung-Dae; Song, Ki-Ho

2011-01-01

97

Effect of thapsigargin on Ca²+ fluxes and viability in human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Effect of the carcinogen thapsigargin on human prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study examined if thapsigargin altered basal [Ca²?](i) levels in suspended PC3 human prostate cancer cells by using fura-2 as a Ca²?-sensitive fluorescent probe. Thapsigargin at concentrations between 10?nM and 10 µM increased [Ca²?](i) in a concentration-dependent fashion. The Ca²? signal was reduced partly by removing extracellular Ca²? indicating that Ca²? entry and release both contributed to the [Ca²?](i) rise. This Ca²? influx was inhibited by suppression of phospholipase A2, but not by inhibition of store-operated Ca²? channels or by modulation of protein kinase C activity. In Ca²?-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²? pump inhibitor 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone (BHQ) nearly abolished thapsigargin-induced Ca²? release. Conversely, pretreatment with thapsigargin greatly reduced BHQ-induced [Ca²?](i) rise, suggesting that thapsigargin released Ca²? from the endoplasmic reticulum. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not change thapsigargin-induced [Ca²?](i) rise. At concentrations of 1-10 µM, thapsigargin induced cell death that was partly reversed by chelation of Ca²? with BAPTA/AM. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that apoptosis was partly responsible for thapsigargin-induced cell death. Together, in PC3 human prostate cancer cells, thapsigargin induced [Ca²?](i) rises by causing phospholipase C-independent Ca²? release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²? influx via phospholipase A2-sensitive Ca²? channels. Thapsigargin also induced cell death via Ca²?-dependent pathways and Ca²?-independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:21410406

Huang, Jong-Khing; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Chang, Hong-Tai; Shu, Su-Shung; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Jue-Long; Lin, Ko-Long; Lu, Yi-Chau; Chen, I-Shu; Liu, Shuih-Inn; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

2011-03-17

98

An oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin-24 enhances antitumor activities in combination with paclitaxel in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Oncolytic adenoviruses are a novel class of anticancer treatment, based upon their ability to replicate selectively within malignant cells resulting in cell lysis. The replication?selective adenovirus, ZD55?IL?24, was constructed by harboring an E1B?55 kDa deletion and arming with interleukin-24 (IL-24). The microtubule?stabilizing drug paclitaxel (PTX) exhibits activity in relapsed cancer. In the present study, the synergistic antitumor effects of the combination of PTX and ZD55?IL?24 on breast cancer cells was investigated. The results demonstrated that there were different roles for PTX in the expression of transgenic mRNA and protein. ZD55?IL?24 combined with PTX induced marked growth inhibition of MDA?MB?231 and Bcap?37 cells. PTX increased viral uptake and appeared not to alter the replication of ZD55?IL?24 in breast cancer cells. Annexin V?fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining and the Hoechst 33258 assay indicated that ZD55?IL?24 induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells when administered in combination with PTX. It was demonstrated that ZD55?IL?24 conjugated with PTX was highly concomitant, and increased proapoptotic proteins levels, activated caspase?3, -7 and -9 and downregulated anti?apoptotic proteins. These results suggested that ZD55?IL?24 in combination with PTX exhibited a markedly increased cytotoxic and apoptosis?inducing effect in breast cancer cells. Thus, this chemo?gene?viro therapeutic strategy was demonstrated to be superior to conventional chemotherapy or gene?viro therapy alone. PMID:24042845

Fang, Lin; Cheng, Qian; Bai, Jin; Qi, Ying-Dong; Liu, Jun-Jie; Li, Lian-Tao; Zheng, Jun-Nian

2013-09-13

99

Effect of diindolylmethane on Ca(2+) movement and viability in HA59T human hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

The effect of diindolylmethane, a natural compound derived from indole-3-carbinol in cruciferous vegetables, on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and viability in HA59T human hepatoma cells is unclear. This study explored whether diindolylmethane changed [Ca(2+)](i) in HA59T cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)](i). Diindolylmethane at concentrations of 1-50 ?M evoked a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The signal was reduced by removing Ca(2+). Diindolylmethane-induced Ca(2+) influx was not inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators but was inhibited by aristolochic acid. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitors thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) inhibited or abolished diindolylmethane-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with diindolylmethane inhibited thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 reduced diindolylmethane-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At concentrations of 10-75 ?M, diindolylmethane killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of diindolylmethane was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. Propidium iodide staining data suggest that diindolylmethane (25-50 ?M) induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, in HA59T cells, diindolylmethane induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise by causing phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) influx via phospholipase A(2)-sensitive channels. Diindolylmethane induced cell death that may involve apoptosis. PMID:21409406

Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Shu, Su-Shung; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Fang, Yi-Chien; Kuo, Li-Ni; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chien, Jau-Min; Lu, Ti; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Chai, Kuo-Liang; Jan, Chung-Ren

2011-03-16

100

Deltamethrin-Induced [Ca ²? ]i Rise and Death in HGB Human Glioblastoma Cells.  

PubMed

The effect of the pesticide deltamethrin on cytosolic free Ca ²? concentrations ([Ca²? ]i) and viability in human glioblastoma DBTRG-05MG cells is explored. [Ca²? ]i was measured in suspended cells using fura-2 as a Ca²? -sensitive fluorescent dye. Deltamethrin at concentrations of 5-60 ?M increased [Ca²?]i in a concentration-dependent fashion. The Ca²? signal was reduced partly by removing extracellular Ca ²? . Deltamethrin induced Mn ²? entry leading to quenching of fura-2 fluorescence. Deltamethrin-induced [Ca²? ]i rise was not inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate, but was inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X via blocking Ca²? release. In Ca²? -free medium, 50 ?M deltamethrin pretreatment abolished the [Ca²?]i rise induced by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²? pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tertbutylhydroquinone (BHQ). Conversely, pretreatment with TG/BHQ abolished deltamethrin-induced [Ca²?]i rise. Inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation with U73122 suppressed 50% of deltamethrin-induced [Ca²?]i rise. At concentrations between 10 and 80 ?M deltamethrin killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of deltamethrin was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca²? with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Annexin V/ propidium iodide staining data suggest that deltamethrin (10-40 ?M) induced apoptosis in a concentrationdependent manner. Deltamethrin also increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in human glioblastoma cells, deltamethrin induced a [Ca²?]i rise by inducing phospholipase C- and PKC-dependent Ca²? release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²? entry via non-store-operated Ca²? channels. Deltamethrin induced cell death that might involve apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. PMID:23282171

Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chou, Chiang-Ting

2012-08-31

101

PTPN2, a Candidate Gene for Type 1 Diabetes, Modulates Pancreatic ?-Cell Apoptosis via Regulation of the BH3-Only Protein Bim  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of several associations between specific loci and type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the mechanisms by which most candidate genes predispose to T1D remain unclear. We presently evaluated the mechanisms by which PTPN2, a candidate gene for T1D, modulates ?-cell apoptosis after exposure to type I and II interferons (IFNs), cytokines that contribute to ?-cell loss in early T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Small interfering RNAs were used to inhibit PTPN2, STAT1, Bim, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) expression. Cell death was assessed by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining. BAX translocation, Bim phosphorylation, cytochrome c release, and caspases 9 and 3 activation were measured by Western blot or immunofluorescence. RESULTS PTPN2 knockdown exacerbated type I IFN–induced apoptosis in INS-1E, primary rat, and human ?-cells. PTPN2 silencing and exposure to type I and II IFNs induced BAX translocation to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. There was also an increase in Bim phosphorylation that was at least in part regulated by JNK1. Of note, both Bim and JNK1 knockdown protected ?-cells against IFN-induced apoptosis in PTPN2-silenced cells. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that local IFN production may interact with a genetic factor (PTPN2) to induce aberrant proapoptotic activity of the BH3-only protein Bim, resulting in increased ?-cell apoptosis via JNK activation and the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This is the first indication of a direct interaction between a candidate gene for T1D and the activation of a specific downstream proapoptotic pathway in ?-cells.

Santin, Izortze; Moore, Fabrice; Colli, Maikel L.; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L.

2011-01-01

102

3,3'-Diindolylmethane alters Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

The effect of the natural product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells was explored. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)](i). DIM at concentrations of 40-80 ?M induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced partly by removing Ca(2+). DIM-evoked Ca(2+) entry was suppressed by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitors thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) inhibited or abolished DIM-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with DIM also inhibited thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished DIM-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At concentrations of 10-50 ?M, DIM killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This cytotoxic effect was not altered by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data implicate that DIM (20 and 40??M) induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. In sum, in MG63 cells, DIM induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DIM caused cell death that may involve apoptosis. PMID:21995587

Lu, Yi-Chau; Chen, I-Shu; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Huang, Jong-Khing; Chang, Hong-Tai; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Jue-Long; Lin, Ko-Long; Liu, Shuih-Inn; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

2011-11-10

103

Effect of thymol on Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in human glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The effect of the natural essential oil thymol on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and viability in human glioblastoma cells was examined. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)](i). Thymol at concentrations of 400-1000 ?M induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a concentration-dependent fashion. The response was decreased partially by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Thymol-induced Ca(2+) signal was not altered by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), but was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X. When extracellular Ca(2+) was removed, incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished thymol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with thymol also abolished thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished thymol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At concentrations of 200-800 ?M, thymol killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This cytotoxic effect was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxy methyl (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that thymol (200, 400 and 600 ?M) induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, in human glioblastoma cells, thymol induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise by inducing phospholipase C- and protein kinase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via non store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Thymol induced cell death that may involve apoptosis. PMID:21914442

Hsu, Shu-Shong; Lin, Ko-Long; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Chiang, An-Jen; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chang, Hong-Tai; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Fong-Dee; Huang, Jong Khing; Chen, I-Shu; Liu, Shuih-Inn; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren

2011-09-02

104

Effect of sertraline on [Ca2+](i) and viability of human MG63 osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

The antidepressant, sertraline, has been shown to have diverse in vitro effects. This study examined whether sertraline altered [Ca(2+)](i) in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells by using fura-2 as a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye. At 50-200 µM, sertraline induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca(2+) response was decreased by removing extracellular Ca(2+), suggesting that Ca(2+) entry and release contributed to the [Ca(2+)](i) signal. Sertraline-induced Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by nifedipine, La(3+), Gd(3+), and SK&F96365. When extracellular Ca(2+) was removed, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished the sertraline-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with sertraline also abolished the thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished the sertraline-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At 20-30 µM, overnight treatment with sertraline killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of sertraline was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data demonstrate that sertraline (30 µM) evoked apoptosis. Sertraline (20 and 30 µM) also increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in human osteosarcoma cells, sertraline evoked a [Ca(2+)](i) rise by inducing PLC-dependent Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry by L-type Ca(2+) channels and store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Sertraline induced cell death that may involve apoptosis by mitochondrial pathways. PMID:22931138

Lin, Ko-Long; Chi, Chao-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Tseng, Li-Ling; Wang, Jue-Long; Lu, Yi-Chau; Jan, Chung-Ren

2012-08-30

105

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1.

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

106

Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.  

PubMed

Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

2012-05-09

107

Isoliquiritigenin 2'-methyl ether induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral cancer cells via heme oxygenase-1.  

PubMed

We previously reported that a chloroform extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. induces apoptosis in oral cancer cells but not in normal epithelial cell lines. In the present study, we explored the effects of a single compound isolated from C. sappan heartwood, isoliquiritigenin 2'-methyl ether (ILME), on cultured primary and metastatic oral cancer cell lines using MTT assays, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. ILME inhibited the growth of the oral cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The major mechanism of growth inhibition was apoptosis induction, as shown by flow cytometric analysis of sub-G(1)-phase arrest and by annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. ILME time-dependently activated NF-kappaB transcription factors, phospholated the MAP kinases JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Furthermore, ILME treatment upregulated HO-1 expression though activation of Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) pathway, and induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Tin protoporphyrin, an HO-1 inhibitor, dose-dependently attenuated the growth-inhibitory effect of ILME and blocked ILME-induced expression of the p21 and p53 cell cycle-regulatory proteins. These results provide the first evidence that the anti-oral cancer effects of ILME may involve a mechanism in which HO-1 is upregulated via a pathway involving MAP kinases, NF-kappaB, and Nrf2. Thus, ILME could be considered to be a potential chemotherapeutic target for anti-oral cancer treatment strategies. PMID:20040371

Lee, Young-Man; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Lim, Hyun-Dae; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2009-12-28

108

Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3?-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare.

Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

2012-01-01

109

Effect of diallyl disulfide on Ca2+ movement and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

The effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study explored whether DADS changed [Ca(2+)](i) in PC3 cells by using fura-2. DADS at 50-1000 ?M increased [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. The signal was reduced by removing Ca(2+). DADS-induced Ca(2+) influx was not inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators; but was inhibited by aristolochic acid. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitors thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) nearly abolished DADS-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Incubation with DADS inhibited thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not alter DADS-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. At 500-1000 ?M, DADS killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of DADS was partly reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Propidium iodide staining suggests that DADS (500 ?M) induced apoptosis in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. Annexin V/PI staining further shows that 10 ?M and 500 ?M DADS both evoked apoptosis. DADS also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Collectively, in PC3 cells, DADS induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise probably by causing phospholipase C-independent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) influx via phospholipase A(2)-sensitive channels. DADS induced Ca(2+)-dependent cell death, ROS production, and Ca(2+)-independent apoptosis. PMID:21232596

Chen, Wei-Chuan; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Huang, Jong-Khing; Fang, Yi-Chien; Chang, Hong-Tai; Tsai, Jeng-Yu; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Being-Whey; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren

2011-01-11

110

Cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase shunting lowers the anti-cancer effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Arachidonic acid metabolite, generated by cyclooxygenase (COX), is implicated in the colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Inhibiting COX may therefore have anti-carcinogenic effects. Results from use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibiting only COX have been conflicting. It has been postulated that this might result from the shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway. Cancer cell viability is promoted by 5-LOX through several mechanisms that are similar to those of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of 5-LOX is upregulated in colorectal adenoma and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-LOX pathway by cyclooxygenase inhibition and to determine if this process antagonizes the anti-cancer effect in colorectal cancer cells. Methods Three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCA7, HT-29 & LoVo) expressing 5-LOX and different levels of COX-2 expression were used. The effects of aspirin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) and rofecoxib (COX-2 selective) on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion were quantified by ELISA. Proliferation and viability were studied by quantifying double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content and metabolic activity. Apoptosis was determined by annexin V and propidium iodide staining using confocal microscopy, and caspase-3/7 activity by fluorescent substrate assay. Results COX inhibitors suppressed PGE2 production but enhanced LTB4 secretion in COX-2 expressing cell lines (P?<0.001). The level of COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells did not significantly influence the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of COX inhibitors due to the shunting mechanism. Conclusions This study provides evidence of shunting between COX and 5-LOX pathways in the presence of unilateral inhibition, and may explain the conflicting anti-carcinogenic effects reported with use of COX inhibitors.

2012-01-01

111

The D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF83959, attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in RGC-5 cells involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 pathways  

PubMed Central

Purpose Oxidative stress is widely implicated in the death of retinal ganglion cells associated with various optic neuropathies. Agonists of the dopamine D1 receptor have recently been found to be potentially neuroprotective against oxidative stress–induced injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether SKF83959, a next-generation high-affinity D1 receptor agonist, could protect retinal ganglion cell 5 (RGC-5) cells from H2O2-induced damage and the molecular mechanism involved. Methods We examined expression of the D1 receptor in RGC-5 cells with reverse-transcription–PCR and immunoblotting and assessed neuroprotection using propidium iodide staining and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, we monitored the activation and involvement of members of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, with western blot and specific inhibitors. Results We found that the D1 receptor was expressed in RGC-5 cells, but the sequence analysis suggested this cell line is from mouse and not rat origin. SKF83959 exhibited a remarkable neuroprotective effect on H2O2-damaged RGC-5 cells, which was blocked by the specific D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. ERK and p38 were activated by SKF83959, and pretreatment with their inhibitors U0126 and SB203580, respectively, significantly blunted the SKF83959-induced cytoprotection. However, the specific c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor, SP600125, had no effect on the SKF83959-induced protection. Conclusions We conclude that SKF83959 attenuates hydrogen peroxide–induced injury in RGC-5 cells via a mechanism involving activation of the ERK and p38 pathways and the D1 receptor is a potential molecular target for developing neuroprotective drugs.

Li, Guang-Yu; Li, Ting; Fan, Bin; Zheng, Yong-Chen

2012-01-01

112

Daidzein induced apoptosis via down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax and triggering of the mitochondrial pathway in BGC-823 cells.  

PubMed

Daidzein belongs to the group of isoflavones, found in a wide variety of plant-derived foods, especially in soybeans and soy-based foods. In this study, the effect of daidzein on human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) and its mechanism were investigated. MTT assay was applied in the detection of the inhibitory effects of daidzein on cell proliferation. Hoechst-propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry were used to examine the apoptosis as well as the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins: cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax. Daidzein significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, it was found that an insult of daidzein to BGC-823 cells caused them to die by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, demonstrated not only by staining dead cells for phosphatidylserine but also by the up-regulation (cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Bax) and down-regulation (Bcl-2) of proteins associated with apoptosis and survival; whereas, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk could partially rescue cells against damage of daidzein. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that daidzein significantly induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway. Specifically, daidzein induced a change in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratios and activation of caspases-3 and -9 and the cleavage of PARP. Therefore, daidzein has the potential for use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric carcinoma. PMID:22926545

Tang, Shuyao; Hu, Jing; Meng, Qingfeng; Dong, Xuesong; Wang, Kaifu; Qi, Yuebin; Chu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Hou, Limin

2013-03-01

113

Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL) and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL) is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu); 92 (Ser/Leu); 93 (Ile/Thr); 95 (Arg/Gly) and 97 (Leu/Ser). CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp?=?43 µM) and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp?=?8.6 µM), but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the ?-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (?645 Å2). The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal ?-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells). The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells.

Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Bertolin, Thiago Carlos; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; Paiva, Patricia Maria Guedes; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

2013-01-01

114

The small molecule curcumin analog FLLL32 induces apoptosis in melanoma cells via STAT3 inhibition and retains the cellular response to cytokines with anti-tumor activity  

PubMed Central

Background We characterized the biologic effects of a novel small molecule STAT3 pathway inhibitor that is derived from the natural product curcumin. We hypothesized this lead compound would specifically inhibit the STAT3 signaling pathway to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Results FLLL32 specifically reduced STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705 (pSTAT3) and induced apoptosis at micromolar amounts in human melanoma cell lines and primary melanoma cultures as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and immunoblot analysis. FLLL32 treatment reduced expression of STAT3-target genes, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. FLLL32 displayed specificity for STAT3 over other homologous STAT proteins. In contrast to other STAT3 pathway inhibitors (WP1066, JSI-124, Stattic), FLLL32 did not abrogate IFN-?-induced pSTAT1 or downstream STAT1-mediated gene expression as determined by Real Time PCR. In addition, FLLL32 did not adversely affect the function or viability of immune cells from normal donors. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), FLLL32 inhibited IL-6-induced pSTAT3 but did not reduce signaling in response to immunostimulatory cytokines (IFN-?, IL 2). Treatment of PBMCs or natural killer (NK) cells with FLLL32 also did not decrease viability or granzyme b and IFN-? production when cultured with K562 targets as compared to vehicle (DMSO). Conclusions These data suggest that FLLL32 represents a lead compound that could serve as a platform for further optimization to develop improved STAT3 specific inhibitors for melanoma therapy.

2010-01-01

115

Acidic pH conditions mimicking degenerative intervertebral discs impair the survival and biological behavior of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the survival and biological behavior of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) under an intervertebral disc (IVD)-like acidic environment. Human ADMSCs isolated from two age groups were cultured under four different pH levels (pH 7.4, 7.1, 6.8 and 6.5) which mimicked the standard condition and the normal, mildly degenerated and severely degenerated IVD. Cell viability was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate-Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining, and cell proliferation was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of aggrecan, collagen-I, collagen-II, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3), p53 and caspase-3 at the mRNA level was examined by realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of aggrecan, collagen-I, collagen-II, MMP-2 and TIMP-3 at the protein level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acidic pH inhibited the viability and proliferation, and the expression of aggrecan, collagen-I and collagen-II of ADMSCs from both age groups. ADMSCs harvested from young and mature donors exhibited similar responses to the acidic pH, although cells from young donors appeared less sensitive to the low pH levels. The results demonstrated that acidic pH in IVD may be an important deleterious factor for ADMSC-based IVD regeneration. ADMSCs harvested from young donors may be more suitable to be utilized for the implantation into degenerated IVD, and the implantations may be more effective at an early stage of IVD degeneration when the pH of matrix acidity is higher than 6.8. PMID:22829705

Li, Hao; Liang, Chengzhen; Tao, Yiqing; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Li, Fangcai; Chen, Gang; Chen, Qi-xin

2012-07-24

116

Bevacizumab inhibits proliferation of choroidal endothelial cells by regulation of the cell cycle  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate cell cycle changes in choroidal endothelial cells treated with varying doses of bevacizumab in the presence of a range of concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab, a drug widely used in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, neutralizes all isoforms of VEGF. However, the effect of intravitreal administration of bevacizumab on the choroidal endothelial cell cycle has not been established. Methods Monkey choroidal endothelial (RF/6A) cells were treated with VEGF 50 ng/mL and escalating doses of bevacizumab 0.1–2 mg/mL for 72 hours. Cell cycle changes in response to bevacizumab were analyzed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Morphological changes were recorded by bright field cell microscopy. Results Bevacizumab inhibited proliferation of choroidal endothelial cells by stabilization of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle analysis of VEGF-enriched choroidal endothelial cells revealed a predominant increase in the G2/M population (21.84%, P, 0.01) and a decrease in the G0/G1 phase population (55.08%, P, 0.01). Addition of escalating doses of bevacizumab stabilized VEGF-enriched cells in the G0/G1 phase (55.08%, 54.49%, 56.3%, and 64% [P, 0.01]) and arrested proliferation by inhibiting the G2/M phase (21.84%, 21.46%, 20.59%, 20.94%, and 16.1% [P, 0.01]). The increase in G0/G1 subpopulation in VEGF-enriched and bevacizumab-treated cells compared with VEGF-enriched cells alone was dose-dependent. Conclusion Bevacizumab arrests proliferation of VEGF-enriched choroidal endothelial cells by stabilizing the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and inhibiting the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent fashion.

Rusovici, Raluca; Patel, Chirag J; Chalam, Kakarla V

2013-01-01

117

Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for 24 h. Selected inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), were measured together with cytotoxicity (MTT test), and analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle (propidium iodide staining). The PM10-2.5 samples had a much higher inflammatory activity than the PM2.5-0.2 and PM0.2 samples, but the PM2.5-0.2 samples showed the largest differences in inflammatory activity, and the PM0.2 samples in cytotoxicity, between the sampling campaigns. The PM2.5-0.2 samples from traffic environments in springtime Barcelona and summertime Athens had the highest inflammatory activities, which may be related to the high photochemical activity in the atmosphere during the sampling campaigns. The PM0.2 sample from wintertime Prague with proven impacts from local coal and biomass combustion had very high cytotoxic and apoptotic activities and caused a distinct cell cycle arrest. Thus, particulate size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the toxicity profile of urban air particulate matter. These factors may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in particulate exposure-response relationships of human health effects in epidemiological studies.

Jalava, P.I.; Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Halinen, A.I.; Happo, M.S.; Hillamo, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Katsouyanni, K.; Sunyer, J.; Hirvonen, M.R. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. for Environmental Health

2007-03-15

118

Transfection of the c-myc oncogene into normal Epstein-Barr virus- harboring B cells results in new phenotypic and functional features resembling those of Burkitt lymphoma cells and normal centroblasts  

PubMed Central

Activated c-myc gene was introduced into the cells of three normal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCL). The cells were monitored for the appearance of new phenotypic and functional features compared with the control LCL cells transfected with plasmid that did not contain the c-myc gene. The LCL-expressing c- myc constitutively did not arrest growth in low serum concentration. However, the cell number in the cultures failed to increase because of substantial cell death. Death was due to apoptosis as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells, by typical DNA laddering in gel electrophoresis, and by the inspection of Giemsa- stained cell smears. Apoptosis was also induced by exposing the transfected cells to antibodies directed to the immunoglobulin mu chain (a-mu-ab) irrespective of the serum concentration in the culture. Exposure of the cells to CD40 ligand (CD40L) or CD40 monoclonal antibody prevented cell apoptosis. Upon transfection with c-myc, the LCL cells acquired a vacuolated morphology that was never observed in control cells. Moreover, the expression of CD10 and CD38 was upregulated, while that of CD39 and especially CD23 was downregulated. Unlike that observed in certain Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell lines that share the same surface phenotype (CD10+CD38+CD23-CD39-), the c-myc- transfected cells expressed lymphocyte function-associated (LFA) 1, LFA- 3, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and grew in large clumps rather than single-cell layers. Expression of CD10 and CD38 was particularly evident on the cells undergoing apoptosis, thus suggesting a correlation between the presence of these markers and the apoptotic process. Cells placed in conditions favoring in vitro apoptosis displayed downregulation of Bcl-2 protein. Bcl-2 expression was, however, upregulated when the cells were exposed to CD40L. These data indicate that the B cells expressing c-myc constitutively acquire some of the features of normal centroblasts and of BL cells, including the expression of CD10 and CD38, and the propensity to undergo apoptosis, which can be prevented by exposure to CD40L. Therefore, these cells can serve as a model system to study both BL lymphomagenesis as well as the process of B cell selection occurring in the germinal centers.

1995-01-01

119

Annexin A2 silencing inhibits invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of Annexin A2 (ANXA2) silencing on invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells. METHODS: Human hepatoma cell lines [HepG2, SMMC-7721, SMMC-7402, and MHCC97-H, a novel human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line with high metastasis potential] and a normal hepatocyte cell line (LO2) were used in this study. The protein and mRNA expression levels of ANXA2 were analysed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The intracellular distribution profile of ANXA2 expression was determined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Short hairpin RNA targeting ANXA2 was designed and stably transfected into MHCC97-H cells. Cells were cultured for in vitro analyses or subcutaneously injected as xenografts in mice for in vivo analyses. Effects of ANXA2 silencing on cell growth were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay (in vitro) and tumour-growth assay (in vivo), on cell cycling was assessed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining (in vitro), and on invasion and migration potential were assessed by transwell assay and wound-healing assay, respectively (both in vitro). RESULTS: The MHCC97-H cells, which are known to have high metastasis potential, showed the highest level of ANXA2 expression among the four HCC cell types examined; compared to the LO2 cells, the MHCC97-H expression level was 8-times higher. The ANXA2 expression was effectively inhibited (about 80%) by ANXA2-speci?c small hairpin RNA (shRNA). ANXA2 expression in the MHCC97-H cells was mainly localized to the cellular membrane and cytoplasm, and some localization was detected in the nucleus. Moreover, the proliferation of MHCC97-H cells was obviously suppressed by shRNA-mediated ANXA2 silencing in vitro, and the tumour growth inhibition rate was 38.24% in vivo. The percentage of MHCC97-H cells in S phase dramatically decreased (to 27.76%) under ANXA2-silenced conditions. Furthermore, ANXA2-silenced MHCC97-H cells showed lower invasiveness (percentage of invading cells decreased to 52.16%) and suppressed migratory capacity (migration distance decreased to 63.49%). It is also worth noting that shRNA-mediated silencing of ANXA2 in the MHCC97-H cells led to abnormal apoptosis. CONCLUSION: shRNA-mediated silencing of ANXA2 suppresses the invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells, and may represent a useful target of future molecular therapies.

Zhang, Hai-Jian; Yao, Deng-Fu; Yao, Min; Huang, Hua; Wang, Li; Yan, Mei-Juan; Yan, Xiao-Di; Gu, Xing; Wu, Wei; Lu, Shao-Lin

2013-01-01

120

Cytofluorescence localization of propidium iodide injected intravenously into the nervous system of the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propidium iodide, like its analogue ethidium bromide, is a compound which can be used as a marker of nucleic acids. This substance emits a red fluorescent light after exposure to UV light and has therefore been used previously as a nuclear stain in immunofluorescence studies and in flow cytometry.

S. T. Hussain; A. Attilo; L. Bigotte; K. Cesarini; Y. Olsson

1985-01-01

121

Pulsed electromagnetic field affects intrinsic and endoplasmatic reticulum apoptosis induction pathways in MonoMac6 cell line culture.  

PubMed

Current studies were aimed to elucidate influence of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on cell viability and apoptosis induction pathways. For the experimental model we have chosen monocytic cell line MonoMac6 and several apoptosis inducers with different mechanism of death induction like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline and hydrogen peroxide. MonoMac6 cell line was grown at density 1x10(5) cells/well in 96-well culture plates. To induce cell death cell cultures were treated with different apoptosis inducers like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, hydrogen peroxide and at the same time with pulsed electromagnetic field 50 Hz, 45±5 mT (PEMF) for 4 hour per each stimulation, three times, in 24 hours intervals. Afterwards, cells were harvested for flow cytometry analysis of cell viability measured by annexin V-APC labeled and propidium iodide staining. Expression of apoptosis related genes was evaluated by semi quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. NuPAGE Novex Western blot analysis was carried out for apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) abundance in cytosolic and nuclear extracts of MonoMac6 cells. Puromycin, colchicine and minocycline activated cells and simultaneously treated with PEMF have shown out diminished percentage of annexinV positive (AnV+) cells comparing to controls without PEMF stimulation. MonaMac6 cells puromycin/colchicyne and PEMF treated were to a higher extent double stained (AnV+,PI+), which means increased late apoptotic as well as necrotic (PI+) cells, than non-stimulated controls. On the other hand, minocycline activated cells prior to PEMF treatment showed diminished amount of apoptotic and necrotic (annexin V, annexin V and propidium iodide, propidium iodide positive staining) cells. The opposite effect of PEMF on the percentage of annexin V positively stained cells has been achieved after treatment of MonoMac6 culture with cyclophoshamide and hydrogen peroxide. PEMF enhanced early phase of apoptosis induced by both apoptosis inducing agents. The analysis of expression of the apoptosis related genes in MonoMac6 cultures treated with puromycin and exposed to PEMF performed in reverse transcription of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has shown changes in mRNA of genes engaged in intrinsic apoptotic pathway and pathway with AIF abundance. The most influenced was expression of gene belonging to pro-apoptotic family of Bcl-2 and AIF agent. Examination of immunoblots developed with anti-AIF antibody showed that cytosol content of AIF protein was diminished after puromycin and PEMF treatment of MonoMac6 cells. The obtained results indicate that PEMF affects induction of apoptosis in MonoMac6 cells stimulated to death with inducing agents to a different extent. Main finding of the current results is that, PEMF stimulation of MonoMac6 cells simultaneously treated with puromycin caused changes in the Bcl-family genes expression as well as in caspase independent pathway of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). PMID:23211308

Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Chorobik, P; Juszczak, K; Zaraska, W; Thor, P J

2012-10-01

122

Assessment of mitochondrial functions and cell viability in renal cells overexpressing protein kinase C isozymes.  

PubMed

The protein kinase C (PKC) family of isozymes is involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Our recent data demonstrate that PKC regulates mitochondrial function and cellular energy status. Numerous reports demonstrated that the activation of PKC-a and PKC-? improves mitochondrial function in the ischemic heart and mediates cardioprotection. In contrast, we have demonstrated that PKC-? and PKC-? are involved in nephrotoxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in kidney cells. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop an in vitro model of renal cells maintaining active mitochondrial functions in which PKC isozymes could be selectively activated or inhibited to determine their role in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and cell survival. Primary cultures of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) were cultured in improved conditions resulting in mitochondrial respiration and activity of mitochondrial enzymes similar to those in RPTC in vivo. Because traditional transfection techniques (Lipofectamine, electroporation) are inefficient in primary cultures and have adverse effects on mitochondrial function, PKC-? mutant cDNAs were delivered to RPTC through adenoviral vectors. This approach results in transfection of over 90% cultured RPTC. Here, we present methods for assessing the role of PKC-? in: 1. regulation of mitochondrial morphology and functions associated with ATP synthesis, and 2. survival of RPTC in primary culture. PKC-? is activated by overexpressing the constitutively active PKC-? mutant. PKC-? is inhibited by overexpressing the inactive mutant of PKC-?. Mitochondrial function is assessed by examining respiration, integrity of the respiratory chain, activities of respiratory complexes and F0F1-ATPase, ATP production rate, and ATP content. Respiration is assessed in digitonin-permeabilized RPTC as state 3 (maximum respiration in the presence of excess substrates and ADP) and uncoupled respirations. Integrity of the respiratory chain is assessed by measuring activities of all four complexes of the respiratory chain in isolated mitochondria. Capacity of oxidative phosphorylation is evaluated by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production rate, and activity of F0F1-ATPase. Energy status of RPTC is assessed by determining the intracellular ATP content. Mitochondrial morphology in live cells is visualized using MitoTracker Red 580, a fluorescent dye that specifically accumulates in mitochondria, and live monolayers are examined under a fluorescent microscope. RPTC viability is assessed using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry to determine apoptosis and oncosis. These methods allow for a selective activation/inhibition of individual PKC isozymes to assess their role in cellular functions in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions that can be reproduced in in vitro. PMID:23328793

Nowak, Gra?yna; Bakajsova, Diana

2013-01-07

123

Propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for viable Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa detection from abundant background microflora.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid-based techniques represent a promising alternative to cultivation-based microbial water quality assessment methods. However, their application is hampered by their innate inability to differentiate between living and dead organisms. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was proposed as an efficient approach for alleviating this limitation. In this study, we demonstrate the performance of PMA-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the detection of indicator organisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in a background of a highly abundant and complex microflora. Treatment with 10?M PMA resulted in the complete or significant reduction of the false positive signal arising from the amplification of DNA from dead cells. PMID:23756735

Gensberger, Eva Theres; Sessitsch, Angela; Kosti?, Tanja

2013-06-10

124

Visible light may directly induce nuclear DNA damage triggering the death pathway in RGC-5 cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Visible light has been previously demonstrated to induce retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-5 cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. The present study was designed to determine whether visible light might also directly trigger the death pathway by damaging nuclear DNA. Methods RGC-5 cells were exposed to various intensities and durations of visible light exposure. Cell viability and death were monitored with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide staining. Nuclear DNA damage caused by light was determined with the plasmid assay, genome DNA assay, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. The subsequent activation of nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was measured with western blot, and PARP-1’s role in the death pathway was assessed by using specific inhibitors. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) inhibitors were used to show their influence on light-induced cell death. Calcium influx was examined with the fura-2 assay and calcium channel blocker. Results We found that visible light induced RGC-5 cell death in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. After the light intensity was increased to 2,600 lx, activation of the death pathway in RGC-5 cells was clearly observed by detecting double-strand DNA breaks and nuclear DNA damage in vitro. Nuclear enzyme PARP-1 was promptly activated after exposure to 2,600 lx of light for 2 days, and specific inhibitors of PARP-1 had significant neuroprotective effects. The poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitor tannic acid and AIF inhibitor N-phenylmaleimide partially protected RGC-5 cells from light injury. A massive calcium influx was detected after 2 days of light exposure, and a calcium channel blocker partially protected cells against light injury. Conclusions These results suggest that visible light exposure may directly cause nuclear DNA damage, which consequently activates PARP-1. In addition, RGC-5 cells damaged by 2,600 lx of light exposure can be used as an appropriate cell death model for screening neuroprotective drugs, since this treatment induced remarkable cell death within 2 days. Moreover, these results show that 2,600 lx of light exposure provides a more apparent activation of the death pathway than 1,000 lx of light exposure, which was used in a previous study.

Fan, Bin; Ma, Tong-Hui

2011-01-01

125

Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA).  

PubMed

A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees C or held at 5 degrees C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMA with DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing. PMID:18160156

Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

2007-11-28

126

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability determination using F57 quantitative PCR in combination with propidium monoazide treatment.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is known to be a very slow-growing organism. The fact that cells typically need several weeks to form visible colonies severely compromises the suitability of plate counting for assessment of viable cell counts. This problem might be overcome by the application of fast molecular methods containing a viability component. We have evaluated a promising technology combining sample treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) prior to DNA extraction for selective detection of cells with intact cell membranes with detection of sequence element F57 by quantitative PCR (F57 qPCR). Element F57 is unique for MAP and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species. Conditions of PMA treatment were optimised for MAP isolate 7082 using live and heat-killed cells and comparing different DNA extraction procedures. The subsequent successful application of the optimised protocol to four other MAP isolates of different origins suggested that the optimised protocol might be broadly applicable to different MAP strains. Furthermore, different equations were compared to use the data resulting from this technology to optimally predict the percentage of live MAP cells in mixtures containing both live and dead cells. The presented protocol holds promise to be used routinely for detecting MAP with intact cell membranes in research applications. PMID:20385417

Kralik, P; Nocker, A; Pavlik, I

2010-03-19

127

Induction of Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Candidaspongiolide, a Novel Sponge Polyketide  

PubMed Central

Background Candidaspongiolide (CAN), a novel polyketide from a marine sponge, is the active component of a mixture that was found to be potently cytotoxic in the National Cancer Institute’s 60-cell-line screen. Methods Effects of CAN on U251 glioma and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells and on normal fibroblasts were assessed using radiolabeling studies to measure protein synthesis, clonogenic assays to measure cell survival, flow cytometry of annexin V– and propidium iodide–stained cells to measure apoptosis, and western blots in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors to assess accumulation and phosphorylation of potential downstream target proteins. Results CAN inhibited protein synthesis and potently induced apoptosis in both U251 and HCT116 cells, the latter in part by a caspase 12–dependent pathway. For example, 25%–30% of U251 or HCT116 cells became apoptotic after 24 hours of treatment with 100 nM CAN. CAN also rapidly induced sustained phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2)-? at Ser51 and of the translation elongation factor eEF2 at Thr56, which could contribute to its dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis. Stable expression of dominant-negative eIF2? was sufficient to prevent CAN-induced eIF2? phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis but insufficient to prevent inhibition of protein synthesis. CAN induction of eIF2? phosphorylation did not occur by a classic endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. However, an inhibitor of and small-interfering RNAs to the double-stranded RNA–dependent protein kinase PKR prevented CAN-mediated eIF2? phosphorylation and apoptosis, respectively. Although CAN inhibited protein synthesis in both cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts, it induced eIF2? phosphorylation and apoptosis only in cancer cells. Conclusions CAN triggers PKR/eIF2?/caspase 12–dependent apoptosis and inhibits protein synthesis in cancer cells but only inhibits protein synthesis in normal cells.

Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cardellina, John H.; Meragelman, Tamara L.; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiru; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Shoemaker, Robert H.

2008-01-01

128

3-Deazaadenosine prevents smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by interfering with Ras signaling.  

PubMed

3-Deazaadenosine (c3Ado) is a potent inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, which regulates cellular methyltransferase activity. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of c3Ado on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and neointima formation in vivo. c3Ado dose-dependently prevented the proliferation and migration of human coronary VSMCs in vitro. This was accompanied by an increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), a decreased expression of G(1)/S phase cyclins, and a lack of retinoblastoma protein hyperphosphorylation. In accordance with these findings, fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells indicated a cell cycle arrest in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Importantly, c3Ado did not affect the number of viable (trypan blue exclusion) or apoptotic cells (TUNEL). Mechanistically, c3Ado prevented FCS-induced Ras carboxyl methylation and membrane translocation and activity by inhibiting isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase and reduced FCS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, rescuing signal transduction by overexpression of a constitutive active Ras mutant abrogated c3Ado's effect on proliferation. For in vivo studies, the femoral artery of C57BL/6 mice was dilated and mice were fed a diet containing 150 microg of c3Ado per day. c3Ado prevented dilation-induced Ras activation, as well as ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in vivo. At day 21, VSMC proliferation (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]-positive cells), as well as the neointima/media ratio (0.7+/-0.2 versus 1.6+/-0.4; P<0.05) were significantly reduced, without any changes in the number of apoptotic cells. Our data indicate that c3Ado interferes with Ras methylation and function and thereby with mitogenic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt, preventing VSMC cell cycle entry and proliferation and neointima formation in vivo. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase by c3Ado may represent a save and effective novel approach to prevent vascular proliferative disease. PMID:19372464

Sedding, Daniel G; Tröbs, Monique; Reich, Fabian; Walker, Gerhard; Fink, Ludger; Haberbosch, Werner; Rau, Wigbert; Tillmanns, Harald; Preissner, Klaus T; Bohle, Rainer M; Langheinrich, Alexander C

2009-04-16

129

Effects of combined treatment with rapamycin and cotylenin A, a novel differentiation-inducing agent, on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells and xenografts  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the serine/threonine kinase target of rapamycin, induces G1 arrest and/or apoptosis. Although rapamycin and its analogues are attractive candidates for cancer therapy, their sensitivities with respect to growth inhibition differ markedly among various cancer cells. Using human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 as an experimental model system, we examined the growth-inhibitory effects of combinations of various agents and rapamycin to find the agent that most potently enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of rapamycin. Method We evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of rapamycin plus various agents, including cotylenin A (a novel inducer of differentiation of myeloid leukaemia cells) to MCF-7 cells, using either MTT assay or trypan blue dye exclusion test. The cell cycle was analyzed using propidium iodide-stained nuclei. Expressions of several genes in MCF-7 cells with rapamycin plus cotylenin A were studied using cDNA microarray analysis and RT-PCR. The in vitro results of MCF-7 cells treated with rapamycin plus cotylenin A were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Results We found that the sensitivity of rapamycin to MCF-7 cells was markedly affected by cotylenin A. This treatment induced growth arrest of the cells at the G1 phase, rather than apoptosis, and induced senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity. We examined the gene expression profiles associated with exposure to rapamycin and cotylenin A using cDNA microarrays. We found that expressions of cyclin G2, transforming growth factor-?-induced 68 kDa protein, BCL2-interacting killer, and growth factor receptor-bound 7 were markedly induced in MCF-7 cells treated with rapamycin plus cotylenin A. Furthermore, combined treatment with rapamycin and cotylenin A significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells as xenografts, without apparent adverse effects. Conclusion Rapamycin and cotylenin A cooperatively induced growth arrest in breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in vitro, and treatment with rapamycin and cotylenin A combined more strongly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells as xenografts in vivo than treatment with rapamycin or cotylenin A alone, suggesting that this combination may have therapeutic value in treating breast cancer. We also identified several genes that were markedly modulated in MCF-7 cells treated with rapamycin plus cotylenin A.

Kasukabe, Takashi; Okabe-Kado, Junko; Kato, Nobuo; Sassa, Takeshi; Honma, Yoshio

2005-01-01

130

Distinct single cell signal transduction signatures in leukocyte subsets stimulated with khat extract, amphetamine-like cathinone, cathine or norephedrine  

PubMed Central

Background Amphetamine and amphetamine derivatives are suggested to induce an immunosuppressive effect. However, knowledge of how amphetamines modulate intracellular signaling pathways in cells of the immune system is limited. We have studied phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins (Akt, CREB, ERK1/2, NF-?B, c-Cbl, STAT1/3/5/6) and stress sensors (p38 MAPK, p53) in human leukocyte subsets following in vitro treatment with the natural amphetamine cathinone, the cathinone derivatives cathine and norephedrine, in comparison with a defined extract of the psychostimulating herb khat (Catha edulis Forsk.). Intracellular protein modifications in single cells were studied using immunostaining and flow cytometry, cell viability was determined by Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide staining, and T-lymphocyte proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Results Cathinone, cathine and norephedrine generally reduced post-translational modifications of intracellular signal transducers in T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, natural killer cells and monocytes, most prominently affecting c-Cbl (pTyr700), ERK1/2 (p-Thr202/p-Tyr204), p38 MAPK (p-Thr180/p-Tyr182) and p53 (both total p53 protein and p-Ser15). In contrast, the botanical khat-extract induced protein phosphorylation of STAT1 (p-Tyr701), STAT6 (p-Tyr641), c-Cbl (pTyr700), ERK1/2 (p-Thr202/p-Tyr204), NF-?B (p-Ser529), Akt (p-Ser473), p38 MAPK (p-Thr180/p-Tyr182), p53 (Ser15) as well as total p53 protein. Cathinone, cathine and norephedrine resulted in unique signaling profiles, with B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells more responsive compared to T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Treatment with norephedrine resulted in significantly increased T-lymphocyte proliferation, whereas khat-extract reduced proliferation and induced cell death. Conclusions Single-cell signal transduction analyses of leukocytes distinctively discriminated between stimulation with cathinone and the structurally similar derivatives cathine and norephedrine. Cathinone, cathine and norephedrine reduced phosphorylation of c-Cbl, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and p53(Ser15), and norephedrine induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. Khat-extract induced protein phosphorylation of signal transducers, p38 MAPK and p53, followed by reduced cell proliferation and cell death. This study suggests that protein modification-specific single-cell analysis of immune cells could unravel pharmacologic effects of amphetamines and amphetamine-like agents, and further could represent a valuable tool in elucidation of mechanism(s) of action of complex botanical extracts.

2013-01-01

131

Cannabinoid receptor 1 blockade protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative injury  

PubMed Central

Background Because oxidative stress is assumed to be a key mechanism in the pathological process of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), increasing numbers of studies have focused on discovering new pathways and treatments for reducing oxidative damage. Our work investigates the potential role of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in oxidative stress of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, a cellular model of AMD. Methods Primary human RPE cells were cultured and exposed to hydrogen peroxide for 24 h to induce oxidative damage. The expression of and changes in the CB1 receptor were determined with western blot assay and confocal imaging. The CB1 receptor in the RPE cells was inhibited with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or rimonabant (SR141716). Cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species production were measured by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine B assay, annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and the dichlorofluorescein fluorescence assay, respectively. Intracellular superoxide dismutase activity was assayed with a commercially available assay kit. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) protein expression and activation of signaling molecules were assessed with western blot analysis. Results We showed that human RPE cells express the CB1 receptor. In addition, oxidative stress upregulates the expression of the CB1 receptor. Deleting the CB1 receptor or treating with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) rescued RPE cells from hydrogen peroxide–induced oxidative damage. Rimonabant pretreatment effectively reduced the apoptosis of RPE cells, inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and elevated the activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, rimonabant significantly strengthened the oxidative stress-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusions The results demonstrate the expression and regulation of CB1 receptors in human RPE cells. Inhibiting the CB1 receptor may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AMD by downregulating oxidative stress signaling and facilitating PI3K/Akt activation.

Wei, Yan; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Feng; Zhao, Pei-quan

2013-01-01

132

Action mechanisms of lithium chloride on cell infection by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.  

PubMed

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. Recently, we and others have reported the inhibitory effect of LiCl on avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) infection, an RNA virus. In the current study, the action mechanism of LiCl on cell infection by TGEV was investigated. Plaque assays and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays showed that the cell infection by TGEV was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when LiCl was added to virus-infected cells; the cell infection was not affected when either cells or viruses were pretreated with the drug. The inhibition of TGEV infection in vitro by LiCl was observed at different virus doses and with different cell lines. The inhibitory effect of LiCl against TGEV infection and transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR targeting viral S and 3CL-protease genes. The time-of-addition effect of the drug on TGEV infection indicated that LiCl acted on the initial and late stage of TGEV infection. The production of virus was not detected at 36 h post-infection due to the drug treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry analyses based on staining of Annexin V and propidium iodide staining of nuclei indicated that early and late cell apoptosis induced by TGEV was inhibited efficiently. The ability of LiCl to inhibit apoptosis was investigated by IF analysis of caspase-3 expression. Our data indicate that LiCl inhibits TGEV infection by exerting an anti-apoptotic effect. The inhibitory effect of LiCl was also observed with porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus. Together with other reports concerning the inhibitory effect of lithium salts on IBV in cell culture, our results indicate that LiCl may be a potent agent against porcine and avian coronaviruses. PMID:21573100

Ren, Xiaofeng; Meng, Fandan; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing; Li, Xunliang; Wang, Chao; Herrler, Georg

2011-05-06

133

Short and long-term exposure of CNS cell lines to BPA-f a radiosensitizer for boron neutron capture therapy: safety dose evaluation by a battery of cytotoxicity tests.  

PubMed

Despite the current clinical use of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f), as radiosensitizer, in BNCT application for brain tumors, still remains to be determined the safety dose of this agent. We evaluated the potential risk of primary BPA-f toxicity before neutronic irradiation at different concentrations (0-100?gBeq/ml) after short- and long-term exposure (4-48h and 7-10 days), using a battery of tests (i.e. MTT assay, calcein-AM/Propidium Iodide staining, clonogenic test) in CNS cell models (D384 and SH-SY5Y), and non-neuronal primary human fibroblasts (F26). MTT data showed: (i) no cytotoxic effects after short-term exposure (4h) to any of BPA-f concentrations tested in all cell models; (ii) dose- and time-dependent mitochondrial activity impairment in D384 and SH-SY5Y cells only (with 60% and 40% cell death in D384 and SH-SY5Y, respectively, after 48h exposure to BPA-f 100?gBeq/ml). By Calcein-AM/PI staining, BPA-f treatment was specific toward SH-SY5Y cells only: a dose-dependent cell density reduction was observed, with a more pronounced effect after 48h exposure (15-40% at doses ranging 20-100?gBeq/ml). Clonogenic data revealed dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferative capacity in all cell lines, still the SH-SY5Y cells were the most sensitive ones: the lowest dose (20?gBeq/ml) produced 90% cell decrease. These results indicate dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects of BPA-f, with CNS cells showing a lower tolerance compared to fibroblasts. Long-term exposure to BPA-f compromised the proliferative capacity regardless of cell model type (cell sensitivity being SH-SY5Y>D384>F26). In short-time exposure, BPA-f exhibits a safe dosage up to 40?gBeq/ml for the viability of CNS cell lines. PMID:23261588

De Simone, U; Manzo, L; Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Locatelli, C; Coccini, T

2012-12-21

134

The indole-3-carbinol cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet inhibits cell proliferation via overexpression of p21/CDKN1A in both estrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), an autolysis product of glucosinolates present in cruciferous vegetables, and its dimeric derivative (3,3'-DIM) have been indicated as promising agents in preventing the development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently shown that I3C cyclic tetrameric derivative CTet formulated in ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) efficiently inhibited cellular proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. This study aims to analyze the mechanisms involved in the in vitro inhibition of cell proliferation and to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of CTet in a xenograft study. Methods Estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were exposed to CTet to evaluate cell cycle perturbation (propidium iodide staining and cytofluorimetric acquisition), induction of autophagic morphological features (co-localization of LC3b autophagosome marker and LAMP2a lysosome marker by immunofluorescence) and changes in protein expression (immunoblot and microarray-based gene expression analyses). To test the in vivo efficacy of CTet, female athymic nude mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells were i.p. treated with 5 mg/kg/day of CTet for five days/week for two weeks and the tumor mass was externally monitored. Results CTet induced accumulation in G2/M phase without evidence of apoptotic response induction in both cell lines tested. In triple-negative MDA-MB-231 the autophagic lysosomal activity was significantly up-regulated after exposure to 4 ?M of CTet for 8 hours, while the highest CTet concentration was necessary to observe autophagic features in MCF-7 cells. The inhibition of Akt activity and p53-independent p21/CDKN1A and GADD45A overexpression were identified as the main molecular events responsible for CTet activity in MCF-7 and p53-mutant MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, CTet administration was able to significantly inhibit the growth of MCF-7 xenotransplanted into nude mice, without adverse effect on body weight or on haematological parameters. Conclusions Our data support CTet formulated with ?-CD as a promising and injectable anticancer agent for both hormone-responsive and triple-negative breast tumors.

2011-01-01

135

Propidium Iodide Competes with Ca2+ to Label Pectin in Pollen Tubes and Arabidopsis Root Hairs1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We have used propidium iodide (PI) to investigate the dynamic properties of the primary cell wall at the apex of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root hairs and pollen tubes and in lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes. Our results show that in root hairs, as in pollen tubes, oscillatory peaks in PI fluorescence precede growth rate oscillations. Pectin forms the primary component of the cell wall at the tip of both root hairs and pollen tubes. Given the electronic structure of PI, we investigated whether PI binds to pectins in a manner analogous to Ca2+ binding. We first show that Ca2+ is able to abrogate PI growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. PI fluorescence itself also relies directly on the amount of Ca2+ in the growth solution. Exogenous pectin methyl esterase treatment of pollen tubes, which demethoxylates pectins, freeing more Ca2+-binding sites, leads to a dramatic increase in PI fluorescence. Treatment with pectinase leads to a corresponding decrease in fluorescence. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PI binds to demethoxylated pectins. Unlike other pectin stains, PI at low yet useful concentration is vital and specifically does not alter the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient or growth oscillations. These data suggest that pectin secretion at the apex of tip-growing plant cells plays a critical role in regulating growth, and PI represents an excellent tool for examining the role of pectin and of Ca2+ in tip growth.

Rounds, Caleb M.; Lubeck, Eric; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

2011-01-01

136

Use of propidium monoazide for the enumeration of viable Oenococcus oeni in must and wine by quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Malolactic fermentation is an important step in winemaking, but it has to be avoided in some cases. It's carried out by lactic acid bacteria belonging mainly to the genus Oenococcus, which is known to be a slow growing bacterium. Classical microbiological methods to enumerate viable cells of Oenococcus oeni in must and wine take 7-9 days to give results. Moreover, RT-qPCR technique gives accurate quantitative results, but it requires time consuming steps of RNA extraction and reverse transcription. In the present work we developed a fast and reliable quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate cells of Oenococcus oeni, directly, in must and wine. For the first time we used a propidium monoazide treatment of samples to enumerate only Oenococcus oeni viable cells. The detection limit of the developed method is 0.33 log CFU/mL (2.14 CFU/mL) in must, and 0.69 log CFU/mL (4.90 CFU/mL) in wine, lower than that of the previously developed qPCR protocols. PMID:23628614

Vendrame, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe

2013-03-14

137

Detection of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 using propidium monoazide treatments and qPCR.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 can enter into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions. The aims of the present study were to examine the influences of environmental factors on the survivability and culturability of E. coli O157:H7 and to develop an approach for accurate detection of VBNC E. coli O157:H7. The E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 6589 was inoculated into 3 induction microcosm models: (i) Luria-Bertani broth, (ii) sterilized tap water, and (iii) sterilized physiological saline solution. Our results showed that low temperature and nutritional starvation significantly impacted on the survivability of E. coli O157:H7 cells and that the in-vitro-induced VBNC cells were capable of resuscitating under normal temperature and appropriate nutrients. We tested the effectiveness of an approach combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) for accurate quantification of total, viable, dead, and VBNC cells under different induction microcosm models. Our results indicated different threshold cycle (Ct) values for PMA-treated cells and untreated cells (?Ct = 4.97, 4.29, and 3.30 for Luria-Bertani broth, sterilized tap water, and sterilized physiological saline solution, respectively). We determined the quantification limit of this PMA-qPCR approach to be 1 × 10(2) cells·mL(-1), providing sufficient sensitivity for detection of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 cells to no less than 100 cells·mL(-1). This study clearly demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of using PMA-qPCR to accurately quantify E. coli O157:H7 in a VBNC state. PMID:23540333

Xiao, Xing-long; Tian, Cong; Yu, Yi-gang; Wu, Hui

2012-12-10

138

MicroRNA-204 is required for differentiation of human-derived cardiomyocyte progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are cardiac progenitor cells that are unique for their efficient differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes without requiring co-culture with neonatal cardiomyocytes. hCMPCs have shown great potential in preserving the function of infarcted mouse myocardium. MiRNA-204 has been reported to be up-regulated in differentiated hCMPCs, however, its biological significance is unclear. In this study, hCMPC proliferation, viability, apoptosis and necrosis were determined using the ELISA Kit (colorimetric BrdU detection), Cell Counting Kit-8, and Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. MiRNA-204 inhibition promoted hCMPC proliferation without affecting cell viability and the level of apoptosis and necrosis, indicating that miRNA-204 might be required for hCMPC differentiation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the expression profile of cardiac genes, including MEF2C, GATA-4, Nkx-2.5, TropT, ?MHC, and cActin. Cardiac ?-actin staining was used to quantify the degree of differentiation. MiRNA-204 inhibition significantly down-regulated TropT, ?MHC, and cActin and reduced differentiation by 47.81% after 2 weeks of differentiation induction. Interestingly, miRNA-204 mimics (30 nM) did not promote hCMPC proliferation and differentiation. The bioinformatic tool GOmir identified the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) as a potential target, which was confirmed by Western blot and a luciferase reporter assay. ATF-2 overexpression promoted hCMPC proliferation, further demonstrating the role played by ATF-2 as a target gene of miRNA-204. Therefore, miRNA-204 is required for hCMPC differentiation and ATF-2 is a target gene of miRNA-204 in hCMPCs. This study indicates that miRNA-204 is among the regulators that drive hCMPC proliferation and differentiation, and miRNA-204 might be used to influence cell fate. PMID:22982025

Xiao, Junjie; Liang, Dandan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Dasheng; Liu, Yi; Pan, Lei; Chen, Xiaoli; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sun, Yunfu; Liang, Xingqun; Sluijter, Joost P G; Chen, Yi-Han

2012-09-07

139

Concurrent use of flow cytometry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization techniques for detecting faulty meiosis in a human sperm sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

5To whom correspondence should be addressed Routine semen analysis in an infertile patient revealed severe teratospermia associated with malformation of head and tail in 100% of the sperm cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) were shown to supplement routine semen analysis by providing information on the sperm chromatin. Using flow cytometry, propidium iodide-stained spermatozoa from the same sperm

R. Weissenberg; A. Aviram; R. Golan; L. M. Lewin; J. Levron; I. Madgar; J. Dor; G. Barkai; B. Goldman

1998-01-01

140

Anticancer activity of a sub-fraction of dichloromethane extract of Strobilanthes crispus on human breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The leaves of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) which is native to the regions of Madagascar to the Malay Archipelago, are used in folk medicine for their antidiabetic, diuretic, anticancer and blood pressure lowering properties. Crude extracts of this plant have been found to be cytotoxic to human cancer cell lines and protective against chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. In this study, the cytotoxicity of various sub-fractions of dichloromethane extract isolated from the leaves of S. crispus was determined and the anticancer activity of one of the bioactive sub-fractions, SC/D-F9, was further analysed in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Methods The dichloromethane extract of S. crispus was chromatographed on silica gel by flash column chromatography. The ability of the various sub-fractions obtained to induce cell death of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and DU-145 cell lines was determined using the LDH assay. The dose-response effect and the EC50 values of the active sub-fraction, SC/D-F9, were determined. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V antibody and propidium iodide staining and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, while caspase 3/7 activity was detected using FLICA caspase inhibitor and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. Results Selected sub-fractions of the dichloromethane extract induced death of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The sub-fraction SC/D-F9, consistently killed breast and prostate cancer cell lines with low EC50 values but is non-cytotoxic to the normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. SC/D-F9 displayed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to tamoxifen, paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin. Cell death induced by SC/D-F9 occurred via apoptosis with the involvement of caspase 3 and/or 7. Conclusions A dichloromethane sub-fraction of S. crispus displayed potent anticancer activities in vitro that can be further exploited for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

2010-01-01

141

Effect of m-3m3FBS on Ca2+ handling and viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells.  

PubMed

The effect of 2,4,6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), a presumed phospholipase C activator, on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in OC2 human oral cancer cells is unclear. This study explored whether m-3M3FBS changed basal [Ca2+]i levels in suspended OC2 cells by using fura-2 as a Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye. M-3M3FBS at concentrations between 10-60 ?M increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca2+ signal was reduced partly by removing extracellular Ca2+. M-3M3FBS-induced Ca2+ influx was inhibited by the store-operated Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine, econazole and SK&F96365, and by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor aristolochic acid. In Ca2+-free medium, 30 ?M m-3M3FBS pretreatment inhibited the [Ca2+]i rise induced by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitors thapsigargin and 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ). Conversely, pretreatment with thapsigargin, BHQ or cyclopiazonic acid partly reduced m-3M3FBS-induced [Ca2+]i rise. Inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation with U73122 did not alter m-3M3FBS-induced [Ca2+]i rise. At concentrations between 5 and 100 ?M m-3M3FBS killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of m-3M3FBS was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). Propidium iodide staining data suggest that m-3M3FBS (20 or 50 ?M) induced apoptosis in a Ca2+-independent manner. Collectively, in OC2 cells, m-3M3FBS induced [Ca2+]i rise by causing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-independent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ influx via phospholipase A2-sensitive store-operated Ca2+ channels. M-3M3FBS also induced Ca2+-independent cell death and apoptosis. PMID:22425810

Chi, Chao-Chuan; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Tseng, Li-Ling; Su, Hsing-Hao; Chu, Sau-Tung; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

2012-03-01

142

Rapid detection of viable salmonellae in produce by coupling propidium monoazide with loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks linked to Salmonella-contaminated produce heightened the need to develop simple, rapid, and accurate detection methods, particularly those capable of determining cell viability. In this study, we examined a novel strategy for the rapid detection and quantification of viable salmonellae in produce by coupling a simple propidium monoazide sample treatment with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PMA-LAMP). We first designed and optimized a LAMP assay targeting Salmonella. Second, the performance of PMA-LAMP for detecting and quantifying viable salmonellae was determined. Finally, the assay was evaluated in experimentally contaminated produce items (cantaloupe, spinach, and tomato). Under the optimized condition, PMA-LAMP consistently gave negative results for heat-killed Salmonella cells with concentrations up to 10(8) CFU/ml (or CFU/g in produce). The detection limits of PMA-LAMP were 3.4 to 34 viable Salmonella cells in pure culture and 6.1 × 10(3) to 6.1 × 10(4) CFU/g in spiked produce samples. In comparison, PMA-PCR was up to 100-fold less sensitive. The correlation between LAMP time threshold (T(T)) values and viable Salmonella cell numbers was high (R(2) = 0.949 to 0.993), with a quantification range (10(2) to 10(5) CFU/reaction in pure culture and 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g in produce) comparable to that of PMA in combination with quantitative real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR). The complete PMA-LAMP assay took about 3 h to complete when testing produce samples. In conclusion, this rapid, accurate, and simple method to detect and quantify viable Salmonella cells in produce may present a useful tool for the produce industry to better control potential microbial hazards in produce. PMID:21498750

Chen, Siyi; Wang, Fei; Beaulieu, John C; Stein, Rebecca E; Ge, Beilei

2011-04-15

143

Seasonal changes in fluorescence intensity of kiwifruit nuclei stained with propidium iodide and measured by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclei were extracted from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) axillary buds and shoot apices at intervals during two growing seasons. Nuclei from fruit tissues were also examined. Extracted nuclei were stained with propidium iodide, which intercalates into double stranded nucleic acids, and the intensity of the staining reaction (fluorescence channel number) was measured by flow cytometry.Fluorescence intensity (mean channel number) of 2C

M. E. Hopping

1994-01-01

144

Sugar Pucker Geometries at the Intercalation Site of Propidium Diiodide into Miniature RNA and DNA Duplexes in Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the sugar pucker geometry at the intercalation site of propidium diiodide into the self-complementary dinucleoside monophosphate duplexes cytidylylguanosine and deoxycytidylyldeoxyguanosine as a function of the nucleotide\\/drug ratio in aqueous solution. Our solution results support the observation by Sobell and coworkers [Sobell, H. M., Tsai, C. C., Jain, S. C. & Gilbert, S. G. (1977) J. Mol. Biol.

Dinshaw J. Patel; Cynthia Shen

1978-01-01

145

Monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by propidium monoazide quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods  

EPA Science Inventory

Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture independent methods: (1) LIVE/DEAD® BacLight? (LD) and (2) propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were f...

146

Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods?  

PubMed Central

Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure-culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture-independent methods, namely, Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were first verified with mixtures of heat-killed (nonviable) and non-heat-killed (viable) cells before a series of batch disinfection experiments with stationary-phase cultures (batch grown for 7 days) at pH 8.0, 25°C, and 5, 10, and 20 mg Cl2/liter monochloramine. Two data sets were generated based on the viability method used, either (i) LD or (ii) PMA-qPCR. These two data sets were used to estimate kinetic parameters for the delayed Chick-Watson disinfection model through a Bayesian analysis implemented in WinBUGS. This analysis provided parameter estimates of 490 mg Cl2-min/liter for the lag coefficient (b) and 1.6 × 10?3 to 4.0 × 10?3 liter/mg Cl2-min for the Chick-Watson disinfection rate constant (k). While estimates of b were similar for both data sets, the LD data set resulted in a greater k estimate than that obtained with the PMA-qPCR data set, implying that the PMA-qPCR viability measure was more conservative than LD. For N. europaea, the lag phase was not previously reported for culture-independent methods and may have implications for nitrification in drinking water distribution systems. This is the first published application of a PMA-qPCR method for disinfection kinetic model parameter estimation as well as its application to N. europaea or monochloramine. Ultimately, this PMA-qPCR method will allow evaluation of monochloramine disinfection kinetics for mixed-culture bacteria in drinking water distribution systems.

Wahman, David G.; Wulfeck-Kleier, Karen A.; Pressman, Jonathan G.

2009-01-01

147

Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.

2012-01-01

148

Assessment of islet cell viability using fluorescent dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A rapid fluorometric method has been developed to evaluate the viability of isolated islet cells. The assay differentiates between viable and nonviable cells by the simultaneous use of the inclusion and exclusion dyes acridine orange and propidium iodide. When viewed by fluorescent microscopy, viable cells fluoresce green, while nonviable cells fluoresce bright red. Although the acridine orange and propidium iodide

H. L. Bank

1987-01-01

149

Quantitative real-time PCR combined with propidium monoazide for the selective quantification of viable periodontal pathogens in an in vitro subgingival biofilm model.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Differentiation of live and dead cells is an important challenge when using molecular diagnosis for microbial identification. This is particularly relevant when bacteria have been exposed to antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to test a method using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA), developed for the selective quantification of viable P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and total bacteria in an in vitro biofilm model after antimicrobial treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PMA-qPCR method was tested in an in vitro biofilm model, using isopropyl alcohol as the antimicrobial agent. Matured biofilms were exposed for 1, 5, 10 and 30 min to isopropyl alcohol by immersion. Biofilms were disrupted and PMA added (final concentration of 100 ?m). After DNA isolation, qPCR was carried out using specific primers and probes for the target bacteria. The differentiation of live and dead cells was tested by analysis of variance. RESULTS: When PMA was used in the presence of viable target bacterial cells, no statistically significant inhibition of qPCR amplification was detected (p > 0.05 in all cases). Conversely, after immersion in isopropyl alcohol of the biofilm, PMA resulted in a significant total reduction of qPCR amplification of about 4 log10 . P. gingivalis showed a vitality reduction in the biofilm of 3 log10 , while A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum showed a 2 log10 reduction. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the efficiency of PMA for differentiating viable and dead P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum cells, as well as total bacteria, in an in vitro biofilm model, after being exposed to an antimicrobial agent. Hence, this PMA-qPCR method may be useful for studying the effect of antimicrobial agents aimed at oral biofilms. PMID:23581569

Sánchez, M C; Marín, M J; Figuero, E; Llama-Palacios, A; León, R; Blanc, V; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

2013-04-15

150

Absorption method for rapid decontamination of solutions of ethidium bromide and propidium iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activated charcoal filter has been used to remove ethidium bromide (EB) in water, various buffers, CsCl solutions and ethanol. In all cases studied, ethidium bromide was undetectable in the eluted liquid (contamination less than 0,5 ?g\\/ml in a fluorescence detection assay performed in the presence of 10 ?g\\/ml HeLa cell DNA). Since EB can be destroyed by heating at

F. D. Menozzi; A. Michel; H. Pora; A. O. A. Miller

1990-01-01

151

Evaluation of propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment directly on membrane filter for the enumeration of viable but non cultivable Legionella by qPCR.  

PubMed

A PMA (propidium monoazide) pretreatment protocol, in which PMA is applied directly to membrane filters, was developed for the PCR-based quantification (PMA-qPCR) of viable Legionella pneumophila. Using this method, the amplification of DNA from membrane-damaged L. pneumophila was strongly inhibited for samples containing a small number of dead bacteria. PMID:22212760

Slimani, Sami; Robyns, Audrey; Jarraud, Sophie; Molmeret, Maëlle; Dusserre, Eric; Mazure, Céline; Facon, Jean Pierre; Lina, Gérard; Etienne, Jerome; Ginevra, Christophe

2011-12-22

152

Toxicity ranking of heavy metals with screening method using adult Caenorhabditis elegans and propidium iodide replicates toxicity ranking in rat.  

PubMed

The utility of any model system for toxicity screening depends on the level of correlation between test responses and toxic reactions in humans. Assays in Caenorhabditis elegans can be fast and inexpensive, however few studies have been done comparing toxic responses in this easily cultured nematode with data on mammalian toxicity. Here we report that a screening assay for acute toxicity, using adult C. elegans grown in axenic liquid culture, replicated LD50 toxicity ranking in rat for five metals. This assay utilized the COPAS Biosort and propidium iodide (PI) as a fluorescent indicator of morbidity and mortality after 30-h exposures. We found that chronic toxicity assays of 2-week treatment duration, followed by analysis of PI induced red fluorescence levels, produced less consistent results than the acute assays. However, other chronic toxicity endpoints were compound and concentration specific, including changes in vulval and gonadal morphology, intestinal thickness and integrity, and the presence of retained internal eggs in post-reproductive animals. Some of these endpoints reflect similar findings in mammals, indicating that measurements of morbidity and mortality in conjunction with morphology analyses in C. elegans may have the potential to predict mammalian toxic responses. PMID:22771366

Hunt, Piper Reid; Olejnik, Nicholas; Sprando, Robert L

2012-07-04

153

Abnormal flow cytometry profiles in patients with interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry was performed on bladder cells from patients with interstitial cystitis and control patients. Cells were processed in standard fashion for flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining and analysis was restricted to samples with sufficient cells for cytokeratin gating and acceptable coefficients of variation. Of 14 interstitial cystitis patients 4 (29%) demonstrated aneuploid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles as evidenced by a discrete peak with a DNA index of 1.2 or greater in the cytokeratin positive population. The aneuploid peak accounted for up to 54% of the cytokeratin positive population in these samples. No such aneuploid DNA profiles were evident in specimens obtained from control patients. A significant DNA tetraploid population, as evidenced by a 4C (G2) peak greater than 20%, was observed in 6 of 14 interstitial cystitis patients (43%) and 8 of 11 controls (72%). Manual counting of the per cent of binucleated cytokeratin positive cells in the cytokeratin stained population and nuclear preparations of several samples for flow analysis indicate that apparent DNA tetraploidy in the interstitial cystitis and control patients is due to an abundance of binucleated cells. Aneuploid DNA profiles on barbotage specimens from interstitial cystitis patients may reflect a real karyotypic abnormality or altered chromosome complement (true aneuploidy), abnormal chromatin structure or abnormal cytoplasmic binding of the propidium iodide stain. This finding may signal an underlying abnormality of the epithelial cell population in some patients with the clinical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis. PMID:7525999

Bushman, W; Goolsby, C; Grayhack, J T; Schaeffer, A J

1994-12-01

154

Effect of short- and long-term antibiotic exposure on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as measured by propidium monoazide F57 real time quantitative PCR and culture.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, has a lipid-rich cell wall which facilitates its survival and persistence in the environment. This property of the organism is exploited when it is cultured as decontaminating agents and antibiotics are used to suppress the growth of contaminating microflora, but such treatments can also negatively affect the isolation of MAP itself. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the 'VAN' antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B and nalidixic acid) on the viability of MAP using a propidium monoazide real time quantitative PCR (PMA qPCR) and culture. Long-term (5 week) treatment with VAN antibiotics resulted in a larger decrease in bacterial numbers compared to short-term (3 day) exposure. The PMA qPCR assay indicated that 50 ?g/mL of vancomycin, 50 ?g/mL of nalidixic acid, and 200 ?g/mL of amphotericin B were 'threshold' concentrations, respectively, above which the decline in the viability of MAP was statistically significant. Using culture, these threshold concentrations were 100 ?g/mL of vancomycin, 50-100 ?g/mL of nalidixic acid, and 100 ?g/mL of amphotericin B, respectively. Given that the two methods were found to be comparable, the PMA qPCR is a potentially more convenient and effective alternative to culture in detecting MAP. PMID:22704136

Pribylova, Radka; Kubickova, Lucie; Babak, Vladimir; Pavlik, Ivo; Kralik, Petr

2012-06-14

155

Caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK inhibits keratocyte apoptosis, but promotes keratocyte necrosis, after corneal epithelial scrape.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK could be applied topically prior to epithelial scrape injury to inhibit keratocyte apoptosis. Rabbit corneas were treated with z-VAD-FMK or vehicle alone prior to epithelial scrape injury. Cell fate was analysed at 4 hr after epithelial scrape using quantitative TUNEL assay, propidium iodide staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Less stained anterior stromal keratocytes were detected with the quantitative TUNEL assay in corneas pre-treated with z-VAD-FMK than in corneas pretreated with vehicle at 4 hr after epithelial scrape. This difference appeared to be confirmed by propidium iodide staining of keratocyte nuclei. It was observed that fewer nuclei were stained with propidium iodide in the DMSO vehicle treated corneas compared to the z-VAD-FMK treated corneas. Analysis of corneas with transmission electron microscopy, however, indicated that many anterior stromal keratocytes in corneas pretreated with z-VAD-FMK, but not vehicle, had cell morphologic changes more consistent with necrosis. Although pretreatment of corneas with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK inhibited keratocyte apoptosis detected with the TUNEL assay, transmission electron microscopy revealed that many anterior stromal keratocytes in z-VAD-FMK-treated corneas instead died by necrosis. Thus, z-VAD-FMK is unlikely to be useful to modulate corneal would healing through inhibition of keratocyte apoptosis induced by epithelial injury. The TUNEL assay should not be used to monitor cell fate without confirmation using analyses that also detect necrosis. PMID:10973731

Kim, W J; Mohan, R R; Mohan, R R; Wilson, S E

2000-09-01

156

Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

157

Magnetic nano-beads based separation combined with propidium monoazide treatment and multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of viable Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in food products.  

PubMed

We developed a rapid and reliable technique for simultaneous detection of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes that can be used in food products. Magnetic nano-beads (MNBs) based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used to separate the target bacterial cells while multiplex PCR (mPCR) was used to amplify the target genes. To detect only the viable bacteria, propidium monoazide (PMA) was applied to selectively suppress the DNA detection from dead cells. The results showed the detection limit of IMS-PMA-mPCR assay was about 10(2) CFU/ml (1.2 × 10(2) CFU/ml for S. Typhimurium, 4.0 × 10(2) CFU/ml for E. coli O157:H7 and 5.4 × 10(2) CFU/ml for L. monocytogenes) in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g (5.1 × 10(3) CFU/g for S. Typhimurium, 7.5 × 10(3) CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and 8.4 × 10(3) CFU/g for L. monocytogenes) in spiking food products samples (lettuce, tomato and ground beef). This report has demonstrated for the first time, the effective use of rapid and reliable IMS combined with PMA treatment and mPCR assay for simultaneous detection of viable S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes in spiked food samples. It is anticipated that the present approach will be applicable to simultaneous detection of the three target microorganisms for practical use. PMID:23541211

Yang, Youjun; Xu, Feng; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Niu, Ruijiang; Yuan, Yong; Sun, Jichang; You, Xingyong; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wan, Cuixiang; Wei, Hua

2013-01-18

158

Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 °C or held at 5 °C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 ?m pore size) were placed on “welled” slides (14 mm diameter)

Stephen Vesper; Craig A. McKinstry; Chris Hartmann; Michelle Neace; Stephanie Yoder; Alex Vesper

2008-01-01

159

Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples  

EPA Science Inventory

Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-...

160

Discrimination of viable from non-viable gram-negative bacterial pathogens in airborne particles using propidium monoazide-assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

The presence of bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) has been of considerable concern from the public health standpoint. Conventional culture-based methods are tedious, time consuming and are unable to quantify stressed viable but non-culturable (VBNC) populations of these pathogens. This study reports the optimization, validation and application of a new and rapid quantitative method for enumeration of four live potential Gram-negative bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila) in PM of biomass burning origin. This method makes use of an intercalating dye (propidium monoazide, PMA) in conjunction with real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis following DNA extraction from PM samples for distinguishing viable from non-viable potential bacterial pathogens. This method was not affected by the complex matrix of the environmental samples, nor by any PCR inhibition effects. The number of viable pathogens ranged from 0 to 8×10(4) gene copies/m(3) in PM. With the exception of A. hydrophilia, all the three pathogens were found to be present in PM. The correlation between the counts obtained using the PMA-qPCR (modified qPCR) and those from the culture-based method was very high with R(2)~1.0 and p value<0.0001. PMID:23428754

Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2013-02-19

161

Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples. [Cell flow systems  

SciTech Connect

A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples has been developed by modification of the propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate procedure. Cell staining involves sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifugation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients showed mixed normal and aneuploid populations with a major portion of the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle analysis of normal and the aneuploid populations.

Crissman, H.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM); Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

1981-01-01

162

Roles of BN52021 in platelet-activating factor pathway in inflammatory MS1 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the effects of BN52021 on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signaling molecules under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions in MS1 cells. METHODS: MS1 cells (a mouse pancreatic islet endothelial cell line) were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mmol/L glutamine and 100 ?g/mL penicillin/streptomycin in 5% CO2 at 37?°C. After growth to confluency in media, the cells were processed for subsequent studies. The MS1 cells received 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 ?g/mL LPS in this experiment. The viability/proliferation of the cells induced by LPS was observed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Apoptosis and necrosis of the cells under the inflammatory condition described previously were observed using Hoechst 33342-propidium iodide staining. Adenylate cyclase (AC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C? (PLC?), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) mRNA in the PAFR signaling pathway were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression level of phosphorylated AC (p-AC), phosphorylated PLA2 (p-PLA2), phosphorylated PTK (p-PTK), phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), PLC? and GRK was measured using Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: The activity of MS1 cells incubated with different concentrations of LPS for 6 h decreased significantly in the 1 ?g/mL LPS group (0.49 ± 0.10 vs 0.67 ± 0.13, P < 0.05) and 10 ?g/mL LPS group (0.44 ± 0.10 vs 0.67 ± 0.13, P < 0.001), but not in 0.1 ?g/mL group. When the incubation time was extended to 12 h (0.33 ± 0.05, 0.32 ± 0.03 and 0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.69 ± 0.01) and 24 h (0.31 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.03 and 0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.63 ± 0.01), MS1 cell activity decreased in all LPS concentration groups compared with the blank control (P < 0.001). BN52021 significantly improved the cell activity when its concentration reached 50 ?mol/L compared with the group that received LPS treatment alone, which was consistent with the results obtained from fluorescence staining. The mRNAs levels of AC (4.02 ± 0.14 vs 1.00 ± 0.13), GRK (2.63 ± 0.03 vs 1.00 ± 0.12), p38 MAPK (3.87 ± 0.07 vs 1.00 ± 0.17), PLA2 (3.31 ± 0.12 vs 1.00 ± 0.12), PLC? (2.09 ± 0.08 vs 1.00 ± 0.06) and PTK (1.85 ± 0.07 vs 1.00 ± 0.11) were up-regulated after LPS stimulation as compared with the blank control (P < 0.05). The up-regulated mRNAs including AC (2.35 ± 0.13 vs 3.87 ± 0.08), GRK (1.17 ± 0.14 vs 2.65 ± 0.12), p38 MAPK (1.48 ± 0.18 vs 4.30 ± 0.07), PLC? (1.69 ± 0.10 vs 2.41 ± 0.13) and PLA2 (1.87 ± 0.11 vs 2.96 ± 0.08) were significantly suppressed by BN52021 except for that of PTK. The level of p-AC (1.11 ± 0.12 vs 0.65 ± 0.08), GRK (0.83 ± 0.07 vs 0.50 ± 0.03), PLC? (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 0.50 ± 0.10) and p-p38 MAPK (0.74 ± 0.10 vs 0.38 ± 0.05) was up-regulated after LPS stimulation as compared with the blank control (P < 0.05). The up-regulated proteins, including p-AC (0.65 ± 0.15 vs 1.06 ± 0.14), GRK (0.47 ± 0.10 vs 0.80 ± 0.06), PLC? (0.47 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.19) and p-p38 MAPK (0.30 ± 0.10 vs 0.97 ± 0.05), was significantly suppressed by BN52021, but p-PLA2 and p-PTK protein level were not suppressed. CONCLUSION: BN52021 could effectively inhibit LPS-induced inflammation by down-regulating the mRNA and protein levels of AC, GRK, p38 MAPK, PLA2 and PLC? in the PAFR signaling pathway.

Xia, Shi-Hai; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Kai; Xu, Wei

2013-01-01

163

Flow cytometry for determination of the efficacy of contact lens disinfecting solutions against Acanthamoeba spp.  

PubMed

Flow cytometric analyses of cellular staining with fluorescent viability dyes and direct microscopic observations of methylene blue exclusion were compared for evaluation of the effects of a chlorhexidine gluconate-based contact lens disinfectant solution and a polyhexamethylene biguanide solution against cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The flow cytometric procedure with propidium iodide (used to stain dead cells) indicated that more than 90% of trophozoites of both species (inocula of 10(5) to 10(6)/ml) at 22 degrees C lost their viability after 4 h of exposure to chlorhexidine. When propidium iodide was used in combination with fluorescein diacetate (for live cells), the apparent number of propidium iodide-stained cells was reduced, but the relative efficacies of the two biguanide solutions appeared unchanged from those evident with the single dyes; the chlorhexidine solution was more effective than the polyhexamethylene biguanide solution. Similar data were obtained with the more cumbersome methylene blue exclusion procedure. Flow cytometric analyses provided a statistically reproducible and rapid procedure for determining the relative antiamoebal efficacies of the disinfecting solutions. PMID:10698771

Borazjani, R N; May, L L; Noble, J A; Avery, S V; Ahearn, D G

2000-03-01

164

Femtosecond laser disruption of subcellular organelles in a living cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subcellular organelles in living cells were inactivated by tightly focusing femtosecond laser pulses inside the cells. Photodisruption of a mitochondrion in living cells was experimentally confirmed by stacking three-dimensional confocal images and by restaining of organelles. The viability of the cells after femtosecond laser irradiation was ascertained by impermeability of propidium iodide as well as by the presence of cytoplasmic streaming.

Watanabe, Wataru; Arakawa, Naomi; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Fukui, Kiichi; Isobe, Keisuke; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2004-09-01

165

Host Cell Death due to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Has Features of Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a cause of prolonged watery diarrhea in children in developing countries. The ability of EPEC to kill host cells was investigated in vitro in assays using two human cultured cell lines, HeLa (cervical) and T84 (colonic). EPEC killed epithelial cells as assessed by permeability to the vital dyes trypan blue and propidium iodide. In addition,

JOHN K. CRANE; SWASTIKA MAJUMDAR; DONALD F. PICKHARDT

1999-01-01

166

Rapid intracellular acidification and cell death by H 2O 2 and alloxan in pancreatic ? cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic ?-cell death induced by oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. We studied the relation between rapid intracellular acidification and cell death of pancreatic ?-cell line NIT-1 cells exposed to H2O2 or alloxan. Intracellular pH was measured by a pH-sensitive dye, and cell damage by double staining with Annexin-V and propidium iodide using flow

Udai Nakamura; Masanori Iwase; Yuji Uchizono; Kazuo Sonoki; Nobuhiro Sasaki; Hirofumi Imoto; Daisuke Goto; Mitsuo Iida

2006-01-01

167

The application of image cytometry to viability assessment in dual fluorescence-stained fish spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The viability of spermatozoa has been assessed using SYBR 14 staining for DNA of living cells and propidium iodide staining for DNA of degenerate cells. This dual staining was performed on four fish species (Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; tench, Tinca tinca and wels, Silurus glanis) and the proportions of live and dead spermatozoa were assessed by epifluorescence microscopy and image cytometry. Ten phase contrast and epifluorescent images were recorded per sample, corresponding images were overlaid, and the blended images were evaluated for live and dead spermatozoa, represented by green and red fluorescence signals. Live/dead proportions were assessed, after dual thresholding, by imaging software that counted absolute numbers of objects and computed their frequencies. All sperm heads were found to be labelled, emitting either green or red light. Mean numbers of spermatozoa per image were in the ranges 32-113, 61-105, 48-104 and 29-91 for Siberian sturgeon, common carp, tench and wels, respectively. The corresponding proportions of live spermatozoa were in the ranges 83.56-94.59%, 93.92-97.02%, 76.14-97.76% and 79.45-83.76%. Standard deviations did not exceed 5% of the means. The image cytometric system using dual staining with SYBR 14 and propidium iodide was clearly suitable for assessing the viability of freshwater fish spermatozoa. PMID:15566965

Flajshans, Martin; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

2004-01-01

168

In vitro anticancer activity of stachydrine isolated from Capparis decidua on prostate cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we report our work on the isolation, characterisation and evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of stachydrine on solid tumour cells. The in vitro activity was assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, an attempt was also made to check the effect of stachydrine on the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by inhibiting the

Permender Rathee; Dharmender Rathee; Deepti Rathee; Sushila Rathee

2011-01-01

169

In vitro anticancer activity of stachydrine isolated from Capparis decidua on prostate cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we report our work on the isolation, characterisation and evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of stachydrine on solid tumour cells. The in vitro activity was assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, an attempt was also made to check the effect of stachydrine on the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by inhibiting the

Permender Rathee; Dharmender Rathee; Deepti Rathee; Sushila Rathee

2012-01-01

170

The effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine on cultured human periodontal ligament cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHx) on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro. Study Design: The effects of irrigation solutions on human PDL cells were evaluated by propidium iodide fluorescence cytotoxicity assay, protein synthesis assay, and mitochondrial activity. Results: Both NaOCl and CHx were cytotoxic to

Yu-Chao Chang; Fu-Mei Huang; Kuo-Wei Tai; Ming-Yung Chou

2001-01-01

171

Gold nanoparticle sensitize radiotherapy of prostate cancer cells by regulation of the cell cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNPs) have been used to improve cellular targeting and radio-sensitization. In this study, we explored the mechanism of Glu-GNP enhanced radiation sensitivity in radiation-resistant human prostate cancer cells. Cell survival and proliferation were measured using MTT and clonogenic assay. Flow cytometry with staining by propidium iodide (PI) was performed to study the cell cycle changes induced by

Wilson Roa; Xiaojing Zhang; Linghong Guo; Andrew Shaw; Xiuying Hu; Yeping Xiong; Sunil Gulavita; Samir Patel; Xuejun Sun; Jie Chen; Ronald Moore; James Z. Xing

2009-01-01

172

Src homology domain-containing phosphatase 2 suppresses cellular senescence in glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is frequently altered during glioblastoma de novo pathogenesis. An important downstream modulator of this signal cascade is SHP2 (Src homology domain-containing phosphatase 2). Methods: We examined the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database for SHP2 mutations. We also examined the expression of a further 191 phosphatases in the TCGA database and used principal component and comparative marker analysis available from the Broad Institute to recapitulate the TCGA-defined subgroups and identify the specific phosphatases defining each subgroup. We identified five siRNAs from two independent commercial sources that were reported by the vendor to be pre-optimised in their specificity of SHP2 silencing. The specificity and physiological effects of these siRNAs were tested using an in vitro glioma model. Results: TCGA data demonstrate SHP2 to be mutated in 2% of the glioblastoma multiforme's studied. Both mutations identified in this study are likely to be activating mutations. We found that the four subgroups of GBM as defined by TCGA differ significantly with regard to the expression level of specific phosphatases as revealed by comparative marker analysis. Surprisingly, the four subgroups can be defined solely on the basis of phosphatase expression level by principal component analysis. This result suggests that critical phosphatases are responsible for the modulation of specific molecular pathways within each subgroup. Src homology domain-containing phosphatase 2 constitutes one of the 12 phosphatases that define the classical subgroup. We confirmed the biological significance by siRNA knockdown of SHP2. All five siRNAs tested reduced SHP2 expression by 70–100% and reduced glioblastoma cell line growth by up to 80%. Profiling the established molecular targets of SHP2 (ERK1/2 and STAT3) confirmed specificity of these siRNAs. The loss of cell viability induced by SHP2 silencing could not be explained by a significant increase in apoptosis alone as demonstrated by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labelling and propidium iodide staining. Src homology domain-containing phosphatase 2 silencing, however, did induce an increase in ?-galactosidase staining. Propidium iodide staining also showed that SHP2 silencing increases the population of glioblastoma cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and reduces the population of such cells in the G2/M- and S-phase. Conclusion: Src homology domain-containing phosphatase 2 promotes the growth of glioblastoma cells by suppression of cellular senescence, a phenomenon not described previously. Selective inhibitors of SHP2 are commercially available and may be considered as a strategy for glioblastoma therapy.

Sturla, L-M; Zinn, P O; Ng, K; Nitta, M; Kozono, D; Chen, C C; Kasper, E M

2011-01-01

173

Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples.  

PubMed

Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate the applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR heat induced hsp70 mRNA in water samples spiked with oocysts. Changes in viability of flow cytometry sorted fresh and oocysts having undergone various aging periods (up to 48 months at 4 °C) were evaluated by Ct values obtained from the qPCR before and after disinfection scenarios involving ammonia or hydrogen peroxide. Both qPCR methods achieved stability in dose dependent responses by hydrogen peroxide treatment in distilled water that proved their suitability for the viability evaluations. Oocysts exposed to 3% hydrogen peroxide were inactivated at a rate of 0.26 h(-1) and 0.93 h(-1), as measured by the mRNA assay and the PMA-DNA assay, respectively. In contrast, the PMA-DNA assay was not as sensitive as the mRNA assay in detecting viability alterations followed by exposure to ammonia or after a long-term storage in 4 °C in distilled water since no dose response dependency was achieved. Surface water concentrates containing enhanced suspendable solids determined that changes in viability were frequently detected only by the mRNA method. Failure of, or inconsistency in the detection of oocysts viability with the PMA-DNA method, apparently resulted from solids that might have reduced light penetration through the samples, and thus inhibited the cross-linking step of PMA-DNA assay. PMID:22980572

Liang, Zhanbei; Keeley, Ann

2012-08-23

174

Immunologic and biochemical effects of the fermented wheat germ extract Avemar.  

PubMed

Avemar (MSC) is a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract demonstrated to have antitumor effects. Avemar has the potential to significantly improve the survival rate in patients suffering from malignant colon tumors. We studied its effects in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. Avemar had an inhibiting effect on colonies of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 118 microg/ml (7 days of incubation); this value could be decreased to 100 and 75 microg/ml in the presence of vitamin C. In the cell line examined, Avemar induced both necrosis and apoptosis, as demonstrated by Hoechst/propidium iodide staining. The incubation of cells with 3200 microg/ml Avemar for 24 hrs caused necrosis in 28% and the induction of apoptosis in 22% of the cells. Avemar inhibited the cell-cycle progression of HT-29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, Avemar inhibited the activity of the key enzyme of de novo DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, we determined the effects of Avemar on the activity of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. Both enzymes were significantly inhibited by Avemar with IC50 values of 100 and 300 microg/ml, respectively. We outline new explanations for its antitumor activity, which might serve as the basis for further studies using Avemar. PMID:15673563

Illmer, Christoph; Madlener, Sibylle; Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Saiko, Philipp; Losert, Annemarie; Herbacek, Irene; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas

2005-02-01

175

Rapamycin-induced cytotoxic signal transduction pathway.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of rapamycin on activation, proliferation, and expression of cytotoxic effector molecules in Molt-4 human T lymphocytes. We investigated the effects of rapamycin on cell viability, caspase family protein activities. Western blots of Bcl-2, Bak, p53, p21, p27, Rb, CDK2, and cyclin B1, as well as measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential transition. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of rapamycin. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using propidium iodide stain. Viability of Molt-4 cells was decreased by the addition of rapamycin in dose- and time-dependent manners. Rapamycin induced no nuclear fragmentation in Molt-4 cells. Generation of H2O2 in rapamycin-treated Molt-4 cells increased in a time-dependent manner. There were no changes among catalytic activities of caspase proteases. And there was no evidence of expression of Bcl-2, p53, p21, p27, or Rb proteins. G2/M phase cell cycle arrest was identified by flow cytometry. We noted decreased expressions of CDK2 and cyclin B1. We also noted increased Bak protein expression and change in mitochondrial membrane potential transition. In conclusion, rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity was characterized by generation of ROS, which modulated Bak protein expression and mitochondrial dysfunction. G2/M phase cell cycle arrest was achieved by decreased expressions of CDK2 and cyclin B1. PMID:18929849

Choi, S J N; You, H S; Chung, S Y

2008-10-01

176

Comparison of assessment of pigeon sperm viability by contrast-phase microscope (eosin-nigrosin staining) and flow cytometry (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) staining) [evaluation of pigeon sperm viability].  

PubMed

The aim of these experiments was to compare the conventional, microscopic method of evaluating pigeon sperm viability to sperm assessed by flow cytometry. Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons. In every group were 20 males (Group I: meat-type breed; Group II: fancy pigeon breed). Semen was collected using the lumbosacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected from each group were pooled and diluted to 10 × 10(6) sperm/ml in BPSE solution. Samples were divided into three equal parts and estimated after collection as well as after in vitro storage for 3, 6 and 24 h. The first part was using for semen motility evaluation. The proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) of fresh and stored semen were evaluated using the CASA-system. The second part was examined subjectively by microscope (eosin-nigrosin (EN), eosin-nigrosin staining), the third one was assessed using dual fluorescence SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry (FC). There were not any significant differences in sperm viability and motility between the groups at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h post collection. The percentage of viable spermatozoa in fresh semen determined by EN and FC was not different in Groups I and II (I - 88.71 ± 5.42 and 84.01 ± 3.19, respectively; II-90.87 ± 6.01 and 87.38 ± 5.57, respectively). Significantly lower percentages of viable spermatozoa were detected by FC compared to the EN method in both groups after 6 h (P ? 0.05) as well as 24 h (P ? 0.01) of storage. Moreover, the dual fluorescent SYBR-14/PI staining allowed for the identification a third population of double stained, moribund spermatozoa. High positive correlations in percentage of live spermatozoa were noted between EN and FC methods in both groups of birds. Evaluation of sperm viability by FC is a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and objective method for the assessment of pigeon sperm viability in fresh as well as stored semen. PMID:22056017

Klimowicz-Bodys, M D; Batkowski, F; Ochrem, A S; Savi?, M A

2011-11-04

177

Differential apoptosis markers in human keloids and hypertrophic scars fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Keloids are benign skin tumors and are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients. They are characterized by formation of excess scar tissue beyond the boundaries of the wound. Keloids are often confused with hypertrophic scars because of an apparent lack of morphologic differences. The molecular distinction between scars and keloid is still controversial and, until today, there is no appropriate treatment yet for keloid disease. In this study, we have found, for the first time, p53 mutations in both hypertrophic scar and keloids fibroblasts from cultured cells to various extents. Since p53 plays a central role in the DNA damage response by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptotic cell death, we also set up time course experiments making cell cultures at different times to investigate the phenomenon of apoptosis and its involvement in the process of pathological scarring in both hypertrophic scars and keloids. The extent of apoptosis in this study was investigated by DNA fragmentation and MTT assays, propidium iodide staining, p53 expression, and subcellular distribution. Moreover, the correlation of apoptosis and ROS levels in keloid and hypertrophic scars fibroblasts was assessed. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that determine the regulation of apoptosis during wound healing might allow us to therapeutically modulate these pathways so that apoptotic cell death is reactivated in dysregulated and hypertrophic cells. PMID:19224335

De Felice, Bruna; Garbi, Corrado; Santoriello, Margherita; Santillo, Alessandra; Wilson, Robert R

2009-02-18

178

Luciferase-based protein-denaturation assay for quantification of radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia: developing an intracellular thermometer  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have reported targeted hyperthermia at the cellular level using remote activation of nanoparticles by radiofrequency waves. To date, methods to quantify intracellular thermal dose have not been reported. In this report we study the relationship between radio wave exposure and luciferase denaturation with and without intracellular nanoparticles. The findings are used to devise a strategy to quantify targeted thermal dose in a primary human liver cancer cell line. Methods Water-bath or non-invasive external RF generator (600W, 13.56 MHz) was used for hyperthermia exposures. Luciferase activity was measured using a bioluminescence assay and viability was assessed using Annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide staining. Heat shock proteins were analyzed using western-blot analysis Results Duration-dependent luciferase denaturation was observed in SNU449 cells exposed to RF field that preceded measurable loss in viability. Loss of luciferase activity was higher in cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticle (C225-AuNP) treated cells. Using a standard curve from water-bath experiments, the intracellular thermal dose was calculated. Cells treated with C225-AuNP accumulated 6.07 times higher intracellular thermal dose than the untreated controls over initial 4 minutes of RF exposure. Conclusions Cancer cells when exposed to an external RF field exhibit dose-dependent protein denaturation. Luciferase denaturation assay can be used to quantify thermal dose delivered after RF exposures to cancer cells with and without nanoparticles.

Raoof, Mustafa; Zhu, Cihui; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Curley, Steven A.

2013-01-01

179

Selective and Asymmetric Molecular Transport Across Electroporated Cell Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of a divalent cation (Ca2+) and three DNA indicators [ethidium bromide (EB), propidium iodide (PI), and ethidium homodimer (EthD-1)] across electroporated membranes of several mammalian cell lines was found to be selective and asymmetrical. In low salt medium, Ca2+ and EB were preferentially transported across the anode-facing cell membrane while PI and EthD-1 predominately entered at the site facing

Ephrem Tekle; R. Dean Astumian; P. Boon Chock

1994-01-01

180

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with\\u000a intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when\\u000a the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem.\\u000a Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation

Jian-Fei Luo; Wei-Tie Lin; Yong Guo

2010-01-01

181

UVA Irradiation of Dysplastic Keratinocytes: Oxidative Damage versus Antioxidant Defense  

PubMed Central

UVA affects epidermal cell physiology in a complex manner, but the harmful effects have been studied mainly in terms of DNA damage, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. We investigated UVA effects on membrane integrity and antioxidant defense of dysplastic keratinocytes after one and two hours of irradiation, both immediately after exposure, and 24 h post-irradiation. To determine the UVA oxidative stress on cell membrane, lipid peroxidation was correlated with changes in fatty acid levels. Membrane permeability and integrity were assessed by propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. The effects on keratinocyte antioxidant protection were investigated in terms of catalase activity and expression. Lipid peroxidation increased in an exposure time-dependent manner. UVA exposure decreased the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which gradually returned to its initial value. Lactate dehydrogenase release showed a dramatic loss in membrane integrity after 2 h minimum of exposure. The cell ability to restore membrane permeability was noted at 24 h post-irradiation (for one hour exposure). Catalase activity decreased in an exposure time-dependent manner. UVA-irradiated dysplastic keratinocytes developed mechanisms leading to cell protection and survival, following a non-lethal exposure. The surviving cells gained an increased resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that their pre-malignant status harbors an abnormal ability to control their fate.

Nechifor, Marina T.; Niculite, Cristina M.; Urs, Andreea O.; Regalia, Teodor; Mocanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Alexandra; Manda, Gina; Dinu, Diana; Leabu, Mircea

2012-01-01

182

UVA Irradiation of Dysplastic Keratinocytes: Oxidative Damage versus Antioxidant Defense.  

PubMed

UVA affects epidermal cell physiology in a complex manner, but the harmful effects have been studied mainly in terms of DNA damage, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. We investigated UVA effects on membrane integrity and antioxidant defense of dysplastic keratinocytes after one and two hours of irradiation, both immediately after exposure, and 24 h post-irradiation. To determine the UVA oxidative stress on cell membrane, lipid peroxidation was correlated with changes in fatty acid levels. Membrane permeability and integrity were assessed by propidium iodide staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. The effects on keratinocyte antioxidant protection were investigated in terms of catalase activity and expression. Lipid peroxidation increased in an exposure time-dependent manner. UVA exposure decreased the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which gradually returned to its initial value. Lactate dehydrogenase release showed a dramatic loss in membrane integrity after 2 h minimum of exposure. The cell ability to restore membrane permeability was noted at 24 h post-irradiation (for one hour exposure). Catalase activity decreased in an exposure time-dependent manner. UVA-irradiated dysplastic keratinocytes developed mechanisms leading to cell protection and survival, following a non-lethal exposure. The surviving cells gained an increased resistance to apoptosis, suggesting that their pre-malignant status harbors an abnormal ability to control their fate. PMID:23222638

Nechifor, Marina T; Niculi?e, Cristina M; Urs, Andreea O; Regalia, Teodor; Mocanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Alexandra; Manda, Gina; Dinu, Diana; Leabu, Mircea

2012-12-06

183

DBS-relevant electric fields increase hydraulic conductivity of in vitro endothelial monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) achieves therapeutic outcome through generation of electric fields (EF) in the vicinity of energized electrodes. Targeted brain regions are highly vascularized, and it remains unknown if DBS electric fields modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, either through electroporation of individual endothelial cells or electro-permeation of barrier tight junctions. In our study, we calculated the intensities of EF generated around energized Medtronic 3387 and 3389 DBS leads by using a finite element model. Then we designed a novel stimulation system to study the effects of such fields with DBS-relevant waveforms and intensities on bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) monolayers, which were used as a basic analog for the blood-brain barrier endothelium. Following 5 min of stimulation, we observed a transient increase in endothelial hydraulic conductivity (Lp) that could be related to the disruption of the tight junctions (TJ) between cells, as suggested by zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein staining. This 'electro-permeation' occurred in the absence of cell death or single cell electroporation, as indicated by propidium iodide staining and cytosolic calcein uptake. Our in vitro results, using uniform fields and BAEC monolayers, thus suggest that electro-permeation of the BBB may occur at electric field intensities below those inducing electroporation and within intensities generated near DBS electrodes. Further studies are necessary to address potential BBB disruption during clinical studies, with safety and efficacy implications.

Lopez-Quintero, S. V.; Datta, A.; Amaya, R.; Elwassif, M.; Bikson, M.; Tarbell, J. M.

2010-02-01

184

[Analysis of tumor DNA by flow cytometry on prostate cyto-aspiration product. Value of routine cytologic evaluation].  

PubMed

In this prospective study, flow cytometry DNA profile of 169 stage D2 prostatic carcinomas were compared with conventional cytologic data. Two transrectal fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed in each patient. Aspirates were immediately fixed in 2% polyethylene glycol 1500* alcoholic solution (Merck). Suspensions were mixed and studied by a conventional cytologic technique (Papanicolaou) and by flow cytometry (propidium iodide stain on isolated nuclei). A highly significant correlation was found between the DNA profile and the cytologic grade (p less than 0.001). The DNA profile was bimodal in 14% (3/21) of aspirates containing benign or atypical cells, 18% (3/17) of grade I aspirates, 30% (13/43) of grade II aspirates and 71% (24/34) of grade III aspirates. Routine cytologic evaluation of cell suspensions evaluated by flow cytometry is important in clinical practice since both falsely unimodal and falsely bimodal profiles occur. Leukocytes or benign epithelial cells can interfere with the tumor cell population. In fine-needle aspirates, the broad range of non-malignant contaminating cells limits the value of immunocytochemistry and emphasizes the usefulness of routine conventional cytologic evaluation. PMID:2052420

Piaton, E; Bringuier, P P; Devonec, M; Seigneurin, D; Perrin, P

1991-03-01

185

Multicellular spheroid formation and evolutionary conserved behaviors of apple snail hemocytes in culture.  

PubMed

A hemocyte primary culture system for Pomacea canaliculata in a medium mimicking hemolymphatic plasma composition was developed. Hemocytes adhered and spread onto culture dish in the first few hours after seeding but later began forming aggregates. Time-lapse video microscopy showed the dynamics of the early aggregation, with cells both entering and leaving the aggregates. During this period phagocytosis occurs and was quantified. Later (>4 h), hemocytes formed large spheroidal aggregates that increased in size and also merged with adjacent spheroids (24-96 h). Large single spheroids and spheroid aggregates detach from the bottom surface and float freely in the medium. Correlative confocal, transmission electron and phase contrast microscopy showed a peculiar organization of the spheroids, with a compact core, an intermediate zone with large extracellular lacunae and an outer zone of flattened cells; also, numerous round cells emitting cytoplasmic extensions were seen attaching to the spheroids' smooth surface. Dual DAPI/propidium iodide staining revealed the coexistence of viable and non-viable cells within aggregates, in varying proportions. DNA concentration increased during the first 24 h of culture and stabilized afterward. BrdU incorporation also indicated proliferation. Spontaneous spheroid formation in culture bears interesting parallels with spheroidal hemocyte aggregates found in vivo in P. canaliculata, and also with spheroids formed by tumoral or non-tumoral mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:23246811

Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

2012-12-11

186

Differential roles of Yersinia outer protein P-mediated inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B in the induction of cell death in dendritic cells and macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia outer protein P (YopP) induces cell death in macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). In DC this YopP-dependent cell death coincides with the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. However, as shown by measurement of propidium iodide uptake via disrupted cellular membranes, the preincubation of DC with several NF-kB inhibitors prior to infection with Yersinia did not restore the

Irena Adkins; Sebastian Schulz; Stefan Borgmann; Ingo B. Autenrieth; Sabine Grobner

2008-01-01

187

Impact of lentiviral vector-mediated transduction on the tightness of a polarized model of airway epithelium and effect of cationic polymer polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Lentiviral (LV) vectors are promising agents for efficient and long-lasting gene transfer into the lung and for gene therapy of genetically determined pulmonary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, however, they have not been evaluated for cytotoxicity and impact on the tightness of the airway epithelium. In this study, we evaluated the transduction efficiency of a last-generation LV vector bearing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene as well as cytotoxicity and tight junction (TJ) integrity in a polarized model of airway epithelial cells. High multiplicities of infection (MOI) showed to be cytotoxic, as assessed by increase in propidium iodide staining and decrease in cell viability, and harmful for the epithelial tightness, as demonstrated by the decrease of transepithelial resistance (TER) and delocalization of occludin from the TJs. To increase LV efficiency at low LV:cell ratio, we employed noncovalent association with the polycation branched 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI). Transduction of cells with PEI/LV particles resulted in 2.5-3.6-fold increase of percentage of GFP-positive cells only at the highest PEI:LV ratios (1 x 10(7) PEI molecules/transducing units with 50 MOI LV) as compared to plain LV. At this dose PEI/LV transduction resulted in 6.5 +/- 2.4% of propidium iodide-positive cells. On the other hand, PEI/LV particles did not determine any alteration of TER and occludin localization. We conclude that PEI may be useful for improving the efficiency of gene transfer mediated by LV vectors in airway epithelial cells, in the absence of high acute cytotoxicity and alteration in epithelial tightness. PMID:20617131

Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante; Trotta, Teresa; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Conese, Massimo

2010-06-21

188

Design of novel analogue peptides with potent fungicidal but low hemolytic activity based on the cecropin A-melittin hybrid structure.  

PubMed

In order to design synthetic peptides with potent antifungal activity but low cytotoxic activity under physiological conditions, several analogues of the previously reported cecropin A (CA)-melittin (ME) hybrid peptide, CA(1-8)-ME(1-12), were synthesized. These analogues were designed by analysis of the alpha-helical wheel diagram of CA(1-8)-ME(1-12). Antifungal activities were measured by growth inhibition of the yeast Trichosporon beigelii and by hemolytic assay with human red blood cells, respectively. Substitution of Thr for Lys at position 18 and 19 of CA(1-8)-ME(1-12) caused a dramatic reduction in hemolytic activity. Two analogue peptides (analogue I and III) showed more potent antifungal and lower hemolytic activity than the original peptide. To study the antifungal mechanism of these peptides, fluorescence activated flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed with the most powerful antifungal analogue I peptide designed in the present study. As determined by propidium iodide staining, fungal cells treated with analogue I or melittin showed higher fluorescence intensity than those treated with the weak antifungal peptide, cecropin A. By confocal microscopy the analogue I was detected in the intracellular region as well as the in cell membrane. These facts suggested that the antifungal function of this novel peptide analogue acts by pore formation in the cell membrane. PMID:9352066

Lee, D G; Park, J H; Shin, S Y; Lee, S G; Lee, M K; Kim, K L; Hahm, K S

1997-10-01

189

Cytotoxicity of all-trans-retinal increases upon photodegradation.  

PubMed

All-trans-retinal (AtRal) can accumulate in the retina as a result of excessive exposure to light. The purpose of this study was to compare cytotoxicity of AtRal and photodegraded AtRal (dAtRal) on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells in dark and upon exposure to visible light. AtRal was degraded by exposure to visible light. Cytotoxicity was monitored by imaging of cell morphology, propidium iodide staining of cells with permeable plasma membrane and measurements of reductive activity of cells. Generation of singlet oxygen photosensitized by AtRal and dAtRal was monitored by time-resolved measurements of characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence. Photodegradation of AtRal resulted in a decrease in absorption of visible light and accumulation of the degradation products with absorption maximum at ?330 nm. Toxicity of dAtRal was concentration-dependent and was greater during irradiation with visible light than in dark. DAtRal was more cytotoxic than AtRal both in dark and during exposure to visible light. Photochemical properties of dAtRal indicate that it may be responsible for the maximum in the action spectra of retinal photodamage recorded in animals. In conclusion, photodegradation products of AtRal may impose a significant threat to the retina and therefore their roles in retinal pathology need to be explored. PMID:22515697

Ró?anowska, Ma?gorzata; Handzel, Kinga; Boulton, Michael E; Ró?anowski, Bartosz

2012-06-01

190

Cytotoxicity of All-Trans-Retinal Increases Upon Photodegradation†  

PubMed Central

All-trans-retinal (AtRal) can accumulate in the retina as a result of excessive exposure to light. The purpose of this study was to compare cytotoxicity of AtRal and photodegraded AtRal (dAtRal) on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells in dark and upon exposure to visible light. AtRal was degraded by exposure to visible light. Cytotoxicity was monitored by imaging of cell morphology, propidium iodide staining of cells with permeable plasma membrane and measurements of reductive activity of cells. Generation of singlet oxygen photosensitized by AtRal and dAtRal was monitored by time-resolved measurements of characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence. Photodegradation of AtRal resulted in a decrease in absorption of visible light and accumulation of the degradation products with absorption maximum at ~330 nm. Toxicity of dAtRal was concentration-dependent and was greater during irradiation with visible light than in dark. DAtRal was more cytotoxic than AtRal both in dark and during exposure to visible light. Photochemical properties of dAtRal indicate that it may be responsible for the maximum in the action spectra of retinal photodamage recorded in animals. In conclusion, photodegradation products of AtRal may impose a significant threat to the retina and therefore their roles in retinal pathology need to be explored.

Rozanowska, Malgorzata; Handzel, Kinga; Boulton, Michael E.; Rozanowski, Bartosz

2013-01-01

191

Anti-inflammatory treatment in oxygen–glucose-deprived hippocampal slice cultures is neuroprotective and associated with reduced cell proliferation and intact neurogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased neurogenesis in response to brain injury is considered a mechanism of regeneration after neuronal loss. Using organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHC), we investigated the interplay between neuronal damage (propidium iodide uptake), microglia activation (OX-42 immunohistochemistry), cell proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), and neurogenesis (double labeling of bromodeoxyuridine with doublecortin or ?-III tubulin) after oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed that microglia activation and

Olga Chechneva; Klaus Dinkel; Fabio Cavaliere; Monica Martinez-Sanchez; Klaus G. Reymann

2006-01-01

192

Effects of gambogic acid on the regulation of nucleoporin Nup88 in U937 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to investigate the anti-leukemia effects of gambogic acid (GA) and its relation to the regulation of nucleoporin\\u000a Nup88 in U937 cells in vitro, the inhibitory effect of GA on the growth of U937 cells was examined by using MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin-V\\u000a FITC\\/PI double-labeled cytometry. Cell cycle regulation was studied by propidium iodide method. Both

Wenxiu Shu; Yan Chen; Jing He; Guohui Cui

2007-01-01

193

Isolation of a Glucosamine Binding Leguminous Lectin with Mitogenic Activity towards Splenocytes and Anti-Proliferative Activity towards Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “brown kidney bean.” The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20°C–60°C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65°C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0–2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13–14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-? and IFN-?. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC50 of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response.

Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2012-01-01

194

VEGF depletion enhances bcr-abl-specific sensitivity of arsenic trioxide in chronic myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

The development of resistance to imatinib mesylate may partly depend on high bcr-abl expression levels or point mutation(s). Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has bcr-abl suppressing activity in vitro, without cross-resistance to imatinib. Meanwhile, bcr-abl also induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor-related angiogenesis and is involved in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) pathogenesis. Here, we investigated ways to improve ATO activity in CML by modulating cellular VEGF levels. K562 and primary CML cells were transfected with a VEGF antisense sequence. Cell viability and survival were assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue exclusion assays. Apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry following annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The results showed that VEGF depletion effectively promotes enhanced ATO antileukemic activity by repressing bcr-abl protein levels. These data provide a rationale for the clinical development of optimized ATO-based regimens that incorporate VEGF modulator for CML treatment. PMID:24129092

Luo, Xiaochuang; Feng, Maoxiao; Zhu, Xuejiao; Li, Yumin; Fei, Jia; Zhang, Yuan

2013-11-01

195

Arginine increases genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that is produced in cells from L-arginine. NO is involved in the physiological control of different tissues, but it can act as a toxic mediator in the cells. In this study we investigated the effect of L-arginine on the genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in human lymphocytes. Blood was treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase for finding out the role of NO in this effect. Human whole blood was treated with L-arginine (50, 100 and 250 ?M) and/or L-NAME, then it was treated in vitro with MMS after 24 h of culture. The lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin to find out the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. DNA fragmentation of lymphocytes was detected by using a fluorescence microscope after propidium iodide staining. These data showed that arginine increased the frequency of MMS-induced micronuclei in lymphocytes. However, the genotoxicity was decreased by using L-NAME. Arginine and L-NAME have not shown any DNA damage in cultured human lymphocytes. In conclusion, addition of L-arginine to MMS as an alkylating agent caused an increase of DNA damage in human lymphocytes. This enhancement of genotoxicity was reduced by NAME as NO inhibitor. It is thus cleared that an increase of DNA damage by arginine and MMS is related to NO production. PMID:22907509

Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Mahmoudzadeh, Aziz; Rafiei, Alireza

2012-08-21

196

NF-?B inhibition compromises cardiac fibroblast viability under hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Cardiac fibroblasts are reported to be relatively resistant to stress stimuli compared to cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts of non-cardiac origin. However, the mechanisms that facilitate their survival under conditions of stress remain unclear. We explored the possibility that NF-?B protects cardiac fibroblasts from hypoxia-induced cell death. Further, we examined the expression of the anti- apoptotic cIAP-2 and Bcl-2 in hypoxic cardiac fibroblasts, and their possible regulation by NF-?B. Phase contrast microscopy and propidium iodide staining revealed that cardiac fibroblasts are more resistant than pulmonary fibroblasts to hypoxia. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay showed that hypoxia activates NF-?B in cardiac fibroblasts. Supershift assayindicated that the active NF-?B complex is a p65/p50 heterodimer. An I-?B-super-repressor was constructed that prevented NF-?B activation and compromised cell viability under hypoxic but not normoxic conditions. Similar results were obtained with Bay 11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-?B. Western blot analysis showed constitutive levels of Bcl-2 and hypoxic induction of cIAP-2 in these cells. NF-?B inhibition reduced cIAP-2 but not Bcl-2 levels in hypoxic cardiac fibroblasts. The results show for the first time that NF-?B is an important effector of survival in cardiac fibroblasts under hypoxic stress and that regulation of cIAP-2 expression may contribute to its pro-survival role.

Sangeetha, M; Pillai, Malini S; Philip, Linda; Lakatta, Edward G; Shivakumar, K

2011-01-01

197

Assessment of the adverse effects of the acaricide amitraz: in vitro evaluation of genotoxicity.  

PubMed

Amitraz is a formamidine widely used in Veterinary Medicine for the treatment of ectoparasites. It is a highly liposoluble compound that is quickly absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes, thus making exposure potentially dangerous for humans and animals. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxic potential of the active constituent of the insecticide amitraz and a commercial product containing amitraz in vitro in hamster cells. The induction of primary DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and the apoptotic ability was examined by the Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assay. The commercial formulation significantly increased the index of DNA damage at concentrations of 2.50-3.75 µg/mL compared to the control. The active constituent only induced significant DNA damage with the highest concentration (3.75 µg/mL). Although both tested products increased the frequency of cell death, neither of them induced significant differences. Genotoxic potential is a primary risk factor for long-term effects such as carcinogenic and reproductive toxicology. Results presented here highlight the need for further investigation of the potential health risk of this veterinary medicine. PMID:22394339

Padula, Gisel; Ponzinibbio, María Virginia; Picco, Sebastián; Seoane, Analía

2012-10-03

198

Oleuropein reduces free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis via lowered extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Oleuropein, a bitter glucoside found in green olive leaves, and its metabolite hydroxytyrosol display powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we hypothesized that the antioxidant activity of oleuropein could attenuate hepatic steatosis. To test this hypothesis, we established steatotic hepatocytes using HepG2 and FL83B cells treated with free fatty acids (FFAs) (oleate:palmitate, 2:1). To confirm hepatic steatosis, the intracellular lipid levels were quantitatively measured by Nile Red staining, and the sizes and distributions of lipid droplets were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of PAT family proteins as well as of adipose differentiation-related protein and tail interacting protein (TIP47) was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. To examine the cellular and molecular events associated with oleuropein, annexin V/propidium iodide staining and immunoblotting were performed. Oleuropein decreased the number and size of lipid droplets in FFA-treated cells and reduced intracellular triglyceride accumulation. However, it did not affect the expression of lipid droplets-associated PAT family proteins, including adipose differentiation-related protein and TIP47. In addition, oleuropein reduced FFA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation but had no effect on c-Jun N-terminal kinase or AKT activation. Given its protective effects against FFA-induced hepatocellular steatosis, oleuropein may be a lipid-lowering agent. PMID:23146775

Hur, Wonhee; Kim, Sung Woo; Lee, Young Ki; Choi, Jung Eun; Hong, Sung Woo; Song, Myeong Jun; Bae, Si Hyun; Park, Taesun; Um, Soo-Jong; Yoon, Seung Kew

2012-08-09

199

Peroxynitrite is a major trigger of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that peroxynitrite represents a major cytotoxic effector in heart diseases, but its mechanisms of action are still not known exactly. Notably, the ability of peroxynitrite to trigger cardiomyocyte apoptosis, a crucial mode of cell death in many cardiac conditions, remains poorly defined. We evaluated apoptotic and necrotic cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes, following a brief (20 min) exposure to peroxynitrite (50–500 ?M). Peroxynitrite-dependent myocardial toxicity was then investigated in a rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR), where the effects of peroxynitrite were blocked by the superoxide dismutase mimetics and peroxynitrite scavenger Mn(III)-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP). In vitro, peroxynitrite killed cardiomyocytes mostly through apoptosis (DNA fragmentation, apoptotic nuclear alterations, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage), but not necrosis (propidium iodide staining and LDH release). In vivo, MIR triggered myocardial oxidative stress (malondialdehyde generation), nitrotyrosine formation, neutrophil accumulation, and the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, indicating ongoing myocardial apoptosis. MnTBAP suppressed these alterations, allowing a considerable reduction of myocardial injury. Thus, peroxynitrite triggers apoptosis in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in the myocardium in vivo, through a pathway involving caspase-3 activation and the cleavage of PARP. These results provide important novel information on the mechanisms of myocardial toxicity of peroxynitrite.

Levrand, Sandra; Vannay-Bouchiche, Christine; Pesse, Benoit; Pacher, Pal; Feihl, Francois; Waeber, Bernard; Liaudet, Lucas

2008-01-01

200

Naringin inhibits high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating the activation of the p38 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Recently, naringin (NAR; 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rhamnoglucoside) has been shown to have cardioprotective properties. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of NAR and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms in cardiomyocytes using high glucose (HG) to induce apoptosis in H9c2 cells. The effect of NAR on apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and by determining the levels of active caspase-3, -8 and -9. The effect of NAR on mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Our results demonstrated that exposure to HG induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with NAR significantly increased MMP and inhibited the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. NAR attenuated the HG-induced p38 and p53 phosphorylation, decreased mitochondrial Bax and Bak expression, prevented the release of cytochrome c and increased Bcl-2 expression. Pre-treatment with SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, also suppressed p53 phosphorylation and prevented the loss of MMP, as well as apoptosis in the HG-treated H9c2 cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NAR inhibits HG-induced apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating the activation of the p38 signaling pathway. PMID:23732220

Huang, Haili; Wu, Keng; You, Qiong; Huang, Ruina; Li, Shanghai; Wu, Keng

2013-06-03

201

Flow cytometry study of cell cycle, apoptosis and drug resistance in acute leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to therapy of leukemic cells is largely determined by their capacity of proliferation and apoptosis in presence of the administered drugs. We describe here the main markers used in flow cytometry (FCM) and involved in the assessment of cell cycle parameters: single labeling by Propidium Iodide (PI) and double labeling anti-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd)\\/PI which, both in vitro and in

F. Lacombe; F. Belloc

1997-01-01

202

Light Quality and Osmoregulation in Vicia Guard Cells 1  

PubMed Central

Osmoregulation in opening stomata of epidermal peels from Vicia faba L. leaves was investigated under a variety of experimental conditions. The K+ content of stomatal guard cells and the starch content of guard cell chloroplasts were examined with cobaltinitrite and iodine-potassium iodide stains, respectively; stomatal apertures were measured microscopically. Red light (50 micromoles per square meter per second) irradiation caused a net increase of 3.1 micrometers in aperture and a decrease of ?0.4 megapascals in guard cell osmotic potential over a 5 hour incubation, but histochemical observations showed no increase in guard cell K+ content or starch degradation in guard cell chloroplasts. At 10 micromoles per square meter per second, blue light caused a net 6.8 micrometer increase in aperture over 5 hours and there was a substantial decrease in starch content of chloroplasts but no increase in guard cell K+ content. At 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light, apertures increased faster (net gain of 5.7 micrometers after 1 hour) and starch content decreased. About 80% of guard cells had a higher K+ content after 1 hour of incubation but that fraction decreased to 10% after 5 hours. In the absence of KCl in the incubation medium, stomata opened slowly in response to 25 micomoles per square meter per second of blue light, without any K+ gain or starch loss. In dual beam experiments, stomata irradiated with 50 micomoles per square meter per second of red light for 3 hours opened without detectable starch loss or K+ gain; addition of 25 micomoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a further net gain of 4.4 micometers in aperture accompanied by substantial K+ uptake and starch loss. Comparison of K+ content in guard cells of opened stomata in epidermal peels with those induced to open in leaf discs showed a substantially higher K+ content in the intact tissue than in isolated peels. These results are not consistent with K+ (and its counterions) as the universal osmoticum in guard cells of open stomata under all conditions; rather, the data point to sugars arising from photosynthesis and from starch degradation as additional osmotica. Biochemical confirmation of these findings would indicate that osmoregulation during stomatal opening is the result of three key metabolic processes: ion transport, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism. Images Fig. 2

Tallman, Gary; Zeiger, Eduardo

1988-01-01

203

In vitro immunomodulatory effects of extracts from three plants of the Labiatae family and isolation of the active compound(s).  

PubMed

Plants may have the ability to modulate immune responses. In the present study, the effects of three plants belonging to Labiatae family, each traditionally used for the treatments of infections and inflammatory diseases, as well as the role of thymol (as one the major components of these plants), were investigated for their potential to affect the activation of lymphocytes. Four organic extracts of Thymus vulgaris and two other plants (i.e., T. daenensis and Zataria multiflora) were prepared. The effect of the extracts on mitogen (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined using a cell proliferation assay. The hexane extracts obtained from the three plants showed the strongest inhibitory effects on PHA-induced proliferation. Use of preparative thin layer and gas chromatographies in conjunction with the proliferation assay confirmed that thymol was the major component responsible for the observed effects from the three plants. Thymol inhibited inducible lymphocyte proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, with reductions ranging from 62.8% at 50 µg/ml to 89.8% at 200 µg/ml (> 0.1 µg/ml (p < 0.01). Flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide staining showed that the inhibitory effect of thymol at 200 µg/ml was due to a cytotoxic activity. In conclusion, the three Labiatae plants studied here each showed immunosuppressive effects against lymphocytes and it was most likely that thymol was the compound in these plants responsible for this effect. PMID:21711089

Amirghofran, Zahra; Hashemzadeh, Reihaneh; Javidnia, Katayoun; Golmoghaddam, Hossein; Esmaeilbeig, Ahmadreza

2011-06-28

204

Tackling Obstacles for Gene Therapy Targeting Neurons: Disrupting Perineural Nets with Hyaluronidase Improves Transduction  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy has been proposed for many diseases in the nervous system. In most cases for successful treatment, therapeutic vectors must be able to transduce mature neurons. However, both in vivo, and in vitro, where preliminary characterisation of viral particles takes place, transduction of neurons is typically inefficient. One possible explanation is that the extracellular matrix (ECM), forming dense perineural nets (PNNs) around neurons, physically blocks access to the cell surface. We asked whether co-administration of lentiviral vectors with an enzyme that disrupts the ECM could improve transduction efficiency. Using hyaluronidase, an enzyme which degrades hyaluronic acid, a high molecular weight molecule of the ECM with mainly a scaffolding function, we show that in vitro in mixed primary cortical cultures, and also in vivo in rat cortex, hyaluronidase co-administration increased the percentage of transduced mature, NeuN-positive neurons. Moreover, hyaluronidase was effective at doses that showed no toxicity in vitro based on propidium iodide staining of treated cultures. Our data suggest that limited efficacy of neuronal transduction is partly due to PNNs surrounding neurons, and further that co-applying hyaluronidase may benefit applications where efficient transduction of neurons in vitro or in vivo is required.

Wanisch, Klaus; Kovac, Stjepana; Schorge, Stephanie

2013-01-01

205

Silver ions disrupt K+ homeostasis and cellular integrity in intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots  

PubMed Central

The heavy metals silver, gold, and mercury can strongly inhibit aquaporin-mediated water flow across plant cell membranes, but critical examinations of their side effects are rare. Here, the short-lived radiotracer 42K is used to demonstrate that these metals, especially silver, profoundly change potassium homeostasis in roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants, by altering unidirectional K+ fluxes. Doses as low as 5??M AgNO3 rapidly reduced K+ influx to 5% that of controls, and brought about pronounced and immediate increases in K+ efflux, while higher doses of Au3+ and Hg2+ were required to produce similar responses. Reduced influx and enhanced efflux of K+ resulted in a net loss of >40% of root tissue K+ during a 15?min application of 500??M AgNO3, comprising the entire cytosolic potassium pool and about a third of the vacuolar pool. Silver also brought about major losses of UV-absorbing compounds, total electrolytes, and NH4+. Co-application, with silver, of the channel blockers Cs+, TEA+, or Ca2+, did not affect the enhanced efflux, ruling out the involvement of outwardly rectifying ion channels. Taken together with an examination of propidium iodide staining under confocal microscopy, the results indicate that silver ions affect K+ homeostasis by directly inhibiting K+ influx at lower concentrations, and indirectly inhibiting K+ influx and enhancing K+ efflux, via membrane destruction, at higher concentrations. Ni2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+, three heavy metals not generally known to affect aquaporins, did not enhance K+ efflux or cause propidium iodide incorporation. The study reveals strong and previously unknown effects of major aquaporin inhibitors and recommends caution in their application.

Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Jean, Yuel-Kai; Schulze, Lasse M.; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

2012-01-01

206

Polymerase chain reaction amplification length-dependent ethidium monoazide suppression power for heat-killed cells of Enterobacteriaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can confirm the presence of bacteria, but it is unable to differentiate between live and dead bacteria. Although ethidium monoazide (EMA)- and propidium monoazide (PMA)-based PCR have been evaluated, a quantity of ?103cells\\/ml dead cells produces a false-positive reading at 40 to 50cycles (K. Rudi et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 1018–1024). After confirming

Takashi Soejima; Frank Schlitt-Dittrich; Shin-ichi Yoshida

2011-01-01

207

Flow Cytometric Monitoring of Antibiotic-Induced Injury in Escherichia coli Using Cell-Impermeant Fluorescent Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fluorescent nucleic acid binding dyes—propidium iodide, TO-PRO-1, and SYTOX green—were eval- uated, and their abilities to distinguish between bacterial cells with and without an intact cytoplasmic membrane were compared. Each dye was readily able to discriminate between healthy and permeabilized cells of Escherichia coli, although SYTOX green showed a greater enhancement in fluorescence intensity on staining- compromised, as opposed

FIONA C. MORTIMER; DAVID J. MASON; VANYA A. GANT

2000-01-01

208

Tetraethylammonium Inhibits Glioma Cells via Increasing Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Potassium channel blockers have been shown to possess antitumor properties, but the role of apoptosis remains to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonspecific potassium channel blocker, in rat C6 and 9L glioma cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL and annexin V-FITC\\/propidium iodide assays.

K. B. Yang; S. G. Zhao; Y. H. Liu; E. X. Hu; B. X. Liu

2009-01-01

209

Simplified method for DNA and protein staining of human hematopoietic cell samples  

SciTech Connect

A rapid reproducible method yielding high resolution analysis of DNA and protein in human hematopoietic cell samples was developed by modification of the propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) procedure. Cell staining involved sequential addition of each reagent (RNase, FITC, and PI) to ethanol-fixed cells and requires no centrifiguation steps. Stained cells are analyzed in the reagent solutions. Analysis of bone marrow samples from multiple myeloma patients revealed mixed 2C DNA and aneuploid populations with the aneuploid cells having a significantly higher protein content. This approach permitted differential cell cycle kinetic analysis of the 2C DNA and the aneuploid population.

Crissman, H.A.; Egmond, J.V.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Pennings, A.; Haanen, C.

1980-01-01

210

Light quality and osmoregulation in vicia guard cells : evidence for involvement of three metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Osmoregulation in opening stomata of epidermal peels from Vicia faba L. leaves was investigated under a variety of experimental conditions. The K(+) content of stomatal guard cells and the starch content of guard cell chloroplasts were examined with cobaltinitrite and iodine-potassium iodide stains, respectively; stomatal apertures were measured microscopically. Red light (50 micromoles per square meter per second) irradiation caused a net increase of 3.1 micrometers in aperture and a decrease of -0.4 megapascals in guard cell osmotic potential over a 5 hour incubation, but histochemical observations showed no increase in guard cell K(+) content or starch degradation in guard cell chloroplasts. At 10 micromoles per square meter per second, blue light caused a net 6.8 micrometer increase in aperture over 5 hours and there was a substantial decrease in starch content of chloroplasts but no increase in guard cell K(+) content. At 25 micromoles per square meter per second of blue light, apertures increased faster (net gain of 5.7 micrometers after 1 hour) and starch content decreased. About 80% of guard cells had a higher K(+) content after 1 hour of incubation but that fraction decreased to 10% after 5 hours. In the absence of KCl in the incubation medium, stomata opened slowly in response to 25 micomoles per square meter per second of blue light, without any K(+) gain or starch loss. In dual beam experiments, stomata irradiated with 50 micomoles per square meter per second of red light for 3 hours opened without detectable starch loss or K(+) gain; addition of 25 micomoles per square meter per second of blue light caused a further net gain of 4.4 micometers in aperture accompanied by substantial K(+) uptake and starch loss. Comparison of K(+) content in guard cells of opened stomata in epidermal peels with those induced to open in leaf discs showed a substantially higher K(+) content in the intact tissue than in isolated peels. These results are not consistent with K(+) (and its counterions) as the universal osmoticum in guard cells of open stomata under all conditions; rather, the data point to sugars arising from photosynthesis and from starch degradation as additional osmotica. Biochemical confirmation of these findings would indicate that osmoregulation during stomatal opening is the result of three key metabolic processes: ion transport, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism. PMID:16666400

Tallman, G; Zeiger, E

1988-11-01

211

Measurement of cell death by oxidative stress in three-dimensional spheroids from trophoblast and in fragments of decidua tissue.  

PubMed

We report a new morphometric method for measurement of the amount of cell death in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids of the trophoblast-like cell line AC1-M59 and of cultured pieces of decidua tissue (decidua spheroids) in response to a cytotoxic agent. The viability of the spheroids was assessed by adding propidium iodide to the culture medium at the end of the toxic treatment. On fluorescence and brightfield images of serial cryosections the areas of propidium iodide fluorescence and the entire corresponding spheroids were measured by applying digital image processing and ratiometrical quantification. As an example, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of hydrogen peroxide on both types of spheroids. The relative potency of hydrogen peroxide to induce tissue damage was assessed quantitatively for determination of the minimal concentration that leads to an increase in cytotoxicity. The method presented suggests general applicability for in vitro determination of toxicity against tissues. PMID:20227766

Theuerkauf, Regine-Susanne; Ahammer, Helmut; Siwetz, Monika; Helige, Christine; Dohr, Gottfried; Walcher, Wolfgang; Palacio, José Ramón; Martinez, Paz; Sedlmayr, Peter

2010-03-15

212

Cell cycle analysis of primary sponge cell cultures.  

PubMed

Proliferation of sponge cells is generally measured via cell counts or viability assays. However, more insight into the proliferative state of a sponge cell population can be obtained from the distribution of the cells over the different phases of the cell cycle. Cell cycle distribution of sponge cells was measured via flow cytometry after staining the DNA with propidium iodide. The five sponges studied in this paper all showed a large fraction of cells in G1/G0 compared to G2/M and S, indicating that cells were not actively dividing. In addition, some sponges also showed a large apoptotic fraction, indicating cell death. Additional apoptosis measurements, based on caspase activity, showed that harvesting and dissociation of sponge tissue to initiate a primary cell culture was directly correlated with an increase in apoptotic cells. This indicates that for the development of cell cultures, more attention should be given to harvesting, dissociation, and quality of starting material. Finally, cultivation conditions used were ineffective for proliferation, since after 2 d of cultivating Haliclona oculata cells, most cells shifted towards the apoptotic fraction, indicating that cells were dying. For development of in vitro sponge cell cultures, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis is a useful method to assess the proliferative state of a sponge cell culture and can be used to validate improvements in harvesting and dissociation, to select sponges with good proliferative capacities and to study the influence of culture conditions for stimulating cell growth. PMID:21416188

Schippers, Klaske J; Martens, Dirk E; Pomponi, Shirley A; Wijffels, René H

2011-03-17

213

Withania somnifera improves semen quality by combating oxidative stress and cell death and improving essential metal concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of a 3-month treatment with Withania somnifera on apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration of spermatozoa and the metal ions copper, zinc, iron and gold in seminal plasma from infertile men (normozoospermic, n=25; oligozoospermic, n=25; and asthenozoospermic, n=25). The apoptotic and necrotic cell distribution were analysed by annexin-V binding and propidium iodide uptake

Kamla Kant Shukla; Abbas Ali Mahdi; Vivek Mishra; Singh Rajender; Satya Narain Sankhwar; Devender Patel; Mukul Das

2011-01-01

214

Exposure of developing oligodendrocytes to cadmium causes HSP72 induction, free radical generation, reduction in glutathione levels, and cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cultures of oligodendrocytes were used to study the toxic effects of cadmium chloride. Cell viability was evaluated by the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and confirmed by propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence staining. The expression of the 72 kDa stress protein, HSP72, was assayed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that Cd2+-induced toxicity was dependent on the time and dose of

Guillermina Almazan; Hsueh-Ning Liu; Amani Khorchid; Saravanan Sundararajan; Ana K Martinez-Bermudez; Sylvain Chemtob

2000-01-01

215

The Comet Assay to Determine the Mode of Cell Death for the Ultrasonic Delivery of Doxorubicin to Human Leukemia (HL-60 cells) from Pluronic P105 Micelles  

PubMed Central

This notes examines the mode of cell death of HL-60 cells exposed to 70 kHz and 1.3 W/cm2 in the presence of 1% Pluronic P105 and 1.67 ?g/ml doxorubicin (Dox). The cells were ultrasonicated for 30, 60 and 120 minutes. They were then lysed, electrophorised, stained using propidium iodide, and their DNA profile captured using a fluorescent microscope. The gradual DNA damage observed and the comet tails captured after 1 and 2 hours of insonation suggest that the mode of cell killing is apoptosis.

Husseini, Ghaleb A.; O'Neill, Kim L.; Pitt, William G.

2006-01-01

216

Phenotypic characterization of white cells in white cell-reduced red cell concentrate using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The residual white cell (WBC) content of donated units of red cell concentrate rendered WBC-reduced by filtration through commercially available polyester filters was quantified and phenotypically analyzed. All studies were performed by flow cytometery. Quantification studies were performed with a DNA/RNA fluorophore, propidium iodide. WBC subset analyses were performed with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies directed against various cluster differentiation (CD) loci. The results indicate that the filter removes in excess of 3 log10 total WBCs from the red cell components and depletes granulocytes to or beyond the specific assay's sensitivity of 3 log10. Total T and B cells, T4 and T8 lymphocytes, and monocytes are reduced by approximately 4 log10. These analyses provide plausible explanations for the clinical success of the filter and suggest other potential applications. PMID:1661451

Wenz, B; Burns, E R

217

Enhanced Egress of Intracellular Eimeria tenella Sporozoites by Splenic Lymphocytes from Coccidian-Infected Chickens?  

PubMed Central

Egress, which describes the mechanism that some intracellular parasites use to exit from parasitophorous vacuoles and host cells, plays a very important role in the parasite life cycle and is central to Eimeria propagation and pathogenesis. Despite the importance of egress in the intracellular parasite's life cycle, very little information is known on this process compared to other steps, e.g., invasion. The present study was conducted to investigate the interplay between the host adaptive immune system and Eimeria egression. Splenic lymphocytes or soluble immune factors were incubated with parasite-infected host cells for 3 or 5 h, and the percentage of egress was calculated according to an established formula. Viability of egressed parasites and host cells was tested using trypan blue exclusion and annexin V and propidium iodide staining, respectively. We found that premature egression of sporozoites from Eimeria tenella-infected primary chicken kidney cells or from chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurred when the cells were cocultured in vitro with spleen lymphocytes from E. tenella-infected chickens but not when they were cocultured with splenocytes from uninfected chickens. Eimeria-specific antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-?], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and IL-15), derived from E. tenella-primed B and T lymphocytes, respectively, were capable of promoting premature egress of sporozoites from infected host cells. Both egressed parasites and host cells were viable, although the latter showed reduced reinvasion ability. These results suggest a novel, immune-mediated mechanism that the host exploits to interrupt the normal Eimeria life cycle in vivo and thereby block the release of mature parasites into the environment.

Dong, Xiaojuan; Abdelnabi, Ghada H.; Lee, Sung H.; Li, Guangxing; Jin, Hong; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Suo, Xun

2011-01-01

218

Interleukin-6 counteracts therapy-induced cellular oxidative stress in multiple myeloma by up-regulating manganese superoxide dismutase  

PubMed Central

IL (interleukin)-6, an established growth factor for multiple myeloma cells, induces myeloma therapy resistance, but the resistance mechanisms remain unclear. The present study determines the role of IL-6 in re-establishing intracellular redox homoeostasis in the context of myeloma therapy. IL-6 treatment increased myeloma cell resistance to agents that induce oxidative stress, including IR (ionizing radiation) and Dex (dexamethasone). Relative to IR alone, myeloma cells treated with IL-6 plus IR demonstrated reduced annexin/propidium iodide staining, caspase 3 activation, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage and mitochondrial membrane depolarization with increased clonogenic survival. IL-6 combined with IR or Dex increased early intracellular pro-oxidant levels that were causally related to activation of NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) as determined by the ability of N-acetylcysteine to suppress both pro-oxidant levels and NF-?B activation. In myeloma cells, upon combination with hydrogen peroxide treatment, relative to TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-?, IL-6 induced an early perturbation in reduced glutathione level and increased NF-?B-dependent MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) expression. Furthermore, knockdown of MnSOD suppressed the IL-6-induced myeloma cell resistance to radiation. MitoSOX Red staining showed that IL-6 treatment attenuated late mitochondrial oxidant production in irradiated myeloma cells. The present study provides evidence that increases in MnSOD expression mediate IL-6-induced resistance to Dex and radiation in myeloma cells. The results of the present study indicate that inhibition of antioxidant pathways could enhance myeloma cell responses to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

Brown, Charles O.; Salem, Kelley; Wagner, Brett A.; Bera, Soumen; Singh, Neeraj; Tiwari, Ajit; Choudhury, Amit; Buettner, Garry R.; Goel, Apollina

2012-01-01

219

ATP Mediates Neuroprotective and Neuroproliferative Effects in Mouse Olfactory Epithelium following Exposure to Satratoxin G In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Intranasal aspiration of satratoxin G (SG), a mycotoxin produced by the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum, selectively induces apoptosis in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis 24 h post-SG exposure in vitro as measured by increased activated caspases in the OP6 olfactory placodal cell line and increased propidium iodide staining in primary OE cell cultures. Intranasal aspiration of SG increased TUNEL (Terminal dUTP Nick End Labeling) staining in the neuronal layer of the OE and significantly increased the latency to find a buried food pellet, confirming that SG selectively induces neuronal apoptosis and demonstrating that SG impairs the sense of smell. Next, we investigated whether ATP can prevent SG-induced OE toxicity. ATP did not decrease apoptosis under physiological conditions but significantly reduced SG-induced OSN apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, purinergic receptor inhibition significantly increased apoptosis in OE primary cell culture and in vivo. These data indicate that ATP is neuroprotective against SG-induced OE toxicity. The number of cells that incorporated 5?-bromodeoxyuridine, a measure of proliferation, was significantly increased 3 and 6 days post-SG aspiration. Treatment with purinergic receptor antagonists significantly reduced SG-induced cell proliferation, whereas post-treatment with ATP significantly potentiated SG-induced cell proliferation. These data indicate that ATP is released and promotes cell proliferation via activation of purinergic receptors in SG-induced OE injury. Thus, the purinergic system is a therapeutic target to alleviate or restore the loss of OSNs.

Jia, Cuihong; Sangsiri, Sutheera; Belock, Bethany; Iqbal, Tania R.; Pestka, James J.; Hegg, Colleen C.

2011-01-01

220

Kinetics of plasma membrane and mitochondrial alterations in cells undergoing apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Programmed cell death or apoptosis is characterized by typical morphological alterations. By transmission electron microscopy, apoptotic cells are identified by condensation of the chromatin in tight apposition to the nuclear envelope, alteration of the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, whereas integrity of the plasma membrane and organelles is preserved. Conversely cells undergoing necrosis display and early desintegration of cytoplasmic membrane and swelling of mitochondria. In this study we assessed by flow cytometry the sequential alterations of forward angle light scatter, 90{degrees} light scatter, and fluorescence associated with fluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123, and propidium iodide in two human B cell lines undergoing apoptosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by the topoisomerase II inhibitor VP-16. The kinetics of these modifications were compared to those of cells undergoing necrosis induced by sodium azide. At the same time intervals, cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy and by UV microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342. We report that sequential changes in light scatters and fluorescein diacetate are similar in cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, whereas apoptosis is characterized by a slightly delayed decrease of mitochondrial activity as assessed by rhodamine 123 staining. Surprisingly, a part of cells undergoing apoptosis displayed an early uptake of propidium iodide followed by a condensation and then a fragmentation of their nuclei. It is concluded that uptake of propidium iodide is a very early marker of cell death which does not discriminate between necrosis and apoptosis. Along with biochemical criteria, nuclear morphology revealed by staining with Hoechst 33342 would seem to be of the most simple and most discriminative assay of apoptosis. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lizard, G.; Fournel, S.; Genestier, L.; Dhedin, N. [Hospital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)] [and others

1995-11-01

221

VSV-MP gene therapy strategy inhibits tumor growth in nude mice model of human lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein (MP) can induce in vitro apoptosis of tumor cells in the absence of other viral components. Here, the antitumor activity of VSV-MP against lung adenocarcinoma was investigated in vivo. A pVAX-plasmid DNA encoding VSV-MP and control empty vectors (pVAX) were constructed and wrapped-up with liposome. A549 and Spc-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were transfected with liposomal-VSV-MP (Lip-MP) or Lip-pVAX and then examined for cell viability or apoptosis using Hoechst/propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry, and further demonstrated by caspase/poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage analysis. For the in vivo study, A549 and Spc-A1 lung carcinoma models in nude mice were established and randomly assigned into three groups to receive eight 2-weekly intravenous administrations of medium alone as control, Lip-pVAX or Lip-MP, respectively. Subsequently, Lip-MP significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice compared with Lip-pVAX and control agents (P<0.05), with much higher apoptosis index of both in vivo and in vitro tumor cells, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, in vivo antitumoral effect was associated with natural killer-(NK) cell congregation without evidence of toxicity. These observations suggest that systemically delivering Lip-MP has a specific dual antitumor activity in human lung adenocarcinoma by inducing apoptosis and possibly stimulating NK-cell responses, it may provide a clue for developing new therapeutic approaches against human lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:22052213

Jing, X-M; Wen, Y-J; Shi, W; Tang, Q-Q; Li, J; Chen, X-C

2011-11-04

222

Overexpression of MN1 Confers Resistance to Chemotherapy, Accelerates Leukemia Onset, and Suppresses p53 and Bim Induction  

PubMed Central

Background The transcriptional co-activator MN1 confers a worse prognosis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when highly expressed; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We sought to model the effects of high MN1 expression in AML models to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We used cell lines and a genetically defined mouse model of AML to examine the effects of MN1 overexpression on prognosis and response to cytarabine and doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo. Murine AML that was engineered to overexpress MN1 became more aggressive in vivo, leading to shortened survival in both treated and control groups. In vitro murine AML cells that overexpressed MN1 became resistant to treatment with cytarabine and highly resistant to doxorubicin. This resistant phenotype was also seen in vivo, where treatment with the combination of cytarabine and doxorubicin selected for cells expressing MN1. When therapy-induced DNA damage levels were assessed by ?H2AX foci, no reduction was seen in MN1 expressing cells arguing against a drug efflux mechanism. Despite no reduction in DNA damage, MN1-expressing cells showed less apoptosis as assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Following treatment, p53 and BIM induction were markedly reduced in cells expressing MN1. Pharmacologic inhibition of the p53 E3 ligase MDM2 resulted in increased p53 levels and improved response to doxorubicin in vitro. Conclusions/Significance MN1 overexpression accelerates an already aggressive leukemia, confers resistance to chemotherapy, and suppresses p53 and BIM induction, resulting in decreased apoptosis. This provides a mechanistic explanation of the poor prognosis observed with high MN1 expression and suggests that therapies directed at increasing p53 function may be useful for these patients.

Pardee, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

223

Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Triphenylphosphonium Salts with Broad-Spectrum Activity  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, there has been a surge of interest in developing compounds selectively targeting mitochondria for the treatment of neoplasms. The critical role of mitochondria in cellular metabolism and respiration supports this therapeutic rationale. Dysfunction in the processes of energy production and metabolism contributes to attenuation of response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and increased ROS production both of which are implicated in the initiation and progression of most human cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings A high-throughput MTT-based screen of over 10,000 drug-like small molecules for anti-proliferative activity identified the phosphonium salts TP187, 197 and 421 as having IC50 concentrations in the submicromolar range. TP treatment induced cell cycle arrest independent of p53 status, as determined by analysis of DNA content in propidium iodide stained cells. In a mouse model of human breast cancer, TP-treated mice showed significantly decreased tumor growth compared to vehicle or paclitaxel treated mice. No toxicities or organ damage were observed following TP treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from TP187-treated tumors demonstrated a decrease in cellular proliferation and increased caspase-3 cleavage. The fluorescent properties of analog TP421 were exploited to assess subcellular uptake of TP compounds, demonstrating mitochondrial localization. Following mitochondrial uptake cells exhibited decreased oxygen consumption and concomittant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. Proteomics analysis of results from a 600 target antibody microarray demonstrated that TP compounds significantly affected signaling pathways relevant to growth and proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Through our continued interest in designing compounds targeting cancer-cell metabolism, the Warburg effect, and mitochondria we recently discovered a series of novel, small-molecule compounds containing a triphenylphosphine moiety that show remarkable activity in a panel of cancer cell lines as well as in a mouse model of human breast cancer. The mechanism of action includes mitochondrial localization causing decreased oxygen consumption, increased superoxide production and attenuated growth factor signaling.

Millard, Melissa; Pathania, Divya; Shabaik, Yumna; Taheri, Laleh; Deng, Jinxia; Neamati, Nouri

2010-01-01

224

Pharmacokinetics and phototoxicity of purpurin-18 in human colon carcinoma cells using liposomes as delivery vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetics and phototoxicity of purpurin-18 (Pp18) in human colon carcinoma cells (Colo-205) was studied using liposomes\\u000a as delivery vehicles. Cytotoxicity was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay\\u000a and neutral red uptake assay, and mode of cell death was assessed by the study of cell morphology and nuclear staining with\\u000a Hoechst 33342-propidium iodide. Pp18 solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide saline solution was

Sulbha Sharma; Alok Dube; Biplab Bose; Pradeep K Gupta

2006-01-01

225

Anti-amoebic properties of a Malaysian marine sponge Aaptos sp. on Acanthamoeba castellanii.  

PubMed

Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii. PMID:22805843

Nakisah, M A; Ida Muryany, M Y; Fatimah, H; Nor Fadilah, R; Zalilawati, M R; Khamsah, S; Habsah, M

2011-11-06

226

Effect of a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor on oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptotic signalling of cultured cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are crucial in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) is responsible for the high-capacity metabolic inactivation of electrophilic compounds and toxic substrates. The main objective of the present study was to examine the effect of GST inhibition (with the administration of ethacrynic acid [EA]) on the viability and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes when these cells are exposed to various stress components of I/R and mitogen-activated protein kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]) inhibitors. The primary culture of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was divided into six experimental groups: control group of cells (group 1), cells exposed to H(2)O(2) (group 2), I/R (group 3), I/R and EA (group 4), H(2)O(2) coupled with EA (group 5), and EA alone (group 6). The viability of cardiomyocytes was determined using a colorimetric MTT assay. The apoptosis ratio was evaluated via fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled annexin V and propidium iodide staining. c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, Akt/protein kinase B and ERK/p42-p44 transcription factors were monitored with flow cytometry. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation increased due to GST inhibition during I/R. EA administration led to a significant increase in p38 activation following both H(2)O(2) treatment and I/R. ERK phosphorylation increased when GST was exposed to I/R. A pronounced decrease in Akt phosphorylation was observed when cells were cotreated with EA and H(2)O(2). GST plays an important role as a regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in I/R injury. PMID:22065940

Röth, E; Marczin, N; Balatonyi, B; Ghosh, S; Kovács, V; Alotti, N; Borsiczky, B; Gasz, B

2011-01-01

227

Selective visualisation of neuroepithelial bodies in vibratome slices of living lung by 4-Di-2-ASP in various animal species.  

PubMed

Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are extensively innervated organoid groups of neuroendocrine cells that lie in the epithelium of intrapulmonary airways. Our present understanding of the morphology of NEBs is comprehensive, but direct physiological studies have so far been challenging because the extremely diffuse distribution of NEBs makes them inaccessible in vivo and because a reliable in vitro model is lacking. Our aim has been to optimise an in vitro method based on vibratome slices of living lungs, a model that includes NEBs, the surrounding tissues and at least part of their complex innervation. This in vitro model offers satisfactory access to pulmonary NEBs, provided that they can be differentiated from other tissue elements. The model was first optimised for living rat lung slices. Neutral red staining, reported to stain rabbit NEBs, proved unsuccessful in rat slices. On the other hand, the styryl pyridinium dye, 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (4-Di-2-ASP), showed brightly fluorescent cell groups, reminiscent of NEBs, in the airway epithelium of living lung slices from rat. In addition, nerve fibres innervating the NEBs were labelled. The reliable and specific labelling of pulmonary NEBs by 4-Di-2-ASP was corroborated by immunostaining for protein gene-product 9.5. Live cell imaging and propidium iodide staining further established the acceptable viability of 4-Di-2-ASP-labelled NEB cells in lung slices, even over long periods. Importantly, the in vitro model and 4-Di-2-ASP staining procedure for pulmonary NEBs appeared to be equally reproducible in mouse, hamster and rabbit lungs. Diverse immunocytochemical procedures could be applied to the lung slices providing an opportunity to combine physiological and functional morphological studies. Such an integrated approach offers additional possibilities for elucidating the function(s) of pulmonary NEBs in health and disease. PMID:15902500

Pintelon, I; De Proost, I; Brouns, I; Van Herck, H; Van Genechten, J; Van Meir, F; Timmermans, J-P; Adriaensen, D

2005-05-19

228

Oridonin nanosuspension was more effective than free oridonin on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell line  

PubMed Central

Oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescencs, has been reported to have antitumor effects. However, low solubility has limited its clinical applications. Preparation of drugs in the form of nanosuspensions is an extensively utilized protocol. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of oridonin and oridonin nanosuspension on human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth. Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to detect morphologic changes. The percentage of apoptosis and cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometric method staining with propidium iodide. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/PI staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The apoptotic and cell cycle protein expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Both oridonin and oridonin nanosuspension induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, and the latter had a more significant cytotoxic effect. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression was decreased and caspase- 3 activity was stimulated. The expression of cyclin B1 and p-cdc2 (T161) was suppressed. Our results showed that oridonin nanosuspension was more effective than free oridonin on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell line.

Qi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dianrui; Xu, Xia; Feng, Feifei; Ren, Guijie; Chu, Qianqian; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Keli

2012-01-01

229

Magnetic resonance imaging of transplanted mouse islets labeled with chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Although only 10% of islet recipients maintain insulin independence, 80% of them are C-peptide positive at 5 years after transplantation. To better understand the fate of transplanted islets, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique has been used to detect Feridex-labeled islet grafts in rodents. In this study, we used a novel MRI contrast agent, chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (CSPIO) nanoparticles, to monitor mouse islet grafts. Male inbred C57BL/6 mice were used as donors and recipients of islet transplantation. The islet cytotoxicity was evaluated by fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining for RAW cells incubated with CSPIO. After being incubated overnight with and without CSPIO (10 mg/mL), 300 islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of each mouse. After transplantation, 3.0-Tesla MRI of the recipients was performed biweekly until 19 weeks. At the end of study, the islet graft was removed for insulin and Prussian blue staining. The cell death rates in RAW cells did not increase with increasing CSPIO concentrations or incubation time. The grafts of CSPIO-labeled islets were visualized on MRI scans as distinct hypointense spots homogeneously located at the upper pole of left kidney. Their MRI signal was 30%-50% that of control islets and was maintained throughout the follow-up period. At 18 weeks, the histology of CSPIO-labeled islet graft revealed the insulin- and iron-stained areas to be almost identical. Our results indicate that isolated mouse islets labeled with CSPIO nanoparticles can be effectively and safely imaged by using MRI as long as 18 weeks after transplantation. PMID:20692419

Juang, J-H; Wang, J-J; Shen, C-R; Kuo, C-H; Chien, Y-W; Kuo, H-Y; Tsai, Z-T; Yen, T-C

230

Osmotic tolerance and intracellular ion concentrations of bovine sperm are affected by cryopreservation.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of cryopreservation on osmoregulation and ion homeostasis in bovine sperm were studied. We determined: (1) the osmotic tolerance limits and cell volume response upon exposure to anisotonic conditions, (2) the intracellular pH and potassium concentration, and (3) expression and localization of proteins encoding for potassium and chloride ion channels. A flow cytometric approach was used for simultaneous assessment of cell volume and viability of propidium iodide stained sperm in anisotonic media. Osmotic tolerance was found to be decreased after cryopreservation, especially in the 120 to 60 mOsm/kg osmotic range. The critical osmolality at which half of the sperm population survived increased from 55 to 89 mOsm/kg. The osmotic cell volume response for viable sperm was similar before and after cryopreservation, with an osmotic inactive volume of about 70%. The intracellular pH, determined by recording changes in carboxyfluorescein fluorescence of sperm in media with different pH before and after addition of digitonin, decreased from 6.28 in diluted sperm to 6.16 after cryopreservation. The intracellular potassium concentration, determined using the potassium ionophore nigericin and incubation in media with various potassium concentrations, increased from 154 mM to 183 mM before and after cryopreservation, respectively. The levels of the chloride and potassium ion channel proteins chloride channel 3 protein (CLC-3) and two pore domain potassium channel 2 protein (TASK-2), as detected using Western blot analysis, were not affected by cryopreservation. Immunolocalization studies showed that CLC-3 is present in the acrosome and midpiece as well as in the upper and lower tail. In conclusion, cryopreserved sperm exhibit reduced tolerance to hypotonic stress, a decreased intracellular pH, and increased intracellular potassium level. PMID:22819283

Blässe, A-K; Oldenhof, H; Ekhlasi-Hundrieser, M; Wolkers, W F; Sieme, H; Bollwein, H

2012-07-21

231

Smac mimetic-derived augmentation of chemotherapeutic response in experimental pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy, in part due to the overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Smac is an endogenous IAP-antagonist, which renders synthetic Smac mimetics attractive anticancer agents. We evaluated the benefits of combining a Smac mimetic, JP1201 (JP), with conventional chemotherapy agents used for PDAC management. Methods Cell viability assays and protein expression analysis were performed using WST-1 reagent and Western blotting, respectively. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. In vivo tumor growth and survival studies were performed in murine PDAC xenografts. Results JP and gemcitabine (Gem) inhibited PDAC cell proliferation with additive effects in combination. The percentage of early apoptotic cells in controls, JP, Gem and JP + Gem was 17%, 26%, 26% and 38%, respectively. JP-induced apoptosis was accompanied by PARP-1 cleavage. Similar additive anti-proliferative effects were seen for combinations of JP with doxorubicin (Dox) and docetaxel (DT). The JP + Gem combination caused a 30% decrease in tumor size in vivo compared to controls. Median animal survival was improved significantly in mice treated with JP + Gem (38 d) compared to controls (22 d), JP (28 d) or Gem (32 d) (p = 0.01). Animal survival was also improved with JP + DT treatment (32 d) compared to controls (16 d), JP (21 d) or DT alone (27 d). Conclusions These results warrant further exploration of strategies that promote chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of tumors and highlight the potential of Smac mimetics in clinical PDAC therapy.

2011-01-01

232

Thymoquinone Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model: The Role of p38 MAPK and ROS.  

PubMed

Due to narrow therapeutic window of cancer therapeutic agents and the development of resistance against these agents, there is a need to discover novel agents to treat breast cancer. The antitumor activities of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from Nigella sativa oil, were investigated in breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses after TQ treatment were assessed by using different assays including MTT assay, annexin V-propidium iodide staining, Mitosox staining and Western blot. The antitumor effect was studied by breast tumor xenograft mouse model, and the tumor tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The level of anti-oxidant enzymes/molecules in mouse liver tissues was measured by commercial kits. Here, we show that TQ induced p38 phosphorylation and ROS production in breast cancer cells. These inductions were found to be responsible for TQ's anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Moreover, TQ-induced ROS production regulated p38 phosphorylation but not vice versa. TQ treatment was found to suppress the tumor growth and this effect was further enhanced by combination with doxorubicin. TQ also inhibited the protein expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in breast cancer cells and breast tumor xenograft. Reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining were observed in TQ-treated tumors. TQ was also found to increase the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione in mouse liver tissues. Overall, our results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in breast cancer are mediated through p38 phosphorylation via ROS generation. PMID:24098377

Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Tan, Kwong Huat Benny

2013-10-02

233

Thymoquinone Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model: The Role of p38 MAPK and ROS  

PubMed Central

Due to narrow therapeutic window of cancer therapeutic agents and the development of resistance against these agents, there is a need to discover novel agents to treat breast cancer. The antitumor activities of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from Nigella sativa oil, were investigated in breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses after TQ treatment were assessed by using different assays including MTT assay, annexin V-propidium iodide staining, Mitosox staining and Western blot. The antitumor effect was studied by breast tumor xenograft mouse model, and the tumor tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The level of anti-oxidant enzymes/molecules in mouse liver tissues was measured by commercial kits. Here, we show that TQ induced p38 phosphorylation and ROS production in breast cancer cells. These inductions were found to be responsible for TQ’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Moreover, TQ-induced ROS production regulated p38 phosphorylation but not vice versa. TQ treatment was found to suppress the tumor growth and this effect was further enhanced by combination with doxorubicin. TQ also inhibited the protein expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in breast cancer cells and breast tumor xenograft. Reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining were observed in TQ-treated tumors. TQ was also found to increase the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione in mouse liver tissues. Overall, our results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in breast cancer are mediated through p38 phosphorylation via ROS generation.

Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Tan, Kwong Huat Benny

2013-01-01

234

Investigating the lysis of small-cell lung cancer cell lines by activated natural killer (NK) cells with a fluorometric assay for NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Activation of natural killer (NK) cells with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 leads to an enhanced lysis of tumour cells. We investigated the ability of NK cells, with or without prior activation, to lyse a variety of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) target cells. Specific lysis was measured with a fluorometric assay for NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity: target cells were labelled with 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine, a green membrane dye. After co-incubation with NK cells, dead target cells were stained with propidium iodide, a red DNA dye that only penetrates dead cells. Of all eight SCLC cell lines tested, three were susceptible to lysis by non-activated NK cells, three were only susceptible to lysis by NK cells activated with IL-2 and IL-12 and two were not even susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells. The differences in target cell susceptibility showed no correlation with the expression of MHC-I on the surface of the target cells or with the expression of the adhesion molecules CD50, CD54, CD58 or CD102. Comparing the kinetics of the lysis of one SCLC cell line sensitive to non-activated NK cells and one sensitive only to activated NK cells, we found that maximum lysis of the former was obtained after 1 h, whereas significant lysis of the latter was only obtained after 4 h of incubation. This might be due to different mechanisms engaged in target cell lysis. PMID:10431691

Lehmann, C; Glass, B; Zeis, M; Schmitz, N; Uharek, L

1999-07-01

235

FTIR spectral signature of anticancer drug effects on PC-3 cancer cells: is there any influence of the cell cycle?  

PubMed

FTIR spectroscopy was recently demonstrated to be a useful tool to obtain a unique fingerprint of several anticancer drugs. While cell responses to anticancer drugs are related to their "mode of action", it is obvious that some of the drugs used in the previous studies affect the cell cycle. For example, antimicrotubules disable the mitotic apparatus by disrupting the formation or the depolymerisation of microtubules. Cells are thus mostly blocked in the G2/M phase. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the changes observed in the cell spectra due to treatments could be related to the cell cycle. The aim of the present study is to examine this hypothesis and to investigate whether spectral variations induced by a treatment reflect the cell cycle behaviour or the metabolic perturbations induced by the drug. To answer this question, a method was developed that allows an unambiguous identification of the cell cycle phase for each individual cell. This method is based on the superimposition of three types of images: visible, infrared and propidium iodide fluorescence images. Propidium iodide intercalates the bases of the DNA. As the DNA amount in a cell is correlated with the cell cycle phase, the exact phase of each individual cell could be identified. On IR images, mean spectra corresponding to single cells were calculated and associated with the cycle stage defined using fluorescence images. Statistical analyses were applied on these IR spectra, first in order to compare spectra of cells from different stages of the cycle and second, to investigate to what extent the modifications related to the cell cycle contribute to the spectral variations due to paclitaxel treatment. Results demonstrate that the FTIR cell cycle signature is very small with respect to the changes induced by paclitaxel. PMID:23598424

Derenne, Allison; Mignolet, Alix; Goormaghtigh, Erik

2013-07-21

236

Induction of Eosinophil Apoptosis by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor AT7519 Promotes the Resolution of Eosinophil-Dominant Allergic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk). Conclusions Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase-dependent eosinophil apoptosis and enhancing macrophage ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. These findings demonstrate the utility of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as AT7519 as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of eosinophil dominant allergic disorders.

Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Leitch, Andrew E.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Sheldrake, Tara A.; Dorward, David A.; Hirani, Nik; Pinho, Vanessa; de Sousa, Lirlandia Pires; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Lyons, John F.; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

2011-01-01

237

Nutrient reserves may allow for genome size increase: evidence from comparison of geophytes and their sister non-geophytic relatives.  

PubMed

Background and Aims The genome size of an organism is determined by its capacity to tolerate genome expansion, given the species' life strategy and the limits of a particular environment, and the ability for retrotransposon suppression and/or removal. In some giant-genomed bulb geophytes, this tolerance is explained by their ability to pre-divide cells in the dormant stages or by the selective advantage of larger cells in the rapid growth of their fleshy body. In this study, a test shows that the tendency for genome size expansion is a more universal feature of geophytes, and is a subject in need of more general consideration. Methods Differences in monoploid genome sizes were compared using standardized phylogenetically independent contrasts in 47 sister pairs of geophytic and non-geophytic taxa sampled across all the angiosperms. The genome sizes of 96 species were adopted from the literature and 53 species were newly measured using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Key Results The geophytes showed increased genome sizes compared with their non-geophytic relatives, regardless of the storage organ type and regardless of whether or not vernal geophytes, polyploids or annuals were included in the analyses. Conclusions The universal tendency of geophytes to possess a higher genome size suggests the presence of a universal mechanism allowing for genome expansion. It is assumed that this is primarily due to the nutrient and energetic independence of geophytes perhaps allowing continuous synthesis of DNA, which is known to proceed in the extreme cases of vernal geophytes even in dormant stages. This independence may also be assumed as a reason for allowing large genomes in some parasitic plants, as well as the nutrient limitation of small genomes of carnivorous plants. PMID:23960044

Vesely, Pavel; Bures, Petr; Smarda, Petr

2013-08-19

238

Novel organotypic in vitro slice culture model for intraventricular hemorrhage of premature infants.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of brain injury in intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of premature infants are elusive, and no therapeutic strategy exists to prevent brain damage in these infants. Therefore, we developed an in vitro organotypic forebrain slice culture model to advance mechanistic studies and therapeutic developments for this disorder. We cultured forebrain slices from E29 rabbit pups and treated the cultured slices (CS) with moderate (50 ?l) or large (100 ?l) amounts of autologous blood to mimic moderate and severe IVH. Blood-induced damage to CS was evaluated by propidium iodide staining, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, microglial density, neuronal degeneration, myelination, and gliosis over 2 weeks after the initiation of culture. CS were viable for at least 14 days in vitro (DIV). The application of blood induced significant neural cell degeneration. Degenerating cells were more abundant and LDH levels were elevated in a dose-dependent manner in CS treated with 50 versus 100 ?l of blood compared with untreated controls. Microglial density was higher in blood-treated CS compared with controls at both 7 and 14 days posttreatment, and myelination was reduced and gliosis enhanced. Selective application of blood fractions revealed that CS treated with plasma displayed more hypomyelination and gliosis compared with erythrocyte-treated slices. This study develops and characterizes a novel rabbit forebrain slice culture model of IVH that exhibits neuropatholgical changes similar to those in human infants with IVH. Importantly, plasma appears to induce greater white matter damage than erythrocytes in IVH,indicating plasma as a source of neurotoxic components. PMID:22806625

Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Hu, Furong; Upreti, Chirag; Ungvari, Zoltan; Zia, Muhammad T; Stanton, Patric K; Ballabh, Praveen

2012-07-17

239

The exclusion of dead bacterial cells is essential for accurate molecular analysis of clinical samples.  

PubMed

The DNA-based techniques used to detect bacteria in clinical samples are unable to discriminate between live bacteria, dead bacteria, and extracellular DNA. This failure to limit analysis to viable bacterial cells represents a significant problem, leading to false-positive results, as well as a failure to resolve the impact of antimicrobial therapy. The use of propidium monoazide treatment significantly reduces the contribution of dead cells and extracellular DNA to such culture-independent analyses. Here, the increased ability to resolve the impact of antibiotic therapy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa load in cystic fibrosis respiratory samples reveals statistically significant changes that would otherwise go undetected. PMID:20148918

Rogers, G B; Marsh, P; Stressmann, A F; Allen, C E; Daniels, T V W; Carroll, M P; Bruce, K D

2010-11-01

240

Gambogic acid induces death inducer-obliterator 1-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To explore the anticancer effects and the molecular mechanisms of gambogic acid (GA) on Jurkat cells.Methods:Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V-fluorescein-isothiocyanate\\/propidium iodide, DNA defragmentation, and comet assay were used to detect apoptosis. Western blotting was used to study the expression of death inducer-obliterator-1 (DIO-1), Bcl-2, NF-?B, and procaspase 3, as well as 2 activated subunits: p17

Yong Wang; Yan Chen; Zi Chen; Qing Wu; Wen-juan Ke; Qiu-ling Wu

2008-01-01

241

The protective role of a natural inhibitor in the fluorescent location of cells possessing a latent form of cell surface protease.  

PubMed

Leukaemia cells possess a latent form of a cell surface protease referred to as guanidinobenzoatase. Latency is due to complex formation between an inhibitor protein and the cell surface enzyme which is stable under acid conditions but is dissociated with formaldehyde treatment. The latent form of the cell surface protease has been used as a protecting mechanism during a preliminary step to stain all the nuclei of cells with haematoxylin. The enzyme-inhibitor complex was then dissociated and a combination of 9-amino acridine and propidium iodide employed to enable the fluorescent location of cells possessing active guanidinobenzoatase. We were thus able to visualise the nuclei by conventional light microscopy and simultaneously visualise the cell surface of leukaemia cells by fluorescent microscopy. This simple model system has provided technology applicable to the more complex analysis of neoplastic cells in cervical smears. PMID:1690794

Steven, F S; Williams, L A

1990-01-01

242

Flow cytometric quantification of radiation responses of murine peritoneal cells  

SciTech Connect

Methods have been developed to distinguish subpopulations of murine peritoneal cells, and these were applied to the measurement of early changes in peritoneal cells after irradiation. The ratio of the two major subpopulations in the peritoneal fluid, lymphocytes and macrophages, was measured rapidly by means of cell volume distribution analysis as well as by hypotonic propidium iodide (PI) staining. After irradiation, dose and time dependent changes were noted in the cell volume distributions: a rapid loss of peritoneal lymphocytes, and an increase in the mean cell volume of macrophages. The hypotonic PI staining characteristics of the peritoneal cells showed two or three distinctive G/sub 1/ peaks. The ratio of the areas of these peaks was also found to be dependent of the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. These results demonstrate that these two parameters may be used to monitor changes induced by irradiation (biological dosimetry), and to sort different peritoneal subpopulations.

Tokita, N.; Raju, M.R.

1982-01-01

243

Inhibitory effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on human colon cancer cells: a side by side comparison  

PubMed Central

We systematically compared effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene (two structurally related stilbene compounds) on three human colon cancer cells. Cell viability tests indicated that IC50s of pterostilbene were 2~5-fold lower than those of resveratrol in all three cancer cells. Pterostilbene was also more potent in inhibiting colony formation of all three cancer cells. Annexin V/ Propidium Iodide (Propidium Iodide (PI) ) co-staining assay and western blotting analysis showed pterostilbene had stronger apoptosis-inducing effects, which was evidenced by the higher percentage of annexin V positive cells and higher levels of cleaved caspae-3 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins in cancer cells treated with pterostilbene than resveratrol. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis demonstrated that intracellular levels of pterostilbene were 2~4-fold higher than those of resveratrol after treatments with individual compounds at the same concentration. Overall, our results demonstrated that pterostilbene had more potent inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells than resveratrol, which may be associated with the superior bioavailability of pterostilbene to resveratrol.

Nutakul, Wasamon; Sobers, Hana Shatara; Qiu, Peiju; Dong, Ping; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang

2011-01-01

244

Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine  

PubMed Central

Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.

Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

2010-01-01

245

Assessment of different functional parameters of frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa by using cytofluorimetric determinations.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry is a useful tool that provides an accurate, objective and rapid evaluation of semen quality. The use of this technique could significantly improve the quality of buffalo semen samples used in artificial insemination. This study was carried out to evaluate, by flow cytometry, frozen-thawed buffalo spermatozoa quality parameters such as sperm viability by SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining; mitochondrial function by JC-1 potentiometric probe; sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by acridine orange; and acrosome reaction (AR) by FITC-PNA staining. Semen samples from five Italian Mediterranean buffalo bulls were used. Sperm viability was not different between bulls and ranged from 33.4% to 43.6%. A consistent rate (55.1 ± 10.8%) of sperm cells showed high mitochondrial membrane potential (??(high)), with no significant differences between subjects. Sperm chromatin structure assay differed significantly between the five buffalo bulls; moreover, data showed high stability within each buffalo. DNA fragmentation indexes (DFI), such as %-DFI, -DFI, SD-DFI, were 11.2 ± 8.6, 153.3 ± 24.6 and 81.6 ± 21.2, respectively. Regarding AR, the percentage of acrosome-reacted live (ARL) and acrosome-reacted dead (ARD) spermatozoa was 0.3 ± 0.2 and 15.3 ± 5.5, respectively. This functional parameter differed significantly between buffalo bulls and showed high stability. Following to Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 for 3 h, AR significantly differed between subjects and was characterized by an increase in both ARL (10.8%) and ARD population (22.0%). This study indicates that flow cytometry could be a useful tool for a quick multiparametric evaluation of sperm quality in buffalo. In particular, SCSA and AR resulted in sperm functional parameters sensitive enough for the diagnosis of frozen-thawed semen fertilizing potential. PMID:22834640

Minervini, F; Guastamacchia, R; Pizzi, F; Dell'Aquila, M E; Barile, V L

2012-07-27

246

Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on apoptosis induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae in alveolar macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Apoptosis is considered as a major defense mechanism of the body. Multiple pathogens induce macrophage apoptosis as a mode of immune evasion. In earlier studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to be protective against neuronal apoptosis and neuronal degeneration, seen after spinal cord injury. In this study, we tried to evaluate the role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the process of macrophage phagocytic activity and apoptosis in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into three groups (n=60); Group I was fed on sea cod oil; Group II on flaxseed oil supplementation for 9 wk along with standard laboratory chow diet. Group III was fed on standard diet and served as control. After supplementation, phagocytic and apoptotic (morphological staining: acridine orange plus ethidium bromide; H-33342 plus propidium iodide staining and DNA ladder formation) activities of mouse alveolar macrophages were assessed. Results: Alveolar macrophages (obtained from sea cod oil and flaxseed oil fed group mice) showed significant increase in bacterial uptake as well as intracellular killing (P< 0.05) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in apoptotic cells was observed among alveolar macrophages from sea cod and flaxseed oil fed mice whereas maximum apoptosis was observed in control alveolar macrophages on interaction with bacteria in vitro which was confirmed by DNA laddering. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to mice led to enhanced phagocytic capability of their alveolar macrophages as well as provided protection against apoptosis upon challenge with S. pneumoniae.

Saini, Archana; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

2013-01-01

247

Antibiofilm efficacy of silver nanoparticles against biofilm of extended spectrum ?-lactamase isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance and colonize abiotic surfaces by forming biofilms is a major cause of medical implant-associated infections and results in prolonged hospitalization periods and patient mortality. Different approaches have been used for preventing biofilm-related infections in health care settings. Many of these methods have their own demerits that include chemical-based complications; emergent antibiotic-resistant strains, and so on. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are renowned for their influential antimicrobial activity. We demonstrate the biofilm formation by extended spectrum ?-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. by direct visualization applying tissue culture plate, tube, and Congo red agar methods. Double fluorescent staining for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) consisted of propidium iodide staining to detect bacterial cells and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining to detect the exopolysaccharides matrix were used. Scanning electron microscopy observations clearly indicate that AgNPs reduced the surface coverage by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. thus prevent the biofilm formations. Double-staining technique using CLSM provides the visual evidence that AgNPs arrested the bacterial growth and prevent the exopolysaccharides formation. The AgNPs-coated surfaces effectively restricted biofilm formation of the tested bacteria. In our study, we could demonstrate the complete antibiofilm activity AgNPs at a concentration as low as 50 ?g/ml. Our findings suggested that AgNPs can be exploited towards the development of potential antibacterial coatings for various biomedical and environmental applications. These formulations can be used for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, at much lower nanosilver loading with higher efficiency.

Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Pal, Ruchita

2013-09-01

248

IL-17-mediated Bcl-2 expression regulates survival of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis through STAT3 activation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are a major cell population of the pannus that invades adjacent cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was undertaken to determine the effect of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the survival and/or proliferation of FLSs from RA patients and to investigate whether signal tranducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in this process. Methods Bcl-2 and Bax expression in FLSs was determined using the real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-2 and phosphoSTAT3 in synovial tissues was investigated by confocal microscope. Apoptosis of FLSs was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and/or phase contrast microscopy. The proliferation of FLSs was determined by CCK-8 ELISA assay. Results The pro-apoptotic Bax is decreased and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is increased in FLSs from RA patients compared with those from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). IL-17 upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 in FLSs from RA patients, but not in FLSs from OA patients. STAT3 was found to mediate IL-17-induced Bcl-2 upregulation in FLSs from RA patients. Additionally, IL-17 promoted the survival and proliferation of FLSs from RA patients. Most importantly, treatment with STAT3 inhibitor reversed the protective effect of IL-17 on FLSs apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that STAT3 is critical in IL-17-induced survival of FLS from RA patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target the IL-17/STAT3 pathway might be strong candidates for RA treatment modalities.

2013-01-01

249

Micromanipulation and physiological monitoring of cells using two-photon excited fluorescence in cw laser tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of two-photon fluorescence excitation and cell confinement, simultaneously, in a continuous-wave (cw) single-beam gradient force optical trap, and demonstrate its use as an in-situ probe to study the physiological state of an optically confined cell sample. At the wavelength of 1064 nm, a single focused gaussian laser beam is used to simultaneously confine, and excite visible fluorescence from, a human sperm cell that has been tagged with propidium iodide, a exogenous fluorescent dye that functions as a viability assay of cellular physiological state. The intensity at the dye peak emission wavelength of 620 nm exhibits a near-square-law dependence on incident trapping beam photon laser power, a behavior consistent with a two-photon absorption process. In addition, for a sperm cell held stationary in the optical tweezers for a period of several minutes at a constant trapping power, red fluorescence emission was observed to increase the time, indicating that the cell has gradually transitioned between a live and dead state. Two-photon excited fluorescence was also observed in chinese hamster ovary cells that were confined by cw laser tweezers and stained with either propidium iodide or Snarf, a pH-sensitive dye probe. These results suggest that, for samples suitably tagged with fluorescent probes and vital stains, optical tweezers can be used to generate their own in-situ diagnostic optical probes of cellular viability or induced photodamage, via two-photon processes.

Sonek, Gregory J.; Liu, Yagang; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

1996-05-01

250

Prediction of clinical toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients by radio-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)  

PubMed Central

Head and neck cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Normal tissue toxicity due to x-ray exposure is a limiting factor for treatment success. Many efforts have been employed to develop predictive tests applied to clinical practice. Determination of lymphocyte radio-sensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method to predict tissue toxicity due to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients and to explore their role in predicting radiation induced toxicity. Seventy nine consecutive patients suffering from head and neck cancer, diagnosed and treated in our institution, were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and fitted to a semi logarithmic model defined by two constants: ? and ?. ?, as the origin of the curve in the Y axis determining the percentage of spontaneous cell death, and ?, as the slope of the curve determining the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose, were obtained. ? value was statistically associated to normal tissue toxicity in terms of severe xerostomia, as higher levels of apoptosis were observed in patients with low toxicity (p = 0.035; Exp(B) 0.224, I.C.95% (0.060-0.904)). These data agree with our previous results and suggest that it is possible to estimate the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients determining the radiation induced apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide staining. ? values observed define an individual radiosensitivity profile that could predict late toxicity due to radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. Anyhow, prospective studies with different cancer types and higher number of patients are needed to validate these results.

2010-01-01

251

Induction of apoptosis in human endothelial cells by nanodiamond particles.  

PubMed

Carbon nanoparticles are a promising material which finds application in different fields in industry and medicine. For medical applications, biocompatibility of nanoparticles is of critical importance because a lot of medical implants are coated by carbon coating. Our previous results showed that nanoparticles may induce increased production of ROS by the cells so we decided to checked if nanopowders can induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was quantified by double-staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. For comparison, we identified apoptotic cells with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide. Our data demonstrate that treatment of the cells with diamond nanopowders may induce apoptosis and necrosis and this effect is dependent on the time of treatment and concentration of the nanopowders. The highest level of apoptotic cells was observed after incubation with Ultrananocrystalline Detonation Diamond (UDD) suggesting that the size is the main determinant of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. PMID:22905588

Solarska, K; Gajewska, A; Bartosz, G; Mitura, K

2012-06-01

252

Apigenin impairs oral squamous cell carcinoma growth in vitro inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of apigenin, a flavonoid widely present in fruits and vegetables, on a tongue oral cancer-derived cell line (SCC-25) and on a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), with the aim of unveiling its antiproliferative mechanisms. The effect of apigenin on cell growth was evaluated by MTT assay, while apoptosis was investigated by phosphatidyl serine membrane translocation and cell cycle distribution by propidium iodide DNA staining through flow cytometry. In addition the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was evaluated by western blotting. A reduction of apigenin-induced cell growth was found in both cell lines, although SCC-25 cells were significantly more sensitive than the immortalized keratinocytes, HaCaT. Moreover, apigenin induced apoptosis and modulated the cell cycle in SCC-25 cells. Apigenin treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at both G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints, while western blot analysis revealed the decreased expression of cyclin D1 and E, and inactivation of CDK1 upon apigenin treatment. These results demonstrate the anticancer potential of apigenin in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, suggesting that it may be a very promising chemopreventive agent due to its cancer cell cytotoxic activity and its ability to act as a cell cycle modulating agent at multiple levels. PMID:23969487

Maggioni, Daniele; Garavello, Werner; Rigolio, Roberta; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Gaini, Renato; Nicolini, Gabriella

2013-08-21

253

Corneal Endothelial Cell Proliferation: A Function of Cell Density  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To determine how stimuli that increase corneal endothelial cell proliferation of human corneas in culture relate to changes in endothelial cell density in the central and peripheral cornea. METHODS Human donor cadaver corneas not suitable for transplantation were divided into four pie-shaped wedges and incubated at 37°C in medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and gentamicin. To promote a proliferative response, samples were treated with EDTA at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mM for 1 hour and then returned to culture medium. Endothelial cell proliferation was assayed with Ki-67 immunolocalization 48 and 96 hours after EDTA treatment. Samples were mounted with propidium iodide or DAPI. The total number of cells and the number of Ki-67–positive cells were counted in three regions, defined as central, mid, and peripheral cornea, to determine endothelial cell density and percentage of proliferation. RESULTS A proliferative response to EDTA was not found. However, increased proliferation was noted in the central compared with the peripheral corneal region. Unexpectedly, the increased proliferation in the central region corresponded to a trend of lower endothelial cell density in the central region compared with the peripheral region. Corneal endothelial cell proliferation under our culture conditions is noted primarily when cell density is less than 2000 cells/mm2. CONCLUSIONS Corneal endothelial cell proliferation under our culture conditions does not lead to supranormal endothelial cell density. Rather, cell proliferation is noted in those regions that may be experiencing a greater burden of cell loss.

Patel, Sangita P.; Bourne, William M.

2009-01-01

254

Bax is not involved in the resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resveratrol (RV) is a natural plant polyphenol widely present in foods such as grapes, wine, and peanuts. Previous studies indicate that RV has an ability to inhibit various stages of carcinogenesis and eliminate preneoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell. In this report, we analyzed whether Bax translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria during RV-induced apoptosis in single living cell using onfocal microscopey. Cells were transfected with GFP-Bax plasmid. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibition of RV on the cells viability. Apoptotic activity of RV was detected by Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Our results showed that RV induced a dose-dependent apoptosis in which Bax did not translocate to mitochondrias.

Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

2010-02-01

255

Cationic ester porphyrins cause high levels of phototoxicity in tumor cells and induction of apoptosis in HeLa Cells.  

PubMed

A series of cationic ester porphyrins are much more cytotoxic to tumor cells than photofrin, meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP4), and cisplatin. The lowest IC(50) value for SGC7901 is ca. 6 nM in vitro with irradiation. These porphyrins also exhibited the most potent photo-induced cytotoxicity without photobleaching. HeLa Cell apoptosis induced by cationic ester porphyrins after illumination was examined by flow cytometric analysis, staining assays with propidium iodide and annexin V FITC-PI, and further confirmed by observing morphological changes in the cells. The result of this study indicates that these cationic ester porphyrins may be applied in photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the future. PMID:19623552

Wu, Lin; Yang, Li; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Lixia; Weng, Xiaocheng; Zhang, Xiaolian; Shen, Chao; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Congyi

2009-07-01

256

Gap junctional communication promotes apoptosis in a connexin-type-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions (GJs) have been described to modulate cell death and survival. It still remains unclear whether this effect requires functional GJ channels or depends on channel-independent effects of connexins (Cx), the constituents of GJs. Therefore, we analysed the apoptotic response to streptonigrin (SN, intrinsic apoptotic pathway) or to ?-Fas (extrinsic apoptotic pathway) in HeLa cells expressing Cx43 as compared with empty vector-transfected (CTL) cells. Apoptosis assessed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was significantly higher in HeLa-Cx43 compared with HeLa-CTL cells. Moreover, the cleavage of caspase-7 or Parp occurred earlier in HeLa-Cx43 than in HeLa-CTL cells. Comparative analysis of the effect of two further (endothelial) Cx (Cx37 and Cx40) on apoptosis revealed that apoptosis was highest in HeLa-Cx43 and lowest in HeLa-Cx37 cells, and correlated with the GJ permeability (assessed by spreading of a GJ-permeable dye and locally induced Ca2+ signals). Pharmacologic inhibition of GJ formation in HeLa-Cx43 cells reduced apoptosis significantly. The role of GJ communication was further analysed by the expression of truncated Cx43 proteins with and without channel-forming capacity. Activation of caspases was higher in cells expressing the channel-building part (HeLa-Cx43NT-GFP) than in cells expressing the channel-incompetent C-terminal part of Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43CT-GFP) only. A hemichannel-dependent release and, hence, paracrine effect of proapoptotic signals could be excluded since the addition of a peptide (Pep)-blocking Cx43-dependent hemichannels (but not GJs) did not reduce apoptosis in HeLa-Cx43 cells. Treatment with SN resulted in a significant higher increase of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in HeLa-Cx43 and HeLa-Cx43NT-GFP cells compared with HeLa-CTL or HeLa-Cx43CT-GFP cells, suggesting that Ca2+ or a Ca2+-releasing agent could play a signalling role. Blocking of inositol triphosphate receptors reduced the SN-induced Ca2+ increase as well as the increase in apoptosis. Our observations suggest that Cx43 and Cx40 but not Cx37 promote apoptosis via gap junctional transfer of pro-apoptotic signals between cells.

Kameritsch, P; Khandoga, N; Pohl, U; Pogoda, K

2013-01-01

257

Altholactone induces apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the available chemotherapy reveals the demand for identification of new anticancer agents. We evaluated the antitumour potential of altholactone, a naturally occurring bioactive compound isolated from Goniothalamus spp. (Annonaceae) hooks, against CRC cells. Antitumour activity of altholactone was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the propidium iodide method. Apoptosis mediators involved were assessed using biochemical inhibitors and Western blotting analysis. Results revealed that altholactone induced varying degrees of apoptosis in CRC cells but not in normal fibroblasts. Dissection of the altholactone-induced apoptotic signalling pathway revealed that altholactone activated caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. Activation of caspase-4 appeared to be the initiating event in the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Pre-treatment of CRC cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited activation of caspase-4 and altholactone-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that altholactone induces selective cytotoxicity against colon carcinoma cells and warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:22105918

Mhaidat, Nizar M; Abdul-Razzak, Kalid K; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alsarhan, Aseera M; Aldaher, Ahmad N; Thorne, Rick F

2011-11-22

258

Spatial Organization of Dual-Species Bacterial Aggregates on Leaf Surfaces  

PubMed Central

The spatial organization of cells within bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces was determined for pair-wise mixtures of three different bacterial species commonly found on leaves, Pseudomonas syringae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cells were coinoculated onto bean plants and allowed to grow under moist conditions, and the resulting aggregates were examined in situ by epifluorescence microscopy. Each bacterial strain could be localized because it expressed either the green or the cyan fluorescent protein constitutively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed by propidium iodide staining. Each pair of bacterial strains that was coinoculated onto leaves formed mixed aggregates. The degree of segregation of cells in mixed aggregates differed between the different coinoculated pairs of strains and was higher in mixtures of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R and mixtures of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R than in mixtures of two isogenic strains of P. agglomerans 299R. The fractions of the total cell population that were dead in mixed and monospecific aggregates of a gfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R and a cfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R, or of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R, were similar. However, the proportion of dead cells in mixed aggregates of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R was significantly higher (13.2% ± 8.2%) than that in monospecific aggregates of these two strains (1.6% ± 0.7%), and it increased over time. While dead cells in such mixed aggregates were preferentially found at the interface between clusters of cells of these strains, cells of these two strains located at the interface did not exhibit equal probabilities of mortality. After 9 days of incubation, about 77% of the P. agglomerans 299R cells located at the interface were dead, while only about 24% of the P. syringae B728a cells were dead. The relevance of our results to understanding bacterial interactions on leaf surfaces and the implications for biological control of pathogenic and other deleterious microorganisms is discussed.

Monier, J.-M.; Lindow, S. E.

2005-01-01

259

Aggregates of resident bacteria facilitate survival of immigrant bacteria on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

The fate of immigrant bacterial cells on leaves under stressful conditions was determined as a function of the anatomical features and the local spatial density of resident cells at their landing site. Pantoea agglomerans 299R was established on bean leaves and the survival of immigrant cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 and Pseudomonas syringae B728a, as well as P. agglomerans itself, was determined by epifluorescence microscopy following subsequent exposure of plants to desiccation stress. Resident and immigrant bacterial strains constitutively expressed the cyan and the green fluorescent protein, respectively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed directly on leaf surfaces following propidium iodide staining. Although only a small fraction of the immigrant cells landed on established bacterial aggregates, their fate was usually strongly influenced by the presence of indigenous bacteria at the site at which they landed. Immigrants of P. agglomerans 299R or P. fluorescens A506 that arrived as solitary cells had about double the probability of survival when landing on aggregates formed by P. agglomerans 299R than when landing on uncolonized areas of the leaf surface. In contrast, the survival of P. syringae B728a was similar irrespective of whether it landed on colonized or uncolonized parts of a leaf. The nature of plant anatomical features at which immigrant bacteria landed also strongly influenced the fate of immigrant bacteria. The fraction of immigrant cells of each species tested that landed on veins, glandular trichomes, or epidermal cells altered by P. agglomerans that died was always less than when they landed on normal epidermal cells or at the base of hooked trichomes. Depending on the process by which immigrants arrive at a leaf, only a small fraction of cells may be deposited on existing bacterial aggregates. Although uncolonized sites differed greatly in their ability to influence the survival of immigrant cells, the fate of an immigrant bacterium will depend on the nature of the leaf structure on which it is deposited, and apparently indirectly on the amount of nutrients and water available at that site to support the development of bacterial aggregates. PMID:16003469

Monier, J-M; Lindow, S E

2005-07-07

260

Spatial organization of dual-species bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

The spatial organization of cells within bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces was determined for pair-wise mixtures of three different bacterial species commonly found on leaves, Pseudomonas syringae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cells were coinoculated onto bean plants and allowed to grow under moist conditions, and the resulting aggregates were examined in situ by epifluorescence microscopy. Each bacterial strain could be localized because it expressed either the green or the cyan fluorescent protein constitutively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed by propidium iodide staining. Each pair of bacterial strains that was coinoculated onto leaves formed mixed aggregates. The degree of segregation of cells in mixed aggregates differed between the different coinoculated pairs of strains and was higher in mixtures of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R and mixtures of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R than in mixtures of two isogenic strains of P. agglomerans 299R. The fractions of the total cell population that were dead in mixed and monospecific aggregates of a gfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R and a cfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R, or of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R, were similar. However, the proportion of dead cells in mixed aggregates of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R was significantly higher (13.2% +/- 8.2%) than that in monospecific aggregates of these two strains (1.6% +/- 0.7%), and it increased over time. While dead cells in such mixed aggregates were preferentially found at the interface between clusters of cells of these strains, cells of these two strains located at the interface did not exhibit equal probabilities of mortality. After 9 days of incubation, about 77% of the P. agglomerans 299R cells located at the interface were dead, while only about 24% of the P. syringae B728a cells were dead. The relevance of our results to understanding bacterial interactions on leaf surfaces and the implications for biological control of pathogenic and other deleterious microorganisms is discussed. PMID:16151141

Monier, J-M; Lindow, S E

2005-09-01

261

Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of cultured brown bear fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess by flow cytometry the cell cycle of brown bear fibroblast cells cultured under different growth conditions. Skin biopsies were taken in Cantabria (Spain) from a live, anaesthetized brown bear. DNA analysis was performed by flow cytometry following cell DNA staining with propidium iodide. Serum starvation increased (P<0.01) the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells (92.7+/-0.86) as compared to cycling cells (39.7+/-0.86) or cells cultured to confluency (87.3+/-0.86). DMSO included for 48h in the culture significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentage of G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle at all concentrations used and decreased percentages of S phase in a dose-dependent fashion. Roscovitine increased the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (P<0.01) at 15microM concentration. Interestingly, the G2/M stage significantly increased at 30 and 50microM compared to the control and 15microM (P<0.02). The cell cycle of brown bear adult fibroblast cells can be successfully synchronized under a variety of culture conditions. PMID:18396424

Caamaño, J N; Rodriguez, A; Salas, A; Muñoz, M; Diez, C; Prather, R S; Gómez, E

2008-03-04

262

Use of flow cytometry to monitor cell damage and predict fermentation activity of dried yeasts.  

PubMed

Viable dried yeast is used as an inoculum for many fermentations in the baking and wine industries. The fermentative activity of yeast in bread dough or grape must is a critical parameter of process efficiency. Here, it is shown that fluorescent stains and flow cytometry can be used in concert to predict the abilities of populations of dried bakers' and wine yeasts to ferment after rehydration. Fluorescent dyes that stain cells only if they have damaged membrane potential (oxonol) or have increased membrane permeability (propidium iodide) were used to analyse, by flow cytometry, populations of rehydrated yeasts. A strong relationship (r2 = 0.99) was found between the percentages of populations staining with the oxonol and the degree of cell membrane damage as measured by the more traditional method of leakage of intracellular compounds. There were also were good negative relationships (r2 > or = 0.83) between fermentation by rehydrated bakers' or wine dry yeasts and percentage of populations staining with either oxonol or propidium iodide. Fluorescent staining with flow cytometry confirmed that factors such as vigour of dried yeast mixing in water, soaking before stirring, rehydration in water or fermentation medium and temperature of rehydration have profound effects on subsequent yeast vitality. These experiments indicate the potential of flow cytometry as a rapid means of predicting the fermentation performance of dried bakers' and wine yeasts. PMID:10971752

Attfield, P V; Kletsas, S; Veal, D A; van Rooijen, R; Bell, P J

2000-08-01

263

Coordination of Intercellular Ca2+ Signaling in Endothelial Cell Tubes of Mouse Resistance Arteries  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that Ca2+ responses to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation are coordinated between neighboring endothelial cells of resistance arteries. Methods Endothelial cell tubes were freshly isolated from superior epigastric arteries of C57BL/6 mice. Intercellular coupling was tested using microinjection of propidium iodide. Following loading with fluo-4 dye, intracellular Ca2+ responses to ACh were imaged with confocal microscopy. Results Cell-to-cell transfer of propidium iodide confirmed functional gap junction channels. 1 ?M ACh evoked Ca2+ responses [9.8±0.8/min, (F/F0)=3.11±0.2] which pseudo-linescan analysis revealed to be composed of Ca2+ waves and spatially-restricted Ca2+ release events. 100 nM ACh induced Ca2+ responses of lower frequency (4.5±0.7/min) and amplitude (F/F0=1.95±0.11) composed primarily of spatially-restricted events. The interval between Ca2+ waves in Adjacent cells (0.79±0.12 s) was shorter (P<0.05) than between Nonadjacent cells (1.56±0.25 s). Spatially-restricted Ca2+ release events had similar frequencies and latencies between Adjacent and Nonadjacent cells. Inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ release with 2-APB, Xestospongin C or thapsigargin eliminated Ca2+ responses. Conclusions With moderate GPCR stimulation, localized Ca2+ release events predominate among cells. Greater GPCR stimulation evokes coordinated intercellular Ca2+ waves via the endoplasmic reticulum. Calcium signaling during GPCR activation is complex among cells, varying with stimulus intensity and proximity to actively signaling cells.

Socha, Matthew J.; Domeier, Timothy L.; Behringer, Erik J.; Segal, Steven S.

2012-01-01

264

Somatostatin and opioid receptors do not regulate proliferation or apoptosis of the human multiple myeloma U266 cells  

PubMed Central

Background opioid and somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) that can assemble as heterodimer were individually reported to modulate malignant cell proliferation and to favour apoptosis. Materials and methods: SSTRs and opioid receptors expression were examined by RT-PCR, western-blot and binding assays, cell proliferation was studied by XTT assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining and apoptosis by annexin V-PI labelling. Results almost all human malignant haematological cell lines studied here expressed the five SSTRs. Further experiments were conducted on the human U266 multiple myeloma cells, which express also ?-opioid receptors (MOP-R). XTT assays and cell cycle studies provide no evidence for a significant effect upon opioid or somatostatin receptors stimulation. Furthermore, neither direct effect nor potentiation of the Fas-receptor pathway was detected on apoptosis after these treatments. Conclusion these data suggest that SSTRs or opioid receptors expression is not a guaranty for an anti-tumoral action in U266 cell line.

Kerros, Celine; Cavey, Thibault; Sola, Brigitte; Jauzac, Philippe; Allouche, Stephane

2009-01-01

265

Radiation-induced changes in nucleoid halo diameteres of aerobic and hypoxic SF-126 human brain tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Nucleoid halo diameters were measured to assay changes in DNA supercoiling in human brain tumor cell line SF-126 after irradiation under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. In unirradiated aerobic cells, a typical propidium iodide titration curve showed that with increasing concentrations of propodium iodide, the halo diameter increased and then decreased with the unwinding and subsequent rewinding of DNA supercoils. In irradiated cells, the rewinding of DNA supercoils was inhibited, resulting in an increased halo diameter, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. To produce equal increases in halo diameter required about a threefold higher radiation dose in hypoxic cells than in aerobic cells. Quantitatively similiar differences in the radiation sensitivities of hypoxic and aerobic cells were demonstrated by a colony-forming efficiency assay. These findings suggest that the nucleoid halo assay may be used as a rapid measure of the inherent radiation sensitivity of human tumors. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Wang, J.; Basu, H.S.; Hu, L.; Feuerstein, B.G.; Deen, D.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-02-01

266

Oxygen\\/glucose deprivation increases the integration of recombinant P2X 7 receptors into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human P2X7 receptors, C-terminally labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (P2X7–EGFP), were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Activation of these receptors by their preferential agonist 2?,3?-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) induced inward currents and propidium ion uptake indicating the opening of cationic channels and of large pores permeable for dye molecules, respectively. Two mutants of P2X7 receptors (P2X7–EGFP–I568N, –E496A) representing polymorphisms in

Doreen Milius; Helke Gröger-Arndt; Doychin Stanchev; Christine Lange-Dohna; Steffen Rossner; Beata Sperlagh; Kerstin Wirkner; Peter Illes

2007-01-01

267

Viability studies of optically trapped T-cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a viability study of optically trapped live T cell hybridomas. T cells form an important part of the adaptive immune response system which is responsible for fighting particular pathogens or diseases. The cells of interest were directly trapped by a laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm and their viability measured as a function of time. Cell death was monitored using an inverted fluorescent microscope to observe the uptake by the cell of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide. Studies were undertaken at various laser powers and beam profiles. There is a growing interest in optically trapping immune cells and this is the first study that investigates the viability of a T cell when trapped using a conventional optical trapping system. In such experiments it is crucial that the T cell remains viable and trapping the cell directly means that any artefacts due to a cell-bead interface are removed. Our motivation behind this experiment is to use optical tweezers to gain a greater understanding of the interaction forces between T cells and antigen presenting cells. Measuring these interactions has become important due to recent theories which indicate that the strength of this interaction may underlie the activation of the T-cell and subsequent immune response.

McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain; Wright, Amanda J.

2011-09-01

268

Localized micro-scale disruption of cells using laser-generated focused ultrasound.  

PubMed

We utilize laser-generated focused ultrasound (LGFU) to create targeted mechanical disturbance on a few cells. The LGFU is transmitted through an optoacoustic lens that converts laser pulses into focused ultrasound. The tight focusing (<100 µm) and high peak pressure of the LGFU produces cavitational disturbances at a localized spot with micro-jetting and secondary shock-waves arising from micro-bubble collapse. We demonstrate that LGFU can be used as a non-contact, non-ionizing, high-precision tool to selectively detach a single cell from its culture substrate. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of biomolecule delivery in a small population of cells targeted by LGFU at pressure amplitudes below and above the cavitation threshold. We experimentally confirm that cavitational disruption is required for delivery of propidium iodide, a membrane-impermeable nucleic acid-binding dye, into cells. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:23420806

Baac, Hyoung Won; Frampton, John; Ok, Jong G; Takayama, Shuichi; Guo, L Jay

2013-02-18

269

Cell death in the skin: how to study its quality and quantity?  

PubMed

The characterization of the quality and quantity of cell death has gained substantial interest over the past decades. More recently necroptosis as a programmed form of necrosis has been identified as an important additional form of cell death with relevance in the skin. Understanding how to assay cell death in specific is of critical importance for cancer research and treatment. Here we describe six different methods that can be used to assay cell viability and to study the quality or quantity of cultured human keratinocytes in vitro. These methods include crystal violet assay, hypodiploidy analysis, caspase-8 cleavage, release of HMGB1, annexin V/propidium iodide co-staining, and Hoechst/SYTOX green co-staining. PMID:23325645

Makarov, Roman; Geserick, Peter; Feoktistova, Maria; Leverkus, Martin

2013-01-01

270

Cell dualism: presence of cells with alternative membrane potentials in growing populations of bacteria and yeasts.  

PubMed

It is considered that all growing cells, for exception of acidophilic bacteria, have negatively charged inside cytoplasmic membrane (??(-) - cells). Here we show that growing populations of microbial cells contain a small portion of cells with positively charged inside cytoplasmic membrane (??(+) - cells). These cells were detected after simultaneous application of the fluorescent probes for positive membrane potential (anionic dye DIBAC(-)) and membrane integrity (propidium iodide, PI). We found in exponentially growing cell populations of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that the content of live ??(-) - cells was 93.6?±?1.8 % for bacteria and 90.4?±?4.0 % for yeasts and the content of live ??(+) - cells was 0.9?±?0.3 % for bacteria and 2.4?±?0.7 % for yeasts. Hypothetically, existence of ??(+) - cells could be due to short-term, about 1 min for bacteria and 5 min for yeasts, change of membrane potential from negative to positive value during the cell cycle. This change has been shown by the reversions of K(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+) ions fluxes across the cell membrane during synchronous yeast culture. The transformation of ??(-)- cells to ??(+) - cells can be explained by slow influx of K(+) ions into ??(-)- cell to the trigger level of K(+) concentration ("compression of potassium spring"), which is forming "alternative" ??(+)-cell for a short period, following with fast efflux of K(+) ions out of ??(+)-cell ("release of potassium spring") returning cell to normal ??(-) state. We anticipate our results to be a starting point to reveal the biological role of cell dualism in form of ??(-) - and ??(+) - cells. PMID:23640693

Ivanov, Volodymyr; Rezaeinejad, Saeid; Chu, Jian

2013-05-03

271

Single-cell variability in growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell populations measured with automated flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Cell cultures normally are heterogeneous due to factors such as the cell cycle, inhomogeneous cell microenvironments, and genetic differences. However, distributions of cell properties usually are not taken into account in the characterization of a culture when only population averaged values are measured. In this study, the cell size, green fluorescence protein (Gfp) content, and viability after automated staining with propidium iodide (PI) are monitored at the single-cell level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures growing in a batch bioreactor using an automated flow injection flow cytometer system. To demonstrate the wealth of information that can be obtained with this system, three cultures containing three different plasmids are compared. The first plasmid is a centromeric plasmid expressing under the control of a TEF2 promoter the S65T mutant form of Gfp. The other two plasmids are 2 microm plasmids and express the FM2 mutant of Gfp under the control of either the TEF1 or the TEF2 promoter. The automated sampling, cell preparation, and analysis permitted frequent quantification of the culture characteristics. The time course of the data representing not only population average values but also their variability, provides a detailed and reproducible "fingerprint" of the culture dynamics. The data demonstrate that small changes in the genetic make up of the recombinant system can result in large changes in the culture Gfp production and viability. Thus, the developed instrumentation is valuable for rapidly testing promoter strength, plasmid stability, cell viability, and culture variability. PMID:15066762

Kacmar, James; Zamamiri, Abdelqader; Carlson, Ross; Abu-Absi, Nicholas R; Srienc, Friedrich

2004-04-29

272

Akebia saponin PA induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in AGS human gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanism of akebia saponin PA (AS), a natural product isolated from Dipsacus asperoides in human gastric cancer cell lines. It was shown that AS-induced cell death is caused by autophagy and apoptosis in AGS cells. The apoptosis-inducing effect of AS was characterized by annexin V/propidium (PI) staining, increase of sub-G1 phase and caspase-3 activation, while the autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3 II (LC3-II) conversion. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BaF1) decreased AS-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation, but caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO did not affect LC3-II accumulation or AS-induced cell viability, suggesting that AS induces autophagic cell death and autophagy contributes to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, AS activated p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which could be inhibited by BaF1, and caspase-3 activation was attenuated by both SB202190 and SP600125, indicating that AS-induced autophagy promotes mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AS induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death and autophagy plays the main role in akebia saponin PA-induced cell death. PMID:23850994

Xu, Mei-Ying; Lee, Dong Hwa; Joo, Eun Ji; Son, Kun Ho; Kim, Yeong Shik

2013-07-09

273

Hyperspectral image analysis of live cells in various cell cycle stages.  

PubMed

In this study we have explored the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to determine the cell cycle status of live cells in culture. Live cancer cell lines in culture were either synchronized by release from nocodazole or arrested in various cell-cycle phases with serum starvation (G1), aphidicolin (S), or nocodazole (G2/M). The live cells were then stained with the fluorescent DNA binding dyes Heochst 33342 or DCO along with propidium iodide or MTR. Samples were examined using fluorescence microscopy and entire spectral emission profiles were acquired for each sample using a PARISS HSI system. Classified spectra were incorporated into spectral libraries. All spectra acquired from each sample were correlated with library spectra to a user-determined confidence threshold, generating unique spectral signatures for each sample. Examination of these spectral signatures revealed that all cell cycle phases could be objectively differentiated. Ongoing studies employing other viable cell fluorescent dyes, and dyes in combination may provide more robust spectral signatures defining the status and condition of living cells. PMID:17912031

Dicker, David T; Lerner, Jeremy M; El-Deiry, Wafik S

2007-08-21

274

Flow-cytometric analyses of viability biomarkers in pesticide-exposed sperm of three aquatic invertebrates.  

PubMed

Toxicity studies on sperm often use fertilization success as the end point. This type of assay can be affected by sperm density, egg quality, and sperm-egg compatibility. Testing sperm viability biomarkers with flow cytometry is a fast, high-throughput technique for seminal analysis. In this study, we detected sperm viability biomarkers with several fluorescent reporter dyes using flow cytometry in three aquatic invertebrates (Crassostrea virginica, Dreissena polymorpha, and Lytechinus variegatus) after exposure to a pesticide and herbicide. The pesticide, Bayluscide, appeared to affect mitochondrial membrane potential in the sperm of all three species, as measured with MitoTracker Red CMXRos. A decrease in the percentage of sperm stained with SYBR-14 (indicating uncompromised plasma membrane) was observed in C. virginica and D. polymorpha sperm exposed to Bayluscide, but propidium iodide staining (indicating compromised plasma membranes) appeared to be inhibited by Bayluscide. Acrosome-reacted sperm, as measured by FITC-PNA, decreased after Bayluscide exposure in C. virginica and D. polymorpha sperm. The herbicide, Roundup Ready To-Use-Plus, did not affect the overall percentages of sperm stained with MitoTracker but did cause an increase in MitoTracker fluorescence intensity at 16 mg/L in D. polymorpha. Roundup also caused significant decreases in SYBR-14 staining, significant increases in propidium iodide staining, and significant increases in FITC-PNA staining in D. polymorpha sperm. By not having to rely on egg availability and optimal sperm density, sperm toxicity can be more accurately assessed with flow cytometry as being directly correlated to sperm viability rather than the possibility of altered toxicity results due to sperm-to-egg compatibility. PMID:19876686

Favret, Karen P; Lynn, John W

2009-10-30

275

Oral and vaginal epithelial cell anti-Candida activity is acid labile and does not require live epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the causative agent of oral and vaginal candidiasis. Innate host defenses against C. albicans are important against each infection. Among these are oral and vaginal epithelial cells that have anti-Candida activity. The mechanism of action includes a requirement for cell contact with no role for soluble factors, and a putative role for carbohydrates based on the sensitivity of the activity to periodic acid. Methods: Periodic acid treatment of epithelial cells as well as the property of partial resistance of antifungal activity to fixation was used to further dissect the mechanism of action. Results: The results herein effectively now challenge a role for carbohydrates alone. Firstly, the putative carbohydrate(s) released into supernatants of periodic acid-treated epithelial cells could not compete with fresh epithelial cells for activity, and equivalent abrogation of activity was observed by periodic acid-treated cells irrespective of the amount of carbohydrate released. Instead, the similar abrogation of activity following treatment with other acids or when cocultured under acidic conditions suggests that the activity is acid-labile. Finally, while activity requires intact epithelial cells, it does not require live cells; activity was minimally affected by fixing epithelial cells prior to coculture where the majority of cells remained impermeable to Trypan blue but were defined as non–viable by positive nuclear staining with propidium iodide. Conclusion: These results suggest that antifungal activity is dependent on contact by intact, but not necessarily live, epithelial cells through an acid-labile mechanism.

Yano, J.; Lilly, E. A.; Steele, C.; Fortenberry, D.; Fidel, P. L.

2005-01-01

276

Detection of irradiated quail meat by using DNA comet assay and evaluation of comets by image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) was used to detect DNA comets in irradiated quail meat samples. Obtained DNA comets were evaluated by both photomicrographic and image analysis. Quail meat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0.52, 1.05, 1.45, 2.00, 2.92 and 4.00 kGy in gamma cell (gammacell 60Co, dose rate 1.31 kGy/h) covering the permissible limits for enzymatic decay and stored at 2 °C. The cells isolated from muscle (chest, thorax) in cold PBS were analyzed using the DNA comet assay on 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 11 day post irradiation. The cells were lysed between 2, 5 and 9 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophorosis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2 min. After propidium iodide staining, the slides were evaluated through a fluorescent microscope. In all irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and damaged cells appeared as a comet. All measurement data were analyzed using BS 200 ProP with software image analysis (BS 200 ProP, BAB Imaging System, Ankara, Turkey). The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. The values of tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment were significantly different and identical between 0.9 and 4.0 kGy dose exposure, and also among storage times on day 1, 4 and 8. In conclusion, the DNA Comet Assay EN 13784 standard method may be used not only for screening method for detection of irradiated quail meat depending on storage time and condition but also for the quantification of applied dose if it is combined with image analysis. Image analysis may provide a powerful tool for the evaluation of head and tail of comet intensity related with applied doses.

Erel, Yakup; Yazici, Nizamettin; Özvatan, Sumer; Ercin, Demet; Cetinkaya, Nurcan

2009-09-01

277

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions.  

PubMed

The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0-80mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS. PMID:23892171

Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

2013-06-29

278

The anti-angiogenic peptide anginex disrupts the cell membrane.  

PubMed

Anginex is a synthetic beta-sheet peptide with anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity. When added to cultured endothelial cells at concentrations ranging from 2.5 microM to 25 microM, anginex induced cell death, which was reflected by a strong increase of subdiploid cells and fragments, loss of cellular ATP, and LDH release. Cytotoxicity remained the same whether cells were treated with anginex at 4 degrees C or at 37 degrees C. At low temperatures, fluorescein-conjugated anginex accumulated on the endothelial surface, but did not reach into the cytoplasm, indicating that the cell membrane is the primary target for the peptide. Within minutes of treatment, anginex caused endothelial cells to take up propidium iodide and undergo depolarization, both parameters characteristic for permeabilization of the cell membrane. This process was amplified when cells were activated with hydrogen peroxide. Red blood cell membranes were essentially unaffected by anginex. Anginex bound lipid bilayers with high affinity and with a clear preference for anionic over zwitterionic phospholipids. Structural studies by circular dichroism and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance showed that anginex forms a beta-sheet and adopts a unique and highly ordered conformation upon binding to lipid membranes. This is consistent with lipid micellization or the formation of pore-forming beta-barrels. The data suggest that the cytotoxicity of anginex stems from its ability to target and disrupt the endothelial cell membrane, providing a possible explanation for the angiostatic activity of the peptide. PMID:16403516

Pilch, Jan; Franzin, Carla M; Knowles, Lynn M; Ferrer, Fernando J; Marassi, Francesca M; Ruoslahti, Erkki

2005-12-20

279

Annexin V assay-proven anti-apoptotic effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside after cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Controversy exists over whether the predominant cell death of hepatocytes is due to apoptosis or necrosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study we investigated the predominant cell death of hepatocytes after cold ischemia/reperfusion injury using the Annexin V-based assay, and evaluated the anti-apoptotic effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G) added to the University of Wisconsin solution (UW solution) in rat liver transplantation. The retrieved liver was preserved in 4 UW solution for 24 h, and then transplanted orthotopically to the syngeneic Wistar recipient. The animals were divided into 2 groups, a control group (n=10), in which liver grafts were preserved in UW solution (4), and an AA-2G group (n=10), in which liver grafts were preserved in UW solution (4) with AA-2G (100 ug/ml). The serum AST level 4 h after reperfusion in the control group was significantly suppressed in the AA-2G group, and the bile production of the liver graft in the AA-2G group was well recovered. The mean survival time in the AA-2G group was significantly improved compared with that in the control group. Annexin-V and Propidium iodide staining 4 h after reperfusion showed a significantly higher percentage of viable hepatocytes in the AA-2G group compared with the control group (93.4 +/- 2.0 vs. 80.3 +- 2.1%, P<0.05). In the control group, the main cell death of hepatocytes was apoptosis (early apoptosis: 10.0 +- 4.7%, late apoptosis: 6.4 +/- 1.7%). The addition of AA-2G to the UW solution significantly inhibited both early and late apoptotic cell death 4 h after reperfusion (early apoptosis: 0.98 +/- 0.88%, late apoptosis: 2.2 +/- 1.1%). The expression of caspase 9 in the immunostaining of the liver graft was suppressed in the AA-2G group compared with in the control group. Our study using the Annexin V-based assay provided evidence that the predominant cell death of hepatocytes was apoptosis after 24 h cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver transplantation. The addition of AA-2G to the UW solution attenuated 24 h cold ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting the apoptosis of hepatocytes. PMID:14679398

Liu, Jie; Yagi, Takahito; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Matsukawa, Hiroyoshi; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Mitsuoka, Naoshi; Yamamura, Masao; Matsuoka, Junji; Jin, Zaishun; Yamamoto, Itaru; Tanaka, Noriaki

2003-10-01

280

Colorectal cancer cell growth inhibition by linoleic acid is related to fatty acid composition changes  

PubMed Central

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) possess anti-cancer action both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we detected cell viability with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell membrane permeability with propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence dyeing, and calculated cell membrane fluidity change as fluorescence anisotropy. Fatty acid content in cells was measured by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the relationship between fatty acid composition and cell viability was studied. We observed that n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA) inhibited tumor cell growth at high concentrations (?300 µmol/L), while low concentrations (100–200 µmol/L) seemed to promote cell proliferation. Analyses of cell membrane permeability, cell membrane fluidity, and cell fatty acid composition suggested that the anti-cancer action of LA could be related to changes in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. We observed that pre-incubation of cancer cells with 100 µmol/L LA for 24 h enhanced cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of LA, whereas undifferentiated cell line LoVo seemed to have a distinct path in LA-induced death. These results showed that one of the mechanisms by which supplementation of LA induces cancer cell death could be altering the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, and this may be related to cell differentiation status.

Lu, Xiao-feng; He, Guo-qing; Yu, Hai-ning; Ma, Qi; Shen, Sheng-rong; Das, Undurti N.

2010-01-01

281

Regulatory effects of deguelin on proliferation and cell cycle of Raji cells.  

PubMed

The underlying mechanism of deguelin regulating the cell cycle in human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji cells in vitro, and the cytotoxicity of deguelin to Raji cells and human peripheral blood monocular cells (PBMCs) were investigated. The effects of deguelin on the growth of Raji cells were studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected through Hoechst 33258 staining. The effect of deguelin on the cell cycle of Raji cells was studied by a propidium iodide method. The expression levels of cyclin D1, P21 and pRb were examined by using Western blotting. The results showed that the proliferation of Raji cells was inhibited in the deguelin-treated group, with a 24-h IC50 value of 21.61 nmol/L and a 36-h IC50 value of 17.07 nmol/L. Proliferation in Raji cells was inhibited significantly by deguelin, while little change was observed in PBMCs. Deguelin induced G2/M arrest in Raji cells. The expression of cyclin D1, P21 and pRb was dramatically down-regulated by deguelin in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that deguelin could inhibit the proliferation of Raji cells by arresting the cells at G2/M phase and inducing the cell apoptosis. Moreover, deguelin selectively induced apoptosis of Raji cells with low toxicity to PBMCs. The antitumor effects of deguelin were related to the down-regulated expression of cyclin D1, P21 and pRb proteins. PMID:23904366

Xiong, Jin-Rong; Liu, Hong-Li

2013-08-01

282

Effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador on cell cycle and survival of tumor cells.  

PubMed

The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts exert cytotoxic and immunomodulatory anti-tumoral effects are largely unknown. In this study the hypothesis that Iscador preparations induce tumor regression by cell cycle inhibition and/or interference with apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells was investigated. Also a possible effect on angiogenesis, which is a prerequisite for tumor growth in vivo, is studied in endothelial cell cultures. Furthermore, it was examined which apoptotic signaling route(s) is (are) activated by Iscador by studying specific pro-apoptotic proteins in cultured cells. To characterize these properties, 9 human cancer cell lines of different origin, one epidermis derived cell line and 2 endothelial cell cultures were incubated with different concentrations of Iscador Quercus Spezial and Iscador Malus Spezial. Cell cycle kinetic parameters were measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse labeling and tubulin staining. Apoptotic responses were detected by M30 Cyto-Death or Annexin V/propidium iodide assays. Characterization of the apoptotic pathway(s) was performed by staining cells for amongst others active caspase 3 and cytochrome C (mitochondrial pathway), as well as active caspase 8 (death receptor pathway). The sensitivity to Iscador treatment varies strongly between different cell lines and also ing those derived from small cell lung cancer, and adenocarcinoma of the lung and breast, as well as endothelial cell cultures, Iscador caused early cell cycle inhibition followed by apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Amongst the low responders are cell lines derived from colorectal carcinoma. In general Iscador Malus exerted a stronger response than Iscador Quercus. Apoptosis was induced by activating the mitochondrial but not the death receptor dependent pathway, at least in case of Iscador Quercus. Iscador Malus also seemed to induce apoptosis via the death receptor route, which may explain the higher sensitivity of cancer and endothelial cells to this preparation. PMID:16927529

Harmsma, Marjan; Ummelen, Monique; Dignef, Wendy; Tusenius, Karel Jan; Ramaekers, Frans C S

2006-06-01

283

Ingenol mebutate: induced cell death patterns in normal and cancer epithelial cells.  

PubMed

We investigated the proposed necrotic mechanism of ingenol mebutate, a natural compound with anti-cancer properties in human keratinocytes, the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC-5, and HeLa cervix carcinoma cells. Topical application of a clinical dose of ingenol mebutate 0.05% (1.15 mM) gel to human reconstituted full-thickness skin equivalents strongly reduced epidermal, but not dermal viability. Ingenol mebutate showed cytotoxic potency between 200-300 M on normal and cancer cells. When keratinocytes were induced to differentiate, they became significantly less sensitive to ingenol mebutate and half-maximal induction of cell death required more than 300 M ingenol mebutate. Cytotoxic concentrations of ingenol mebutate caused rupture of the mitochondrial network within minutes paralleled by cytosolic calcium release in all cells. Subsequently, plasma membrane integrity was lost as seen by propidium uptake into the cells. This was in sharp contrast to lysis of cells with low concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100 that permeabilized the plasma membrane within minutes without affecting organelle morphology. Buffering of intracellular calcium and inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore reduced the cytotoxic effect of ingenol mebutate in cancer cells, but not in normal keratinocytes. However, these inhibitors could not prevent cell death subsequent to prolonged incubation. Our findings reveal that ingenol mebutate does not mediate cytotoxicity by a simple lytic, necrotic mechanism, but activates distinct processes involving multiple cell organelles in a cell-type and differentiation-dependent manner. These data improve our understanding of ingenol mebutate-target cell interactions and offer new insights relevant to the removal of aberrant cells in human skin. PMID:23134983

Stahlhut, Martin; Bertelsen, Malene; Hoyer-Hansen, Maria; Svendsen, Nannette; Eriksson, Andre H; Lord, Janet M; Scheel-Toellner, Dagmar; Young, Stephen P; Zibert, John R

2012-10-01

284

Conserved cysteine-rich domain of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 V protein plays an important role in blocking apoptosis.  

PubMed

The paramyxovirus family includes many well-known human and animal pathogens as well as emerging viruses such as Hendra virus and Nipah virus. The V protein of simian virus 5 (SV5), a prototype of the paramyxoviruses, contains a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain which is conserved among all paramyxovirus V proteins. The V protein can block both interferon (IFN) signaling by causing degradation of STAT1 and IFN production by blocking IRF-3 nuclear import. Previously, it was reported that recombinant SV5 lacking the C terminus of the V protein (rSV5VDeltaC) induces a severe cytopathic effect (CPE) in tissue culture whereas wild-type (wt) SV5 infection does not induce CPE. In this study, the nature of the CPE and the mechanism of the induction of CPE were investigated. Through the use of DNA fragmentation, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and propidium iodide staining assays, it was shown that rSV5VDeltaC induced apoptosis. Expression of wt V protein prevented apoptosis induced by rSV5VDeltaC, suggesting that the V protein has an antiapoptotic function. Interestingly, rSV5VDeltaC induced apoptosis in U3A cells (a STAT1-deficient cell line) and in the presence of neutralizing antibody against IFN, suggesting that the induction of apoptosis by rSV5VDeltaC was independent of IFN and IFN-signaling pathways. Apoptosis induced by rSV5VDeltaC was blocked by a general caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, but not by specific inhibitors against caspases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13, suggesting that rSV5VDeltaC-induced apoptosis can occur in a caspase 12-dependent manner. Endoplasmic reticulum stress can lead to activation of caspase 12; compared to the results seen with mock and wt SV5 infection, rSV5VDeltaC infection induced ER stress, as demonstrated by increased expression levels of known ER stress indicators GRP 78, GRP 94, and GADD153. These data suggest that rSV5VDeltaC can trigger cell death by inducing ER stress. PMID:15113888

Sun, Minghao; Rothermel, Terri A; Shuman, Laurie; Aligo, Jason A; Xu, Shibo; Lin, Yuan; Lamb, Robert A; He, Biao

2004-05-01

285

Conserved Cysteine-Rich Domain of Paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5 V Protein Plays an Important Role in Blocking Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The paramyxovirus family includes many well-known human and animal pathogens as well as emerging viruses such as Hendra virus and Nipah virus. The V protein of simian virus 5 (SV5), a prototype of the paramyxoviruses, contains a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain which is conserved among all paramyxovirus V proteins. The V protein can block both interferon (IFN) signaling by causing degradation of STAT1 and IFN production by blocking IRF-3 nuclear import. Previously, it was reported that recombinant SV5 lacking the C terminus of the V protein (rSV5V?C) induces a severe cytopathic effect (CPE) in tissue culture whereas wild-type (wt) SV5 infection does not induce CPE. In this study, the nature of the CPE and the mechanism of the induction of CPE were investigated. Through the use of DNA fragmentation, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and propidium iodide staining assays, it was shown that rSV5V?C induced apoptosis. Expression of wt V protein prevented apoptosis induced by rSV5V?C, suggesting that the V protein has an antiapoptotic function. Interestingly, rSV5V?C induced apoptosis in U3A cells (a STAT1-deficient cell line) and in the presence of neutralizing antibody against IFN, suggesting that the induction of apoptosis by rSV5V?C was independent of IFN and IFN-signaling pathways. Apoptosis induced by rSV5V?C was blocked by a general caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, but not by specific inhibitors against caspases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13, suggesting that rSV5V?C-induced apoptosis can occur in a caspase 12-dependent manner. Endoplasmic reticulum stress can lead to activation of caspase 12; compared to the results seen with mock and wt SV5 infection, rSV5V?C infection induced ER stress, as demonstrated by increased expression levels of known ER stress indicators GRP 78, GRP 94, and GADD153. These data suggest that rSV5V?C can trigger cell death by inducing ER stress.

Sun, Minghao; Rothermel, Terri A.; Shuman, Laurie; Aligo, Jason A.; Xu, Shibo; Lin, Yuan; Lamb, Robert A.; He, Biao

2004-01-01

286

Toxic effects induced by curcumin in human astrocytoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the toxicity induced by curcumin in human astrocytoma cell lines. Methods: The effects induced by curcumin, at 100?µM for 24?h, were evaluated in four astrocytoma cell lines using crystal violet assay and through the evaluation of morphological and ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Also, the results of vital staining with acridine orange and propidium iodide for acidic vesicles and apoptotic bodies were analyzed and the expression of the Beclin1 gene was assessed by RT-PCR. Results: The cells treated with curcumin at 100?µM induced an inhibitory concentration50 of viability with morphological changes characterized by a progressive increase in large, non-acidic vesicles devoid of cytoplasmic components and organelles, but that conserved the cell nuclei. No DNA breakage was observed. The astrocytoma cells showed no apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy. Expression of BECLIN1 was not induced (p?cells. Conclusions: Curcumin at 100?µm induced a new type of death cell in astrocytoma cell lines. PMID:23889520

Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perézpeña-Diazconti, Mario; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Sadowinski-Pine, Stanislaw; Velasco-Rodríguez, Luis A; Cortés, Julio Roberto Cáceres; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

2013-10-28

287

Electrodelivery of drugs into cancer cells in the presence of poloxamer 188.  

PubMed

In the present study it is shown that poloxamer 188, added before or immediately after an electrical pulse used for electroporation, decreases the number of dead cells and at the same time does not reduce the number of reversible electropores through which small molecules (cisplatin, bleomycin, or propidium iodide) can pass/diffuse. It was suggested that hydrophobic sections of poloxamer 188 molecules are incorporated into the edges of pores and that their hydrophilic parts act as brushy pore structures. The formation of brushy pores may reduce the expansion of pores and delay the irreversible electropermeability. Tumors were implanted subcutaneously in both flanks of nude mice using HeLa cells, transfected with genes for red fluorescent protein and luciferase. The volume of tumors stopped to grow after electrochemotherapy and the use of poloxamer 188 reduced the edema near the electrode and around the subcutaneously growing tumors. PMID:20706647

Tsoneva, Iana; Iordanov, Iordan; Berger, Annette J; Tomov, Toma; Nikolova, Biliana; Mudrov, Nikola; Berger, Martin R

2010-07-25

288

Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50??g/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2??g/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

2012-12-27

289

Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga  

PubMed Central

Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50??g/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2??g/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

2012-01-01

290

Effects of oridonin nanosuspension on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of oridonin nanosuspension on human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cell line in vitro. The PC-3 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of oridonin solution and nanosuspensions for 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to measure cellular viability and investigate the effect of oridonin on cell growth of PC-3. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining method was used to determine the effect of oridonin by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Nanosuspension on early apoptosis of PC-3 cells was also evaluated. Oridonin significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours of treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Compared with the same concentration of oridonin solution, oridonin nanosuspension enhanced the inhibition ratio of proliferation. The observation of propidium iodide fluorescence staining confirmed the MTT assay results. The cell proportion of PC-3 at the G2/M phase in the nanosuspension treatment group was upregulated compared with that of the control and oridonin solution groups. Both oridonin solution and nanosuspension promoted the early apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Furthermore, while improving the ratio of early apoptosis, oridonin nanosuspensions also enhanced growth suppression, and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. This shows great potential in the treatment of androgen-independent carcinoma of prostate by oridonin nanosuspensions.

Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiumei; Xue, Wei; YangYang, Yuna; Xu, Derong; Zhao, Yunxue; Lou, Haiyan

2010-01-01

291

Spica Prunellae extract inhibits the proliferation of human colon carcinoma cells via the regulation of the cell cycle  

PubMed Central

Spica Prunellae has long been used as a significant component in numerous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas to clinically treat cancers. Previously, Spica Prunellae was shown to promote cancer cell apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. To further elucidate the precise mechanism of its tumoricidal activity, the effect of the ethanol extract of Spica Prunellae (EESP) on the proliferation of human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells was elucidated and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. The proliferation of HT-29 cells was evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation analyses. The cell cycle was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with propidium iodide (PI) staining. The mRNA and protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin D1 was examined using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. EESP was observed to inhibit HT-29 viability and survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EESP treatment blocked G1/S cell cycle progression and reduced the expression of pro-proliferative cyclin D1 and CDK4 at the transcriptional and translational levels. Altogether, these data suggest that the inhibition of cell proliferation via G1/S cell cycle arrest may be one of the mechanisms through which Spica Prunellae treats cancer.

LIN, WEI; ZHENG, LIANGPU; ZHUANG, QUNCHUAN; SHEN, ALING; LIU, LIYA; CHEN, YOUQIN; SFERRA, THOMAS J.; PENG, JUN

2013-01-01

292

5-Episinuleptolide acetate, a norcembranoidal diterpene from the formosan soft coral Sinularia sp., induces leukemia cell apoptosis through Hsp90 inhibition.  

PubMed

5-Episinuleptolide acetate (5EPA), a cytotoxic norcembranoidal diterpene recently identified from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia sp., exhibited potent activity against the K562, Molt 4 and HL 60 cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative assay, as well as the annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) apoptotic assay, indicated that the HL 60 cell line is the most sensitive one towards 5EPA. This diterpenoid led to caspases -3, -8, and -9 activation as well as PARP cleavage. It also induced ROS generation, calcium accumulation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, the expression levels of Hsp90 protein and several client proteins were downregulated in response to 5EPA treatment. These results suggest that 5EPA's cytotoxic effect on HL 60 cells may be attributed to the inhibition of Hsp90 as well as the induction of mitochondrial stress which finally results in apoptotic cell death. PMID:23459302

Huang, Kao-Jean; Chen, Yu-Cheng; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Su, Jui-Hsin; Tsao, Chia-Wei; Yen, Wei-Hsuan; Chang, Wen-Been; Su, Yin-Di; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Lu, Mei-Chin

2013-03-04

293

Increased serum soluble Fas after major trauma is associated with delayed neutrophil apoptosis and development of sepsis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Deregulated apoptosis and overshooting neutrophil functions contribute to immune and organ dysfunction in sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). In the present study, we determined the role of soluble Fas (sFas) in the regulation of posttraumatic neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and the development of sepsis. Methods Forty-seven major trauma patients, 18 with and 29 without sepsis development during the first 10 days after trauma, were enrolled in this prospective study. Seventeen healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples from severely injured patients were analyzed at day 1, day 5 and day 9 after major trauma. sFas levels, plasma levels of neutrophil elastase (PMNE) and levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and related to patients' Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS). Neutrophil apoptosis was determined by propidium iodide staining of fragmented DNA and flow cytometry. sFas-mediated effects on neutrophil apoptosis were investigated in cells cultured with agonistic anti-Fas antibodies in the presence of recombinant sFas, sFas-depleted serum or untreated serum from septic patients. Results Serum levels of sFas in patients who later developed sepsis were significantly increased at day 5 (P < 0.01) and day 9 (P < 0.05) after trauma compared with patients with uneventful recovery. Apoptosis of patient neutrophils was significantly decreased during the observation period compared with control cells. Moreover, Fas-mediated apoptosis of control neutrophils was efficiently inhibited by recombinant sFas and serum from septic patients. Depletion of sFas from septic patient sera diminished the antiapoptotic effects. In septic patients, sFas levels were positively correlated with SOFA at day 1 (r = 0.7, P < 0.001), day 5 (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) and day 9 (r = 0.58, P < 0.01) and with PMNE and leukocyte counts (r = 0.49, P < 0.05 for both) as well as MODS at day 5 (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) after trauma. Conclusions Increased sFas in patients with sepsis development impairs neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and shows a positive correlation with the organ dysfunction scores and PMNE. Therefore, sFas might be a therapeutic target to prevent posttrauma hyperinflammation and sepsis.

2011-01-01

294

Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Cells  

PubMed Central

Successful long-term preservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells is important for sample transport, research, biobanking, and the development of new drugs, vaccines, biomarkers, and diagnostics. In this report, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used as models of M. tuberculosis complex strains to study cryopreservation of M. tuberculosis complex cells in diverse sample matrices at different cooling rates. Cells were cryopreserved in diverse sample matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Middlebrook 7H9 medium with or without added glycerol, and human sputum. The efficacy of cryopreservation was quantified by microbiological culture and microscopy with BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. In all sample matrices examined, the microbiological culture results showed that the cooling rate was the most critical factor influencing cell viability. Slow cooling (a few degrees Celsius per minute) resulted in much higher M. tuberculosis complex recovery rates than rapid cooling (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) (P < 0.05). Among the three defined cryopreservation media (PBS, 7H9, and 7H9 plus glycerol), there was no significant differential effect on viability (P = 0.06 to 0.87). Preincubation of thawed M. tuberculosis complex cells in 7H9 broth for 20 h before culture on solid Middlebrook 7H10 plates did not help the recovery of the cells from cryoinjury (P = 0.14 to 0.71). The BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining kit, based on Syto 9 and propidium iodide (PI), was also applied to assess cell envelope integrity after cryopreservation. Using the kit, similar percentages of “live” cells with intact envelopes were observed for samples cryopreserved under different conditions, which was inconsistent with the microbiological culture results. This implies that suboptimal cryopreservation might not cause severe damage to the cell wall and/or membrane but instead cause intracellular injury, which leads to the loss of cell viability.

Shu, Zhiquan; Weigel, Kris M.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Lakey, Annie; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

2012-01-01

295

Time courses of mammalian cell electropermeabilization observed by millisecond imaging of membrane property changes during the pulse.  

PubMed Central

Time courses of electropermeabilization were analyzed during the electric field application using a rapid fluorescent imaging system. Exchanges of calcium ions through electropermeabilized membrane of Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be asymmetrical. Entry of calcium ions during a millisecond pulse occurred on the anode-facing cell hemisphere. Entry through the region facing the cathode was observed only after the pulse. Leakage of intracellular calcium ions from electropermeabilized cell in low-calcium content medium was observed only from the anode-facing side. The exchanges during the pulse were mostly due to diffusion-driven processes, i.e., governed by the concentration gradient. Interaction of propidium iodide, a dye sensitive to the structural alteration of membrane, with cell membrane was asymmetrical during electropermeabilization. Localized enhancement of the dye fluorescence was observed during and after the pulsation on the cell surface. Specific staining of a limited anode-facing part of the membrane was observed as soon as the pulse was applied. The membrane fluorescence level increased during and immediately after the pulse whereas the geometry of the staining was unchanged. The membrane regions stained by propidium iodide were the same as those where calcium exchanges occurred. The fraction of the membrane on which structural alterations occurred was defined by the field strength. The density of defects was governed by the pulse duration. Electropermeabilization is a localized but asymmetrical process. The membrane defects are created unequally on the two cell sides during the pulse, implying a vectorial effect of the electric field on the membrane.

Gabriel, B; Teissie, J

1999-01-01

296

Cytotoxicity of Voriconazole on Cultured Human Corneal Endothelial Cells?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of voriconazole on cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). HCECs were cultured and exposed to various concentrations of voriconazole (5.0 to 1,000 ?g/ml). Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assays. Cell damage was assessed using phase-contrast microscopy after 24 h of exposure to voriconazole. To analyze the effect of voriconazole on the intercellular barrier, immunolocalization of zonula occludens 1 (ZO1) was performed. A flow cytometric assay was performed to evaluate the apoptotic and necrotic effects of voriconazole on HCECs. Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated the dose-dependent toxic effect of voriconazole on HCECs. Voriconazole concentrations of ?100 ?g/ml led to a significant reduction in cell viability. The morphological characteristics of HCECs also changed in a dose-dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of voriconazole resulted in fading staining for ZO1. Higher concentrations of voriconazole resulted in an increased number of propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells, indicating activation of the proapoptotic pathway. In conclusion, voriconazole may have a dose-dependent toxic effect on cultured HCECs. The results of this study suggest that although voriconazole concentrations of up to 50 ?g/ml do not decrease cell viability, intracameral voriconazole concentrations of ?100 ?g/ml may increase the risk of corneal endothelial damage.

Han, Sang Beom; Shin, Young Joo; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

2011-01-01

297

Acitretin induces apoptosis through CD95 signalling pathway in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCL-1.  

PubMed

Skin cancers are by far the most common human malignancies. Retinoids have shown promising preventive and therapeutic effects against a variety of human malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of acitretin on human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) SCL-1 cells. We found that acitretin preferentially inhibited the growth of SCL-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not of non-malignant keratinocyte HaCaT cells. This inhibition appeared to be due to induction of apoptosis as revealed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AnnexinV/propidium iodide assay and morphological observation confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of acitretin on SCL-1 cells. We further demonstrated that apoptosis was induced within 1-2 days and involved activation of caspases-8, -9, -3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Caspase-8 inhibitor effectively suppressed acitretin-induced apoptosis whereas caspase-9 inhibitor did not. Acitretin increased the levels of CD95 (Fas), CD95-ligand and Fas-associated death domain. Neutralizing ZB4 anti-Fas antibody significantly inhibited the apoptosis in SCL-1 cells induced by acitretin. These results suggest that acitretin is able to induce apoptosis in skin cancer cells possibly via death receptor CD95 apoptosis pathway without affecting the viability of normal keratinocyte. PMID:18624760

Lin, Xiu-Ying; He, Chun-Di; Xiao, Ting; Jin, Xin; Chen, Jiang; Wang, Ya-Kun; Liu, Mei; Wang, Kai-Bo; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Hua-Chen; Chen, Hong-Duo

2009-06-20

298

Mitochondria toxin-induced acute cochlear cell death indicates cellular activity-correlated energy consumption.  

PubMed

The different cell types within the cochlea may have a specific contribution to the pathological changes during metabolism failure, which may provide clues for developing novel strategies for inner ear therapy. In order to evaluate activity-correlated cell death during metabolism failure in the cochlea, 3-nitropropionic acid was used to irreversibly inhibit the respiratory chain. Dose-response of the cochlear cells to 3-nitropropionic acid was analyzed in vitro. 3-Nitropropionic acid was administered onto the round window of guinea pigs. Cell death was identified by terminal transferase labeling the free 3'OH breaks in the DNA strands in vivo and propidium iodide nuclear permeation in vitro. As a result, 23.6 and 96.3 % cell death were induced by 10 and 100 mM 3-nitropropionic acid, respectively, in vitro. In the guinea pigs, 500 mM 3-nitropropionic acid induced vestibular dysfunction and severe to profound hearing losses. The cells that are the most sensitive to 3-nitropropionic acid treatment include the stria marginal and intermediate cells, epithelial cells of the Reissner's membrane, and spiral ligament fibrocytes (types II and V). Moderate sensitive cells were satellite fibrocytes of the spiral limbic central zone, osteocytes of the cochlear shell, hair cells, and spiral ganglion cells. Reduction of neurofilament in the soma and periphery processes of spiral ganglion cells occurred after the exposure. These results may be relevant to the mechanisms of injury in sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss and hazardous substance exposure-induced hearing loss. PMID:23179932

Zou, Jing; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Weikai; Poe, Dennis; Zhai, Suoqiang; Yang, Shiming; Pyykkö, Ilmari

2012-11-18

299

Electric discharge plasmas influence attachment of cultured CHO K1 cells.  

PubMed

Non-thermal plasmas can be generated by electric discharges in gases. These plasmas are reactive media, capable of superficial treatment of various materials. A novel non-thermal atmospheric plasma source (plasma needle) has been developed and tested. Plasma appears at the end of a metal pin as a submillimetre glow. We investigate the possibility of applying the plasma needle directly to living tissues; the final goal is controlled cell treatment in microsurgery. To resolve plasma effects on cells, we study cultured Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1) as a model system. When these are exposed to the plasma, instantaneous detachment of cells from the surface and loss of cell-cell interaction is observed. This occurs in the power range 0.1-0.2 W. Cell viability is assessed using propidium iodide (PI) and cell tracker green (CTG) fluorescent staining utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Detached cells remain alive. Use of higher doses (plasma power >0.2 W) results in cell necrosis. In all cases, plasma-influenced cells are strictly localized in submillimetre areas, while no reaction in surrounding cells is observed. Due to its extreme precision, plasma treatment may be applicable in refined tissue modification. PMID:15197760

Kieft, I E; Broers, J L V; Caubet-Hilloutou, V; Slaaf, D W; Ramaekers, F C S; Stoffels, E

2004-07-01

300

Calcium homeostasis and cell death in Sol8 dystrophin-deficient cell line in culture.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of calcium homeostasis are involved in the process of cell injuries such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy characterized by the absence of the protein dystrophin. But how the absence of dystrophin leads to cytosolic calcium overload is as yet poorly understood. This question has been addressed with skeletal muscle cells from human DMD muscles or mdx mice. Although easier to obtain than human muscles, mdx muscle cells have provided controversial data concerning the resting intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+](i)). This work describes the culture of Sol8 cell line that expresses neither dystrophin nor adhalin, a dystrophin-associated protein. The [Ca2+](i)and intracellular calcium transients induced by different stimuli (acetylcholine, caffeine and high potassium) are normal during the first days of culture. At later stages, calcium homeostasis exhibits drastic alterations with a breaking down of the calcium responses and a large [Ca2+](i)elevation. Concomitantly, Sol8 cells exhibit morphological signs of cell death like cytoplasmic shrinkage and incorporation of propidium iodide. Cell death could be significantly reduced by blocking the activity of calpains, a type of calcium-regulated proteases. These results suggest that Sol8 cell line provides an alternative model of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle cells for which a clear disturbance of the calcium homeostasis is observed in culture in association with calpain-dependent cell death. It is shown that transfection with a plasmid cDNA permits the forced expression of dystrophin in Sol8 myotubes as well as a correct sorting of the protein. This approach could be used to explore possible interactions between dystrophin deficiency, calcium homeostasis alteration, and dystrophic cell death. PMID:11162846

Marchand, E; Constantin, B; Vandebrouck, C; Raymond, G; Cognard, C

2001-02-01

301

Umbelliprenin is cytotoxic against QU-DB large cell lung cancer cell line but anti-proliferative against A549 adenocarcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Umbelliprenin is a natural compound, belonging to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. Recently, umbelliprenin has attracted the researchers' attention for its antitumor activities against skin tumors. Its effect on lung cancer is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of this natural compound, which is expected to have low adverse effects, on lung cancer. Methods The QU-DB large cell and A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines were treated with umbelliprenin. IC50 values were estimated using methyl thiazolely diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, in which a decrease in MTT reduction can occur as a result of cell death or cell proliferation inhibition. To quantify the rate of cell death at IC50 values, flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC (for apoptotic cells), and propidium iodide (for necrotic cells) dyes were employed. Results Data from three independent MTT experiments in triplicate revealed that IC50 values for QU-DB and A549 were 47 ± 5.3 ?M and 52 ± 1.97 ?M, respectively. Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that umbelliprenin treatment at IC50 induced 50% cell death in QU-DB cells, but produced no significant death in A549 cells until increasing the umbelliprenin concentration to IC80. The pattern of cell death was predominantly apoptosis in both cell lines. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 50 ?M and less concentrations of umbelliprenin, no suppressive effect was observed. Conclusions We found cytotoxic/anti-proliferative effects of umbelliprenin against two different types of lung cancer cell lines.

2012-01-01

302

P2 receptor antagonists prevent synaptic failure and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat CA1 hippocampus in vitro.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of purinergic P2 receptors under ischemia, we studied the effect of P2 receptor antagonists on synaptic transmission and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat hippocampal slices. The effect of the P2 antagonists pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS, unselective, 30 ?m), N(?6) -methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate (MRS2179, selective for P2Y(1) receptor, 10 ?m), Brilliant Blue G (BBG, selective for P2X(7) receptor, 1 ?m), and 5-[[[(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (A-317491, selective for P2X(3) receptor, 10 ?m), and of the newly synthesized P2X(3) receptor antagonists 2-amino-9-(5-iodo-2-isopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)adenine (PX21, 1 ?m) and 2-amino-9-(5-iodo-2-isopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)-N(?6)-methyladenine (PX24, 1 ?m), on the depression of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and anoxic depolarization (AD) elicited by 7 min of OGD were evaluated. All antagonists significantly prevented these effects. The extent of CA1 cell injury was assessed 3 h after the end of 7 min of OGD by propidium iodide staining. Substantial CA1 pyramidal neuronal damage, detected in untreated slices exposed to OGD injury, was significantly prevented by PPADS (30 ?m), MRS2179 (10 ?m), and BBG (1 ?m). Western blot analysis showed that, 10 min after the end of the 7 min of OGD, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 MAPK activation was significantly increased. MRS2179, BBG, PPADS and A-317491 significantly counteracted ERK1/2 activation. Hippocampal slices incubated with the ERK1/2 inhibitors 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadiene (U0126, 10 ?m) and ?-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl) benzeneacetonitrile (SL327, 10 ?m) showed significant fEPSP recovery after OGD and delayed AD, supporting the involvement of ERK1/2 in neuronal damage induced by OGD. These results indicate that subtypes of hippocampal P2 purinergic receptors have a harmful effect on neurotransmission in the CA1 hippocampus by participating in AD appearance and activation of ERK1/2. PMID:21453436

Traini, Chiara; Pedata, Felicita; Cipriani, Sara; Mello, Tommaso; Galli, Andrea; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Cerbai, Francesca; Volpini, Rosaria; Cristalli, Gloria; Pugliese, Anna Maria

2011-04-01

303

Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors prevents interleukin-1?-induced exacerbation of neuronal toxicity through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) affords robust neuroprotection in a number of brain conditions, although the mechanisms are still unknown. A likely candidate mechanism for this neuroprotection is the control of neuroinflammation, which contributes to the amplification of neurodegeneration, mainly through the abnormal release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin(IL)-1?. We investigated whether A2AR controls the signaling of IL-1? and its deleterious effects in cultured hippocampal neurons. Methods Hippocampal neuronal cultures were treated with IL-1? and/or glutamate in the presence or absence of the selective A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nmol/l). The effect of SCH58261 on the IL-1?-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 was evaluated by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The effect of SCH58261 on glutamate-induced neurodegeneration in the presence or absence of IL-1? was evaluated by nucleic acid and by propidium iodide staining, and by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Finally, the effect of A2AR blockade on glutamate-induced intracellular calcium, in the presence or absence of IL-1?, was studied using single-cell calcium imaging. Results IL-1? (10 to 100 ng/ml) enhanced both JNK and p38 phosphorylation, and these effects were prevented by the IL-1 type 1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra (5 ?g/ml), in accordance with the neuronal localization of IL-1 type 1 receptors, including pre-synaptically and post-synaptically. At 100 ng/ml, IL-1? failed to affect neuronal viability but exacerbated the neurotoxicity induced by treatment with 100 ?mol/l glutamate for 25 minutes (evaluated after 24 hours). It is likely that this resulted from the ability of IL-1? to enhance glutamate-induced calcium entry and late calcium deregulation, both of which were unaffected by IL-1? alone. The selective A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nmol/l), prevented both the IL-1?-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38, as well as the IL-1?-induced deregulation of calcium and the consequent enhanced neurotoxicity, whereas it had no effect on glutamate actions. Conclusions These results prompt the hypothesis that the neuroprotection afforded by A2AR blockade might result from this particular ability of A2AR to control IL-1?-induced exacerbation of excitotoxic neuronal damage, through the control of MAPK activation and late calcium deregulation.

2012-01-01

304

Sperm macrocephaly syndrome in a patient without AURKC mutations and with a history of recurrent miscarriage.  

PubMed

This paper reports a case of recurrent miscarriage in a patient affected by a variant phenotype of sperm macrocephaly syndrome (SMS). SMS is usually related to specific sperm characteristics (large head, multiple tail) and homozygous mutations in the aurora kinase C gene (AURKC). However, the present case observed large-headed spermatozoa with no flagellar abnormalities and no mutations detectable by AURKC sequencing. Furthermore, the patient had repeatedly conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, but pregnancy always aborted. This study performed morphological analysis (Papanicolau staining), annexin V/propidium iodide staining, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy. This study observed large-headed, mono-tailed, mono-centriolar spermatozoa characterized by abnormal chromatin and swollen mitochondria. SCSA revealed a high ratio of late apoptotic cells with fairly intact amount of DNA. The FISH analysis showed 100% disomy rate. As far as is known, this is the first study to include gene sequencing, TEM, cytogenetic analysis and sperm DNA fragmentation in a case of SMS and also to report recurrent miscarriage related to this specific condition. SMS may be associated with important abnormalities of the sperm subcellular structure and with disomy even in the absence of mutations in the AURKC coding sequence. Sperm macrocephaly syndrome (SMS) is a rare condition that affects spermatozoa and is related to infertility. It is characterized by a specific phenotype of large-headed, multi-tailed spermatozoa with an abnormal chromosomal status. A very few pregnancies have been obtained so far in SMS patients by means of IVF procedures. We present a case of SMS that differs from the classical syndrome as we observed large-headed spermatozoa without tail abnormalities. The affected patient had achieved three pregnancies following IVF, but all aborted. We carried out a detailed examination of the patient's spermatozoa - morphological, cytogenetic, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural analysis - and we observed that his spermatozoa are characterized by a large head whose texture appears apoptotic, a single tail and a midpiece whose mitochondria appear swollen. The DNA content within the spermatozoa was altered, as well as the chromosomal status, suggesting that some error must have occurred during spermatogenesis. Interestingly, the genetic sequencing of the specific gene usually related to SMS syndrome (AURKC) revealed no mutations in our patient, suggesting that other genes may be involved in determining this syndrome. As far as is known, this is the first study in which spermatozoa of a SMS patient have been observed using morphological analysis, ultrastructural analysis, cytogenetic analysis and sperm DNA fragmentation analysis together. Moreover, it is believed that this is first report of recurrent miscarriage due to this specific syndrome. PMID:23273756

Molinari, Emanuela; Mirabelli, Marzia; Raimondo, Stefania; Brussino, Alessandro; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Bongioanni, Francesca; Revelli, Alberto

2012-11-20

305

Comparison of Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8341 Cells Grown on Fluoroacetate?  

PubMed Central

Comparisons between the physiological properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm cells grown in a tubular biofilm reactor and planktonic cells grown in a chemostat were performed. Fluoroacetate was the sole carbon source for all experiments. The performance of cells was assessed using cell cycle kinetics and by determining specific fluoroacetate utilization rates. Cell cycle kinetics were studied by flow cytometry in conjunction with the fluorescent stain propidium iodide. Determination of the DNA content of planktonic and biofilm cultures showed little difference between the two modes of growth. Cultures with comparable specific glycolate utilization rates had similar percentages of cells in the B phase of the cell cycle, indicating similar growth rates. Specific fluoroacetate utilization rates showed the performance of planktonic cells to be superior to that of biofilm cells, with more fluoroacetate utilized per cell at similar specific fluoroacetate loading rates. A consequence of this decreased biofilm performance was the accumulation of glycolate in the effluent of biofilm cultures. This accumulation of glycolate was not observed in the effluent of planktonic cultures. Spatial stratification of oxygen within the biofilm was identified as a possible explanation for the overflow metabolism of glycolate and the decreased performance of the biofilm cells.

Heffernan, Barry; Murphy, Cormac D.; Casey, Eoin

2009-01-01

306

Antiproliferative activity of Alpinia officinarum extract in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.  

PubMed

Alpinia officinarum (A. officinarum), a member of the ginger family, is used in traditional medicine to treat stomach ache, cold and swelling. Previous studies have demonstrated an anticancer effect of the A. officinarum extract and its major components in several cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of this extract in breast cancer cells have not been fully elucidated to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of a methanolic extract of A. officinarum, by examining its effects on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Notably, the extract inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time?dependent manner. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism, we examined whether the A. officinarum extract affected cell cycle progression in MCF-7 cells. The extract inhibited S-phase cell cycle progression by suppressing the expression levels of S-phase cell cycle regulatory proteins, including E2F1, cyclin?dependent protein kinase 2 and cyclin A. Additionally, nuclear morphology and flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide dual staining demonstrated that apoptosis was induced. Western blot analysis using antibodies against apoptosis?related proteins showed that cell death induced by the extract is mediated via caspase? and mitochondrial?dependent pathways. These findings collectively indicate that the A. officinarum extract exerts an antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by inducing S-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:23404367

Ghil, Sungho

2013-02-05

307

In vitro effects of Sutherlandia frutescens water extracts on cell numbers, morphology, cell cycle progression and cell death in a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell line.  

PubMed

Sutherlandia frutescens is a South African herb traditionally used for internal cancers, diabetes, a variety of inflammatory conditions and recently to improve the overall health in cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. The in vitro effects of S. frutescens extracts were evaluated on cell numbers, morphology, cell cycle progression and cell death. Dose-dependent studies (2-10 mg/ml) revealed a decrease in malignant cell numbers when compared to their controls. S. frutescens extracts (10 mg/ml) decreased cell growth in a statistically significantly manner to 26% and 49% (P<0.001) in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human non-tumorigenic epithelial mammary gland cells (MCF-12A) respectively after 72 h of exposure. Cell density was significantly compromised and hypercondensed chromatin, cytoplasmic shrinking, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies were more pronounced in the MCF-7 cell line. Both S. frutescens-treated cell lines exhibited and increased tendency for acridine orange staining, suggesting increased lysosomal and/or autophagy activity. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the sub G(1) apoptotic fraction and an S phase arrest in both the 5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml S. frutescens-treated cells. S. frutescens induced an increase in apoptosis in both cell lines as detected by Annexin V and propidium iodide flow cytometric measurement. At 10 mg/ml, late stages of apoptosis were more prominent in MCF-7 S. frutescens-treated cells when compared to the MCF-12A cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed hallmarks of increased vacuolarization and hypercondensed chromatin, suggesting autophagic and apoptotic processes. The preliminary study demonstrates that S. frutescens water extracts exert a differential action mechanism in non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cells when compared to tumorigenic MCF-7 cells, warranting future studies on this multi-purpose medicinal plant in southern Africa. PMID:19527821

Stander, Andre; Marais, Sumari; Stivaktas, Voula; Vorster, Christiaan; Albrecht, Carl; Lottering, Mona-Liza; Joubert, Annie M

2009-04-14

308

Aspidin BB, a phloroglucinol derivative, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human ovarian HO-8910 cells.  

PubMed

Aspidin BB, an effective phloroglucinol derivative from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, has been previously reported to exert high biological activities. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms of aspidin BB on human ovarian cancer cell line, HO-8910. Aspidin BB significantly inhibited HO-8910 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values were 15.02, 25.79 and 68.81?M after 72, 48 and 24h treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, aspidin BB markedly induced apoptosis evidenced by characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, nuclear DNA fragmentation, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and S peak. Western blot analysis showed that aspidin BB suppressed Bcl-2 expression and enhanced Bax expression to desintegrate the outer mitochondrial membrane, then caused cytochrome c release which led to the activation of effector caspase-3, and further cleaved the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in the nucleus, finally induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, aspidin BB provoked S phase arrest in HO-8910 cells with up-regulation of pRb, E2F1, CDK2, cyclin E and cyclin A proteins. Taken together, these findings support the conclusion that aspidin BB exhibits cytotoxicity towards human ovarian cancer HO-8910 cells through induction of apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and arresting cell cycle progression in S phase. PMID:23628508

Sun, Yao; Mu, Fansong; Li, Chunying; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang

2013-04-27

309

Antiproliferative and cell apoptosis-inducing activities of compounds from Buddleja davidii in Mgc-803 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Buddleja davidii is widely distributed in the southwestern region of China. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of B. davidii as a Chinese traditional medicine with anticancer activity by isolating natural products for their activity against the human gastric cancer cell line Mgc-803 and the human breast cancer cell line Bcap-37. Results Ten compounds were extracted and isolated from B. davidii, among which colchicine was identified in B. davidii for the first time. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated in Mgc-803, Bcap-37 cells in vitro by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, and the results showed that luteolin and colchicine had potent inhibitory activities against the growth of Mgc-803 cells. Subsequent fluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that these two compounds could induce apoptosis in Mgc-803 cells. The results also showed that the percentages of early apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-, where PI is propidium iodide) and late apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI+) increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 36 h of incubation with luteolin at 20 ?M, the percentages of cells were approximately 15.4% in early apoptosis and 43.7% in late apoptosis; after 36 h of incubation with colchicine at 20 ?M, the corresponding values were 7.7% and 35.2%, respectively. Conclusions Colchicine and luteolin from B. davidii have potential applications as adjuvant therapies for treating human carcinoma cells. These compounds could also induce apoptosis in tumor cells.

2012-01-01

310

Induction of apoptosis by d-limonene is mediated by a caspase-dependent mitochondrial death pathway in human leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Using K562 and HL60 cell lines, we have investigated the anti-tumoral activity of d-limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene, in human leukemia cells. Apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and by the annexin V/propidium iodide binding assay. d-Limonene induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cell lines. Our findings and data, demonstrating an increase in Bax protein expression, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and an increase in caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, but not caspase-8, after the treatment of d-limonene, all suggest that the mitochondrial death pathway is primarily involved in the development of d-limonene-induced apoptosis. PMID:17169807

Ji, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Lv, Su-Qing; Sun, Xi-Zuo

2006-12-01

311

Olive Oil Polyphenols Differentially Inhibit Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation through a G1/S Cell Cycle Block Regulated by ERK1/2.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that polyphenols contained in olive oil play a role in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine if the polyphenols in olive oil, oleuropein (Ole), hydroxytyrosol (HT), and tyrosol (Tyr) could inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation through its influence on cell cycle regulation. Bovine vascular SMC were cultured in the presence of Ole, HT, or Tyr at concentration of 1, 10, or 100 ?mol/L. On days 1, 3, and 5, numbers of cells were counted. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry on day 1 after SMC were stained with propidium iodide. Cell populations grown in the presence of Ole or HT at 100 ?mol/L concentration were significantly inhibited after 5 days of exposure. Tyr had a similar tendency but it did not attain significance. Cell cycle analysis revealed that 66% of cells were in G1 phase in Ole group, compared with 48% in control group. To examine the cell cycle block between G1 and S phases, we performed Western blotting and found that ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by Ole or HT. We conclude that olive oil polyphenols could inhibit SMC proliferation through a cell cycle block between G1 and S phases which may be regulated by ERK1/2. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which olive oil consumption may be atheroprotective by inhibiting SMC proliferation. PMID:23730132

Abe, Rei; Beckett, Joel; Abe, Ryuzo; Nixon, Alexander; Rochier, Adrienne; Yamashita, Norio; Sumpio, Bauer

2012-06-01

312

Brazilian marine sponge Polymastia janeirensis induces apoptotic cell death in human U138MG glioma cell line, but not in a normal cell culture.  

PubMed

Marine sponges have been prominently featured in the area of cancer research. Here, we examined the anti-proliferative effects of crude extracts (aqueous and organic) of the Brazilian marine sponge Polymastia janeirensis in the U138MG human glioma cell line. Moreover, we examined the effects of extracts on selective cytotoxicity in the glioma cells in comparison with a normal cell culture. Exposure of glioma cells to treatments (24 h) resulted in cell number decrease at all doses tested, with both aqueous and organic extracts (IC(50) <20 and <30 microg/ml, respectively). Parallel to this result, sponge extracts reduced glioma cell viability (IC(50) <15 microg/ml for both extracts). However, higher doses (50 and 100 microg/ml) induced a stronger cytotoxic effect when compared to the lower dose tested (10 microg/ml), inhibiting more than 80% of cellular growth and viability. Propidium iodide uptake and flow cytometry analysis further showed that sponge extracts caused necrosis in the glioma cell line at higher doses, while a high percentage of apoptotic glioma cells were observed at 10 microg/ml. Moreover, apoptosis was prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD, suggesting that marine sponge extracts, at lower doses, induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in U138MG glioma cells. Surprisingly the extracts herein tested were more effective than temozolomide, a potent inductor of apoptosis used for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Furthermore, our results suggested a selectivity cytotoxic effect on glioma cell line in comparison with a normal cell culture, since the effect on viability found in glioma cells was not observed in astrocyte cultures with the lower dose (10 microg/ml). Thus, this marine sponge may be considered a good candidate for development of new cancer medicines with antitumor activity against gliomas. PMID:18454276

da Frota, Mario Luiz Conte; Braganhol, Elizandra; Canedo, Andrés Delgado; Klamt, Fabio; Apel, Miriam Anders; Mothes, Beatriz; Lerner, Cléa; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

2008-05-03

313

Oxidative stress response signaling pathways in trabecular meshwork cells and their effects on cell viability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To clarify the primary oxidative stress response signaling pathways in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and their effects on cell viability. Methods Porcine TM cells were treated with 600 ?M or 800 ?M H2O2, and their time-dependent morphologic changes were observed. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was evaluated by western blot analysis. The intracellular localization of NF?B was evaluated by western blot analysis. One-hour pretreatments with LY294002, U0126, and SB203580, with the inhibitors of PI3K, ERK1/2, and p38, respectively, were conducted to evaluate the roles of these molecules in the cellular reaction against H2O2. Cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide and anticleaved caspase-3 antibody. Results TM cells treated with 600 ?M H2O2 showed morphologic changes at 2 h that were partially recovered at 8 h after treatment. TM cells treated with 800 ?M H2O2 did not recover, and the viability was significantly decreased. Both doses of H2O2 activated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 in TM cells at 20 min after treatment, but not JNK or NF?B until 1 h after treatment. Inhibitors of PI3K, ERK1/2, and p38 suppressed recovery from the morphologic changes induced by 600 ?M H2O2. Of these three inhibitors, the PI3K and ERK1/2 inhibitors decreased TM cell viability under oxidative stress. Conclusions In TM cells, the PI3K-Akt, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways are primary oxidative stress response pathways involved in the mechanism of recovery from cellular morphologic changes induced by H2O2 treatment accompanied by actin cytoskeletal changes.

Awai-Kasaoka, Nanako; Kameda, Takanori; Fujimoto, Tomokazu; Inoue-Mochita, Miyuki; Tanihara, Hidenobu

2013-01-01

314

IGF-1/IGFBP-1 increases blastocyst formation and total blastocyst cell number in mouse embryo culture and facilitates the establishment of a stem-cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis occurs frequently for blastocysts cultured in vitro, where conditions are suboptimal to those found in the natural environment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in preventing apoptosis in the early development of the embryo, as well as in the progressive regulation of organ development. We hypothesize that IGF-1 and its dephosphorylated binding protein (IGFBP-1) may be able to improve embryo culture with an associated reduced cell death, and that the resultant increase in the total cell number of the embryo could increase the chances of establishing an embryonic stem-cell line. Results In vivo fertilized zygotes were cultured in medium containing supplementary IGF-1, or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The stages of the resultant embryos were evaluated at noon on day five post-hCG injection. The extent of apoptosis and necrosis was evaluated using Annexin V and propidium iodine staining under fluorescent microscopy. The establishment of embryonic stem-cell lines was performed using the hatching blastocysts that were cultured in the presence of IGF-1 or IGFBP-1/IGF-1. The results show that the rate of blastocyst formation in a tissue-culture system in the presence of IGF-1 was 88.7% and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 it was 94.6%, respectively, and that it was significantly greater than the figure for the control group (81.9%). IGFBP-1/IGF-1 also resulted in a higher hatching rate than was the case for the control group (68.8% vs. 48.6% respectively). IGF-1 also increased the number of Annexin V-free and propidium iodine-free blastocysts in culture (86.8% vs. 75.9% respectively). Total cell number of blastocyst in culture was increased by 18.9% for those examples cultured with dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1. For subsequent stem-cell culture, the chances of the successful establishment of a stem-cell line was increased for the IGF-1 and IGFBP-1/IGF-1 groups (IGF-1 vs. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 vs. control: 45.8% vs. 59.6% vs. 27.3% respectively). Conclusion IGF-1 or dephosphorylated IGFBP-1/IGF-1 supplement does result in an anti-apoptotic effect for early embryo development in culture, with a subsequent increased total cell number resulting from cell culture. The effect is beneficial for the later establishment of a stem-cell line.

Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kun-Bing; Hsu, Teng-Tsao; Chen, Lih-Ren

2003-01-01

315

Differential effects of Viscum album extract IscadorQu on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Extracts from European mistletoe or Viscum album L. have been reported to exert cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of this anti-tumoral activity is however, largely unknown. In this study we tested the hypothesis that IscadorQu, an aqueous fermented extract from the European mistletoe grown on oaks, induces tumor regression by cell cycle inhibition and/or interference with apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells. Also a possible effect on angiogenesis, which is a prerequisite for tumor growth in vivo, is studied in endothelial cell cultures. Furthermore, we examined which apoptotic signaling route is activated by staining cells for specific pro-apoptotic proteins. To characterize these properties, 6 different human cancer cell lines, one epidermis derived cell line and 2 endothelial cell cultures were incubated with different concentrations of IscadorQu. Cell cycle kinetics parameters were measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse labeling and tubulin staining. Apoptotic responses were detected by M30 CytoDeath or Annexin V/propidium iodide assays. Characterization of the apoptotic pathway was performed by staining cells for active caspase 3, active caspase 8, cytochrome C and chloromethyl-X-rosamine. The results of this study show that sensitivity to IscadorQu treatment varies strongly between different cell lines. In sensitive cell lines, including tumor and endothelial cell cultures, IscadorQu caused early cell cycle inhibition followed by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was induced by activating the mitochondrial but not the death receptor-dependent pathway. PMID:15547686

Harmsma, Marjan; Grommé, Monique; Ummelen, Monique; Dignef, Wendy; Tusenius, Karel Jan; Ramaekers, Frans C S

2004-12-01

316

Osmotic properties of stallion sperm subpopulations determined by simultaneous assessment of cell volume and viability.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the osmotic tolerance limits of stallion sperm as well as the osmotic behavior of different sperm subpopulations, including viable and non-viable cells as well as viable cells of different average sizes. A flow cytometric approach was used for simultaneous assessment of cell volume and permeability of the plasma membrane for the fluorescent dye propidium iodide while exposing the cells to media with different solute concentrations. Equine spermatozoa have limited osmotic tolerance limits: exposure to hypotonic conditions below approximately 240 mOsm kg(-1) already results in an increase in plasma membrane damaged cells, increasing up to 50% at an osmolality of 136 mOsm kg(-1). Plasma membrane damaged stallion sperm do not show an osmotic response after 10 min incubation in hypotonic conditions, and their volume is smaller as compared to viable cells. It is shown that inclusion or exclusion of different subpopulations greatly affects Boyle van 't Hoff behavior and therewith determination of the osmotic inactive volume. Osmotic inactive volumes were determined to be 76% and 46% of the isotonic volume for the whole sperm population and the plasma membrane intact viable cells, respectively. In addition, viable subpopulations with different average cell volumes also show different osmotic behavior. The main subpopulation of viable cells increased up to 1.6 times its isotonic volume upon exposure to 150 mOsm kg(-1), and exhibited an osmotic inactive volume of 79%. PMID:21497391

Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Blässe, Anne-Kathrin; Wolkers, Willem F; Bollwein, Heinrich; Sieme, Harald

2011-04-15

317

The Effect of Centrifugation Condition on Mature Adipocytes and Adipose Stem Cell Viability.  

PubMed

Different researchers have recommended different lipoaspirate centrifugation speeds and times, probably due to the limits in fat cell viability assays. We assessed fat cell viability using a fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide (FDA-PI) stain and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay after harvesting syringe liposuction and spun with different centrifugation speeds to determine the optimal conditions. Lipoaspirates, harvested from 13 donors, were transferred into a centrifuge tube and spun at 1000, 3000, and 4000 rpm for 3 minutes. Mature adipocytes and adipose stem cells were isolated and tested with a direct counting of FDA-PI-stained cells under fluorescence microscope and XTT assay. We incubated adipocytes and adipose stem cells for 1 day and 3 days, and we compared both of them with fresh samples to evaluate the influence of culturing condition on fat cell viability. Centrifugation speeds from 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm for 3 minutes showed no change in the percentage of adipocytes and adipose stem cell viability not only in the fresh samples but also in the cultured samples (1 day and 3 days). Centrifugation speeds under 4000 rpm do not change the percentage of fat cell viability. To differentiate viable cells from dying or dead mature adipocytes and oil accurately, combinations of viability tests are essential. PMID:23636113

Son, Daegu; Choi, Taehyun; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

2013-04-30

318

Antiproliferative effects of an analog of curcumin in Hep-2 cells: a comparative study with curcumin.  

PubMed

Curcumin, the major active principle of Curcuma longa, is one of the promising, plant-derived, chemopreventive agents being studied for its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Hence, in our study, we aimed at testing the antiproliferative efficacy of an o-hydroxyl substituted analog of curcumin, bis demethoxy curcumin analog (BDMC-A), and comparing its efficacy with that of curcumin. BDMC-A was synthesised with a yield of 78% and 98% purity. Hep-2 cells and the MTT cell viability assay were used to examine cell proliferation. LDH assay and cell counts were performed to assess the cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects of the compound, respectively. Flow cytometry followed by Western blot were performed to investigate the cell cycle distribution. BDMC-A inhibited cell proliferation at a much lower concentration (IC50 20 microM) than curcumin (IC50 50 microM). Similar effects were observed in the LDH release and cell count assays. Flow cytometric studies using propidium iodide showed accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase and the arrest was further confirmed by immunoblotting of protein cyclin D1. BDMC-A was more potent in inhibiting the cells at a lower dose when compared with curcumin. Our results showed that the analog of curcumin is likely to possess more efficacy compared with curcumin in inhibiting cancer. PMID:23513724

Kumaravel, Mohankumar; Sankar, Pajaniradje; Latha, Periyasamy; Benson, Chellakan S; Rukkumani, Rajagopalan

2013-02-01

319

Psoralen/UV inactivation of HIV-1-infected cells for use in cytologic and immunologic procedures  

SciTech Connect

A rapid procedure for the inactivation of HIV-1-infected cells using psoralen and ultraviolet (UV) light is described. Exposure of HIV-1-infected cells to 5 micrograms/ml psoralen followed by UV irradiation (320-380 nm) for 5 minutes yields cells that are noninfectious as assessed by extended infectivity assays. The psoralen/UV inactivation procedure described is effective with cells chronically or acutely infected with HIV-1 and is unaffected by cell densities up to 12 x 10(6)/ml. At 5 micrograms/ml psoralen does little damage to cellular permeability as shown by the ability of treated cells to exclude trypan blue and propidium iodide. Psoralen/UV treatment of HIV-1-infected cells does not cause a significant decrease in the reactivity of HIV-1 core and envelope antigens or cellular antigens to monoclonal antibodies. Experiments are presented demonstrating the use of these cells for flow cytometry studies and for cell surface labeling using the lactoperoxidase {sup 125}I iodination procedure.

Watson, A.J.; Klaniecki, J.; Hanson, C.V. (Oncogen Corporation, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

320

Terminating polyelectrolyte in multilayer films influences growth and morphology of adhering cells.  

PubMed

Polyelectrolyte films of anionic poly(sodium 4-styrenesulphonate) (PSS) and cationic poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were constructed using layer-by-layer assembly. The authors examined the cytocompatibility of these films for future use in nanobiotechnology applications. Cell lines HEK-293 and 3T3-L1 were cultured on these films and the initial attachment, adhesion, proliferation and cytotoxicity of the cells were measured using a propidium iodide assay. The morphology and spread of the cells were measured by phase-contrast microscopy. The actin cytoskeleton was observed using fluorescent microscopy. Neither the PAH-terminated nor the PSS-terminated polyelectrolyte films were cytotoxic. The PAH-terminated polyelectrolyte films improved the initial attachment and subsequent adhesion of the cells, in addition to enhancing the production of extracellular matrix and the modelling of the actin filaments. The PSS-terminated film enhanced the proliferation of the cells compared to the PAH-terminated film. That was despite the cell cycle, the spreading or the cytotoxicity of both cell types being similar for either the PSS-terminated surfaces or the PAH-terminated surfaces. Cell behaviour can be modulated by the final surface charge of the polyelectrolyte film and the results are useful in guiding the choice of substrates and/or coatings for potential biomedical applications (e.g. implants) as well as cell biology research. PMID:20726674

Ting, J H Y; Haas, M R; Valenzuela, S M; Martin, D K

2010-09-01

321

Evaluation of the overall accuracy of the DeLaval cell counter for somatic cell counts in ovine milk.  

PubMed

The DeLaval cell counter (DCC) is a portable device designed for on-farm somatic cell count (SCC) analysis in bovine milk. This study evaluated the performance of the DCC when analyzing ovine milk. A total of 29 composite ovine milk samples, ranging between 20 x 10(3) and 2,200 x 10(3) cells/mL, were divided into 15 aliquots/milk sample corresponding to 5 SCC methods using 3 types of preservation (unpreserved, azidiol, and bronopol). The SCC methods were the Fossomatic (FSCC), the DCC in undiluted samples, and the DCC in samples diluted 1:1 in 3 different types of diluents (PBS + Triton X-100, PBS + ethidium bromide + Triton X-100, and PBS + propidium iodide + Triton X-100). All analyses were carried out in duplicate. In addition, each sample was analyzed in quadruplicate by the direct microscopic method (DMSCC) using Pyronin Y-methyl green as a stain. Comparison of methods was based on overall accuracy studies (means comparison, repeatability, and regression studies vs. DMSCC and FSCC as reference methods). The DCC methods used to analyze milk samples diluted in staining solution (with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide) showed large coefficients of regression (b = 0.91 to 1.01) and correlation (r > 0.99) when compared with the DMSCC and FSCC methods. In these samples the DCC gave repeatability values (s(r) = 33 to 48 x 10(3) cells/mL) similar to the DMSCC (s(r) = 36 x 10(3) cells/mL), and their log SCC means (5.52 to 5.54) did not differ from the reference value (5.54). However, undiluted samples analyzed by the DCC method showed large standard deviations of repeatability and SCC values lower than those by the DMSCC or FSCC methods, probably because of the high solids content in ovine milk. The type of preservation did not affect the outcomes. Consequently, the DCC was determined to be accurate when analyzing diluted ovine milk based on comparison with the SCC reference methods. PMID:17106093

Gonzalo, C; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; de la Fuente, F; Primitivo, F San

2006-12-01

322

Determination of cell cycle phases in live B16 melanoma cells using IRMS.  

PubMed

The knowledge of cell cycle phase distribution is of paramount importance for understanding cellular behaviour under normal and stressed growth conditions. This task is usually assessed using Flow Cytometry (FC) or immunohistochemistry. Here we report on the use of FTIR microspectroscopy in Microfluidic Devices (MD-IRMS) as an alternative technique for studying cell cycle distribution in live cells. Asynchronous, S- and G0-synchronized B16 mouse melanoma cells were studied by running parallel experiments based on MD-IRMS and FC using Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. MD-IRMS experiments have been done using silicon-modified BaF2 devices, where the thin silicon layer prevents BaF2 dissolution without affecting the transparency of the material and therefore enabling a better assessment of the Phosphate I (PhI) and II (PhII) bands. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) of cellular microspectra in the 1300-1000 cm(-1) region pointed out a distribution of cells among clusters, which is in good agreement with FC results among G0/G1, S and G2/M phases. The differentiation is mostly driven by the intensity of PhI and PhII bands. In particular, PhI almost doubles from the G0/G1 to G2/M phase, in agreement with the trend followed by nucleic acids during cellular progression. MD-IRMS is then proposed as a powerful method for the in situ determination of the cell cycle stage of an individual cell, without any labelling or staining, which gives the advantage of possibly monitoring specific cellular responses to several types of stimuli by clearly separating the spectral signatures related to the cellular response from those of cells that are normally progressing. PMID:23662303

Bedolla, Diana E; Kenig, Saša; Mitri, Elisa; Ferraris, Paolo; Marcello, Alessandro; Grenci, Gianluca; Vaccari, Lisa

2013-05-10

323

Cryptosporidium Propidium Monoazide-PCR, a Molecular Biology-Based Technique for Genotyping Viable Cryptosporidium Oocysts  

EPA Science Inventory

Cryptosporidium is an important waterborne protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea and death in the immunocompromised. Current methods to monitor for Cryptosporidium oocysts in water are microscopy-based USEPA Methods 1622 and 1623. These methods assess total levels o...

324

Highlighting a need to distinguish cell cycle signatures from cellular responses to chemotherapeutics in SR-FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Previous research has seen difficulties in establishing clear discrimination by principal component analysis (PCA) between drug-treated cells analysed by single point SR-FTIR spectroscopy, relative to multisampling cell monolayers by conventional FTIR. It is suggested that the issue arises due to signal mixing between cellular-response signatures and cell cycle phase contributions in individual cells. Consequently, chemometric distinction of cell spectra treated with multiple drugs is difficult even with supervised methods. In an effort to separate cell cycle chemistry from cellular response chemistry in the spectra, renal carcinoma cells were stained with propidium iodide and fluorescent-activated cell sorted (FACS) after exposure to a number of chemotherapeutic compounds; 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and a set of novel gold-based experimental compounds. The cell spectra were analysed separately by PCA in G(1), S or G(2)/M phase. The mode of action of established drug 5FU, known to disrupt S phase, was confirmed by FACS analysis. The chemical signature of 5FU-treated cells discriminated against both the control and gold-compound (KF0101)-treated cell spectra, suggesting a different mode of action due to a difference in cellular response. PMID:23095763

Hughes, C; Brown, M D; Ball, F J; Monjardez, G; Clarke, N W; Flower, K R; Gardner, P

2012-12-21

325

Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway  

PubMed Central

Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

2012-01-01

326

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem. Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation of PMA treatment and to evaluate the suitability of the method by applying the following samples: (1) pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Alcaligenes faecalis; (2) pond water samples spiked with heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 and E. aerogenes; (3) anaerobic sludge samples exposed to increasing heat stress; and (4) selected natural samples of estuarine sediment and lake mud. Results from the first two experiments show that PMA treatment cannot efficiently suppress dead cells from PCR amplification when the targeted gene is as short as 190 bp, however, the two-step nested PCR can overcome this problem. The last two experiments indicate the method that PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR is useful for viable cells detection in microbial ecology. PMID:20024544

Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

2009-12-19

327

6,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1-methyl-azafluorenone induces caspase-8- and -9-mediated apoptosis in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

6,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1-methyl-azafluorenone (DMMA), a purified compound from Polyalthia cerasoides roots, is cytotoxic to various cancer cell lines. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the type of cancer cell death and the mechanism(s) involved. DMMA inhibited cell growth and induced apoptotic death in human leukemic cells (HL-60, U937, MOLT-4), human breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner, with IC50 values ranging between 20-55 muM DMMA also decreased cell viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The morphology of cancer cells induced by the compound after staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope was condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) was decreased after 24h exposure in all five types of cancer cells. DMMA-induced caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity was strongly induced in human leukemic HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells, while in U937-, MDA-MB231- and HepG2-treated cells there was partial induction of caspase. In conclusion, DMMA-induced activation of caspase-8 and -9 resulted in execution of apoptotic cell death in human leukemic HL-60 and MOLT-4 cell lines via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. PMID:23725188

Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Khaw-On, Patompong; Ristee, Chantrarat; Pompimon, Wilart

2013-01-01

328

Mast cell/IL-4 control of Francisella tularensis replication and host cell death is associated with increased ATP production and phagosomal acidification.  

PubMed

Mast cells are now recognized as effective modulators of innate immunity. We recently reported that mast cells and secreted interleukin-4 (IL-4) effectively control intramacrophage replication of Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS), and that mice deficient in mast cells or IL-4 receptor (IL-4R(-/-)) exhibit greater susceptibility to pulmonary challenge. In this study, we further evaluated the mechanism(s) by which mast cells/IL-4 control intramacrophage bacterial replication and host cell death, and found that IL-4R(-/-) mice exhibited significantly greater induction of active caspase-3 within lung macrophages than wild-type animals following intranasal challenge with either LVS or the human virulent type A strain SCHU S4. Treatment of LVS-infected bone-marrow-derived macrophages with a pancaspase inhibitor (zVAD) did not alter bacterial replication, but minimized active caspase-3 and other markers (Annexin V and propidium iodide) of cell death, whereas treatment with both rIL-4 and zVAD resulted in concomitant reduction of both parameters, suggesting that inhibition of bacterial replication by IL-4 was independent of caspase activation. Interestingly, IL-4-treated infected macrophages exhibited significantly increased ATP production and phagolysosomal acidification, as well as enhanced mannose receptor upregulation and increased internalization with acidification, which correlated with observations in mast cell-macrophage co-cultures, with resultant decreases in F. tularensis replication. PMID:20861832

Rodriguez, A R; Yu, J-J; Murthy, A K; Guentzel, M N; Klose, K E; Forsthuber, T G; Chambers, J P; Berton, M T; Arulanandam, B P

2010-09-22

329

Anticancer effects of phenoxazine derivatives combined with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on pancreatic cancer cell lines, KLM-1 and MIA-PaCa-2.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of the phenoxazine derivatives, 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one (Phx-1), 3-amino-1,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,8-dimethyl-2H-phenoxazine-2-one (Phx-2), and 2-aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3) on human pancreatic cancer cell lines, KLM-1 and MIA-PaCa-2, in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. Of these three phenoxazines, Phx-1 and Phx-3 inhibited proliferation of KLM-1 dose-dependently, but Phx-2 did not. Phx-3 caused both apoptosis and necrosis in KLM-1 cells, as evidenced by the phosphatidylserine externalization and propidium iodide permeable cells detected by a flow cytometric method using annexin-V and propidium iodide. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved in the Phx-3-induced cell death. TRAIL did not affect proliferation of KLM-1, and the inhibitory effects of Phx-1 and Phx-3 on the KLM-1 cell line were not augmented by the combination with TRAIL. On the other hand, proliferation of the MIA-PaCa-2 cell line was not affected by Phx-1, Phx-2 and Phx-3, although it was significantly inhibited by TRAIL in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory effects of TRAIL on MIA-PaCa-2 were synergistically augmented by the addition of Phx-1 and Phx-3, but not by Phx-2. These results suggest that both Phx-1 and Phx-3 exert anticancer effects against human pancreatic cancer cells, KLM-1 and MIA-PaCa-2, through distinct action modes. Phx-1 and Phx-3 may be effective for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:16525669

Kato, Seiko; Shirato, Ken; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Toyota, Hiroko; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Odawara, Masato; Che, Xiao-Fang; Akiyama, Shinichi; Abe, Akihisa; Tomoda, Akio

2006-04-01

330

Multiparametric Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting for the Assessment of Viable, Injured, and Dead Bifidobacterium Cells during Bile Salt Stress  

PubMed Central

Using a flow cytometry-based approach, we assessed the viability of Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM 20083 during exposure to bile salt stress. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA), propidium iodide (PI), and oxonol [DiBAC4(3)] were used to monitor esterase activity, membrane integrity, and membrane potential, respectively, as indicators of bacterial viability. Single staining with these probes rapidly and noticeably reflected the behavior of the two strains during stress exposure. However, the flow cytometry results tended to overestimate the viability of the two strains compared to plate counts, which appeared to be related to the nonculturability of a fraction of the population as a result of sublethal injury caused by bile salts. When the cells were simultaneously stained with cFDA and PI, flow cytometry and cell sorting revealed a striking physiological heterogeneity within the stressed bifidobacterium population. Three subpopulations could be identified based on their differential uptake of the probes: cF-stained, cF and PI double-stained, and PI-stained subpopulations, representing viable, injured, and dead cells, respectively. Following sorting and recovery, a significant fraction of the double-stained subpopulation (40%) could resume growth on agar plates. Our results show that in situ assessment of the physiological activity of stressed bifidobacteria using multiparameter flow cytometry and cell sorting may provide a powerful and sensitive tool for assessment of the viability and stability of probiotics.

Ben Amor, Kaouther; Breeuwer, Pieter; Verbaarschot, Patrick; Rombouts, Frank M.; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; De Vos, Willem M.; Abee, Tjakko

2002-01-01

331

Arsenic trioxide modulates DNA synthesis and apoptosis in lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL). Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and not entirely delineated. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and to determine whether arsenic-induced apoptosis is mediated via caspase activation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell cycle arrest. To achieve this goal, lung cancer cells (A549) were exposed to various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 microg/mL) of arsenic trioxide for 48 h. The effect of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was determined by the caspase-3 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) assay, p38 MAP kinase activity was determined by an immunoblot assay, and cell-cycle analysis was evaluated by the propidium iodide assay. The [3H]thymidine-incorporation assay revealed a dose-related cytotoxic response at high levels of exposure. Furthermore, arsenic trioxide modulated caspase 3 activity and induced p38 MAP kinase activation in A549 cells. However, cell-cycle studies showed no statistically significant differences in DNA content at subG1 check point between control and arsenic trioxide treated cells. PMID:20632473

Walker, Alice M; Stevens, Jacqueline J; Ndebele, Kenneth; Tchounwou, Paul B

2010-05-01

332

Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway.  

PubMed

Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material and Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometric analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cellular apoptosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blotting was applied to assay the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Plumbagin inhibited the growth and proliferation of Tca8113 cells in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycles of plumbagin-treated Tca8113 cells were arrested at the G2/M phase. Cells treated with plumbagin presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was raised by plumbagin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicate that plumbagin induces the apoptosis of Tca8113 cells through mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:23982457

Qiu, Jia-Xuan; He, Yuan-Qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-Liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-Fu

2013-08-28

333

Palytoxin causes nonoxidative necrotic damage to PC12 cells in culture.  

PubMed

Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that causies serious damage to various tissues and organs. It has been reported to affect the transport of cations across the plasma membranes, which is commonly recognized as being the principal mechanism of its highly toxic action on mammals, including humans. However, although some marine toxins have been shown to cause toxic effects on the nervous system by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses, the effect of PTX on neuronal cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the toxic action of PTX on PC12 cells was examined as an in vitro model experiment to elucidate the neurotoxic properties of this toxin, and PTX was shown to reduce the viability of PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic action of PTX was not significantly altered by the presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and reduced-form glutathione in the cultures. Fluorescence staining of the cells and the electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA showed that PTX failed to cause chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation within the cells. On the other hand, the exposure to PTX caused positive staining of the cytoplasmic space of the cells with propidium iodide and the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium. Based on these observations, PTX is considered to cause cell death as a consequence of disrupting the plasma membranes, thus causing nonoxidative necrotic damage to PC12 cells. PMID:21913210

Sagara, Takefumi; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Itoh, Mari; Morita, Kyoji; Her, Song

2011-09-13

334

The furano norclerodane diterpenoid disobulbin-D induces apoptosis in normal human liver L-02 cells.  

PubMed

Disobulbin-D (DBD), a hepatotoxic furano norclerodane diterpenoid, was isolated by bio-guided fractionation from the rhizome of Dioscorea bulbifera L. In working toward elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DBD toxicity, we treated normal human liver cell line L-02 cells with DBD in vitro and evaluated its toxicity in terms of cell viability, morphologic changes, induction of apoptosis/necrosis, and caspase 3 activity. The viability of L-02 cells was inhibited by DBD in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was supported by the Annexin V and propidium iodide assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the occurrence of a sub-G(1) peak. DBD can cause an increase in caspase 3 activity, and pretreatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO blocked cell death and attenuated the apoptosis, showing that DBD-induced L-02 cell apoptosis is caspase 3-dependent. These results suggest that the effects of DBD on the growth of normal human liver L-02 cells may be due to its induction of cell apoptosis, which may also explain the toxicity observed in the plants containing furano clerodane diterpenoids. PMID:21211949

Ma, Min; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Ruan, Jinlan; Tan, Xinqi; Liu, Jin; Wang, Cuifen; Zha, Xiao Ming; Zhang, Luyong

2011-01-05

335

Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells  

PubMed Central

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 ?g/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 ?g/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 ?g/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

2011-01-01

336

Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 ?g/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 ?g/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 ?g/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

Yuan, Hengguang; Hu, Shanglian; Huang, Peng; Song, Hua; Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

2010-12-01

337

GT1-7 cell-based cytoxicity screening assay on 96-well microplates as a platform for the safety assessment of genetically modified Gerbera hybrida extracts.  

PubMed

In this investigation, a GT1-7 cell-based cytotoxicity screening assay in 96-well microplates was set up. The assay, using propidium iodide fluorescence, was proven to be reliable, with good quality (Z' = 0.51) and low plate-to-plate and day-to-day variations. Further on, a library containing extracts from 227 genetic modification (GM) Gerbera hybrida and 42 Gerbera varieties was screened; however, no differences between them were found. Based on these findings, we propose the use of the current assay within the first-tier screening studies of large collections. Also, these results provide valuable information for GM Gerbera risk-assessment purposes and offer a model for the toxicity cell-based screening of GM crops. PMID:19514948

Fallarero, Adyary; Ainasoja, Miia; Sandberg, Malena; Teeri, Teemu H; Vuorela, Pia M

2009-01-01

338

A novel MEK1/2 inhibitor induces G1/S cell cycle arrest in human fibrosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Blockade of the ERK pathway has antitumor effects against malignant tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of JTP-70902, a novel specific MEK inhibitor, against human fibrosarcoma cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated. JTP-70902 was synthesized at Japan Tabacco. Human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells were cultured. JTP-70902 was added at various concentrations. The number of viable cells was counted employing a trypan blue dye exclusion test. Unsynchronized cells were exposed to JTP-70902 for 24 h. The nuclei were stained with propidium iodide. The DNA content was measured using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Protein extraction and Western blot analysis were performed. (1) A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth was observed at concentrations of 10 nM or more. Forty-eight hours after the treatment, the growth of HT1080 cells was completely inhibited by 200 nM JTP-70902. (2) FACS analysis revealed that a 24-h exposure to JTP-70902 increased the population of G1/S phase cells in a dose-dependent manner. (3) The phosphorylation of ERK was inhibited by JTP-70902. Furthermore, after the treatment with JTP-70902, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 protein expression increased and the phosphorylation of RB was reduced. Our results showed that JTP-70902 inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle arrest in human Ras mutant fibrosarcoma cells. These results indicate that JTP-70902 might be an attractive compound for molecular-targeting chemotherapy for malignant soft tissue tumors with the activation of the Ras-MEK-ERK pathway. PMID:20596617

Matsui, Taka-Aki; Murata, Hiroaki; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Sakabe, Tomoya; Koto, Kazutaka; Horie, Naoyuki; Tsuji, Yoshiro; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Toshikazu

2010-08-01

339

Proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis in primary human natural killer cells and suppresses NKp46-mediated cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Bortezomib is a selective and potent inhibitor of the proteasome and has prominent effects in vitro and in vivo against tumors. Very recently, cytotoxic effects of bortezomib on immune-competent cells such as T cells and dendritic cells were also revealed. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this agent on natural killer cell survival and function. Design and Methods We investigated cytotoxic properties of bortezomib on natural killer cell apoptosis and function. Primary resting natural killer cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors by negative selection. The apoptotic cells were quantified by dual labeling of recombinant annexin V and propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of natural killer cell activating receptors were also quantified by flow cytometry. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cells was tested by chromium 51 release assay. Results Our results demonstrate that bortezomib induces apoptosis in resting natural killer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Glutathione, a reactive oxygen species scavenger, prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and conferred protection against bortezomib-induced apoptosis in resting natural killer cells, indicating a role for oxidative stress. Additionally, bortezomib significantly decreased expression of the natural killer activating receptor NKp46 in non-apoptotic resting natural killer cells in a dose-dependent manner, and as a result the redirected cytotoxicity mediated via NKp46 activation was diminished. Bay 11-7082, a pharmacological inhibitor of NF-?B activation, also reduced NKp46 expression and suppressed redirected cytotoxicity. Conclusions Bortezomib induces apoptosis in primary resting natural killer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and reduces NKp46 receptor expression as well as natural killer cell cytotoxicity mediated by the NKp46 activation pathway, suggesting that bortezomib may disrupt natural killer cell-mediated immunity through at least two different mechanisms: induction of natural killer cell apoptosis, and suppression of NKp46 receptor-mediated cytotoxicity.

Wang, Xiangling; Ottosson, Astrid; Ji, Chunyan; Feng, Xiaoli; Nordenskjold, Magnus; Henter, Jan-Inge; Fadeel, Bengt; Zheng, Chengyun

2009-01-01