Science.gov

Sample records for proposes healthy food

  1. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  2. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can turn into vitamin A ) Garnet amaranth -- Vitamin K Eating lots of fruits and vegetables in any form is good for ... not well-proven, a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the ... you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these ...

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  4. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  5. Adolescents' Views about a Proposed Rewards Intervention to Promote Healthy Food Choice in Secondary School Canteens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…

  6. Healthy food procurement policies and their impact.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R C; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E; Tobe, Sheldon W; Twohig, Patrick A; L'Abbé, Mary R; Liu, Peter P

    2014-03-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  7. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    PubMed Central

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  8. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    Flaxseeds contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, protein, healthy plant-based fats, and antioxidants that help prevent cell damage. Flaxseeds are a good source of soluble and insoluble fiber which help ...

  9. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole seeds, which can pass through undigested. Flaxseed oil comes from pressed flax seeds. ... get them from foods like seafood and flaxseeds. Oils, such as canola and soybean oil, contain the ...

  10. Do healthy food baskets assess food security?

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Tasnim; Shoveller, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Developing indicators to measure the different facets of food security presents numerous conceptual and methodological challenges. This paper adopts an ecological framework to reflect on these issues through an examination of the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) tool. The HFB tool is used to measure food security conditions by determining the cost and availability of a group of foods in a shopping basket across a range of stores in different regions and neighbourhoods. The paper discusses the ability of the HFB tool to describe micro-, meso- and macro-level influences on food security and the use of the ecological model in developing complementary and alternative strategies for understanding and monitoring food security. PMID:12959676

  11. Local food systems for a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Nancy G; Dunning, Rebecca D

    2012-01-01

    Working together across disciplines and organizational boundaries, North Carolina is leading national efforts to foster environments that increase access to healthy foods and raise awareness about the complexity and benefits of local food systems. PMID:23033726

  12. Factors for Healthy Food or Less-Healthy Food Intake among Taiwanese Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence and risk factors for less-healthy food intake among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to provide the information of healthy or less-healthy food intake among Taiwanese adolescents with ID and to examine the risk factors to their food intake. A cross-sectional data on 1419…

  13. Using Insects to Make Healthy Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kok, Robert; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish et.cet. la.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. And we need to get the storage method of the food without the problem of food poisoning. The consideration about the food allergy is necessary, too. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia. Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essential to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing

  14. Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart-healthy eating and cooking. Choose the Right Fats – In Moderation! This means limiting foods high in ... and recipes each month. Boost Flavor Without Unhealthy Fats and Salt Look for recipes that use herbs ...

  15. The Healthy Trail Food Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dorcas S.

    An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…

  16. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint family. Chia seeds are considered to be a "super food" by many, delivering several important nutrients in just a few calories. You can eat this nutty-flavored seed in many ways.

  17. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  18. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:25929408

  19. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  20. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product. PMID:26503541

  1. Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

    2013-11-01

    Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. PMID:23835229

  2. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    PubMed

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved. PMID:22799475

  3. Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective. PMID:21078214

  4. FDA to Re-Examine What Makes a Food 'Healthy'

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be labeled "healthy"? Raisin bran? Avocados? Granola bars? Going by current -- and perhaps outdated -- U.S. food- ... healthy" is Kind LLC, a producer of granola bars, which was warned by the FDA last year ...

  5. Neural Signaling of Food Healthiness Associated with Emotion Processing.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake. PMID:26903859

  6. Neural Signaling of Food Healthiness Associated with Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B.; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake. PMID:26903859

  7. Insta-Grams: The Effect of Consumer Weight on Reactions to Healthy Food Posts.

    PubMed

    Kinard, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Each day, social networking sites become increasingly inundated with food imagery. Since many of these images are of fresh, vibrant, and healthy eats, photo sharing of food through social media should have a long-term positive effect on consumption habits. Yet, obesity rates in the United States continue to rise, suggesting that people are spending more time posting images of healthy foods and paying less attention to the actual foods they consume. This confounding relationship could be explained by consumer weight, in that overweight consumers desire to engage with social media maybe for the purpose of expressing, presenting, and identifying with a healthy lifestyle. In the context of food posts, individuals higher in body mass index may be more likely to engage in social media activity (e.g., likes, shares, comments) that validates healthy food choices to others in their online community. A between-subjects experimental design tested this proposed effect using a manipulated Instagram post of a healthy food item (i.e., black bean veggie burger). Results indicate that obese individuals are more likely to engage with healthy food posts compared with their normal weight and overweight counterparts. The effect is even more pronounced when posts are absent of prior social media activity. Based upon these results, obese individuals are encouraged to establish and maintain social network connections with others who routinely post images of healthy food in their social media feeds. Limitations and directions for future research are provided. PMID:27494330

  8. Let's Celebrate! A World of Healthy Foods. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbs, Sharon, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help students in West Virginia learn healthy eating habits and attitudes, primarily by preparing and eating food. The guide suggests activities, recipes and resources to help students: (1) enjoy a variety of nutritious foods; (2) feel competent about trying unfamiliar foods; (3) understand cultural influences on food…

  9. FDA to Re-Examine What Makes a Food 'Healthy'

    MedlinePlus

    ... if any, should be labeled "healthy"? Raisin bran? Avocados? Granola bars? Going by current -- and perhaps outdated -- ... might be considered a healthier option than an avocado, which contains "good" monounsaturated fat. Among food makers ...

  10. #AskBerkeleyLab: Cost and Availability of Healthy Food

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2014-10-22

    Shashi Buluswar, Executive Director at the LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, answers a question from Ashley on why healthy food costs so much and is not available in low-income neighborhoods.

  11. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

  12. Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Renee E; Keane, Christopher R; Burke, Jessica G

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, studies are focusing on the role the local food environment plays in residents' ability to purchase affordable, healthy and nutritious foods. In a food desert, an area devoid of a supermarket, access to healthy food is limited. We conducted a systematic review of studies that focused on food access and food desert research in the United States. The 31 studies identified utilized 9 measures to assess food access. Results from these studies can be summarized primarily into four major statements. Findings from other countries offer insight into ways, in which future research, policy development and program implementation in the U.S. may continue to be explored. PMID:20462784

  13. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    PubMed

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method. PMID:27256562

  14. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake. PMID:26820622

  15. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321

  16. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  17. Today's Food System: How Healthy Is It?

    PubMed

    Wallinga, David

    2009-07-01

    With its focus on the quantity of production, often to the exclusion of other goals, today's food system is on an unsustainable course. The problem begins with and is driven by industrialized production of both crops and animals. Industrialization is a product of technological change, public policy, and, most recently, globalized trade. The lack of sustainability derives from reliance on the intensive use of nonrenewable and hard-to-renew resources-soil, antibiotics, fresh water, and fossil fuels, for example-but also from the waste and pollution created by the industrial model. For at least 50 years, American agriculture policies have promoted production of, and ultimately lower market prices for, commodity crops like corn, wheat, and soybeans. Over the last 3 decades in particular, these "cheap food" policies have exacerbated the negative impacts of an industrialized agriculture on the health of the agro-ecosystem, as well as on the health of the humans who must share and be sustained by it. Sustainability and health are two sides of the same food system coin. Policies that put US food production on more sustainable footing can help aid in public efforts to address the myriad crises confronting both the food and health systems. PMID:23173026

  18. 76 FR 6597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Healthy Incentives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice invites the general public and other public agencies to comment on this proposed information collection. This collection is a new collection for the Food and Nutrition Service to examine the impact and implementation of the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP) that will begin in Hampden County, Massachusetts (MA) in November...

  19. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  20. Today's Food System: How Healthy Is It?

    PubMed Central

    Wallinga, David

    2009-01-01

    With its focus on the quantity of production, often to the exclusion of other goals, today's food system is on an unsustainable course. The problem begins with and is driven by industrialized production of both crops and animals. Industrialization is a product of technological change, public policy, and, most recently, globalized trade. The lack of sustainability derives from reliance on the intensive use of nonrenewable and hard-to-renew resources—soil, antibiotics, fresh water, and fossil fuels, for example—but also from the waste and pollution created by the industrial model. For at least 50 years, American agriculture policies have promoted production of, and ultimately lower market prices for, commodity crops like corn, wheat, and soybeans. Over the last 3 decades in particular, these “cheap food” policies have exacerbated the negative impacts of an industrialized agriculture on the health of the agro-ecosystem, as well as on the health of the humans who must share and be sustained by it. Sustainability and health are two sides of the same food system coin. Policies that put US food production on more sustainable footing can help aid in public efforts to address the myriad crises confronting both the food and health systems. PMID:23173026

  1. 'Big, strong and healthy'. Young children's identification of food and drink that contribute to healthy growth.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2013-12-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of healthy diet in early childhood makes it important to chart the development of children's understanding of food and drink. This study aimed to document young children's evaluation of food and drink as healthy, and to explore relationships with socioeconomic status, family eating habits, and children's television viewing. Data were gathered from children aged 3-5 years (n=172) in diverse socioeconomic settings in Ireland, and from their parents. Results demonstrated that children had very high levels of ability to identify healthy foods as important for growth and health, but considerably less ability to reject unhealthy items, although knowledge of these increased significantly between ages 3 and 5. Awareness of which foods were healthy, and which foods were not, was not related to family socioeconomic status, parent or child home eating habits, or children's television viewing. Results highlighted the importance of examining young children's response patterns, as many of the youngest showed a consistent 'yes bias'; however, after excluding these responses, the significant findings remained. Findings suggest it is important to teach children about less healthy foods in the preschool years. PMID:23973928

  2. 78 FR 65661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Safety Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed.... Department of Health and Human Services, ``Healthy People 2020--Improving the Lives of Americans,'' July...

  3. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of food choices: Exploring the contributions of food expenditures.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food and beverage purchases, including expenditure, throughout 2010 were obtained for 24,879 UK households stratified by occupational social class. Purchases of (1) fruit and vegetables and (2) less-healthy foods/beverages indicated healthiness of choices. Supermarket choice was determined by whether households ever visited market-defined high-price and/or low-price supermarkets. Results showed that higher occupational social class was significantly associated with greater food expenditure, which was in turn associated with healthier purchasing. In mediation analyses, 63% of the socioeconomic differences in choices of less-healthy foods/beverages were mediated by expenditure, and 36% for fruit and vegetables, but these figures were reduced to 53% and 31% respectively when controlling for supermarket choice. However, reverse mediation analyses were also significant, suggesting that 10% of socioeconomic inequalities in expenditure were mediated by healthiness of choices. Findings suggest that lower food expenditure is likely to be a key contributor to less-healthy food choices among lower socioeconomic groups. However, the potential influence of cost may have been overestimated previously if studies did not account for supermarket choice or explore possible reverse mediation between expenditure and healthiness of choices. PMID:27095324

  5. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields. PMID:26526249

  6. Healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxation: A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R

    2015-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. PMID:25933484

  7. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors And Ability To Purchase Healthy Food Items In The Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors and ability to purchase healthy foods in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Methods: FOODS 2000, a nutritional survey conducted in 18 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, provided information about dietary intake. A food ...

  8. Tools for healthy tribes: improving access to healthy foods in Indian country.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A; Evenson, Kelly R

    2012-09-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase's essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitive Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes-a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  9. A simple way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods and developing healthy foods in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Outila, Terhi A; Simulainen, Helena; Laukkanen, Tuula H A; Maarit Kyyrö, A

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have developed a new way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods. In the developed method, ready-to-eat foods were classified into specific product categories, and the nutritional quality of classified foods was analysed using the national dietary recommendations and the national dietary survey as a basis for the dietary calculations. The method was tested with the products of 'Saarioinen', which is the leading brand in the Finnish ready-to-eat food market. Results indicate that this low-cost method can easily be used in the food industry as a tool in product development and marketing in order to develop healthy foods. The method could also be applied to the restaurant and catering trade, as well as to other public institutions serving food. By using this model, nutritional researchers and the food industry could work together to prevent nutrition-related health problems. PMID:16849121

  10. Underestimating Calorie Content When Healthy Foods Are Present: An Averaging Effect or a Reference-Dependent Anchoring Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Ahern, Amy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estimations of the calorie content of an unhealthy main meal food tend to be lower when the food is shown alongside a healthy item (e.g. fruit or vegetables) than when shown alone. This effect has been called the negative calorie illusion and has been attributed to averaging the unhealthy (vice) and healthy (virtue) foods leading to increased perceived healthiness and reduced calorie estimates. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to test the hypothesized mediating effect of ratings of healthiness of foods on calorie estimates. Methods In three online studies, participants were invited to make calorie estimates of combinations of foods. Healthiness ratings of the food were also assessed. Results The first two studies failed to replicate the negative calorie illusion. In a final study, the use of a reference food, closely following a procedure from a previously published study, did elicit a negative calorie illusion. No evidence was found for a mediating role of healthiness estimates. Conclusion The negative calorie illusion appears to be a function of the contrast between a food being judged and a reference, supporting the hypothesis that the negative calorie illusion arises from the use of a reference-dependent anchoring and adjustment heuristic and not from an ‘averaging’ effect, as initially proposed. This finding is consistent with existing data on sequential calorie estimates, and highlights a significant impact of the order in which foods are viewed on how foods are evaluated. PMID:23967216

  11. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  12. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. PMID:25310889

  13. Healthy foods research: a publication strategy to maximize impact.

    PubMed

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2008-06-25

    Intense current interest in healthy foods, combined with new technologies in communication, have prompted changes in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) to allow it to remain a primary means for disseminating new research information about the chemistry of foods and agriculture. JAFC has added categories covering bioactive substances that may contribute to health benefits of foods, molecular nutrition, and safety and toxicology in order to highlight these topics along with its traditional coverage of food chemistry, analytical methods, and composition of foods. JAFC has also increased the speed of manuscript processing and its international presence. The changes at the Journal enable scientists in publicly funded laboratories, universities, and other research organizations to increase their emphasis on information dissemination and technology transfer. Scientists working in the broad area of foods and health now have various paths for relaying research results promptly to the many constituencies in this topical area, but JAFC retains its status as a primary peer-reviewed vehicle for dissemination. PMID:18494489

  14. Monitoring the Affordability of Healthy Eating: A Case Study of 10 Years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes. PMID:22254001

  15. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos. PMID:18830690

  16. Healthy Bodegas: Increasing and Promoting Healthy Foods at Corner Stores in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donya A.; Baronberg, Sabrina; Silver, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. Methods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of stores. Results. We observed an average of 4 changes on a 15-point criteria scale. The most common were placing refrigerated water at eye level, stocking canned fruit with no sugar added, offering a healthy sandwich, and identifying healthier items. Forty-six (84%) store owners completed both surveys. Owners reported increased sales of healthier items, but identified barriers including consumer demand and lack of space and refrigeration. The percentage of customers surveyed who purchased items for which we promoted a healthier option (low-sodium canned goods, low-fat milk, whole-grain bread, healthier snacks and sandwiches) increased from 5% to 16%. Conclusions. Corner stores are important vehicles for access to healthy foods. The approach described here achieved improvements in participating corner stores and in some consumer purchases and may be a useful model for other locales. PMID:22897534

  17. FOSTERING HEALTHY FOOD CONSUMPTION IN SCHOOLS: FOCUSING ON THE CHALLENGES OF COMPETITIVE FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School-based intervention programs may help to instill healthy food consumption practices that reduce diet-related risks of chronic diseases later in life. However, the current school environment presents many nutritional challenges. School lunch and breakfast programs must meet specific standards...

  18. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  19. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  20. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  1. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  2. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  3. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives proposed for use in foods for which...: GENERAL Food Additives in Standardized Foods § 130.20 Food additives proposed for use in foods for which... the act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  4. Pilot test of the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) to increase government actions for creating healthy food environments

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Effective government policies are essential to increase the healthiness of food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has developed a monitoring tool (the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI)) and process to rate government policies to create healthy food environments against international best practice. The aims of this study were to pilot test the Food-EPI, and revise the tool and process for international implementation. Setting New Zealand. Participants Thirty-nine informed, independent public health experts and non-governmental organisation (NGO) representatives. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evidence on the extent of government implementation of different policies on food environments and infrastructure support was collected in New Zealand and validated with government officials. Two whole-day workshops were convened of public health experts and NGO representatives who rated performance of their government for seven policy and seven infrastructure support domains against international best practice. In addition, the raters evaluated the level of difficulty of rating, and appropriateness and completeness of the evidence presented for each indicator. Results Inter-rater reliability was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88; Gwet’s AC2) using quadratic weights, and increased to 0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92) after deletion of the problematic indicators. Based on raters’ assessments and comments, major changes to the Food-EPI tool include strengthening the leadership domain, removing the workforce development domain, a stronger focus on equity, and adding community-based programmes and government funding for research on obesity and diet-related NCD prevention, as good practice indicators. Conclusions The resulting tool and process will be promoted and offered to countries of varying size and income globally. International benchmarking of

  5. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: a phenomenological psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  6. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: A phenomenological psychological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  7. Differential Impact of Message Appeals, Food Healthiness, and Poverty Status on Evaluative Responses to Nutrient-Content Claimed Food Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-01-01

    A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates. PMID:26147697

  8. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing two public meetings to discuss two proposed rules aimed at strengthening assurances that imported food meets the same safety standards as food produced domestically. The Foreign Supplier Verification Programs (FSVP) proposal establishes requirements for importers to verify that their foreign suppliers are implementing the modern,......

  9. Behavioral Bias for Food Reflected in Hand Movements: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Philipp A; Lohmann, Johannes; Butz, Martin V; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Palatable food induces general approach tendencies when compared to nonfood stimuli. For eating disorders, the modification of an attention bias toward food was proposed as a treatment option. Similar approaches have been efficient for other psychiatric conditions and, recently, successfully incorporated approach motivation. The direct impact of attentional biases on spontaneous natural behavior has hardly been investigated so far, although actions may serve as an intervention target, especially seeing the recent advances in the field of embodied cognition. In this study, we addressed the interplay of motor action execution and cognition when interacting with food objects. In a Virtual Reality (VR) setting, healthy participants repeatedly grasped or warded high-calorie food or hand-affordant ball objects using their own dominant hand. This novel experimental paradigm revealed an attention-like bias in hand-based actions: 3D objects of food were collected faster than ball objects, and this difference correlated positively with both individual body mass index and diet-related attitudes. The behavioral bias for food in hand movements complements several recent experimental and neurophysiological findings. Implications for the use of VR in the treatment of eating-related health problems are discussed. PMID:26562002

  10. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

    PubMed Central

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264

  11. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations. PMID:18384910

  12. 77 FR 65574 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Programs Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Programs Data Collection--Progress Reporting AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD... Miller, Reports Liaison Officer, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, Department of...

  13. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Kraak, Vivica; Rutter, Harry; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lobstein, Tim; Sacks, Gary; Gomes, Fabio; Marsh, Tim; Magnusson, Roger

    2015-06-20

    To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives. PMID:25703108

  14. Training Guidelines for Healthy School Meals for Food Service Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines offer recommended topic areas and content for training local-level food service personnel. The recommended topic areas for training school food service directors/supervisors and food service managers are nutrition requirements, menu planning for school meals, procurement, financial management, marketing, food production, program…

  15. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  16. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  17. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harray, Amelia J.; Boushey, Carol J.; Pollard, Christina M.; Delp, Edward J.; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  18. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935

  19. Baltimore City Stores Increased The Availability Of Healthy Food After WIC Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Bilal, Usama; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    As part of a 2009 revision to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, the Department of Agriculture required WIC-authorized stores to stock additional varieties of healthy food. The long-term effects of this policy on access to healthy food are unknown. Using surveys conducted in 118 Baltimore City, Maryland, food stores in 2006 and 2012, we examined associations of the change in healthy food availability with store type, neighborhood demographics, and the 2009 WIC policy change. Overall, healthy food availability improved significantly between 2006 and 2012, with the greatest increases in corner stores and in census tracts with more than 60 percent black residents. On an 11-point scale measuring availability of fruit (3 points), vegetables (4 points), bread (2 points), and milk (2 points), the WIC policy change was associated with a 0.72-point increase in WIC-relevant healthy food availability, while joining WIC was associated with a 0.99-point increase. Stores that carry a limited variety of food items may be more receptive to stocking healthier food than previously thought, particularly within neighborhoods with a majority of black residents. Policies targeting healthy food availability have the potential to increase availability and decrease health disparities. PMID:26526242

  20. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  1. Insights into the government's role in food system policy making: improving access to healthy, local food alongside other priorities.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-11-01

    Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for "what works" with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region's public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: "strategic positioning", "partnerships" and "knowledge transfer" and related sub-themes ("aligned agendas", "issue framing", "visioning" and "legitimacy"). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to  engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food. PMID:23202834

  2. Pharmacokinetics and food interaction of MK-462 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H; Polvino, W J; Sciberras, D; Yogendran, L; Cerchio, K A; Christie, K; Olah, T V; McLoughlin, D; James, I; Rogers, J D

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single intravenous (IV) doses of 5-90 micrograms kg-1 of MK-462, and the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of MK-462 administered orally to healthy males. Results of this study indicate that IV doses of MK-462 from 5 to 90 micrograms kg-1 are well tolerated. The disposition kinetics of MK-462 were linear for IV doses up to and including 60 micrograms kg-1. The values of the plasma clearance (CL), steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), plasma terminal half-life (t1/2), and mean residence time in the body (MRT) of MK-462 averaged 1376 mL min-1, 140 L, 1.8 h, and 1.7 h, respectively, and remained essentially constant over the dosage range of 10-60 micrograms kg-1 of IV MK-462. However, as the dose increased from 60 to 90 micrograms kg-1, the mean value of the apparent CL decreased from 1376 to 807 mL min-1. Thus, elimination of MK-462 was dose dependent in this dosage range. Based on the disposition decomposition analysis (DDA), it was shown that the Vss value of MK-462 remained essentially constant over the dosage range of 10-90 micrograms kg-1 of IV MK-462. The following values of two dose-independent parameters were also calculated by using DDA: distribution clearance (CLd) = 2028 mL min-1, and mean transit time in the peripheral tissues (MTTT) = 0.74 h. The mean values of AUC, Cmax, tmax, and apparent t1/2 of MK-462 in 12 subjects each receiving a 40 mg tablet of MK-462 without breakfast were 330 ng.h mL-1, 77 ng mL-1, 1.6 h, and 1.8 h, respectively. Although administration of a standard breakfast prior to dosing increased the AUC value (by approximately 20%) of MK-462 and delayed its absorption, there were no significant effects of the meal on the values of Cmax and apparent t1/2 of MK-462. PMID:8991488

  3. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  4. Focus on Healthy Foods, Not Avoiding 'Bad' Ones, for Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Foods, Not Avoiding 'Bad' Ones, for Heart Health: Study Fewer heart attacks, strokes and deaths seen ... on: Diets Nutrition Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diets Nutrition About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  5. Food synergy: the key to a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David R; Tapsell, Linda C

    2013-05-01

    Food synergy is the concept that the non-random mixture of food constituents operates in concert for the life of the organism eaten and presumably for the life of the eater. Isolated nutrients have been extensively studied in well-designed, long-term, large randomised clinical trials, typically with null and sometimes with harmful effects. Therefore, although nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon, serious for the sufferer, and curable by taking the isolated nutrient, the effect of isolated nutrients or other chemicals derived from food on chronic disease, when that chemical is not deficient, may not have the same beneficial effect. It appears that the focus on nutrients rather than foods is in many ways counterproductive. This observation is the basis for the argument that nutrition research should focus more strongly on foods and on dietary patterns. Unlike many dietary phenomena in nutritional epidemiology, diet pattern appears to be highly correlated over time within person. A consistent and robust conclusion is that certain types of beneficial diet patterns, notably described with words such as 'Mediterranean' and 'prudent', or adverse patterns, often described by the word 'Western', predict chronic disease. Food is much more complex than drugs, but essentially uninvestigated as food or pattern. The concept of food synergy leads to new thinking in nutrition science and can help to forge rational nutrition policy-making and to determine future nutrition research strategies. PMID:23312372

  6. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

  7. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. PMID:27349708

  8. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  9. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's "Fresh…

  10. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  11. Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and...

  12. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Katherine; Zachary, Drew A; Fox, Monica; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options. PMID:24996593

  13. Responsiveness to healthy television (TV) food advertisements/commercials is only evident in children under the age of seven with low food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Taylor, Lauren; Stow, Rachael; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to television advertisements for unhealthy foods has been shown to subsequently increase the amount of snack food consumed in children between the ages of five and eleven. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether healthy food television advertisements have a different effect on subsequent food intake in children. The current study explored the role of food neophobia in 'responsiveness' to food adverts in children between the ages of five and seven. Sixty-six children were exposed to unhealthy food adverts, healthy food adverts and toy adverts embedded into a cartoon in a counterbalanced order on three different occasions. Following the cartoon, children were offered a snack consisting of six food items (chocolate, jelly sweets, potato crisps, Snack-a-Jacks, green seedless grapes and carrot sticks). Food advert exposure, irrespective of content (either unhealthy or healthy food items), increased food intake by 47 kcal (11%) in high food neophobic children. Children who scored lower on the food neophobia scale ate significantly more (63 kcal, 14%) following the unhealthy food adverts only. In the healthy advert condition low food neophobic children consumed less chocolate (p=0.003) but did not increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Presentation of healthy foods does not alter food preferences in the short-term. Children with low levels of food neophobia appear to respond to healthy food messages but children with higher levels of food neophobia do not. Instead, high food neophobic children will continue to consume more chocolate following exposure to food adverts irrespective of the healthy or unhealthy message they contain. PMID:21256170

  14. False beliefs about fattening foods can have healthy consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    We suggested to 228 subjects in two experiments that, as children, they had had negative experiences with a fattening food. An additional 107 subjects received no such suggestion and served as controls. In Experiment 1, a minority of subjects came to believe that they had felt ill after eating strawberry ice cream as children, and these subjects were more likely to indicate not wanting to eat strawberry ice cream now. In contrast, we were unable to obtain these effects when the critical item was a more commonly eaten treat (chocolate chip cookie). In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended the strawberry ice cream results. Two different ways of processing the false suggestion succeeded in planting the false belief and producing avoidance of the food. These findings show that it is possible to convince people that, as children, they experienced a negative event involving a fattening food and that this false belief results in avoidance of that food in adulthood. More broadly, these results indicate that we can, through suggestion, manipulate nutritional selection and possibly even improve health. PMID:16079200

  15. The Demand for Healthy Eating: Supporting a Transformative Food "Movement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    To the extent that social science scholarship engages real-world developments it remains grounded and better able to resist elite agendas. With this in mind this article argues for the critical encounter with what I argue is the most significant struggle around food and agriculture today--the amorphous and broad-based movement that strives to…

  16. Clostridium difficile from healthy food animals: Optimized isolation and prevalence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (TCCFB) followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryp...

  17. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from healthy food animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Clostridium difficile-associated disease is increasingly reported and studies indicate that food animals may be sources of human infections. Methods: The presence of C. difficile in 345 swine fecal, 1,325 dairy cattle fecal, and 371 dairy environmental samples were examined. Two isolati...

  18. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes: Eat Healthy Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... margarine in a plastic tub • Nuts, olives, and vegetable oil • Avocados. Choose these high fat foods less often. ... Cookies, and Desserts One serving is • 1 teaspoon vegetable, olive, or canola oil • 1 teaspoon tub margarine • 5 large olives or ...

  19. Food for a Healthy Mom and Baby. Nutrition. How to Have a Healthy Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jill; And Others

    This package consists of two sets of bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn prenatal care and nutrition skills. Included in the package are Vietnamese, Laotian, and English translations of an instructional booklet dealing with how to have a healthy pregnancy. The second item in the package is a set of…

  20. Slim by Design: Serving Healthy Foods First in Buffet Lines Improves Overall Meal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets – many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. Method The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit). The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa). Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. Results With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001). Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001) or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r = 0.37; p<0.001). This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. Conclusions Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner’s plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of “first foods most” may be relevant in other contexts – such as when serving or passing food at family dinners. PMID:24194859

  1. Food choices in the presence of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' eating partners.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-02-28

    Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods. PMID:22647276

  2. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  3. The Healthy School Canteen programme: a promising intervention to make the school food environment healthier.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015. PMID:22690228

  4. An Intervention to Increase Availability of Healthy Foods and Beverages in New York City Hospitals: The Healthy Hospital Food Initiative, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Krepp, Erica M.; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. Community Context The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Methods Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Outcome Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Interpretation Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments. PMID:27281392

  5. Why healthy eating is bad for young people's health: identity, belonging and food.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; McDermott, Laura; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Adamson, Ashley

    2011-04-01

    Research into young people and healthy eating has focussed on identifying the 'barriers' to healthy eating and on developing interventions to address them. However, it has tended to neglect the emotional, social and symbolic aspects of food for young people, and the roles food might play in adolescence. This paper explores these issues, reporting findings from a qualitative study which explored the meanings and values young people attached to food choices, particularly in school and peer contexts. As part of a larger study into young people's relationships with food brands, 12 focus groups were conducted with young people aged 13-15 in the North East of England. The focus groups found that young people used food choices to help construct a desired image, as a means of judging others, and to signal their conformity with acceptable friendship and peer norms. Importantly, the findings suggested that the social and symbolic meanings associated with healthy eating conflicted with processes and values which are of crucial importance in adolescence, such as self-image and fitting in with the peer group. In other words, it was emotionally and socially risky to be seen to be interested in healthy eating. Interventions need not only to make healthy eating easier and more available, but also to address young people's emotional needs for identity and belonging. PMID:21429646

  6. The healthy food environment policy index: findings of an expert panel in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. Methods A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. Findings There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76–0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. Conclusion The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts. PMID:26229200

  7. 78 FR 4153 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling; Notification Procedures for Statements on Dietary Supplements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  8. Challenges of Utilizing Healthy Fats in Foods123

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  9. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, S. L.; Hall, W. J.; Steckler, A.; Schneider, M.; Thompson, D.; Mobley, C.; Pham, T.; El ghormli, L.

    2013-01-01

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the process evaluation findings concerning the extent to which the HEALTHY nutrition intervention was implemented during the HEALTHY trial. Overall, the observed fidelity of implementing nutrition strategies improved from baseline to the end of the study. By the last semester, all but two nutrition process evaluation goals were met. The most challenging goal to implement was serving high fiber foods, including grain-based foods and legumes. The easiest goals to implement were lowering the fat content of foods offered and offering healthier beverages. The most challenging barriers experienced by research dietitians and food service staff were costs, availability of foods and student acceptance. Forming strong relationships between the research dietitians and food service staff was identified as a key strategy to meet HEALTHY nutrition goals. PMID:24107856

  10. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    PubMed

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. PMID:26256557

  11. African Americans’ Access to Healthy Food Options in South Los Angeles Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, LaVonna Blair; Sloane, David C.; Nascimento, Lori Miller; Diamant, Allison L.; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Yancey, Antronette K.; Flynn, Gwendolyn

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined availability and food options at restaurants in less affluent (target area) and more affluent (comparison area) areas of Los Angeles County to compare residents’ access to healthy meals prepared and purchased away from home. We also considered environmental prompts that encourage the purchase of various foods. Methods. We designed an instrument to assess the availability, quality, and preparation of food in restaurants. We also assessed advertisements and promotions, cleanliness, and service for each restaurant. We assessed 659 restaurants: 348 in the target area and 311 in the comparison area. Results. The nutritional resource environment in our target area makes it challenging for residents to eat healthy away from home. Poorer neighborhoods with a higher proportion of African American residents have fewer healthy options available, both in food selections and in food preparation; restaurants in these neighborhoods heavily promote unhealthy food options to residents. Conclusions. Environment is important in understanding health status: support for the healthy lifestyle associated with lower risks for disease is difficult in poorer communities with a higher proportion of African American residents. PMID:15798128

  12. Maternal anemia associated with walkable distance to healthy food sources in Bronx, New York.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Danielle M; Johnson, Glen D; Chazotte, Cynthia; Karkowsky, Chavi Eve

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between walkable access to healthy food sources and risk of anemia in pregnancy was evaluated for a cohort of 4678 women who initiated prenatal care in the year 2010 at an academic medical center in Bronx, New York. After geocoding patient residences, street network distances were obtained for the closest healthy food sources, which were identified from multiple databases. For lower-income patients, as indicated by Medicaid or lack of health insurance, those who lived less than 0.25miles from a healthy food source were less likely to be anemic when compared to those who lived farther (adjusted OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.48, 0.88). Patients with commercial insurance showed no effect. These results help to understand how a nutritionally-mediated condition such as anemia during pregnancy can be affected by one's built environment, while also highlighting the importance of conditioning on socioeconomic status for these types of studies. PMID:25779906

  13. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  14. Obesity, food restriction, and implicit attitudes to healthy and unhealthy foods: Lessons learned from the implicit relational assessment procedure.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Ian; Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Schryver, Maarten; Yoder, Ruth; O'Shea, Donal

    2016-05-01

    It has been argued that obese individuals evaluate high caloric, palatable foods more positively than their normal weight peers, and that this positivity bias causes them to consume such foods, even when healthy alternatives are available. Yet when self-reported and automatic food preferences are assessed no such evaluative biases tend to emerge. We argue that situational (food deprivation) and methodological factors may explain why implicit measures often fail to discriminate between the food-evaluations of these two groups. Across three studies we manipulated the food deprivation state of clinically obese and normal-weight participants and then exposed them to an indirect procedure (IRAP) and self-report questionnaires. We found that automatic food-related cognition was moderated by a person's weight status and food deprivation state. Our findings suggest that the diagnostic and predictive value of implicit measures may be increased when (a) situational moderators are taken into consideration and (b) we pay greater attention to the different ways in which people automatically relate rather than simply categorize food stimuli. PMID:26877215

  15. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers’ markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, April B.; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants’ diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Methods: Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Results: Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Conclusion: Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance. PMID:27123431

  16. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices. PMID:23428568

  17. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y.; Adam, Atif; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Budd, Nadine; Nau, Claudia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24) in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA) and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42), to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15) in the healthy supplier network (HSN) and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41) in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN). Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001), and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001). Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001) fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider. PMID:26633434

  18. Neighborhood Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods and Their Effects on Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jayna

    2012-01-01

    Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. Low-income neighborhoods offered greater access to food sources that promote unhealthy eating. The distribution of fast-food outlets and convenience stores differed by the racial/ethnic characteristics of the neighborhood. Further research is needed to address the limitations of current studies, identify effective policy actions to achieve environmental justice, and evaluate intervention strategies to promote lifelong healthy eating habits, optimum health, and vibrant communities. PMID:22813465

  19. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, <5% non-White, mean BMI = 52nd percentile) in kindergarten through 5th grade were first given a brief 5-min lesson on how to use the emoticons, then asked to choose any 4 foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. PMID:26009207

  20. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khairuzzaman, Md.; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md. Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. PMID:26904635

  1. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (P<0·001). The HETI score was lower in obese compared with normal-weight participants (55·9 v. 60·3; P<0·01). Obese participants spent more on discretionary foods (38·3 v. 32·7 %; P<0·01) and less on fruits and vegetables (19·3 v. 22·2 %; P<0·01). The HETI may be a useful tool to describe supermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased. PMID:26467200

  2. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... human consumption (the produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice and... 1960s, FDA established HACCP-based regulations for seafood (21 CFR part 123) in 1995 (60 FR...

  3. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk... (60 FR 65096, December 18, 1995) and for juice (21 CFR part 120) in 2001 (66 FR 6138, January 19,...

  4. Dutch food bank parcels do not meet nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet.

    PubMed

    Neter, Judith E; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional intakes of food bank recipients and consequently their health status largely rely on the availability and quality of donated food in provided food parcels. In this cross-sectional study, the nutritional quality of ninety-six individual food parcels was assessed and compared with the Dutch nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet. Furthermore, we assessed how food bank recipients use the contents of the food parcel. Therefore, 251 Dutch food bank recipients from eleven food banks throughout the Netherlands filled out a general questionnaire. The provided amounts of energy (19 849 (sd 162 615) kJ (4744 (sd 38 866) kcal)), protein (14·6 energy percentages (en%)) and SFA (12·9 en%) in a single-person food parcel for one single day were higher than the nutritional guidelines, whereas the provided amounts of fruits (97 (sd 1441) g) and fish (23 (sd 640) g) were lower. The number of days for which macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and fish were provided for a single-person food parcel ranged from 1·2 (fruits) to 11·3 (protein) d. Of the participants, only 9·5 % bought fruits and 4·6 % bought fish to supplement the food parcel, 39·4 % used all foods provided and 75·7 % were (very) satisfied with the contents of the food parcel. Our study shows that the nutritional content of food parcels provided by Dutch food banks is not in line with the nutritional guidelines. Improving the quality of the parcels is likely to positively impact the dietary intake of this vulnerable population subgroup. PMID:27229880

  5. Professional Networks among Rural School Food Service Directors Implementing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…

  6. Food, Family and Fun: A Seasonal Guide to Healthy Eating. Commemorating 50 Years of School Lunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Helping children make food choices for a healthy diet can be challenging. This book is designed as a resource guide and cookbook for parents to help them make healthful eating and cooking with children tasty, simple, affordable, and fun. The book is a collection of 50 recipes organized by season, and featuring family nutrition education…

  7. Intuitive Eating, Diet Composition, and the Meaning of Food in Healthy Weight Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, TeriSue; Hawks, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating (an anti-dieting, hunger-based approach to eating) has been popularized as a viable approach to healthy weight management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intuitive eating, diet composition, and the meaning of food. The convenience sample included 343 students enrolled in a general education…

  8. Giving night shift staff healthy food choices is a priority, says NHS chief.

    PubMed

    Kleebauer, Alistair

    2014-11-01

    Night shift staff will have access to healthy food options as part of a drive to improve the health of hospital staff in England, NHS chief executive Simon Stevens said as he announced his vision for the health service last week. PMID:25351052

  9. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  10. Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods.

    PubMed

    Moss, Brian G; Yeaton, William H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and postponing introduction to solid food (SF) on children's obesity and healthy weight status (WS), at 2 and 4 years. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. Contingency tables and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze obese and healthy WS for breastfed and never breastfed children and examine three timing categories for SF introduction. With both percentages and odds, breastfeeding and delaying introduction to SF until 4 months were associated with lower obesity rates and higher, healthy WS rates (typically 5-10%). Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. Obesity odds were further reduced when SF delay was combined with breastfeeding. Consistent increases in healthy WS were also observed. Benefits were stable across both follow-up periods. Breastfeeding and delaying complementary foods yielded consistently and substantially lower likelihood of obesity and greater probability of healthy WS. Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS. PMID:24057991

  11. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    PubMed

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. PMID:21955783

  12. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. PMID:21669241

  13. Healthy Gardens/Healthy Lives: Navajo perceptions of growing food locally to prevent diabetes and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Ornelas, India; Topaha, Carmelita; Becenti, Tonia; Thomas, Dustin; Vela, Jaime G.

    2013-01-01

    Poor access to nutritious foods, departure from traditional diets, and reduced physical activity are associated with a rise in type-2 diabetes and certain types of cancers among the Navajo. Diabetes in particular is of concern because of its increased prevalence among Navajo youth. Gardening can successfully address issues of poor availability of fruits and vegetables and offer many other social and health benefits. Our assessment aimed to determine Navajo attitudes about gardening and health in San Juan County, New Mexico. We conducted seven focus groups (including 31 people) to assess knowledge and attitudes related to gardening, and uncover barriers and facilitators to participation in a garden project. Each group session was moderated by two Navajo students. Transcripts revealed that many Navajo are aware of adverse health issues, predominantly obesity and diabetes, which occur on the reservation. Participants expressed a preference for educational approaches that incorporated cultural traditions, respect for elders, use of visual aids and experiential learning. Several social and agronomic barriers to gardening were also mentioned. Results suggested a broad interest in promoting gardening especially to reduce the risk of diabetes with the added value of enhancing social capital in Navajo communities. PMID:23855020

  14. Healthy gardens/healthy lives: Navajo perceptions of growing food locally to prevent diabetes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Kevin A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Ornelas, India J; Topaha, Carmelita; Becenti, Tonia; Thomas, Dustin; Vela, Jaime G

    2014-03-01

    Poor access to nutritious foods, departure from traditional diets, and reduced physical activity are associated with a rise in type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers among the Navajo. Diabetes in particular is of concern because of its increased prevalence among Navajo youth. Gardening can successfully address issues of poor availability of fruits and vegetables and offer many other social and health benefits. Our assessment aimed to determine Navajo attitudes about gardening and health in San Juan County, New Mexico. We conducted seven focus groups (including 31 people) to assess knowledge and attitudes related to gardening and uncover barriers and facilitators to participation in a garden project. Each group session was moderated by two Navajo students. Transcripts revealed that many Navajo are aware of adverse health issues that occur on the reservation, predominantly obesity and diabetes. Participants expressed a preference for educational approaches that incorporated cultural traditions, respect for elders, use of visual aids, and experiential learning. Several social and agronomic barriers to gardening were also mentioned. Results suggested a broad interest in promoting gardening especially to reduce the risk of diabetes with the added value of enhancing social capital in Navajo communities. PMID:23855020

  15. Concession stand makeovers: a pilot study of offering healthy foods at high school concession stands

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Helena H.; Ford, Christopher; Hansen, Kate; Cai, Xueya; Just, David R.; Hanks, Andrew S.; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Concession stands at high school events are exempt from the US Department of Agriculture regulations for school foods. Concessions are generally stocked with unhealthy foods since healthy foods are believed to have lower sales and profit margins. Methods Concession stand sales for two seasons of high school fall sports in Muscatine, Iowa were compared. In between seasons, two types of changes were made: (i) addition of new healthier concession options and (ii) substitution of healthier ingredients (less saturated fat, no trans fat). Satisfaction surveys of students and parents were conducted before and after the changes. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 and analyzed in 2012–13. Results Revenue per game was similar between years, even with the introduction of healthier items and ingredient changes. In 2009, the new healthy foods comprised 9.2% of total revenue and sales of some new items increased with each game. The ‘healthy makeover’ had no influence on student satisfaction but it improved parent satisfaction (P < 0.001). Conclusions This compelling test of concept shows that offering healthier items can be good for both sales and satisfaction. While this study was conducted with concession stands, the principles can be carried over into other food retail settings. PMID:24623802

  16. Guiding Principles And A Decision-Making Framework For Stakeholders Pursuing Healthy Food Environments.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Story, Mary

    2015-11-01

    To address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases in the United States, organizations such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine have encouraged the use of voluntary engagement strategies among stakeholders. By using public-private partnerships as well as networks, alliances, and coalitions, voluntary engagement can translate evidence-informed dietary recommendations into effective policies and actions and into innovative products and services. We offer six guiding principles and a decision-making framework that stakeholders can use to ensure that partnerships are accountable and effective in their pursuit of health-related goals. We apply the principles and framework to four national partnerships of US food, beverage, and food retail industry stakeholders working to prevent child obesity and to promote healthy food environments through product reformulation and healthy food retail incentives. We conclude that partnerships should be evaluated for their synergy, accountability, and effectiveness at achieving the partners' objectives. Independent evaluations will help build credibility and public trust in the capacity of voluntary engagement strategies to promote healthy food environments and positively influence public health. PMID:26526257

  17. Implicit shopping: attitudinal determinants of the purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Baker, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N=40) and Study 2 (N=36) utilised an online shopping paradigm and concerned purchasing of fruit and chocolate. In both studies, implicit attitudes predicted purchases. Explicit attitudes towards buying or eating fruit versus chocolate did not predict purchase behaviour. These studies represent an original test of whether implicit attitudes predict healthy consumer behaviour, which involves participants paying for products. This research provides the strongest evidence yet that implicit attitudes play a role in predicting health food purchases. A comprehensive model of health behaviour should take into account the role of implicit attitudes. PMID:21432730

  18. A Statistical Analysis of a Traffic-Light Food Rating System to Promote Healthy Nutrition and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Larrivee, Sandra; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. Methods: The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Results: Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P < .02). The green foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P < .0001) foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P < .0001). Yellow foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). Conclusion: The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. PMID:26134833

  19. 78 FR 11651 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Manufactured Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...-0601)--Extension In the Federal Register of July 20, 2006 (71 FR 41221), FDA announced the availability... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Manufactured Food Regulatory Program Standards AGENCY: Food and...

  20. Food Intake Does Not Differ between Obese Women Who Are Metabolically Healthy or Abnormal1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. Objective: We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45–98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Results: Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR–defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy

  1. African American and Latino Low Income Families’ Food Shopping Behaviors: Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Use of Alternative Healthy Food Options

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Caitlin A.; Brown, Jonisha R.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Methods Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Conclusion Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables. PMID:24293075

  2. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0), 8 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T2) of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index) developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p < 0.05) intervention effects and time-intervention interactions mostly in favor of Intervention Group were found. In Intervention Group, Cereal Index was significantly higher at T2 and the overall level of porridges and cereals was higher during follow-up when comparing to Control Group. Also, the overall levels of Fat Index, potato chips, soft drinks and desserts as well as sweet pastries at T1 were significantly lower in Intervention Group. At the same time, Fruit and Vegetable Index and the level of fruit and berries were lower in Intervention Group during follow

  3. Barriers to Buying Healthy Foods for People With Diabetes: Evidence of Environmental Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Colson, Kathryn A.; Hebert, Paul L.; Lancaster, Kristie

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. A community coalition compared the availability and cost of diabetes-healthy foods in a racial/ethnic minority neighborhood in East Harlem, with those in the adjacent, largely White and affluent Upper East Side in New York City. Methods. We documented which of 173 East Harlem and 152 Upper East Side grocery stores stocked 5 recommended foods. Results. Overall, 18% of East Harlem stores stocked recommended foods, compared with 58% of stores in the Upper East Side (P < .0001). Only 9% of East Harlem bodegas (neighborhood stores) carried all items (vs 48% of Upper East Side bodegas), though East Harlem had more bodegas. East Harlem residents were more likely than Upper East Side residents (50% vs 24%) to have stores on their block that did not stock recommended foods and less likely (26% vs 30%) to have stores on their block that stocked recommended foods. Conclusions. A greater effort needs to be made to make available stores that carry diabetes-healthy foods. PMID:15333313

  4. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298

  5. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298

  6. Household Food Security in the Rural South: Assuring Access to Enough Food for Healthy Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Food insecurity is more prevalent in the rural South than in metropolitan areas of the South and rural areas in other regions. This reflects the lower incomes and higher poverty rates in the rural South. On the other hand, the prevalence of poverty-linked hunger--the most severe range of food insecurity--is about the same in the rural South as in…

  7. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    PubMed

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. PMID:26431685

  8. Food security, selection, and healthy eating in a Pacific Community in Auckland New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Puniani, Naita; Snowling, Neil; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means "access at all times to enough and nutritionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life". Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The environment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap. PMID:17704026

  9. Challenges And Lessons Learned From Communities Using Evidence To Adopt Strategies To Improve Healthy Food Environments.

    PubMed

    Willems Van Dijk, Julie A; Catlin, Bridget; Cofsky, Abbey; Carroll, Carrie

    2015-11-01

    Communities across the United States are increasingly tackling the complex task of changing their local environments and cultures to improve access to and consumption of healthy food. Communities that have received the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Prize have deployed numerous evidence-informed strategies to enhance their local food environments. Their experiences can provide lessons for other communities working to improve health. In this article we examine how the prize-winning communities worked in a multidisciplinary collective manner to implement evidence-based strategies, deployed suites of strategies to expand the reach of food-related work, balanced evidence against innovation, and measured their own progress. Most of the communities also faced challenges in using evidence effectively to implement strategies to promote healthy food environments. Policy makers can accelerate the adoption of evidence-informed approaches related to food and health by embedding them in program standards and funding requirements. Establishing opportunities for ongoing training to enhance community practitioners' evaluation skills and collaborative leadership would also improve the effectiveness of community implementation of these strategies. PMID:26526258

  10. The Growing Price Gap between More and Less Healthy Foods: Analysis of a Novel Longitudinal UK Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nicholas R. V.; Conklin, Annalijn I.; Suhrcke, Marc; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. Methods We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002–2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either “more healthy” or “less healthy” using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results The mean (standard deviation) 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29) for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27) for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002–2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions Since 2002, more healthy foods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy. PMID:25296332

  11. Traffic-Light Labels and Choice Architecture Promoting Healthy Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Levy, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Purpose Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Design Longitudinal pre–post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Large hospital cafeteria with mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for: (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. Intervention After 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy) or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. Results The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (p<0.001), and green sales increased from 41% to 46% (p<0.001). Red beverages decreased from 26% of beverage sales at baseline to 17% at 24 months (p<0.001); green beverages increased from 52% to 60% (p<0.001). Similar patterns were observed for the cohort of employees, with largest change for red beverages (23% to 14%, p<0.001). Conclusions A traffic-light and choice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. PMID:24439347

  12. [Guides for food and nutrition. A didactic proposal].

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, T; Vásquez-Resenos, C; Cervantes-Turrubiates, L; Chávez-Villasana, A

    1997-09-01

    The nutritional habits are changing, and compromising in a lot of cases the health of the population. A preventive measurement is to educate in the eating manners and the hygienic orientation, since both are essential in order to change eating attitudes and habits. The purpose of these guides was to aid in the training of health workers as well as to orient the Mexican population in improving their eating habits and nutrition. These guides were prepared taking into account the social and cultural characteristics of the population and were based on educational methodology of participation, with the intention of adapting them to each population group. Initially a critical analysis of the diverse material and methods used in nutritional education of urban and rural populations, was carried out and a lack of systematized methods and existent content was observed. Thus, the development of a didactic integral proposal of the nutritional education was considered necessary. The guides contain eleven modules with the most excellent information on nutrition during the life's cycle, hygienic handling and conservation of the foods. Each module contains ideas for the instructors and examples of exercises that they could propose to the population. Didactic units or guides with similar structures were designed conformated by introduction, basic concepts, educational content, bibliography, suggestions for further reading and techniques. The guides were included in a practical manual of easy use designed for health care working with public, including the educationally. The material has been used as an aid in diet and nutrition programs in Mexico and in courses proportionated to general public, where the result of the effectiveness learning index was 89%. The results obtained demonstrate the efficacy of these guides and suggest a longer term prospective study to determine real impact of our proposal. PMID:9673682

  13. Putting the pyramid into action: the Healthy Eating Index and Food Quality Score.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Consumption patterns are changing globally. As a result both researchers and policy makers require simple, easy to use measures of diet quality. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed as a single, summary measure of diet quality. The original HEI was a ten component index based on the US Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid. Research on the HEI indicates that the index correlates significantly with the RDA's for a range of nutrients and with an individual's self-rating of their diet. The revised HEI provides a more disaggregated version of the original index based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Within each of the five major food groups, some foods are more nutrient dense than others. Nutrient Density algorithms have been developed to rate foods within food groups. The selection of the most nutrient dense foods within food groups lead to a dietary pattern with a higher HEI. The implications of using the HEI and nutrient density to develop interventions are discussed in this presentation. PMID:18296305

  14. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    PubMed Central

    Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

  15. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  16. Differences in home food and activity environments between obese and healthy weight families of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting Family homes. Participants Thirty-five obese children with at least one obese caregiver were compared to forty-seven healthy weight children with no obese caregivers. Main Outcome Measures Home observation assessments were conducted to evaluate the availability of devices supporting activity behaviors and foods based on availability, accessibility, and readiness to be eaten. Analysis Agreement statistics were conducted to analyze psychometrics and MANOVAs were conducted to assess group differences, significance, P < .05. Results Home observations showed acceptable agreement statistics between independent coders across food and activity items. Families of obese preschoolers were significantly less likely to have fresh vegetables available or accessible in the home, were more likely to have a TV in the obese child’s bedroom and had fewer physical activity devices compared to healthy weight preschoolers. Conclusions and Implications Families of young children live in home environments that were discriminatively characterized based on home observations. Future tool refinement will further clarify the impact of the home environment on early growth. PMID:23380192

  17. A Serious Game to Increase Healthy Food Consumption in Overweight or Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing global issue that is linked to cognitive and psychological deficits. Objective This preliminary study investigated the efficacy of training to improve inhibitory control (IC), a process linked to overeating, on consumption and cognitive control factors. Methods This study utilized a multisession mobile phone–based intervention to train IC in an overweight and obese population using a randomized waitlist-control design. A combination of self-assessment questionnaires and psychophysiological measures was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of improved general IC and modified food consumption after training. Attitudes toward food were also assessed to determine their mediating role in food choices. A total of 58 participants (47 female) completed 2 assessment sessions 3 weeks apart, with 2 weeks of intervention training for the training group during this time. The groups did not differ in baseline demographics including age, body mass index, and inhibitory control. Results Inhibitory control ability improved across the training sessions, with increases in P3 amplitude implying increased cognitive control over responses. Inhibitory control training was associated with increased healthy and reduced unhealthy food consumption in a taste test and in the week following training, as measured by the Healthy Eating Quiz and the food consumption test. Cognitive restraint was enhanced after training for the training but not the waitlist condition in the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, implying that attempts to avoid unhealthy foods in the future will be easier for the training group participants. Conclusions Inhibitory control training delivered via a purpose-designed mobile phone app is easy to complete, is convenient, and can increase cognitive restraint and reduce unhealthy food consumption. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000263493; http

  18. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  19. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  20. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education impacts healthy food purchases

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase (POP) intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention to usual care (no treatment). Setting A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, Arizona. Participants One-hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited on-site. Intervention The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket POP healthy shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthy foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (g/1000 kcals), and fruits, vegetables, and dark green and bright yellow vegetables (servings/1000 kcals) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. Analysis Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. Results The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and green and yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. Conclusions and Implications Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base, and to determine the potential for impact on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease. PMID:22104016

  1. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    PubMed

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues. PMID:20379149

  2. Healthy options: a community-based program to address food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Amy B; Hess, Audrey; Horton, Camille; Constantian, Emily; Monani, Salma; Wargo, Betsy; Davidson, Kim; Gaskin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to better understand the lived experience of food insecurity in our community and to examine the impact of a community-based program developed to increase access to local, healthy foods. Participants were given monthly vouchers to spend at local farmers' markets and invited to engage in a variety of community activities. Using a community-based participatory research framework, mixed methods were employed. Survey results suggest that most respondents were satisfied with the program and many increased their fruit and vegetable consumption. However, over 40% of respondents reported a higher level of stress over having enough money to buy nutritious meals at the end of the program. Photovoice results suggest that the program fostered cross-cultural exchanges, and offered opportunities for social networking. Building on the many positive outcomes of the program, community partners are committed to using this research to further develop policy-level solutions to food insecurity. PMID:25898216

  3. 76 FR 3080 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... to: Maeve Myers, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Food Programs Reporting System AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION:...

  4. 78 FR 20612 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... to: Maeve Myers, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Food Programs Reporting System AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS),...

  5. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  6. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment. PMID:21491151

  7. Increased impulsivity in response to food cues after sleep loss in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Brandell, Jon; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. Results Following TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation. PMID:24839251

  8. Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute.JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11. PMID:22828271

  9. Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute. JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11 PMID:22828271

  10. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  11. Perceptions of university students regarding calories, food healthiness, and the importance of calorie information in menu labelling.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants. PMID:25865662

  12. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity. PMID:24617030

  13. Cooking Bolshevik: Anastas Mikoian and the making of the "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food".

    PubMed

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Both one of the most iconic cookbooks of all time and one of the strangest, the "Kniga o vkusnoi i zdorovoi pishche" became the culinary bible of the Soviet household during the mid-twentieth century. The logical culmination of a decade of Soviet culinary evolution under the leadership of Anastas Mikoian, the original "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food" is a microcosm of Stalinist civilization that exemplifies the contradictory trends making up Soviet politics and culture in the late 1930s. Drawing on previously unexamined documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, Anastas Mikoian's personal papers retained in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as published primary sources, this article seeks to contextualize the complex tale of the cookbook's origins in a broader narrative of the construction of the Soviet Union's official food culture under Mikoian's leadership during the 1930s. PMID:22611570

  14. "Reforms Looked Really Good on Paper": Rural Food Service Responses to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia; Golembiewski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHKA) required schools to make changes to meals provided to children. Rural school districts have limited resources, with increased obesity rates and local food insecurity. In this study we sought to understand the perceptions of rural food service directors and the barriers to implementing…

  15. The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development. PMID:21609743

  16. 77 FR 45717 - Proposed Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activity; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activity; Comment.... Title: Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis, VA Form 10-5387. OMB Control Number: 2900-0227. Type... and advanced food delivery systems. All meals served are an integral ] part of a patient's therapy....

  17. 76 FR 40873 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Food Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Reservations (FDPIR): Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 published in 76 FR... Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 3101 Park Center Drive, Room 500... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection;...

  18. How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA).

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A

    2015-09-01

    The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4-6 weeks to ascertain the test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test-retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects. PMID:25998236

  19. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  20. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration. PMID:21724950

  1. Color me healthy: food diversity in school community gardens in two rapidly urbanising Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A

    2014-03-01

    Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. PMID:24434081

  2. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of rifalazil, a novel antibacterial, in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-X; Cabana, B; Kivel, N; Michaelis, A

    2007-07-01

    Rifalazil is a new antibiotic structurally related to rifampin but devoid of the metabolic liabilities typically associated with the rifamycin class of antibiotics. A randomized, 3-way crossover study in healthy male volunteers (n = 12) investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single 25-mg oral rifalazil dose administered under a standard breakfast containing fat as 30% of calories, a high-fat breakfast containing fat as 60% of calories, and an overnight fast of 10 hours with a 21- to 28-day washout between doses. Systemic exposure to rifalazil based on Cmax, AUC(0-Tlast), and AUC(0-infinity) was increased progressively as the fat content of the test breakfast was increased from 30% to 60% compared with fasting. The confidence intervals for both fat-containing breakfasts are outside the limits of 80% to 125% allowed for food effect bioequivalence based on Cmax, AUC(0-Tlast), and AUC(0-infinity). This food effect may be a result of increased fractional absorption with increasing dietary fat content. Another striking finding was the large reduction of the pharmacokinetic intersubject variability after rifalazil administration with food. Rifalazil was safe and well tolerated under fed and fasted conditions. PMID:17463218

  3. Do sleep-deprived adolescents make less-healthy food choices?

    PubMed

    Kruger, Allison K; Reither, Eric N; Peppard, Paul E; Krueger, Patrick M; Hale, Lauren

    2014-05-28

    Short sleep duration among children and adolescents has been reported to be associated with elevated BMI and other adverse health outcomes. Food choices are one proposed mechanism through which this association may occur. In the present study, we examined whether self-reported habitual sleep duration is associated with vegetable and fruit consumption and fast food consumption. Using cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n 13,284), we estimated three nested logistic regression models for two outcome variables: daily vegetable and fruit consumption and previous week's fast food consumption. The adjusted models included demographic and social/behavioural covariates. Self-reported habitual short sleep duration ( < 7 h/night) was associated with reduced odds of vegetable and fruit consumption compared with the recommended sleep duration (>8 h/night) (OR 0·66, P <0·001), even after adjusting for demographic and social/behavioural factors (OR 0·75, P <0·001). Short sleep duration was also associated with increased odds of fast food consumption (OR 1·40, P <0·001) even after adjustment (OR 1·20, P <0·05). Food choices are significantly associated with sleep duration and may play an important role in the mediation of the association between sleep and health among adolescents. PMID:24524288

  4. Proposed Rule: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School. Legislative Brief 13-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards for foods sold in schools other than those provided as part of the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. According to the HHFK, these standards are to be consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the…

  5. New Year’s Res-Illusions: Food Shopping in the New Year Competes with Healthy Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Lizzy; Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective How do the holidays – and the possible New Year’s resolutions that follow – influence a household’s purchase patterns of healthier foods versus less healthy foods? This has important implications for both holiday food shopping and post-holiday shopping. Methods 207 households were recruited to participate in a randomized-controlled trial conducted at two regional-grocery chain locations in upstate New York. Item-level transaction records were tracked over a seven-month period (July 2010 to March 2011). The cooperating grocer’s proprietary nutrient-rating system was used to designate “healthy,” and “less healthy” items. Calorie data were extracted from online nutritional databases. Expenditures and calories purchased for the holiday period (Thanksgiving-New Year’s), and the post-holiday period (New Year’s-March), were compared to baseline (July-Thanksgiving) amounts. Results During the holiday season, household food expenditures increased 15% compared to baseline ($105.74 to $121.83; p<0.001), with 75% of additional expenditures accounted for by less-healthy items. Consistent with what one would expect from New Year’s resolutions, sales of healthy foods increased 29.4% ($13.24/week) after the holiday season compared to baseline, and 18.9% ($9.26/week) compared to the holiday period. Unfortunately, sales of less-healthy foods remained at holiday levels ($72.85/week holiday period vs. $72.52/week post-holiday). Calories purchased each week increased 9.3% (450 calories per serving/week) after the New Year compared to the holiday period, and increased 20.2% (890 calories per serving/week) compared to baseline. Conclusions Despite resolutions to eat more healthfully after New Year’s, consumers may adjust to a new “status quo” of increased less-healthy food purchasing during the holidays, and dubiously fulfill their New Year’s resolutions by spending more on healthy foods. Encouraging consumers to substitute healthy items for less-healthy

  6. Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patterns of overweight and obesity are unequally distributed geographically, with elevated rates in Appalachia. Appalachian youth's perceptions toward healthy eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n=68) and moderated by experienced local residents, were conducted with participants aged 8–17. Session transcripts were coded for thematic analysis, using measures to enhance rigor and transferability. Results Participants discussed numerous internal and external factors affecting dietary choices. While expressing confidence in their own nutritional knowledge, they stressed the importance of taste preferences, cost, convenience, social influences, and advertising on diet. Conclusions and Implications Appalachian youths' awareness of the multiple influences on diet may create opportunities for multi-faceted, ecologically-based interventions. In particular, participants stressed the importance of social influences on diet and on successful nutrition programming. PMID:22269474

  7. Assessing foods offered to children at child-care centers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005

    PubMed Central

    Erinosho, Temitope O.; Ball, Sarah C.; Hanson, Phillip P.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Ward, Dianne Stanton

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) has been applied primarily to assess the quality of individual-level diets, but was recently applied to environmental-level data. Currently, no studies have applied the HEI-2005 to foods offered in child-care settings. This cross-sectional study used the HEI-2005 to assess the quality of foods/beverages offered to preschool children (three-five years old) in child-care centers. Two days of dietary observations were conducted, and 120 children (six children per center) were observed, at 20 child-care centers in North Carolina between July 2005 and January 2006. Data were analyzed between July 2011 and January 2012 using t-tests. The mean total HEI-2005 score (59.12) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than the optimal score of 100, indicating the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children. All centers met the maximum score for milk. A majority also met the maximum scores for total fruit (17 of 20 centers), whole fruit (15 of 20 centers), and sodium (19 of 20 centers). Mean scores for total vegetable (mean=2.26±1.09), dark green/orange vegetables and legumes (mean=0.20±0.43), total grain (mean=1.09±1.25), whole grain (mean=1.29±1.65), oils (mean=0.44±0.25), and meat/beans (mean=0.44±0.25) were significantly (p<0.01) lower than the maximum scores recommended. Mean scores for saturated fat (mean=3.32±3.41; p<0.01), and calories from solid fats and added sugars (mean=14.76±4.08; p<0.01) suggest the need to decrease the provision of foods high in these components. These findings indicate the need to improve the quality of foods offered to children at the centers to ensure that foods provided contribute to children’s daily nutrition requirements. PMID:23773561

  8. Social norms and rank-based nudging: Changing willingness to pay for healthy food.

    PubMed

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M

    2015-09-01

    People's evaluations in the domain of healthy eating are at least partly determined by the choice context. We systematically test reference level and rank-based models of relative comparisons against each other and explore their application to social norms nudging, an intervention that aims at influencing consumers' behavior by addressing their inaccurate beliefs about their consumption relative to the consumption of others. Study 1 finds that the rank of a product or behavior among others in the immediate comparison context, rather than its objective attributes, influences its evaluation. Study 2 finds that when a comparator is presented in isolation the same rank-based process occurs based on information retrieved from memory. Study 3 finds that telling people how their consumption ranks within a normative comparison sample increases willingness to pay for a healthy food by over 30% relative to the normal social norms intervention that tells them how they compare to the average. We conclude that social norms interventions should present rank information (e.g., "you are in the most unhealthy 10% of eaters") rather than information relative to the average (e.g., "you consume 500 calories more than the average person"). PMID:26010301

  9. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lippelt, D. P.; van der Kint, S.; van Herk, K.; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0–2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants. PMID:27341028

  10. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    PubMed

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants. PMID:27341028

  11. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal. PMID:15527924

  12. Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-03-28

    Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies. PMID:25716646

  13. Effect of food or proton pump inhibitor treatment on the bioavailability of dacomitinib in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Ana; Masters, Joanna C; Mendes da Costa, Laure; LaBadie, Robert R; Liang, Yali; Ni, Grace; Ellery, Craig A; Boutros, Tanya; Goldberg, Zelanna; Bello, Carlo L

    2016-02-01

    This phase 1, open-label crossover study evaluated the relative bioavailability of dacomitinib in healthy volunteers under fed and fasted conditions and following coadministration with rabeprazole, a potent acid-reducing proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Twenty-four male subjects received a single dacomitinib 45-mg dose under 3 different conditions separated by washout periods of ≥ 16 days: coadministered with rabeprazole 40 mg under fasting conditions; alone under fasting conditions; and alone after a high-fat, high-calorie meal. Increased peak exposure of 23.7% (90% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-45.2%) was detected with dacomitinib taken after food versus fasting. The adjusted geometric mean ratio (fed/fasted) for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinf ) was 114.2% (90%CI, 104.7%-124.5%) and not considered clinically meaningful. In the fasted state, a decrease in dacomitinib AUCinf was observed following rabeprazole versus dacomitinib alone (PPI+fasted/fasted alone): 71.1% (90%CI, 61.7%-81.8%). Dacomitinib was generally well tolerated. Dacomitinib may be taken with or without food. Use of long-acting acid-reducing agents, such as PPIs with dacomitinib should be avoided if possible. Shorter-acting agents such as antacids and H2-receptor antagonists may have lesser impact on dacomitinib exposure and may be preferable to PPIs if acid reduction is clinically required. PMID:26179237

  14. Moving From Policy to Implementation: A Methodology and Lessons Learned to Determine Eligibility for Healthy Food Financing Projects

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Caroline; Koprak, Julia; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie; Parker, Kathryn M.; Karpyn, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Public health obesity prevention experts have recently emphasized a policy systems and environmental change approach. Absent, however, are studies describing how practitioners transition from policy adoption to implementation. In the realm of food policy, financing programs to incentivize healthy food retail development in communities classified as “underserved” are underway at the local, state, and national levels. Implementing these policies requires a clear definition of eligibility for program applicants and policy administrators. This article outlines a methodology to establish eligibility for healthy food financing programs by describing the work of The Food Trust to coadminister programs in 3 distinct regions. To determine program eligibility, qualitative assessments of community fit are needed and national data sources must be locally verified. Our findings have broad implications for programs that assess need to allocate limited public/private financing resources. PMID:24594793

  15. Food Rx: A Community-University Partnership to Prescribe Healthy Eating on the South Side of Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Goddu, Anna P.; Roberson, Tonya S.; Raffel, Katie E.; Chin, Marshall H.; Peek, Monica E.

    2013-01-01

    Patients living with diabetes in underserved communities face significant challenges to eating healthy. To support them, we need interventions that integrate community resources into the health care setting. A “prescription” for healthy food may be a promising platform for such a community-linked intervention: it can promote behavior change, provide nutrition education, include financial incentives and connect patients to local resources. We describe Food Rx, a food prescription collaboratively developed by a university research team, Walgreens, a local farmers market, and six health centers on the South Side of Chicago. We share preliminary lessons learned from implementation, highlighting how each stakeholder (university, community partners, and clinics) contributed to this multi-faceted effort while meeting research standards, organizational priorities, and clinic workflow demands. Although implementation is in early stages, Food Rx shows promise as a model for integrating community and health care resources to support the health of underserved patients. PMID:25898221

  16. Food Rx: a community-university partnership to prescribe healthy eating on the South Side of Chicago.

    PubMed

    Goddu, Anna P; Roberson, Tonya S; Raffel, Katie E; Chin, Marshall H; Peek, Monica E

    2015-01-01

    Patients living with diabetes in underserved communities face significant challenges to healthy eating. To support them, we need interventions that integrate community resources into the healthcare setting. A "prescription" for healthy food may be a promising platform for such a community-linked intervention: it can promote behavior change, provide nutrition education, include financial incentives, and connect patients to local resources. We describe Food Rx, a food prescription collaboratively developed by a university research team, Walgreens, a local farmers market, and six health centers on the South Side of Chicago. We share preliminary lessons learned from implementation, highlighting how each stakeholder (university, community partners, and clinics) contributed to this multifaceted effort while meeting research standards, organizational priorities, and clinic workflow demands. Although implementation is in early stages, Food Rx shows promise as a model for integrating community and healthcare resources to support the health of underserved patients. PMID:25898221

  17. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background : Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective : The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design : The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29-49 years at baseline (1991-1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results : Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions : Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  18. Formative Evaluation for a Healthy Corner Store Initiative in Pitt County, North Carolina: Assessing the Rural Food Environment, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Bringolf, Karamie R.; Lawton, Katherine K.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth; Morgan, Jo; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevalence in the rural United States is higher than in urban or suburban areas, perhaps as a result of the food environment. Because rural residents live farther from supermarkets than their urban- and suburban-dwelling counterparts, they may be more reliant on smaller corner stores that offer fewer healthful food items. Methods As part of a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) healthy corner store initiative, we reviewed audit tools in the fall of 2010 to measure the consumer food environment in eastern North Carolina and chose the NEMS-S-Rev (Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Stores-Revised) to assess 42 food stores. During the spring and summer of 2011, 2 trained graduate assistants audited stores, achieving interrater reliability of at least 80%. NEMS-S-Rev scores of stores in rural versus urban areas were compared. Results Overall, healthful foods were less available and of lower quality in rural areas than in urban areas. NEMS-S-Rev scores indicated that healthful foods were more likely to be available and had similar pricing and quality in rural corner stores than in urban corner stores. Conclusion Food store audit data provided a baseline to implement and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative in Pitt County. This work serves as a case study, providing lessons learned for engaging community partners when conducting rural food store audits. PMID:23866165

  19. Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mayuree; Afshin, Ashkan; Singh, Gitanjali; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prices of healthier versus less healthy foods/diet patterns while accounting for key sources of heterogeneity. Data sources MEDLINE (2000–2011), supplemented with expert consultations and hand reviews of reference lists and related citations. Design Studies reviewed independently and in duplicate were included if reporting mean retail price of foods or diet patterns stratified by healthfulness. We extracted, in duplicate, mean prices and their uncertainties of healthier and less healthy foods/diet patterns and rated the intensity of health differences for each comparison (range 1–10). Prices were adjusted for inflation and the World Bank purchasing power parity, and standardised to the international dollar (defined as US$1) in 2011. Using random effects models, we quantified price differences of healthier versus less healthy options for specific food types, diet patterns and units of price (serving, day and calorie). Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistics. Results 27 studies from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Among food groups, meats/protein had largest price differences: healthier options cost $0.29/serving (95% CI $0.19 to $0.40) and $0.47/200 kcal ($0.42 to $0.53) more than less healthy options. Price differences per serving for healthier versus less healthy foods were smaller among grains ($0.03), dairy (−$0.004), snacks/sweets ($0.12) and fats/oils ($0.02; p<0.05 each) and not significant for soda/juice ($0.11, p=0.64). Comparing extremes (top vs bottom quantile) of food-based diet patterns, healthier diets cost $1.48/day ($1.01 to $1.95) and $1.54/2000 kcal ($1.15 to $1.94) more. Comparing nutrient-based patterns, price per day was not significantly different (top vs bottom quantile: $0.04; p=0.916), whereas price per 2000 kcal was $1.56 ($0.61 to $2.51) more. Adjustment for intensity of differences in healthfulness yielded similar results. Conclusions

  20. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  1. 77 FR 28351 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Study of the Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice invites the general public and other public agencies to comment on proposed information collections. This is a new information collection in which Food and Nutrition Service seeks an updated description of Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) participants and programs, and a better understanding of why......

  2. 77 FR 11132 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Improving Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... systems to support food and feed safety and defense. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... collection of certain information by the Agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (the PRA),...

  3. Foods with a high fat quality are essential for healthy diets.

    PubMed

    Zevenbergen, H; de Bree, A; Zeelenberg, M; Laitinen, K; van Duijn, G; Flöter, E

    2009-01-01

    Fat is generally a highly valued element of the diet to provide energy, palatability to dry foods or to serve as a cooking medium. However, some foods rich in fat have a low fat quality with respect to nutrition, i.e., a relative high content of saturated (SFA) as compared to unsaturated fatty acids, whereas others have a more desirable fat quality, i.e., a relative high content of unsaturated fatty acids as compared to SFA. High-fat dairy products and fatty meats are examples of foods with low fat quality, whereas vegetable oils (tropical oils such as palm and coconut oil excluded) are products with a generally high fat quality. The aim of this paper is to explore the nutritional impact of products made of vegetable oils, e.g. margarines and dressings, and how they can be designed to contribute to good health. Since their first industrial production, the food industry has endeavored to improve products like margarines, including their nutritional characteristics. With evolving nutrition science, margarines and cooking products, and to a lesser extent dressings, have been adapted to contain less trans fatty acids (TFA), less SFA and more essential (polyunsaturated, PUFA) fatty acids. This has been possible by using careful fat and oil selection and modification processes. By blending vegetable oils rich in the essential PUFAs alpha-linolenic acid (vegetable omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6), margarines and dressings with both essential fatty acids present in significant quantities can be realized. In addition, full hydrogenation and fat rearrangement have enabled the production of cost-effective margarines virtually devoid of TFA and low in SFA. Dietary surveys indicate that vegetable oils, soft margarines and dressings are indeed often important sources of essential fatty acids in people's diets, whilst providing negligible amounts of TFA and contributing modestly to SFA intakes. Based on empirical and epidemiological data, the public health benefit of switching

  4. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  5. Improving Access to Healthy Foods for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders: Lessons Learned from the STRIVE Program

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona C.; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Edward; Lipman, Jesse; Kunkel, Sarah; Le, Daniel Q.; Chin, Kathy Ko; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) experience a large burden from certain chronic disease-related risk factors. The STRIVE Program funded four AANHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted community gardens and farmers' markets to increase access to healthy foods. CBO key informant interviews were conducted to understand processes and lessons learned. PMID:25981093

  6. 76 FR 21383 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed......

  7. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

    2013-08-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  8. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  9. Preference for full-fat over low-fat foods among individuals suffering from coronary heart disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Erika; Oström, Asa; Osika, Walter; Englund, Anders; Annett, Judith; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt

    2009-10-19

    Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference for full-fat versus low-fat foods was assessed in a group suffering from CHD (N=24) and a healthy control group (N=41). Preferences were evaluated using a series of paired preference tests including 34 food pairs. Further, patterns across fat preference and a range of known risk factors for CHD were examined. The study was conducted in Sweden; March 2004 until May 2006. Overall the full-fat food items were preferred to the low-fat alternatives by both patients and control participants. The pattern of preference responses diverged significantly between patients and controls on only four of the 34 food items, in both directions, why preference related to total fat content per se is not confirmed as differentiating significantly between a group diagnosed with CHD compared to a healthy control group. PMID:19682474

  10. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  11. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. Methods A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (−27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (−19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods. PMID:24993180

  12. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to

  13. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0059, respectively) were all significantly lower with the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the attenuation of postprandial glycaemic response following the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran to a soup. PMID:23025390

  14. Making Food Healthy and Safe for Children: How To Meet the National Health and Safety Performance Standards--Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, D. E., Ed.; And Others

    Noting that feeding children foods that are nourishing and uncontaminated keeps children healthy and safe, this book is intended to help caregivers provide children with healthy and safe food, and meet national, state, and local nutrition standards. Chapter one provides a rationale for the book and includes tips for child care providers. Chapter…

  15. Focus on Healthy Foods, Not Avoiding 'Bad' Ones, for Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... In contrast, the Western diet is characterized by big portions, high intake of red and processed meats, refined carbohydrates like sugary cereals and cookies, highly processed foods, deep-fried foods like French fries, junk foods ...

  16. The role of personal values in Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. A case study of healthy drinks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati

    2014-02-01

    Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist

  17. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  18. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  19. I Eat Healthier Than You: Differences in Healthy and Unhealthy Food Choices for Oneself and for Others

    PubMed Central

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers’ meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change. PMID:26066013

  20. Simply adding the word "fruit" makes sugar healthier: The misleading effect of symbolic information on the perceived healthiness of food.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    People may use simple heuristics to assess the healthiness of food products. For instance, the information that a product contains "fruit sugar" (in German, "fruit sugar" is the colloquial term for fructose) could be interpreted as a cue that the product is relatively healthy, since the term "fruit" symbolizes healthiness. This can have a misleading effect on the perceived healthiness of a product. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 164) were asked to evaluate the healthiness of one of two breakfast cereals based on the information provided in a nutrition table. For one group, the label "fruit sugar" was used; for the other, the label "sugar" was used. Results suggest that the phrase "fruit sugar" listed as an ingredient of the breakfast cereal resulted in a more positive perception of the healthiness of the cereal compared with the ingredient labeled "sugar." In Experiment 2 (N = 202), the results of Experiment 1 were replicated with a within-subjects design in which participants evaluated the two products simultaneously. Experiment 3 (N = 251) ruled out the alternative explanation that the effect could be due to differing inferences about the product's ingredients based on the label used, that is, that the product labeled with "fruit sugar" contains fruit. Finally, in Experiment 4 (N = 162), the results show that the healthiness associated with the labeling of the ingredient "sugar" ("fruit sugar" vs. "sugar") mediates the observed effect. Results of the four experiments indicate that symbolic information is an important factor that can influence people's health perceptions of food. These findings have implications for marketing and public health. PMID:26184340

  1. Good appearance of food gives an appetizing impression and increases cerebral blood flow of frontal pole in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Amitani, Haruka; Adachi, Ryo; Morimoto, Toshiki; Kido, Megumi; Taruno, Yuka; Ogata, Keizaburo; Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of food appearance on appetite and on left-frontal pole blood flow in healthy young subjects. The iEat, a new form of foods with good appearance and greater softness was hypothesized to have the better effects to the subjects than blender-processed foods. The effect on appetite and left-frontal pole blood flow using hemoencephalography was assessed while participants were viewing the slideshows of two kinds of foods respectively. The slideshows were used to control the showing time and other variables. The pictures of iEat foods stimulated both of them more than the blender-processed ones. The measurement of cerebral blood flow could be a useful method to monitor the cognitive and emotional aspects of feeding behavior that are important for humans. Like iEat, the foods that look as good as ordinary food yet are softer can be used for people with poor appetite and eating difficulties to ordinary food. PMID:26653329

  2. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. PMID:25700893

  3. Make up your mind about food: A healthy mindset attenuates attention for high-calorie food in restrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus palatability mindsets influenced attention bias for food, and whether restrained eating moderated this relation. After manipulating mindset (health vs. palatability) experimentally, food-related attention bias was measured by eye-movements (EM) and response latencies (RL) during a visual probe task depicting high-calorie food and non-food. Restrained eating was assessed afterwards. A significant interaction of mindset and restrained eating on RL bias emerged, β = 0.36, t(58) = 2.05, p = 0.045: A health mindset - as compared to a palatability mindset - attenuated attention bias for high-caloric food only in participants with higher eating restraint. No effects were observed on EM biases. The current results demonstrate that state differences in health versus palatability mindsets can cause attenuated attention bias for high-calorie food cues in participants with higher eating restraint. Our findings add to emerging evidence that state differences in mindsets can bias attention for food, above the influence of trait differences. PMID:27174250

  4. The effect of food on cabergoline pharmacokinetics and tolerability in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persiani, S; Rocchetti, M; Pacciarini, M A; Holt, B; Toon, S; Strolin-Benedetti, M

    1996-07-01

    The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of cabergoline in man was investigated. For this purpose an open, randomized, single-dose study was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers who received 1 mg cabergoline as tablets both under fasting conditions and after a breakfast containing a substantial amount of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins, in a crossover fashion. The two treatments were separated by a 4 week washout period. Plasma and urine were collected up to 336 and 168 h respectively after administration and cabergoline concentration was measured in both fluids using a validated radioimmunoassay. Tolerability assessment included haematology, blood chemistry, and urinalysis, blood pressure and heart rate measurements, and ECG. Under both fasting and fed conditions low but persistent cabergoline plasma levels were observed in the present study up to 2 weeks after drug intake, in agreement with the long-lasting prolactin-lowering activity of the drug. In subjects receiving cabergoline under fed or fasting conditions, Cmax values averaged 44 and 54 pg mL(-1), AUC(0-336 h) averaged 6392 and 5331 pg h mL(-1), Ae(0-168 h) averaged 12.7 and 11.9 micrograms, and t1/2 averaged 109.7 and 101.3 h, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found when Cmax, AUC(0-336 h), t1/2, and Ae(0-168 h) from subjects treated under fasting and fed conditions were compared. Median tmax values in subjects treated under fasting or fed conditions were identical (2.5 h). The statistical analysis applied to the parameters chosen to evaluate the variations in the blood pressure profiles observed either supine or standing did not show any significant difference between the fed and fasting conditions. Heart rate values were not significantly modified after cabergoline under either fed or fasting conditions. Laboratory evaluation showed some minor deviations from normal, which were not clinically relevant (only one subject showed an occasional and transient

  5. Towards Measuring the Food Quality of Grocery Purchases: an Estimation Model of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 Using only Food Item Counts

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Le-Thuy T.; Brewster, Philip J.; Chidambaram, Valliammai; Hurdle, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of food consumed by individuals or groups in the U.S. is essential to informed public health surveillance efforts and sound nutrition policymaking. For example, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) is an ideal metric to assess the food quality of households, but the traditional methods of collecting the data required to calculate the HEI are expensive and burdensome. We evaluated an alternative source: rather than measuring the quality of the foods consumers eat, we want to estimate the quality of the foods consumers buy. To accomplish that we need a way of estimating the HEI based solely on the count of food items. We developed an estimation model of the HEI, using an augmented set of the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) food categories. Then we mapped ~92,000 grocery food items to it. The model uses an inverse Cumulative Distribution Function sampling technique. Here we describe the model and report reliability metrics based on NHANES data from 2003–2010. PMID:26998419

  6. 77 FR 75184 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Survey and Collection of Information From HUD Healthy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... grantees that have carried out the greatest number of interventions, collected the most detailed evaluation... Homes and Lead Hazard Control, 2010, p. 7.) An evaluation and summarization of grants ] awarded under the program was last completed in 2005 (``An Evaluation of HUD's Healthy Homes Initiative:...

  7. Commentary on a Cochrane Review of Early Additional Food and Fluids for Healthy Breastfed Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life. A Cochrane Review assessed the benefits and harms of additional foods and fluids for full-term healthy breastfed infants. The review included randomized or quasirandomized controlled trials of full-term healthy breastfed infants up to the age of 6 months. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials from early days after birth did not indicate that giving additional fluids was beneficial. Trials with 4- to 6-month-old infants did not indicate any benefit to supplementing with food at 4 months. This review did not find any evidence for disagreement with the recommendation that exclusive breastfeeding should be recommended for 6 months after birth. PMID:27520599

  8. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths. PMID:25784368

  9. US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets

    PubMed Central

    Gereffi, Gary; Lee, Joonkoo; Christian, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the structure and health implications of two industries, chicken and tomatoes, that play prominent roles in US food and agricultural competitiveness. Both industries have become more concentrated over time, with powerful “lead firms” driving geographical, technological, and marketing changes. Overall, a processed food revolution has taken place in agricultural products that transforms the types of food and dietary options available to consumers. The nature of contemporary food and agricultural value chains affects the strategies and policies that can be effectively employed to address major health goals such as improved nutrition, food safety, and food security. PMID:23144675

  10. A traffic light food labeling intervention increases consumer awareness of health and healthy choices at the point-of-purchase

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Gelsomin, Emily; Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We surveyed customers in a hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts before and after implementation of traffic light food labeling to determine the effect of labels on customers’ awareness and purchase of healthy foods. Methods Cafeteria items were identified as red (unhealthy), yellow (less healthy), or green (healthy). Customers were interviewed before (N = 166) and after (N = 223) labeling was implemented. Each respondent was linked to cash register data to determine the proportion of red, yellow, and green items purchased. Data were collected from February–April 2010. We compared responses to survey questions and mean proportion of red, yellow, and green items per transaction between customers interviewed during baseline and customers interviewed during the intervention. Survey response rate was 60%. Results Comparing responses during labeling intervention to baseline, more respondents identified health/ nutrition as an important factor in their purchase (61% vs. 46%, p = 0.004) and reported looking at nutrition information (33% vs. 15%, p < 0.001). Respondents who noticed labels during the intervention and reported that labels influenced their purchases were more likely to purchase healthier items than respondents who did not notice labels (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Traffic light food labels prompted individuals to consider their health and to make healthier choices at point-of-purchase. PMID:23859926

  11. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population. PMID:25490960

  12. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  13. Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. Purpose To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008–2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent <1 hour/day, 1–2 hours/day, and >2 hours/day on food preparation and clean-up. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011–2013. Results Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending less than 1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. Conclusions The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. PMID:25245799

  14. Emotional responses to images of food in adults with an eating disorder: a comparative study with healthy and clinical controls.

    PubMed

    Hay, Phillipa; Katsikitis, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Emotive responses to foods in people with eating disorders are incompletely understood in relation to whether the extent of emotional response is due to the eating disorder or non-specific emotional states. The aims of the present study were to investigate negative and positive emotive responses to food images in adults with an eating disorder, and to compare responses to a (i) healthy and a (ii) clinic (psychiatry) control group. Participants viewed 20 images (16 of foods previously found to evoke fear, disgust and happiness and 4 neutral images) at half-minute intervals and rated emotive responses on 3 visual analogue scales for each image. Participants with an eating disorder (n=26) were found to have significantly increased negative emotive (disgust and fear) responses and reduced positive (happiness) responses to the images compared to the 20 clinic and 61 healthy participants. Differences between groups remained significant when controlling for baseline levels of fear, disgust and happiness. Thus, the emotive responses to foods did not appear due to non-specific increases in anxiety or depression but rather was due to the presence of an eating disorder. PMID:25064283

  15. Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. PMID:25796210

  16. [Promotion of healthy eating habits by schools: a methodological proposal for training courses for educators and school cafeteria owners].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; Recine, Elisabetta; Cardoso, Gabriela Tavares; da Silva, Juliana Rezende Melo; Amorim, Nina Flávia de Almeida; Bernardon, Renata; Rodrigues, Maria de Lourdes Carlos Ferreirinha

    2008-01-01

    The project entitled Promotion of Health Eating Habits by Schools, operating in the Federal District of Brazil since 2001, encourages good eating habits in the school community within the context of promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases. The current article presents and analyzes a methodology to train preschool and elementary educators and school cafeteria owners. The workshops included theoretical classes, practical activities, and educational games and were evaluated on the basis of expansion and applicability of knowledge, in addition to implementation of the 10 steps to a healthy school cafeteria. The proposed pedagogical activities were verified by an analysis of the teachers' workshop folders. The overall evaluation was positive, with expansion of knowledge (p < 0.05) among participants for the three workshop modules. The objectives laid out in the workshop folders were reached by 44% of the teachers. In the implementation of the healthy cafeteria, positive results were observed when comparing the pre and post-training periods. The methodology helped expand knowledge for both teachers and cafeteria owners, highlighting the school community as a prime space for promoting healthy eating. PMID:18670711

  17. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. PMID:21158971

  18. A Holistic Approach to Healthy School Meals: "How Hopkins High School Looked Beyond its Cafeteria when it Changed Meal Service from Fast Food to Nutritional Food. IssueTrak": A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufault, Timothy; Parsons, Meg

    2006-01-01

    The new cafeteria at Hopkins High School in Minnetonka, Minnesota is part restaurant, part study hall, part lounge area and part health-food store. From the beginning, the superintendent and food service leaders planned the facility to ensure that balanced diets with quickly prepared, but healthy, foods are offered to students to help them…

  19. Administration's 1992 Budget Proposes a Healthy Boost for R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, David J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the 1992 comprehensive federal budget proposed for the United States. The proposed budgets for the Defense Department, Health and Human Services, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute of Standards and…

  20. Hispanic immigrant women’s perspective on healthy foods and the New York City retail food environment: a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoosun; Quinn, James; Florez, Karen; Jacobson, Judith; Neckerman, Kathryn; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about the role of dietary acculturation in the epidemic of obesity among Hispanic immigrants in the United States. Yet little is known about the role of beliefs and preferences in immigrants’ dietary practices and their relationship to the retail food environment in which the practices occur. We conducted a mixed-methods convergence study of these issues. Twenty eight foreign-born Hispanic adult women, recruited from families enrolled in a childhood asthma study and mainly living in New York City took part in 60–90 minute, semi-structured interviews regarding their dietary beliefs, preferences, and practices. The findings were then used to formulate hypotheses for analyses of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data collected from the 345 New York Hispanic women enrolled in the asthma study. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine whether characteristics of the retail food environment within 0.5 Km of the home predicted diet, adjusting for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics. In the interviews, healthy food was rarely discussed in terms of nutritional content. Instead, considerations of freshness, as indicated by time since harvest or slaughter and thus local sourcing; purity, as indicated by the absence of preservatives and processing; and naturalness, as indicated by chemical free farming practices, were the primary axes around which healthy food was defined. Quantitative results were consistent with the qualitative findings: 1) the presence of a farmers’ market within the home neighborhood was associated with consumption of more total servings per day of fruit, vegetables, and juice, and 2) the presence of a farmers’ market and/or a livestock market was associated with consumption of more servings per day of meat. Proximity to supermarkets or medium-sized grocery stores was not associated with consumption. The results suggest that the availability of fresh produce and meat from local farms

  1. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    PubMed Central

    Shimotsu, Scott T; French, Simone A; Gerlach, Anne F; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment). All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average < 1 food stores or restaurants within sight of each garage. Few vending machine food and beverage items met criteria for healthful choices (15% of the vending machine foods; 26% of the vending machine beverages). The garage environment was perceived to be not supportive of healthy food choices, physical activity and weight management; 52% reported that it was hard to get fruits and vegetables in the garages, and 62% agreed that it was hard to be physically active in the garages. Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment. PMID:17498308

  2. The social dynamics of healthy food shopping and store choice in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Hillier, Amy; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2014-12-01

    To respond to the high prevalence of obesity and its associated health consequences, recent food research and policy have focused on neighborhood food environments, especially the links between health and retail mix, proximity of food outlets, and types of foods available. In addition, the social environment exerts important influences on food-related behaviors, through mechanisms like role-modeling, social support, and social norms. This study examined the social dynamics of residents' health-related food-shopping behaviors in 2010-11 in urban Philadelphia, where we conducted 25 semi-structured resident interviews-the foundation for this paper-in addition to 514 structured interviews and a food environment audit. In interviews, participants demonstrated adaptability and resourcefulness in their food shopping; they chose to shop at stores that met a range of social needs. Those needs ranged from practical financial considerations, to fundamental issues of safety, to mundane concerns about convenience, and juggling multiple work and family responsibilities. The majority of participants were highly motivated to adapt their shopping patterns to accommodate personal financial constraints. In addition, they selectively shopped at stores frequented by people who shared their race/ethnicity, income and education, and they sought stores where they had positive interactions with personnel and proprietors. In deciding where to shop in this urban context, participants adapted their routines to avoid unsafe places and the threat of violence. Participants also discussed the importance of convenient stores that allowed for easy parking, accommodation of physical disabilities or special needs, and integration of food shopping into other daily activities like meeting children at school. Food research and policies should explicitly attend to the social dynamics that influence food-shopping behavior. In our social relationships, interactions, and responsibilities, there are

  3. Why Is Creating a Healthy Food Environment So Crucial to Making Improvements in Diet-Related NCDs?

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes are the leading cause of death worldwide. To decrease the global burden of NCDs and strengthen national efforts to combat NCDs, the World Health Organization (WHO) released the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. This plan provides established procedures and several policy options for member countries and other partners. Although many countries recognize that prevention of NCDs is an important health priority, their governments currently face a challenge: How do they adopt a multi-sectoral approach to promoting a healthy lifestyle among their populations? For this, all sectors of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering, and food service) need to coordinate with each other for future governance. Since regulatory policy intervention areas for diet-related NCDs are widespread throughout the global food system, for future perspectives, comprehensive and coordinated approaches are needed for policy development and implementation across all levels of governments and food sectors in order to ensure sustainable policy action. PMID:26598879

  4. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008). PMID:25706350

  5. Influence of Food Intake on 2-D Shear Wave Elastography Assessment of Liver Stiffness in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Lenghel, Lavinia M; Vasilescu, Dan; Botar-Jid, Carolina; Dudea, Sorin M

    2016-06-01

    Transient elastography and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse imaging are useful non-invasive methods for liver stiffness estimation, although both are influenced by food intake. The aim of the work described here was to identify liver stiffness variation after a standardized meal using 2-D shear wave elastography. Liver stiffness was estimated in 31 apparently healthy subjects, under fasting conditions and after a standardized meal (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after food intake). In most of the cases, liver stiffness values increased between 20 and 40 min after the meal (p < 0.05) and then significantly decreased between 60 and 80 min (p < 0.05). At 120 min after food intake, liver stiffness values were significantly lower compared with liver stiffness values under fasting conditions (p < 0.05). Gender, but not body mass index, had an important role in liver stiffness variation after food intake (p < 0.01). In conclusion, to avoid the influence of food intake on liver stiffness estimation, 2-D shear wave elastography should be performed only under fasting conditions. PMID:26947447

  6. The effect of food on the bioavailability of velnacrine (HP 029) in healthy elderly men: a potential Alzheimer agent.

    PubMed

    Puri, S K; Hsu, R S; Ho, I; Lassman, H B

    1989-10-01

    Velnacrine (HP 029; 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-aminoacridin-1-ol-maleate) is an investigational drug being studied in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this open, randomized, crossover study, 24 healthy, elderly men were given 100 mg of velnacrine on two different study days to assess the influence of food on the bioavailability of velnacrine. On the first day, subjects received drug either after an overnight fast or 15 minutes after completing a standard breakfast. Seven days later, the treatments were crossed over. Blood and urine samples were collected at specific times and various intervals, respectively, from all subjects before and after drug administration for up to 24 hours. Plasma and urine concentrations of velnacrine were determined by an HPLC method. Administration of velnacrine with food resulted in slightly lower peak plasma levels of unconjugated velnacrine, (175 vs 213 ng/ml) and delayed times-to-peak plasma levels, (2.5 vs 1.5 h) without affecting the AUCs and the t 1/2 of the drug. The amount of unconjugated velnacrine excreted in urine was slightly higher when the drug was taken with food (19 vs 17 mg), but renal clearance was not altered. These results indicate that food delayed the rate but not the extent of velnacrine absorption. The minor differences in Cmax and tmax may not be clinically meaningful. Therefore, velnacrine can be administered with or without food. PMID:2592587

  7. Fruit and vegetable exposure in children is linked to the selection of a wider variety of healthy foods at school.

    PubMed

    Korinek, Elizabeth V; Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M; Latimer, Lara A

    2015-10-01

    Schools often offer healthy fruits and vegetables (FV) and healthy entrées. However, children may resist these efforts due to a lack of familiarity with the offerings. While numerous exposures with a food increase its liking, it may be that an exposure to a variety of FV at home leads to greater willingness to select other foods - even those that are unrelated to those eaten at home. As an initial test of this possibility, this study was designed to examine how self-reports of exposure and consumption of various FV were associated with the selection of FV and lunch entrées at school. Participants (n = 59) were a convenience sample of elementary children. A median split was used to place students into high- and low-exposure groups for self-reports of both exposure and consumption at home. The primary dependent variables were self-reports of selecting FV at school; the children's absolute and relative ratings of eight 'healthier' lunch entrées; and self-reports of selecting these entrées. These entrées were recently added to the school menu and, therefore, tended to be less familiar to children. Food ratings were collected through taste exposures conducted at school. Results indicate that children who reported more frequent exposure to FV at home consumed a wider variety of FV at school and were more likely to report selecting 'healthier' entrées at school lunch. These data suggest that exposure to, and the consumption of, a variety of FV may make children more willing to select a wider range of FV and other healthy entrées. PMID:23557428

  8. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Objective While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. Design Quasi-experimental study. Setting Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. Subjects Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. Results During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. Conclusions Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community. PMID:19402943

  9. Healthy habits or damaging diets: an exploratory study of a food blogging community.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study describes the virtual socialization, behaviors, and attitudes being promoted in one community of food bloggers. Two months of entries from 45 blogs created by young women belonging to a photography-based food blogging community were analyzed and coded using a qualitative approach. Analysis revealed widespread group practices as well as the promotion of attitudes and behaviors associated with dietary restraint. The present study highlights the need for further research using food-blogging communities, and concludes with a cautionary note about blogs as sources of health information in view of the consequences of dietary restraint. PMID:21888474

  10. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing Food When the person with Alzheimer’s disease lives with you: • Buy healthy foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole-grain products. ... When a person with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease lives alone, you can buy foods that the person doesn’t need to cook. ...

  11. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  12. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the...

  13. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C.; Taylor, Anne W.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77–0.92), and 0.74 (0.66–0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death. PMID:26371039

  14. Farm to institution: creating access to healthy local and regional foods.

    PubMed

    Harris, Diane; Lott, Megan; Lakins, Velma; Bowden, Brian; Kimmons, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Farm to Institution (FTI) programs are one approach to align food service operations with health and sustainability guidelines, such as those recently developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and General Services Administration. Programs and policies that support sourcing local and regional foods for schools, hospitals, faith-based organizations, and worksites may benefit institutional customers and their families, farmers, the local community, and the economy. Different models of FTI programs exist. On-site farmer's markets at institutions have been promoted on federal government property, healthcare facilities, and private institutions nationwide. Farm to School programs focus on connecting schools with local agricultural production with the goal of improving school meals and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in children. Sourcing food from local farms presents a number of challenges including cost and availability of local products, food safety, and liability considerations and lack of skilled labor for food preparation. Institutions utilize multiple strategies to address these barriers, and local, state, and federal polices can help facilitate FTI approaches. FTI enables the purchasing power of institutions to contribute to regional and local food systems, thus potentially affecting social, economic, and ecological systems. Local and state food policy councils can assist in bringing stakeholders together to inform this process. Rigorous research and evaluation is needed to determine and document best practices and substantiate links between FTI and multiple outcomes. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers can help communities work with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate programs and policies supporting FTI. PMID:22585910

  15. Farm to Institution: Creating Access to Healthy Local and Regional Foods12

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Diane; Lott, Megan; Lakins, Velma; Bowden, Brian; Kimmons, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Farm to Institution (FTI) programs are one approach to align food service operations with health and sustainability guidelines, such as those recently developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and General Services Administration. Programs and policies that support sourcing local and regional foods for schools, hospitals, faith-based organizations, and worksites may benefit institutional customers and their families, farmers, the local community, and the economy. Different models of FTI programs exist. On-site farmer’s markets at institutions have been promoted on federal government property, healthcare facilities, and private institutions nationwide. Farm to School programs focus on connecting schools with local agricultural production with the goal of improving school meals and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in children. Sourcing food from local farms presents a number of challenges including cost and availability of local products, food safety, and liability considerations and lack of skilled labor for food preparation. Institutions utilize multiple strategies to address these barriers, and local, state, and federal polices can help facilitate FTI approaches. FTI enables the purchasing power of institutions to contribute to regional and local food systems, thus potentially affecting social, economic, and ecological systems. Local and state food policy councils can assist in bringing stakeholders together to inform this process. Rigorous research and evaluation is needed to determine and document best practices and substantiate links between FTI and multiple outcomes. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers can help communities work with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate programs and policies supporting FTI. PMID:22585910

  16. A food effect study and dose proportionality study to assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of bardoxolone methyl in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, Nathan S; Kelley, Richard J; Dumas, Emily O; Klein, Cheri Enders; Awni, Walid M; Meyer, Colin J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of food on the plasma pharmacokinetics of bardoxolone methyl, an antioxidant inflammation modulator, at a 20 mg dose, and the dose proportionality of bardoxolone methyl pharmacokinetics from 20 to 80 mg. It was a single-dose study conducted at a single center in 32 healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years using an amorphous spray-dried dispersion formulation of bardoxolone methyl. In Part A, 16 subjects received single 20 mg doses of bardoxolone methyl under fasting and non-fasting conditions. In Part B, 16 subjects received a single 60 or 80 mg dose of bardoxolone methyl and a matching placebo dose under fasting conditions. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were taken over 120 hours following dose administration. Single dose administration of 20, 60, and 80 mg bardoxolone methyl was safe and well-tolerated in healthy volunteers. Total bardoxolone methyl exposure was unchanged in the presence of food. However, doses of bardoxolone methyl above 20 mg appear to have a saturated dissolution or absorption process and are associated with less than proportional increases in drug exposure. PMID:27128838

  17. Food effects on abiraterone pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kim N; Spratlin, Jennifer; Kollmannsberger, Christian; North, Scott; Pankras, Catherine; Gonzalez, Martha; Bernard, Apexa; Stieltjes, Hans; Peng, Lixian; Jiao, James; Acharya, Milin; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas W; Yu, Margaret K; Chien, Caly; Tran, Nam Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Food effect on abiraterone pharmacokinetics and safety on abiraterone acetate coadministration with low-fat or high-fat meals was examined in healthy subjects and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Healthy subjects (n = 36) were randomized to abiraterone acetate (single dose, 1000 mg) + low-fat meal, + high-fat meal, and fasted state. mCRPC patients received repeated doses (abiraterone acetate 1000 mg + 5 mg prednisone twice daily; days 1-7) in a modified fasting state followed by abiraterone acetate plus prednisone within 0.5 hours post-low-fat (n = 6) or high-fat meal (n = 18; days 8-14). In healthy subjects, geometric mean (GM) abiraterone area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased ∼5- and ∼10-fold, respectively, with low-fat and high-fat meals versus fasted state (GM [coefficient of variation], 1942 [48] and 4077 [37] ng · h/mL vs 421 [67] ng · h/mL, respectively). In mCRPC patients, abiraterone AUC was ∼2-fold higher with a high-fat meal and similar with a low-fat meal versus modified fasting state (GM [coefficient of variation]: 1992 [34] vs 973 [58] ng · h/mL and 1264 [65] vs 1185 [90] ng · h/mL, respectively). Adverse events (all grade ≤ 3) were similar, with high-fat/low-fat meals or fasted/modified fasting state. Short-term dosing with food did not alter abiraterone acetate safety. PMID:26096139

  18. Heart Healthy Knowledge, Food Patterns, Fatness, and Cardiac Risk Factors in Children Receiving Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kerry J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Elementary students (n=900) received a nutrition education program focusing on cognitive and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular health. Assessments of their health knowledge and behavior were conducted at baseline and at five follow-up periods. Children increased their knowledge and improved food patterns, but among the cardiac risk factors,…

  19. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  20. Food Additives: "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…

  1. The role of law in the control of obesity in England: looking at the contribution of law to a healthy food culture

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Obesity levels in England are significantly higher than in much of the rest of Europe. This article examines aspects of the physical and cultural context of food consumption in England, and the evolution of government policy on obesity, as a background to an analysis of how law might play a role in obesity prevention. Research suggests that individual food choices are associated with cultural and socio-economic circumstances and that they can be manipulated by advertising, food packaging and presentation. This suggests that there might be ways of using law to manage the influences on food choices, and of using law in support of strategies to redirect food choices towards healthy food products. Law is a particularly useful tool in the protection of the individual against the economic power of the food industry, and there is much that law can do to change the physical, economic and social environment of food consumption. PMID:18854038

  2. Proposal of a short-form version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Leonardo Pozza; Lindemann, Ivana Loraine; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Mintem, Gicele; Bender, Eliana; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. METHODS Two samples were used to test the results obtained in the analyses in two distinct scenarios. One of the studies was composed of 230 low income families from Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, and the other was composed of 15,575 women, whose data were obtained from the 2006 National Survey on Demography and Health. Two models were tested, the first containing seven questions, and the second, the five questions that were considered the most relevant ones in the concordance analysis. The models were compared to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy parameters were calculated, as well as the kappa agreement test. RESULTS Comparing the prevalence of food insecurity between the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the two models, the differences were around 2 percentage points. In the sensitivity analysis, the short version of seven questions obtained 97.8% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively, while specificity was 100% in both studies. The five-question model showed similar results (sensitivity of 95.7% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively). In the Pelotas sample, the kappa test of the seven-question version totaled 97.0% and that of the five-question version, 95.0%. In the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, the two models presented a 99.0% kappa. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that the model with five questions should be used as the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, as its results were similar to the original scale with a lower number of questions. This version needs to be administered to other populations in Brazil in order to allow for the adequate assessment of the validity parameters. PMID:25372169

  3. Developing food-based dietary guidelines to promote healthy diets and lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Albert, Janice L; Samuda, Pauline M; Molina, Verónika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the general population in each of these countries. This paper reports on the comprehensive process of developing the guidelines through consensus building among stakeholders, technical assessments and priority setting, and use of qualitative methods to field test messages to ensure public understanding and motivation. Nutritionists in each country received training and support from the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Pan American Health Organization's nutritionists. PMID:17996630

  4. Feasibility of increasing access to healthy foods in neighborhood corner stores.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Keelia; Gustat, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of working with neighborhood corner stores to increase the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in low-income neighborhoods in New Orleans was assessed. Household interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 97), corner store customer intercept interviews (n = 60) and interviews with corner store operators (owners/managers) (n = 12) were conducted in three neighborhoods without supermarkets. Regional produce wholesalers were contacted by phone. Results indicated that the majority of neighborhood residents use supermarkets or super stores as their primary food source. Those who did shop at corner stores typically purchased prepared foods and/or beverages making up nearly one third of their daily energy intake. Most individuals would be likely to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables from the corner stores if these foods were offered. Store operators identified cost, infrastructure and lack of customer demand as major barriers to stocking more fresh produce. Produce wholesalers did not see much business opportunity in supplying fresh produce to neighborhood corner stores on a small scale. Increasing availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in corner stores may be more feasible with the addition of systems changes that provide incentives and make it easier for neighborhood corner stores to stock and sell fresh produce. PMID:23546554

  5. 21 CFR 130.20 - Food additives proposed for use in foods for which definitions and standards of identity are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions and standards of identity are established. 130.20 Section 130.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... definitions and standards of identity are established. (a) Where a petition is received for the issuance or amendment of a regulation establishing a definition and standard of identity for a food under section 401...

  6. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    PubMed

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating. PMID:25311212

  7. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  8. Lessons Learned From Small Store Programs to Increase Healthy Food Access

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Laska, Melissa N.; Karpyn, Allison; Klingler, Kristen; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To document implementation challenges and opportunities associated with small store interventions. Methods Case study analysis of small store interventions conducted in 4 regions of the US. We systematically generated matrices to compare and contrast lessons learned to advance implementation science. Results Seven thematic areas were identified including: establishing relationships with stores, store owner and customer relationships, selection of intervention approaches, stocking healthier foods, evaluation, maintenance of changes, and dissemination. Conclusions This information provides guidance to researchers and practitioners wishing to design, implement, and evaluate small store interventions. PMID:24629559

  9. A novel framework for analysing stakeholder interest in healthy foods: A case study on iodine biofortification.

    PubMed

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of novel strategies to prevent micronutrient malnutrition, such as biofortification, limited understanding of stakeholders often hampers their success. We build upon the existing literature on protection motivations (PMT) and technology acceptance (TAM) to develop an integrated PMTAM model for analyzing stakeholders' reactions, on both the supply and demand sides. Regarding the latter, the case of the iodine biofortified food chain is used to evaluate African households' interest. All model constructs, and threat appraisal in particular, are decisive in determining the uptake of biofortification, while also social demographics and own nutrition status play an important role. PMID:26800331

  10. Developing Local Board of Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Food Access — King County, Washington, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Donna B.; Krieger, James; MacDougall, Erin; Payne, Elizabeth; Chan, Nadine L.

    2015-01-01

    Policies that change environments are important tools for preventing chronic diseases, including obesity. Boards of health often have authority to adopt such policies, but few do so. This study assesses 1) how one local board of health developed a policy approach for healthy food access through vending machine guidelines (rather than regulations) and 2) the impact of the approach. Using a case study design guided by “three streams” policy theory and RE-AIM, we analyzed data from a focus group, interviews, and policy documents. The guidelines effectively supported institutional policy development in several settings. Recognition of the problem of chronic disease and the policy solution of vending machine guidelines created an opening for the board to influence nutrition environments. Institutions identified a need for support in adopting vending machine policies. Communities could benefit from the study board’s approach to using nonregulatory evidence-based guidelines as a policy tool. PMID:25927606

  11. A single-dose, two-way crossover, bioequivalence study of dexmethylphenidate HCl with and without food in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Teo, Steve K; Scheffler, Michael R; Wu, Anfan; Stirling, David I; Thomas, Steve D; Stypinski, Daria; Khetani, Vikram D

    2004-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is effectively treated by racemic oral methylphenidate (dl-MPH). The d-isomer (d-MPH) has been developed as an improved treatment for ADHD since only half the racemic dose is used. This study, performed in healthy subjects, assessed the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH HCl) in a single dose (2 x 10-mg tablets), two-way crossover with d-MPH administered to subjects in both a fasting state or after a high-fat breakfast. There were no serious or unexpected adverse events during the course of this study, with most events reported in comparable numbers of fed and fasted subjects. The bioequivalence of d-MPH was similar with or without food, with 90% confidence intervals of 88.2% to 104.6% and 105.9% to 118.2% for ln(C(max)) and ln[(AUC(0-infinity))], respectively. There was a marginal but statistically significant 1-hour increase in t(max) in the fed versus fasted state, reflecting an absorption delay. The rate of formation of the major metabolite, d-ritalinic acid (d-RA), was marginally decreased ( approximately 14%) after food. The extent of exposure to d-RA was similar (within 1.2%) between both treatments. There was a marginal but statistically significant difference in mean t(max) for d-RA between fed and fasted conditions, with peak concentration occurring 1.5 hours later after d-MPH administration with food. There was no measurable in vivo chiral inversion of d-MPH to l-MPH in plasma. In addition, the metabolism of d-MPH was stereospecific as d-MPH only produced d-RA. In summary, food had no substantial effect on the bioavailability of d-MPH, with an equivalent rate and extent of exposure obtained. Therefore, d-MPH can be administered without regard to food intake. PMID:14747426

  12. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program; the HEALTHY Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A; ghormli, Laure El; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGOUND The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multi-component intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and a la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. METHODS The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. RESULTS Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and a la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and sugar added beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and a la carte. CONCLUSION The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and a la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. PMID:22239133

  13. The United States food supply is not consistent with dietary guidance: evidence from an evaluation using the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Reedy, Jill; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I

    2014-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) food system is primarily an economic enterprise, with far-reaching health, environmental, and social effects. A key data source for evaluating the many effects of the food system, including the overall quality and extent to which it provides the basic elements of a healthful diet, is the Food Availability Data System. The objective of the present study was to update earlier research that evaluated the extent to which the U.S. food supply aligns with the most recent Federal dietary guidance, using the current Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 and food supply data extending through 2010. The HEI-2010 was applied to 40 years of food supply data (1970–2010) to examine trends in the overall food supply as well as specific components related to a healthy diet, such as fruits and vegetables. The HEI-2010 overall summary score hovered around half of optimal for all years evaluated, with an increase from 48 points in 1970 to 55 points (out of a possible 100 points) in 2010. Fluctuations in scores for most individual components did not lead to sustained trends. The present study continues to demonstrate sizable gaps between Federal dietary guidance and the food supply. This disconnect is troublesome within a context of high rates of diet-related chronic diseases among the population and suggests the need for continual monitoring of the quality of the food supply. Moving toward a food system that is more conducive to healthy eating requires consideration of a range of factors that influence food supply and demand. PMID:25441965

  14. The United States food supply is not consistent with dietary guidance: evidence from an evaluation using the Healthy Eating Index-2010.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paige E; Reedy, Jill; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    The US food system is primarily an economic enterprise, with far-reaching health, environmental, and social effects. A key data source for evaluating the many effects of the food system, including the overall quality and extent to which it provides the basic elements of a healthful diet, is the Food Availability Data System. The objective of the present study was to update earlier research that evaluated the extent to which the US food supply aligns with the most recent federal dietary guidance, using the current Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and food supply data extending through 2010. The HEI-2010 was applied to 40 years of food supply data (1970-2010) to examine trends in the overall food supply as well as specific components related to a healthy diet, such as fruits and vegetables. The HEI-2010 overall summary score hovered around half of optimal for all years evaluated, with an increase from 48 points in 1970 to 55 points (out of a possible 100 points) in 2010. Fluctuations in scores for most individual components did not lead to sustained trends. Our study continues to demonstrate sizable gaps between federal dietary guidance and the food supply. This disconnect is troublesome within a context of high rates of diet-related chronic diseases among the population and suggests the need for continual monitoring of the quality of the food supply. Moving toward a food system that is more conducive to healthy eating requires consideration of a range of factors that influence food supply and demand. PMID:25441965

  15. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-03-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment. PMID:22874538

  16. 78 FR 57391 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Canning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... FDA 2541c electronically (Ref. 1) (see also 76 FR 11783 at 11785; March 3, 2011). In this document, we... Acidified Foods and Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods in Hermetically Sealed Containers AGENCY: Food and... recordkeeping requirements for firms that process acidified foods and thermally processed low-acid foods...

  17. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

  18. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  19. 77 FR 19670 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Contact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Food Contact Substance Notification Program AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the collection of information associated with the Food Contact Substance Notification... document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: With regard to the information collection: Denver Presley,...

  20. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of IPX066: Evaluation of Dose Proportionality and Effect of Food in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hsuan-Ming; Hsu, Ann; Gupta, Suneel; Modi, Nishit B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives IPX066 is an oral, extended-release capsule formulation of carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) available in 4 strengths. The goals of this investigation were to assess the dose proportionality of IPX066 and to study the effects of a high-fat, high-calorie meal and of sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce on the pharmacokinetics of IPX066 in healthy volunteers. Methods Three open-label studies were conducted. In the first study, subjects received 1 capsule of each IPX066 strength (23.75–95, 36.25–145, 48.75–195, and 61.25–245 mg of CD-LD). In the second study, subjects received 1 and 2 capsules of IPX066 245-mg LD under fasting conditions. In the third study, subjects received 2 capsules of IPX066 245-mg LD under 3 conditions: fasting; following a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast; and with the capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce under fasting conditions. Results Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUCt, AUCinf) for LD and CD increased dose-proportionally over the range of the IPX066 capsule strengths. Comparison of 1 and 2 IPX066 245-mg LD capsules showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics for Cmax and AUCt. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce did not affect the pharmacokinetics. A high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed the initial increase in LD concentration by approximately 1 to 2 hours, reduced Cmax by 21%, and increased AUCinf by 13% compared with the fasted state. Conclusions IPX066 shows dose-proportional pharmacokinetics. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce does not affect the pharmacokinetics; a high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed absorption by 1 to 2 hours, slightly reduced Cmax, and slightly increased extent of absorption. PMID:26626430

  1. Saints, sinners and non-believers: the moral space of food. A qualitative exploration of beliefs and perspectives on healthy eating of Irish adults aged 50-70.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Mary; McCarthy, Mary B

    2014-02-01

    Food choices can involve a moral element of which healthy eating has come to play a major part in recent years. This research aimed to explore the moral space of food for older adults in order to understand how they conceptualise and negotiate various moral demands in the context of their general food lives. In-depth interviews on the lived experience of food and eating were conducted with a purposive sample of 50 adults aged 50-70, who varied by dietary quality and health status. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Three major themes representing aspects of the "moral space of food" were identified. This moral space was influenced by old religious and secular moralities which have become intertwined with new moralities of "healthism", a trend towards encouraging personal responsibility for health. Participants sought to maintain moral congruence by keeping their behaviour within moral boundaries through balance and moderation. Some resisted immoral positioning by highlighting their own autonomy or by challenging healthist ideology. A fundamental tension exists between the concept of healthy eating as desirable to remain a moral person while simultaneously being equated with sacrifice of pleasure and enjoyment. Healthist ideology perpetuates this tension, problematising enjoyment of food and bodies of those outside of the "norm". Attempting to address negative moralistic undertones of healthy eating messages may help to engage public interest in nutrition. PMID:24184539

  2. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  3. Outcome evaluation of Family Eats: An eight-session web-based program promoting healthy home food environments and dietary behaviors for African American families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session Family Eats web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n=126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questio...

  4. Promoting healthy food consumption: a review of state-level policies to improve access to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hood, Carlyn; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Meinen, Amy

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates poor nutrition is a leading determinant of the development of chronic disease, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is one method for decreasing obesity. Many policies have focused on increasing the demand for fruits and vegetables through price reductions and coupons. However, without ensuring a stable supply, increased demand can continue to raise prices, crowding out individuals who may otherwise have purchased fruits and vegetables and ultimately leading to continued disparities in access. This paper presents a review of selected state-level policy options recently proposed or implemented in states across the United States, and provides an evidence-based lens through which food access policy can be shaped in the Midwest. This review and potential framework uses Wisconsin to illustrate the feasibility of different state-level decisions and their potential impact on particular populations. Future supply-side policies to consider include expanding Electronic Benefit Transfer to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC),program and farmers markets, incentivizing the purchase of locally grown produce, assisting local specialty farmers directly, and/or establishing a state-level food policy council. This review reveals that a food policy council would create a more sustainable policy analysis process to better ensure future policy adoption is truly comprehensive, encompassing the production, distribution and purchase of locally grown fruits and vegetables. PMID:23362705

  5. 76 FR 38419 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et. al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et. al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed Final...

  6. Foods and Dietary Patterns That Are Healthy, Low-Cost, and Environmentally Sustainable: A Case Study of Optimization Modeling for New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Baker, Michael G.; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective Global health challenges include non-communicable disease burdens, ensuring food security in the context of rising food prices, and environmental constraints around food production, e.g., greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions. We therefore aimed to consider optimized solutions to the mix of food items in daily diets for a developed country population: New Zealand (NZ). Methods We conducted scenario development and linear programming to model 16 diets (some with uncertainty). Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices, food wastage and food-specific GHG emissions. Findings This study identified daily dietary patterns that met key nutrient requirements for as little as a median of NZ$ 3.17 per day (US$ 2.41/d) (95% simulation interval [SI] = NZ$ 2.86 to 3.50/d). Diets that included “more familiar meals” for New Zealanders, increased the cost. The optimized diets also had low GHG emission profiles compared with the estimate for the ‘typical NZ diet’ e.g., 1.62 kg CO2e/d for one scenario (95%SI = 1.39 to 1.85 kg CO2e) compared with 10.1 kg CO2e/d, respectively. All of the optimized low-cost and low-GHG dietary patterns had likely health advantages over the current NZ dietary pattern, i.e., lower cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. Conclusions We identified optimal foods and dietary patterns that would lower the risk of non-communicable diseases at low cost and with low greenhouse gas emission profiles. These results could help guide central and local government decisions around which foods to focus policies on. That is which foods are most suitable for: food taxes (additions and exemptions); healthy food vouchers and subsidies; and for increased use by public institutions involved in food preparation. PMID:23544082

  7. A proposed framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong is experiencing a pressing need for food waste management. Currently, approximately 3600 tonnes of food waste are disposed of at landfills in Hong Kong daily. The landfills in Hong Kong are expected to be exhausted by 2020. In the long run, unavoidable food waste should be sorted out from the other municipal solid waste (MSW) and then valorized into valuable resources. A simple sorting process involving less behavioural change of residents is, therefore, of paramount importance in order to encourage residents to sort the food waste from other MSW. In this paper, a sustainable framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production is proposed. For an efficient separation and collection system, an optic bag (i.e. green bag) can be used to pack the food waste, while the residual MSW can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations in the conventional way (i.e. refuse collection vehicles). At the refuse transfer stations, the food waste is separated from the residual MSW using optic sensors which recognize the colours of the bags. The food waste in the optic bags is then delivered to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities, in which biogas is generated following the anaerobic digestion technology. The biogas can be further upgraded via gas upgrading units to a quality suitable for use as a vehicle biogas fuel. The use of biogas fuel from food waste has been widely practiced by some countries such as Sweden, France, and Norway. Hopefully, the proposed framework can provide the epitome of the waste-to-wealth concept for the sustainable collection and recycling of food waste in Hong Kong. PMID:25890872

  8. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p < 0.05). Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p < 0.05); parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed. PMID:27429624

  9. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  10. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  11. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 cup low-sodium chicken broth ½ ripe avocado, peeled and diced (see tip) ¼ teaspoon ground ... quinoa with a fork. Gently mix in the avocado, pepper, and parsley. Carefully stuff about ¾ cup ...

  12. Healthy food trends -- kale

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kale Ingredients 2 teaspoons vegetable oil ½ cup onion (chopped) ½ carrot (chopped) 1 teaspoon thyme (ground) ... Heat oil in a medium sauce pan. Add onion and carrot. Sauté until vegetables are tender -- about ...

  13. Healthy food trends -- kale

    MedlinePlus

    Chicken Vegetable Soup with Kale Ingredients 2 teaspoons vegetable oil ½ cup onion (chopped) ½ carrot (chopped) 1 ... rice (cooked) 1 cup kale (chopped) Instructions Heat oil in a medium ... Sauté until vegetables are tender -- about 5 to 8 minutes. Add ...

  14. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    MedlinePlus

    ... rinsed 1 tablespoon olive oil 2 tablespoon red onions, peeled and chopped 1 cup cooked mixed vegetables -- ... in a saucepan over medium-high heat. Add onions, and cook until they begin to soften, for ...

  15. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    MedlinePlus

    ... microgreen, such as lettuce, radish, basil, beets, celery, cabbage, and kale. Many people enjoy the tiny leaves ... of certain vitamins than their adult forms: Red cabbage -- Vitamin C Green daikon radish -- Vitamin E Cilantro -- ...

  16. Effects of food and alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of an oral, extended-release formulation of hydrocodone in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Stephen J; Robinson, Cynthia Y; Rubino, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of oral extended-release hydrocodone (HC-ER) when administered with food or alcohol. Methods Two single-center, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in healthy volunteers. In a two-period food-interaction study, 12 subjects received HC-ER 20 mg after an overnight fast and a high-fat meal. In a three-period alcohol-interaction study, 30 naltrexone-blocked subjects received HC-ER 50 mg with a 0%, 20%, or 40% alcohol/orange juice solution after an overnight fast. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from plasma concentrations of hydrocodone and its metabolites. Results Exposure to hydrocodone after HC-ER 20 mg was similar in the fed and fasted states, as assessed by area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time of dosing to time of last detectable concentration (AUC0–t; 316.14 versus 311.94 ng · h/mL); relative bioavailability (Frel) was 101.74%. Differences (fed versus fasted) in hydrocodone mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; 28.86 versus 22.74 ng/mL) and median time to Cmax (tmax; 6 versus 8 hours) were not clinically significant. Administration of 20% alcohol with HC-ER 50 mg did not increase systemic exposure relative to 0% alcohol (AUC0–t 878 versus 832 ng · h/mL; Frel 105%) or result in clinically meaningful changes in Cmax (51.8 versus 46.3 ng/mL) or tmax (5.44 versus 6.16 hours). Administration with 40% alcohol increased AUC0–t (1,008 ng · h/mL versus 832 ng · h/mL; Frel 120%) and Cmax (109 versus 46.3 ng/mL), and shortened tmax (2.43 versus 6.16 hours). Adverse events occurred in 10.0%, 24.1%, and 66.7% of subjects after 0%, 20%, and 40% alcohol, respectively. Conclusion HC-ER can be administered without regard to meals. While there was no evidence of “dose-dumping” (an unintended, rapid release in a short time period of all or most of the hydrocodone from HC-ER), even with 40% alcohol, as with all

  17. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Karl E.; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hetherington, Marion M.; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and for bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on: (1) increased use of public-private partnerships; (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered; and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  18. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  19. Ptaquiloside, the major carcinogen of bracken fern, in the pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats: an underestimated, global concern of food safety.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Antonella; Sinisi, Annamaria; Russo, Valeria; Gerardo, Salvatore; Santoro, Adriano; Galeone, Aldo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roperto, Franco

    2015-05-20

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is a worldwide plant containing toxic substances, which represent an important chemical hazard for animals, including humans. Ptaquiloside, 1, a norsesquiterpenoid glucoside, is the major carcinogen of bracken detected in the food chain, particularly in the milk from farm animals. To date, ptaquiloside has been shown in the milk of cows feeding on a diet containing bracken fern. This is the first study that shows the systematic detection of ptaquiloside, 1, and reports its direct quantitation in pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats grazing on bracken. Ptaquiloside, 1, was detected by a sensitive method based on the chemical conversion of ptaquiloside, 1, into bromopterosine, 4, following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The presence of ptaquiloside, 1, possibly carcinogenic to humans, in the milk of healthy animals is an unknown potential health risk, thus representing a harmful and potential global concern of food safety. PMID:25932502

  20. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  1. 75 FR 47599 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Food and Drug Administration Rapid Response Surveys AGENCY: Food and... extension of an existing collection of information, and to allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the use of rapid response surveys to obtain data...

  2. 78 FR 69095 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Canning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... the Federal Register of September 18, 2013 (78 FR 57391). In the notice requesting comment on the.... Background In the Federal Register of September 18, 2013 (78 FR 57391), FDA published a notice with a 60-day... Acidified Foods and Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods in Hermetically Sealed Containers; Extension...

  3. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthy foods, and limit calories and saturated fat Be physically active Control your blood pressure and cholesterol Don't smoke Protect yourself from too much sun Drink alcohol in moderation, or don't drink at all Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

  4. 76 FR 68210 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... United States v. George's Foods, Inc., et. al., 76 FR 38419; and summaries of the terms of the proposed... that the Transaction would likely have the effect of enhancing George's incentive and ability to force... Judgment terminates upon motion by either the United States or the Defendants that the Defendants...

  5. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary

  6. A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils. PMID:18313434

  7. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Meal Pattern Revisions Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-25

    This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs. Several of the changes are extended to the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Special Milk Program. These changes are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, science-based recommendations made by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), cost and practical considerations, and stakeholder's input. This is the first major revision of the Child and Adult Care Food Program meal patterns since the Program's inception in 1968. These improvements to the meals served in the Child and Adult Care Food Program are expected to safeguard the health of young children by ensuring healthy eating habits are developed early, and improve the wellness of adult participants. PMID:27116762

  8. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site)

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID

  9. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID:27134747

  10. Should healthy eating programmes incorporate interaction with foods in different sensory modalities? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel; Hill, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Commercial interventions seeking to promote fruit and vegetable consumption by encouraging preschool- and school-aged children to engage with foods with 'all their senses' are increasing in number. We review the efficacy of such sensory interaction programmes and consider the components of these that are likely to encourage food acceptance. Repeated exposure to a food's flavour has robust empirical support in terms of its potential to increase food intake. However, children are naturally reluctant to taste new or disliked foods, and parents often struggle to provide sufficient taste opportunities for these foods to be adopted into the child's diet. We therefore explore whether prior exposure to a new food's non-taste sensory properties, such as its smell, sound, appearance or texture, might facilitate the food's introduction into the child's diet, by providing the child with an opportunity to become partially familiar with the food without invoking the distress associated with tasting it. We review the literature pertaining to the benefits associated with exposure to foods through each of the five sensory modalities in turn. We conclude by calling for further research into the potential for familiarisation with the visual, olfactory, somaesthetic and auditory properties of foods to enhance children's willingness to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables. PMID:22264626

  11. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  12. Lack of Healthy Food Options on Children’s Menus of Restaurants in the Health-Disparate Dan River Region of Virginia and North Carolina, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Olive, Nicole C.; Waters, Clarice N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interest has increased in understanding the types and healthfulness of restaurant foods for children, particularly in disadvantaged areas. The purpose of this community-based participatory research study was to describe the quality of restaurant food offered to children in a health-disparate region in Virginia and North Carolina and to determine if the availability of healthy foods differed by location (rural, urban) or by the predominant race (black, white, mixed race) of an area’s population. Methods Restaurants offering a children’s menu in the 3 counties in Virginia and North Carolina that make up the Dan River Region were identified by using state health department records. Research assistants reviewed menus using the Children’s Menu Assessment (CMA), a tool consisting of 29 scored items (possible score range, −4 to 21). Scores were calculated for each restaurant. We obtained information on the predominant race of the population at the block group level for all counties from 2010 US Census data. Results For the 137 restaurants studied, mean CMA scores were low (mean, 1.6; standard deviation [SD], 2.7), ranging from −4 to 9 of 21 possible points. Scores were lowest for restaurants in the predominantly black block groups (mean, 0.2; SD, 0.4) and significantly different from the scores for restaurants in the predominantly white (mean, 1.4; SD, 1.6) and mixed-race block groups (mean, 2.6; SD, 2.4) (F = 4.3; P < .05). Conclusion Children’s menus available in the Dan River Region lack healthy food options, particularly in predominantly black block groups. These study findings can contribute to regional efforts in policy development or environmental interventions for children’s food quality by the community-based participatory research partnership and help local stakeholders to determine possible strategies and solutions for improving local food options for children. PMID:25811495

  13. Guiding healthier food choice: systematic comparison of four front-of-pack labelling systems and their effect on judgements of product healthiness.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Charo E; Raats, Monique M; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Peacock, Matthew; Gröppel-Klein, Andrea; Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Wasowicz, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; Gulcan, Yaprak; Kustepeli, Yesim; Gibbs, Michelle; Shepherd, Richard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-05-28

    Different front-of-pack (FOP) labelling systems have been developed in Europe by industry and organisations concerned with health promotion. A study (n 2068) was performed to establish the extent to which inclusion of the most prevalent FOP systems--guideline daily amounts (GDA), traffic lights (TL), GDA+TL hybrid (HYB) and health logos (HL)--impact consumer perceptions of healthiness over and above the provision of a FOP basic label (BL) containing numerical nutritional information alone. The design included within- and between-subjects factors. The within-subjects factors were: food (pizzas, yogurts and biscuits), healthiness of the food (high health, medium health and low health) and the repeated measurements under BL and test FOP label conditions. The between-subjects factors were: the system (GDA, TL, GDA+TL hybrid, HL), portion size (typical portion size and a 50% reduction of a typical portion) and country (the UK, Germany, Poland and Turkey). Although the FOP systems tested did result in small improvements for objective understanding under some conditions, there was little difference between the provision of an FOP label containing basic numerical nutritional information alone or between the various systems. Thus, any structured and legible presentation of key nutrient and energy information on the FOP label is sufficient to enable consumers to detect a healthier alternative within a food category when provided with foods that have distinctly different levels of healthiness. Future research should focus on developing greater understanding of the psychological and contextual factors that impact motivation and the opportunity to use the various FOP systems in real-world shopping settings. PMID:25893314

  14. Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

  15. A critical review of food-associated factors proposed in the etiology of feline hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid; Hesta, Myriam; Biourge, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Since the first description of feline hyperthyroidism (HT) in 1979, several studies have been undertaken to define the etiology of the disease. Epidemiologic studies, after investigating non-food- and food-associated factors, suggest a multifactorial etiology. However, in the absence of prospective cohort studies that can confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between HT and associated risk factors, no causative factor for HT has been identified to date. Feline HT resembles toxic nodular goiter in humans, with autonomously functioning upregulated iodide uptake systems. Contribution of the diet to HT development remains controversial. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the reported food-associated risk factors for HT. PMID:25366172

  16. Proposed Use of Thickener According to Fluid Intake on Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies: Preliminary Study in Normal Healthy Persons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Park, Hee Seon; Kim, Jae Sin; Jang, Ki Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics and changes in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing according to fluid viscosity in normal healthy persons, to help determine fluid intake methods in more detail than the use of standardized fluid. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 10 normal healthy adults. While the participants sequentially took in fluids with 10 different viscosities changes in the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process were monitored using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Twenty parameters of the pharyngeal phase, including epiglottis contact, laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal constriction, and upper esophageal sphincter opening, were determined and compared. Results No significant viscosity-based changes in epiglottis contact, laryngeal elevation, or upper esophageal sphincter-opening duration of the pharyngeal phase were observed. However, pharyngeal transit time and time from the start of the pharyngeal phase to peak pharyngeal constriction were significantly delayed upon intake of fluid with viscosities of 150.0 centipoise (cP) and 200.0 cP. Conclusion VFSS analysis of fluid intake may require the use of fluids of various concentrations to determine a suitable viscosity of thickener mixture for each subject. PMID:27152269

  17. 77 FR 28602 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Early Food Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... (57 FR 22984). The guidance entitled, ``Recommendations for the Early Food Safety Evaluation of New... submitter has determined that all files provided in an electronic transmission are free of computer viruses... variety is a one- time burden (one evaluation per new protein). Based on its experience over the past...

  18. 75 FR 16137 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Export of Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...,251 2 10,502 Center for Devices and Radiological Health 6,463 1 6,463 2 12,926 Center for Veterinary Medicine 855 1 855 1 855 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition 1,794 5 8,970 2 17,940 Total...

  19. 78 FR 65663 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ....79(c)(2)(iv) requires the disclosure of the amount of folate in the nutrition label of a food bearing a health claim about the relationship between folate and a reduced risk of neural tube defects... labels that 1,000 1 1,000 0.25 250 contain a folate/neural tube defect health claim...

  20. Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of the Relationship Between the Perceived Food Environment and Healthy Eating in a Low Income Population in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Gase, Lauren N; Glenn, Beth; Kuo, Tony

    2016-04-01

    While previous studies have described psychosocial and environmental factors that contribute to healthy eating, much remains unknown about the interactions between them. We assessed the relationship between the perceived food environment, self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable consumption, using data from a sample of racially diverse, low-income adult clientele of five public health centers in Los Angeles County (n = 1503). We constructed a negative binomial regression model to examine the association between perceived food environment and the number of fruits and vegetables consumed. For every one point increase on the perceived food environment scale, individuals ate about 5 % more fruits and vegetables (95 % CI 1.007, 1.089), controlling for other covariates. Self-efficacy was shown to be a significant mediator (mediated effect = 0.010; 95 % CI 0.002, 0.020), accounting for 22.9 % of the effect. Efforts to increase access to healthy options may not only improve eating behaviors, but also influence individuals' beliefs that they can eat healthfully. PMID:25774038

  1. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that intervening with women may help increase the reach of these nutrition interventions, and that improving self-efficacy in healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes. PMID:24800064

  2. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M; Nathan, Nicole; Delaney, Tessa; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John; Preece, Sarah; Lubans, Nicole; Sutherland, Rachel; Pinfold, Jessica; Smith, Kay; Small, Tameka; Reilly, Kathryn L; Butler, Peter; Wyse, Rebecca J; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A number of jurisdictions internationally have policies requiring schools to implement healthy canteens. However, many schools have not implemented such policies. One reason for this is that current support interventions cannot feasibly be delivered to large numbers of schools. A promising solution to support population-wide implementation of healthy canteen practices is audit and feedback. The effectiveness of this strategy has, however, not previously been assessed in school canteens. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention, delivered by telephone and email, in increasing the number of school canteens that have menus complying with a government healthy-canteen policy. Methods and analysis Seventy-two schools, across the Hunter New England Local Health District in New South Wales Australia, will be randomised to receive the multicomponent audit and feedback implementation intervention or usual support. The intervention will consist of between two and four canteen menu audits over 12 months. Each menu audit will be followed by two modes of feedback: a written feedback report and a verbal feedback/support via telephone. Primary outcomes, assessed by dieticians blind to group status and as recommended by the Fresh Tastes @ School policy, are: (1) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu containing foods or beverages restricted for sale, and; (2) the proportion of schools that have a menu which contains more than 50% of foods classified as healthy canteen items. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of menu items in each category (‘red’, ‘amber’ and ‘green’), canteen profitability and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained by from the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated in usual forums, including peer

  3. No short-term effects of calorie-controlled Mediterranean or fast food dietary interventions on established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Parcina, Marijo; Kaese, Vareska; Zorn, Markus; Spiegel, Rainer; Vojvoda, Valerija; Fleming, Thomas; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Paul Nawroth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study addressed the question whether the composition of supposedly 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' dietary regimes has a calorie-independent short-term effect on biomarkers of metabolic stress and vascular risk in healthy individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS Healthy male volunteers (age 29.5 ± 5.9 years, n = 39) were given a standardized baseline diet for two weeks before randomization into three groups of different dietary regimes: fast food, Mediterranean and German cooking style. Importantly, the amount of calories consumed per day was identical in all three groups. Blood samples were analyzed for biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and metabolic stress after two weeks of the baseline diet and after two weeks of the assigned dietary regime. RESULTS No dietary intervention affected the metabolic or cardiovascular risk profile when compared in-between groups or compared to baseline. Subjects applied to the Mediterranean diet showed a statistically significant increase of uric acid compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. Plasma concentrations of urea were significantly higher in both the fast food group and the Mediterranean group, when compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. No significant differences were detected for the levels of vitamins, trace elements or metabolic stress markers (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde and methylglyoxal, a potent glycating agent). Established parameters of vascular risk (e.g. LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine) were not significantly changed in-between groups or compared to baseline during the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS The calorie-controlled dietary intervention caused neither protective nor harmful short-term effects regarding established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk. When avoiding the noxious effects of overfeeding, healthy individuals can possess the metabolic capacity to compensate for a potentially disadvantageous composition of a

  4. Effect of food intake on the bioavailability of almotriptan, an antimigraine compound, in healthy volunteers: an open, randomized, crossover, single-dose clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jansat, J M; Martinez-Tobed, A; Garcia, E; Cabarrocas, X; Costa, J

    2006-04-01

    This open, randomized, crossover, single-dose clinical trial evaluated the possible pharmacokinetic interaction between a single oral dose of almotriptan 25 mg, a 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist for the acute treatment of migraine, and food intake in healthy volunteers. The influence of food intake in the rate and extent of almotriptan absorption was evaluated by bioequivalence criteria. Tolerability and safety of treatment were also assessed. 16 healthy volunteers (8 men and 8 women, aged 19-27 years) received a crossed single oral dose of almotriptan 25 mg under fasting and fed conditions, separated by a 7-day washout period. The treatment given under fasting condition was considered as reference. Plasma levels of almotriptan were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection at 227 nm. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the logarithmically transformed Cmax and AUC0-infinity, values of almotriptan under fasting and fed conditions (97.8 - 124% and 102.9 - 108.2%, respectively) fell into the predetermined accepted range of 80 - 125%. No statistically significant differences in Cmax, tmax, AUC0-infinity, MRT and t1/2 were observed under fasting and fed conditions between men and women. Tolerability of treatments was good throughout the whole study period. In conclusion, administration of almotriptan 25 mg is bioequivalent under fasting and fed conditions in healthy men and women. Therefore, it is unlikely that concomitant food intake would produce clinially relevant differences in therapeutic effect with almotriptan at the dose studied here. PMID:16625988

  5. Deregulation, Distrust, and Democracy: State and Local Action to Ensure Equitable Access to Healthy, Sustainably Produced Food.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2015-01-01

    Environmental, public health, alternative food, and food justice advocates are working together to achieve incremental agricultural subsidy and nutrition assistance reforms that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. When it comes to targeting food and beverage products for increased regulation and decreased consumption, however, the priorities of various food reform movements diverge. This article argues that foundational legal issues, including preemption of state and local authority to protect the public's health and welfare, increasing First Amendment protection for commercial speech, and eroding judicial deference to legislative policy judgments, present a more promising avenue for collaboration across movements than discrete food reform priorities around issues like sugary drinks, genetic modification, or organics. Using the Vermont Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Labeling Act litigation, the Kauai GMO Cultivation Ordinance litigation, the New York City Sugary Drinks Portion Rule litigation, and the Cleveland Trans Fat Ban litigation as case studies, I discuss the foundational legal challenges faced by diverse food reformers, even when their discrete reform priorities diverge. I also 'explore the broader implications of cooperation among groups that respond differently to the "irrationalities" (from the public health perspective) or "values" (from the environmental and alternative food perspective) that permeate public risk perception for democratic governance in the face of scientific uncertainty. PMID:26591820

  6. Evaluating the Impact of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Proposed Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Young Adults' Visual Attention and Purchase Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Dan J.; Roberto, Christina A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed modifying the Nutrition Facts Label (NFL) on food packages to increase consumer attention to this resource and to promote healthier dietary choices. Aims: The present study sought to determine whether the proposed NFL changes will affect consumer attention to the NFL or purchase…

  7. Proposed Criteria for Assessing the Efficacy of Cancer Reduction by Plant Foods Enriched in Carotenoids, Glucosinolates, Polyphenols and Selenocompounds

    PubMed Central

    FINLEY, JOHN W.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The cancer-protective properties of vegetable consumption are most likely mediated through ‘bioactive compounds’ that induce a variety of physiologic functions including acting as direct or indirect antioxidants, regulating enzymes and controlling apoptosis and the cell cycle. The ‘functional food’ industry has produced and marketed foods enriched with bioactive compounds, but there are no universally accepted criteria for judging efficacy of the compounds or enriched foods. • Scope Carotenoids, glucosinolates, polyphenols and selenocompounds are families of bioactive compounds common to vegetables. Although numerous studies have investigated the agricultural and human health implications of enriching foods with one or more of these compounds, inadequate chemical identification of compounds, lack of relevant endpoints and inconsistencies in mechanistic hypotheses and experimental methodologies leave many critical gaps in our understanding of the benefits of such compounds. This review proposes a decision-making process for determining whether there is reasonable evidence of efficacy for the both the compound and the enriched food. These criteria have been used to judge the evidence of efficacy for cancer prevention by carotenoids, polyphenols, glucosinolates and selenocompounds. • Conclusions The evidence of efficacy is weak for carotenoids and polyphenols; the evidence is stronger for glucosinolates and lycopene, but production of enriched foods still is premature. Additionally there is unacceptable variability in the amount and chemical form of these compounds in plants. The evidence of efficacy for selenocompounds is strong, but the clinical study that is potentially the most convincing is still in progress; also the variability in amount and chemical form of Se in plants is a problem. These gaps in understanding bioactive compounds and their health benefits should not serve to reduce research interest but should, instead

  8. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products. PMID:27065019

  9. Consumption of foods rich in flavonoids is related to a decreased cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy French women.

    PubMed

    Mennen, Louise I; Sapinho, David; de Bree, Angelika; Arnault, Nathalie; Bertrais, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2004-04-01

    A high consumption of flavonoids may lower cardiovascular risk through their antioxidant capacity. This study evaluated the relation between consumption of foods rich in flavonoids and estimated cardiovascular risk. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 1286 women and 1005 men of the SU.VI.MAX Study (an 8-y trial evaluating the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the incidence of major chronic diseases). Dietary intakes were estimated using six 24-h dietary records collected during the year between the clinical measurement of blood pressure, weight and height and the biological measurement of total serum cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. The relation between flavonoid rich food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated with analyses of covariance and the effect on cardiovascular risk with logistic regression analyses. In women, flavonoid-rich food consumption was inversely related to systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). No relation between risk factors and flavonoid-rich food consumption was seen in men. Women in the highest tertile of flavonoid-rich food consumption were at lower risk for cardiovascular disease [odds ratio (OR): 0.31; 95%CI: 0.14, 0.68], whereas a positive tendency was seen in men (OR: 1.38; 95%CI: 0.96, 2.00). These results indicate that in women, a high consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:15051848

  10. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K

    2016-01-01

    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight. PMID:27404285

  11. 75 FR 6539 - Healthy Forests Reserve Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...This final rule amends Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) regulations for the Healthy Forests Reserve Program (HFRP). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Act) amended provisions of HFRP that changed the duration, type, and funding allocation of program agreements, and NRCS published a proposed rule for these changes on January 14, 2009. This final rule responds......

  12. A Healthy Harvest: Adolescents Grow Food and Well-Being with Policy Implications for Education, Health and Community Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevec, Illene Susan

    2011-01-01

    The severe youth health crisis involving overweight and obesity requires a complex policy response involving multiple domains: education, agriculture, health services, and community planning. This research examines gardening's affective benefits for adolescents and the potential school and youth gardens have to support healthy communities.…

  13. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Carla R.; Birkett, Anne; Fulgonii III, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI) based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data 2001–2010. Design A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807) with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM)±standard error of the mean (SEM) by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001) higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality. PMID:27098562

  14. Effect of food intake and co-administration of placebo self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems on the absorption of cinnarizine in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Jacobsen, Jette; Kristensen, Jakob; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-03-10

    Positive food effects may be observed for low aqueous soluble compounds, these effects could potentially be circumvented using lipid based formulations. However, as all compounds are not chemically stable in lipid based systems, alternative dosage regimes could be investigated to evade the stability issue. The two aims for this present study were therefore; i) to investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin Energy®, could induce food effect in humans for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine; and ii) to investigate if co-administration of a self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) with a conventional cinnarizine tablet could reduce the observed food-effect. A commercial conventional cinnarizine tablet was dosed to 10 healthy volunteers in a cross-over design in both fasted and fed state, with and without co-administration of a SNEDDS, with a one week wash-out period between dosing. The fed state was induced using a nutritional drink (Fresubin Energy®) and gastric emptying was assessed by administration of paracetamol as a marker. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the nutritional drink delayed the uptake and increased the fraction of absorbed cinnarizine, indicative of a food effect on the compound. This was in agreement with a previous dog study and indicates that the nutritional drink can be used for inducing the same level of food effect in humans. Though not statistically significant, the co-administration of SNEDDS exhibited a tendency towards a reduction of the observed food effect and an increased absorption of cinnarizine in the fasted state; based upon the individual ratios, which was not reflected in the mean data. However, the co-administration of SNEEDS in the fasted state, also induce a slower gastric emptying rate, which was observed as a delayed tmax for both cinnarizine and paracetamol. PMID:26775868

  15. [Relationship of food groups intake and C-reactive protein in healthy adults from Mexicali, Baja California, México].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esparza, Josefina; Robinson-Navarro, Octavio; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Carrillo-Cedillo, Eugenia Gabriela; Soria-Rodriguez, Carmen G

    2013-09-01

    The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important biomarker in inflammatory processes. The objective was to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of hs-CRP in adults from a northern Mexico region with their typical food intake patterns. A sample of 72 university professors underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and their hs-CRP levels were quantified with an immunoenzymometric assay. Additionally, they filled out a food intake frequency questionnaire, from which the servings of different food groups were obtained with the ESHA software. The average age of participants was 49.75 +/- 10.05 years and the average hs-CRP concentration was 1.66 (0.97, 3.52) mg/L. The value of the association between fruit consumption and hs-CRP level was protective, according to the logistic regression analysis, being the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.03); while for vegetables the OR was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.12, 3.68). Furthermore, high protein content foods, dairy products, oils and fats were associated with elevated levels of hs-CRP. In conclusion, in our study, the intake of some food groups like fruits and vegetables, and to a lesser extent cereals, were associated with low values of hs-PCR. PMID:24354239

  16. [Should a systematic fertility preservation be proposed to healthy women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation?].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, C; Rousset-Jablonski, C

    2015-12-01

    Should all women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes mutations be considered at risk of prematurely impaired fertility, and thus should a fertility preservation systematically be proposed? Women carrying mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at high risk for breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. The treatment of a breast cancer at a young age, unrare in this population, is associated with a risk of infertility, due to the ovarian toxicity of chemotherapy, to the recommended duration of hormonotherapy when indicated, and to the time advised before starting a pregnancy. Furthermore, some data in the literature suggest a higher risk of premature ovarian failure among women with BRCA1/2 mutation: advance of the age at menopause and poorer response to ovarian stimulation have been observed. Several pathophysiological hypotheses support this finding, as the involvement of the BRCA genes in maintaining telomere length, the DNA repair anomalies promoting oocyte apoptosis, differences in FMR1 genotype. Current fertility preservation techniques have limitations, some of them being specific to BRCA1/2 women: absence of oncological risk due to stimulation in BRCA1/2 women not clearly demonstrated, oocyte vitrification techniques limited rentability, graft of ovarian cortex not suitable in these women at high risk. Thus, data on the increased risk of premature ovarian failure remaining weak, such a systematic proposal seems questionable. PMID:26476890

  17. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  18. Serum hepcidin is significantly associated with iron absorption from food and supplemental sources in healthy young woman

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, but to date no studies have examined the effect of hepcidin on iron absorption in humans. Our objective was to assess relations between both serum hepcidin and serum prohepcidin with nonheme-iron absorption in the presence and absence of food with the...

  19. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  20. Antagonistic Characteristics Against Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria Isolated from Feces of Healthy Thai Infants

    PubMed Central

    Uraipan, Supansa; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-borne pathogens are among the most significant problems in maintaining the health of people. Many probiotics have been widely reported to alleviate and protect against gastrointestinal infections through antibacterial secretion. However, the majority of them cannot always play antagonistic roles under gut conditions. Probiotic bacteria of human origin must possess other protective mechanisms to survive, out-compete intestinal flora and to successfully establish in their new host at a significant level. Objectives: Probiotic characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria isolated from the feces of Thai infants were primarily investigated in terms of gastric acid and bile resistances, antibacterial activity and mucin adhesion ability. Antagonistic interaction through secretion of antibacterial compounds and competitive exclusion against food-borne pathogens were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Culturable LAB and bifidobacteria were isolated from feces of Thai infants. Their ability to withstand gastric acid and bile were then evaluated. Acid and bile salt tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria were identified. They were then further assessed according to their antagonistic interactions through antibacterial secretion, mucin adhesion and competitive mucin adhesion against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Results: Gastric acid and bile tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria isolated from healthy infant feces were identified and selected according to their antagonistic interaction against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic probiotics included four strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of L. casei, five strains of L. plantarum, two strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and three strains of B. bifidum. All strains of the selected LAB inhibited all pathogenic bacteria tested through antibacterial secretion, while bifidobacteria showed high level of competitive exclusion against the pathogenic

  1. Absolute bioavailability and effect of formulation change, food, or elevated pH with rabeprazole on cobimetinib absorption in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Musib, Luna; Choo, Edna; Deng, Yuzhong; Eppler, Steve; Rooney, Isabelle; Chan, Iris T; Dresser, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    Cobimetinib is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2. Since cobimetinib exhibited absorption variability in cancer patients, a series of single-dose studies in healthy subjects were conducted to determine absolute bioavailability and elucidate potential effects of formulation, food, and elevated gastric pH on cobimetinib bioavailability. Three crossover trials were performed with a 20 mg cobimetinib oral dose: absolute bioavailability using a 2 mg intravenous infusion (n = 13), relative bioavailability of tablets versus capsules and food effect (n = 20), and drug interaction with a proton pump inhibitor (20 mg of rabeprazole daily for 5 days prior to cobimetinib administration; n = 20). Absolute bioavailability of cobimetinib was 46.2% (24.2, CV %), likely due to metabolism rather than incomplete absorption. The mean systemic clearance of cobimetinib was low (11.7 L/h [28.2, CV %]). Administration of cobimetinib tablets with a high-fat meal delayed drug absorption (prolonged tmax) but had no statistically significant effect on cobimetinib exposure (Cmax and AUC0-∞). Tablet and capsule formulations of cobimetinib showed comparable exposures. Cobimetinib exhibited delayed absorption (tmax) in the presence of rabeprazole, with no statistically significant effects on drug exposure (Cmax and AUC0-∞) in the fasted state. In conclusion, cobimetinib oral absorption was not affected by change in formulation, food, or elevated gastric pH. PMID:24010577

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  4. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-02-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  5. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access. PMID:25541595

  6. A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Effect of Food Intake on Absorption of Orteronel (TAK-700) in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Suri, Ajit; Pham, Theresa; MacLean, David B

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of orteronel, an investigational nonsteroidal, reversible selective inhibitor of 17,20-lyase. In this open-label, randomized crossover study, healthy subjects received single doses of orteronel 400 mg with a low-fat meal, a high-fat meal, and under fasting conditions in a randomized sequence. Plasma concentrations of orteronel and its primary M-I metabolite were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using mixed-effects analysis of variance model. Compared with fasting conditions, the oral bioavailability of orteronel was increased under fed conditions. The least-squares mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve after a low-fat breakfast was 135% (90% confidence interval [CI], 126%-145%) compared with fasting conditions. Similarly, after a high-fat breakfast, the corresponding value was 142% (90%CI, 132%-152%). No unexpected safety concerns were raised with orteronel 400 mg administered in the fasted state or after either a high-fat or a low-fat meal; mild adverse events were experienced by 36% of the healthy male subjects. PMID:27163497

  7. A proposed sero-grouping scheme for epidemiological investigation of food poisoning due to Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, A K; Narayan, K G

    1979-10-01

    Serological studies with soluble and particulate antigens of Cl. perfringens type A revealed that enterotoxin and spore antigens could be used as a suitable marker for epidemiological studies. 94% of the food poisoning strains of Cl. perfringens type A could be grouped into 3 groups with the help of 2 enterotoxin-specific sera and 90% in 4 groups with antispore sera. Heat-sensitive strains were found to be antigenically more homogenous than the heat-resistant ones. Sera raised against spores of heat-resistant strains could not agglutinate spore of any of the heat-sensitive strains. Similarly no spores of heat-resistant strains were agglutinable by serum raised against spores of heat-sensitive strains. On the basis of typing efficiency the two antigen, viz enterotoxin and spore antigens were used in the serogrouping scheme proposed for the epidemiological investigation of food poisoning with Cl. perfringens type A. Used together, enterotoxin and spore agglutinogen form an antigenic formula for each strain showing the serogroup to which it belongs. PMID:44603

  8. Innovation in Diabetes Care: Improving Consumption of Healthy Food Through a “Chef Coaching” Program: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Diana; Abrahamson, Martin J.; Pojednic, Rachele M.; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition therapy as part of lifestyle care is recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, most people with diabetes do not follow this guideline. Changing eating habits involves obtaining knowledge and building practical skills such as shopping, meal preparation, and food storage. Just as fitness coaches use their specific knowledge base in fitness to enhance the effectiveness of their coaching, credentialed chefs trained as health coaches might combine their culinary expertise with coaching in order to improve clients' food choices and lifestyles. This report documents the case of a 55-year-old white male physician, single and living alone, who was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and reported chronic stress, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy eating habits. He participated in a chef coaching program of 8 weekly one-on-one 30-minute coaching sessions via Skype delivered by a chef trained as a health coach. During the first five meetings, the patient's goals were primarily culinary; however, with his success in accomplishing these goals, the patient progressed and expanded his goals to include other lifestyle domains, specifically exercise and work-life balance. At the end of the program, the patient had improved both his nutritional and exercise habits, his confidence in further self-care improvement, and his health parameters such as HgA1c (8.8% to 6.7%; normal <6.5%). We conclude that chef coaching has the potential to help people with diabetes improve their practical culinary skills and implement them so that they eat better and, further, has the potential to help them improve their overall self-care. We intend to further develop chef coaching and assess its potential as we learn from its implementation. PMID:25568831

  9. Innovation in diabetes care: improving consumption of healthy food through a "chef coaching" program: a case report.

    PubMed

    Polak, Rani; Dill, Diana; Abrahamson, Martin J; Pojednic, Rachele M; Phillips, Edward M

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition therapy as part of lifestyle care is recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, most people with diabetes do not follow this guideline. Changing eating habits involves obtaining knowledge and building practical skills such as shopping, meal preparation, and food storage. Just as fitness coaches use their specific knowledge base in fitness to enhance the effectiveness of their coaching, credentialed chefs trained as health coaches might combine their culinary expertise with coaching in order to improve clients' food choices and lifestyles. This report documents the case of a 55-year-old white male physician, single and living alone, who was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and reported chronic stress, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy eating habits. He participated in a chef coaching program of 8 weekly one-on-one 30-minute coaching sessions via Skype delivered by a chef trained as a health coach. During the first five meetings, the patient's goals were primarily culinary; however, with his success in accomplishing these goals, the patient progressed and expanded his goals to include other lifestyle domains, specifically exercise and work-life balance. At the end of the program, the patient had improved both his nutritional and exercise habits, his confidence in further self-care improvement, and his health parameters such as HgA1c (8.8% to 6.7%; normal <6.5%). We conclude that chef coaching has the potential to help people with diabetes improve their practical culinary skills and implement them so that they eat better and, further, has the potential to help them improve their overall self-care. We intend to further develop chef coaching and assess its potential as we learn from its implementation. PMID:25568831

  10. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... for meats that are 97% lean ground meats. Fish, such as salmon, whitefish, sardines, herring, tilapia, and ... healthy foods are: Choose tuna and other canned fish that is packed in water, not oil. Check ...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of food and gastric pH on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of cabozantinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Holland, Jaymes; Mamelok, Richard; Laberge, Marie-Kristine; Grenier, Julie; Swearingen, Dennis; Armas, Danielle; Lacy, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Cabozantinib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. Cabozantinib exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile in vitro. Two phase 1 clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in healthy subjects to evaluate whether factors that may affect cabozantinib solubility and gastric pH could alter cabozantinib bioavailability: a food effect study (study 1) and a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole (study 2). Following a high-fat meal (study 1), cabozantinib Cmax and AUC were increased (40.5% and 57%, respectively), and the median tmax was delayed by 2 hours. Cabozantinib should thus not be taken with food (patients should not eat for at least 2 hours before and at least 1 hour after administration). In the DDI study (study 2), the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) around the ratio of least-squares means of cabozantinib with esomeprazole versus cabozantinib alone for AUC0-inf were within the 80%-125% limits; the upper 90%CI for Cmax was 125.1%. Because of the low apparent risk of a DDI, concomitant use of PPIs or weaker gastric pH-altering agents with cabozantinib is not contraindicated. PMID:25907407

  12. A randomized study of the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of once-daily extended-release hydromorphone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kenneth Todd; St-Fleur, Dominique; Marricco, Nadia Cardillo; Ariyawansa, Jay; Pagé, Véronique; Natarajan, Jayalakshmi; Morelli, Gaetano; Richarz, Ute

    2011-11-01

    This randomized, open-label, crossover study investigated the influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of extended-release hydromorphone in 30 healthy volunteers. Participants received extended-release hydromorphone 16 mg in the fasted state and immediately after a high-fat breakfast. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of a 16-mg dose of extended-release hydromorphone and a 16-mg daily dose (4 mg qid) of immediate-release hydromorphone in the fasted state were compared. Treatments were separated by washout periods of 7 to 14 days. Naltrexone was given throughout each treatment period to block the opioid effects of hydromorphone. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the ratios of geometric means for maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for extended-release hydromorphone in the fed and fasted states were within the bioequivalence criteria range of 80% to 125%. In the fasted state, the 90% CIs of the ratios of AUC geometric means for extended-release hydromorphone and immediate-release hydromorphone were also within the bioequivalence range. Both hydromorphone treatments were well tolerated. This study shows that the bioavailability of extended-release hydromorphone is not affected by food and that the bioavailability of extended-release hydromorphone under fasting conditions is comparable with that of the immediate-release formulation when administered at the same total daily dose. PMID:21098692

  13. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and assessment of dose proportionality in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Murphy, Joseph; Stieltjes, Hans; Ariyawansa, Jay; Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Rothenberg, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Canagliflozin, an orally active inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of 300 mg canagliflozin, and dose proportionality of 50, 100, and 300 mg canagliflozin, were evaluated, in two studies, in healthy participants. Study 1 used a randomized, 2-way crossover design: canagliflozin 300 mg/day was administered under fasted (Period-1) and fed (Period-2) conditions or vice versa. Study 2 was a 3-way crossover: participants were randomized to receive three single-doses of canagliflozin (50, 100, and 300 mg), one in each period. In both studies, treatment periods were separated by washout intervals of 10-14 days, and pharmacokinetics assessed up to 72 hours postdose of each treatment period. No clinically relevant food effects on canagliflozin exposure parameters were observed: 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the fed/fasted geometric mean ratios of AUC∞ (ratio: 100.51; 90% CI: 89.47-112.93) and Cmax (ratio: 108.09; 90% CI: 103.45-112.95) were entirely within bioequivalence limits (80-125%). Plasma canagliflozin exposures were dose-proportional as the 90% CI of the slope of the regression line for dose-normalized AUC∞ and Cmax fell entirely within the prespecified limits of -0.124 to 0.124. No clinically significant safety issues were noted, and canagliflozin was generally well-tolerated. PMID:27136908

  14. Evaluation of the effect of food and age on the pharmacokinetics of oral netupitant and palonosetron in healthy subjects: A randomized, open-label, crossover phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Calcagnile, Selma; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Gutacker, Michaela; Jakob-Rodamer, Verena; Peter Kammerer, Klaus; Timmer, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Antiemetic treatment compliance is important to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a feared chemotherapy side effect. NEPA, a new oral fixed combination of netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-HT3 RA, targets dual antiemetic pathways with a single dose. This study investigated the effect of food intake and age on NEPA pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. In this open-label, single-center, randomized, phase 1 study, 24 adults (18-45 years) received NEPA in a fed or fasted state during the first treatment period and in the alternative state in the next treatment period. Twelve elderly subjects (≥65 years) received NEPA in a fasted state. Blood samples were taken for netupitant and palonosetron PK analysis. In the fed condition, netupitant plasma exposure increased, whereas palonosetron PK parameters were not affected. Furthermore, elderly subjects showed increased netupitant and palonosetron exposure compared with adults. All adverse events were mild/moderate, with constipation and headache the most common. Although food intake and age altered NEPA PK, dose adjustments were not needed, as netupitant and palonosetron exposure increases did not lead to safety concerns in healthy subjects. PMID:27137147

  15. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  16. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the ...

  17. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  18. The effect of yellow pea protein and fibre on short-term food intake, subjective appetite and glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher E; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low-glycaemic foods rich in protein (20-25 %), resistant starch and fibre that suppress appetite and glycaemia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the component(s) of yellow peas responsible for these benefits and assess their efficacy as value-added food ingredients. We investigated the effects of 10 or 20 g of isolated yellow pea protein (P10 and P20) or fibre (F10 and F20) on food intake (FI) at an ad libitum pizza meal served at 30 min (Expt 1, n 19) or 120 min (Expt 2, n 20) and blood glucose (BG) and appetite in young, healthy males (20-30 years). In Expt 1, P20 led to lower FI than control (4937 (sem 502) v. 5632 (sem 464) kJ (1180 (sem 120) v. 1346 (sem 111) kcal)) and all other treatments (P < 0·01) and lower cumulative FI (pizza meal kcal+treatment kcal; CFI) compared to F10 (5460 (sem 498) v. 6084 (sem 452) kJ (1305 (sem 119) v. 1454 (sem 108) kcal); P = 0·033). Both protein treatments suppressed mean pre-meal (0-30 min) BG compared to control (P < 0·05), whereas only P20 suppressed mean post-meal (50-120 min) BG (P < 0·01). There was no effect of treatment on pre-meal or post-meal appetite. In Expt 2, there was no effect of treatment on FI, CFI, or pre- or post-meal BG or appetite. In conclusion, protein is the component responsible for the short-term effects of yellow peas in the regulation of glycaemia and FI, but its second-meal effects disappear by 2 h post-consumption. PMID:22916818

  19. Effect of food on the oral bioavailability of amlodipine/valsartan and amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide fixed dose combination tablets in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Jiang, Xuemin; Reynolds, Christine; Serra, Denise; Zhang, Yiming; Ligueros-Saylan, Monica; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Winter, Serge; Jarugula, Venkateswar

    2014-11-01

    A double fixed dose combination of amlodipine/valsartan and triple fixed dose combination of amlodipine/valsartan/HCTZ tablets have been developed to treat patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension. Here, we present the effect of food on the oral bioavailability of these two fixed dose combination tablets from two separate clinical studies in healthy subjects. Single oral doses of amlodipine/valsartan (10/160 mg) and amlodipine/valsartan/HCTZ (10/320/25 mg were administered under fasted or fed conditions. Blood samples were collected in both studies to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine, valsartan, and/or HCTZ using non-compartmental analysis. Following amlodipine/valsartan administration, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs, 90% CI) of AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 1.09 (1.05-1.13) and 1.03 (0.97-1.09) for amlodipine, and 0.94 (0.81-1.10) and 0.86 (0.73-1.02) for valsartan, respectively. Following amlodipine/valsartan/HCTZ administration, the GMRs (90%CI) of AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 1.09 (1.04-1.15) and 1.11 (1.05-1.08) for amlodipine, 1.14 (0.99-1.31) and 1.12 (0.98-1.29) for valsartan, and 1.09 (1.02-1.16) and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for HCTZ, respectively. Considering the sample size and pharmacokinetic variability associated with analytes, these study results indicate that food effect is minimal or none when fixed dose combination tablets are administered with food. In conclusion, both fixed dose combination tablets can be administered without regards to meals. PMID:27129123

  20. Relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of omecamtiv mecarbil following administration of different modified-release formulations in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Palaparthy, Rameshraja; Banfield, Christopher; Alvarez, Paco; Yan, Lucy; Smith, Brian; Johnson, Jessica; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Malik, Fady

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Omecamtiv mecarbil is a novel small molecule that directly activates cardiac myosin and increases cardiac contractility without increasing cardiac myocyte intracellular calcium. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability, food effect, and safety of several modified-release (MR) formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. Methods: This was a phase 1, randomized, open-label, 4-way crossover, incomplete block-design study evaluating 5 MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil vs. an immediate-release (IR) formulation. Materials: Healthy subjects were randomized to 1 of 30 possible sequences: within each sequence, subjects were assigned to receive a single 25-mg dose of 2 of the 6 possible formulations in the fasting and/or fed states. Results: 65 subjects were screened and enrolled; 5 were replacement subjects. Pharmacokinetic and safety data were analyzed from 62 and 63 subjects in the fasting and fed states, respectively. Compared with the IR formulation, median tmax was longer (0.5 vs. 2 – 10 hours), and mean Cmax was lower for all 5 MR formulations (262 vs. 34 – 78 ng/mL); t1/2,z was similar (18 – 21 hours). The relative bioavailability was high (> 75%) for three MR formulations but lower (< 65%) for the other two. Overall, the effect of food on omecamtiv mecarbil pharmacokinetics was minimal for four of the MR formulations. The pharmacokinetics of the inactive metabolites M3 and M4 were similar across all formulations. Conclusions: The relative bioavailability of omecamtiv mecarbil was high (> 75%) for 3 of the five MR formulations. Food had a marginal, nonclinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of the MR formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil. PMID:26709596

  1. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests). Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses). Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies. PMID:22625222

  2. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  3. Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals (PDF, 513.39 KB) You Might Also Like Drinking Enough Fluids Foot Care Monthly Progress Test STAY INFORMED Follow us on Twitter Visit us ...

  4. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P < 0.01). The magnitude of the sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy

  5. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. PMID:25988272

  6. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  7. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. Design A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80% of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. Setting South San Diego County. Subjects Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Results Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P=0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture’s recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P<0·001). The cost of 1 gallon of skimmed milk was significantly higher in tiendas ($US 3·29 v. $US 2·69; P=0·005) and lean (7% fat) ground beef was available in only one tienda (10 %) compared with ten (67 %) supermarkets (P=0·01). Conclusions Barriers remain in the ability to purchase healthier dairy and meat options in tiendas; the same is not true for produce. These results highlight the potential that tiendas have in improving access to quality, fresh produce within lower-income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products. PMID:21733278

  8. Increased peptide YY blood concentrations, not decreased acyl-ghrelin, are associated with reduced hunger and food intake in healthy older women: Preliminary evidence.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Mary; Moss, Charlotte; Dhillo, Waljit S; Bottin, Jeanne; Frost, Gary

    2016-10-01

    With ageing there is frequently a loss of appetite, termed anorexia of ageing, which can result in under-nutrition. We do not know how appetite control alters with ageing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in the release of, and response to, gastrointestinal appetite hormones is altered in young compared to old healthy volunteers. We hypothesised that an increase in PYY and GLP-1 or a decrease ghrelin may result in a decreased appetite. A comparative experimental design, using a cross-sectional sample of ages from a healthy population, matched for sex and BMI was used. The study compared total ghrelin, acyl-ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and subjective appetite responses to ingestion of a standardised 2781kj (660 kcal) test meal. 31 female volunteers aged between 21 and 92yrs took part. Multiple linear regression showed that both age and sex had an independent effect on energy intake. Subjective appetite scores showed that hunger, pleasantness to eat, and prospective food intake were significantly lower in the older age groups. PYY incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was greater in the oldest old compared to younger ages f(3,27) = 2.9, p = 0.05. No differences in GLP-1, ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin were observed in the older compared to younger age groups. Our data suggest that there may be increases in postprandial PYY(3-36) levels in female octogenarians, potentially resulting in reduced appetite. There does not appear to be any change in ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin concentrations with ageing. PMID:27264721

  9. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  10. Are the benefits of the 'Healthy Start' food support scheme sustained at three months postpartum? Results from the Sheffield 'before and after' study.

    PubMed

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Ford, Fiona A; Wademan, Sarah E; Fraser, Robert B

    2010-10-01

    Early results examining nutritional behaviour of Caucasian, English-speaking, postpartum women living in Sheffield, who were beneficiaries or eligible for the Welfare Food Scheme (WFS) or the Healthy Start (HS) scheme, suggested significant between-groups differences. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences observed at 4 weeks postpartum were sustained over time. Eighty-six WFS and 64 HS participants were recruited at baseline and, thereafter, 53 WFS and 33 HS participants at week 8, and 47 WFS and 39 HS participants at week 12. Dietary intakes were assessed by an interviewer-administered, semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire. At 4 weeks, HS women had higher energy intakes compared to WFS women, (9.7 MJ and 8.1 MJ, respectively). Differences were also sustained at 8 weeks, (8.8 MJ and 7.2 MJ) and 12 weeks (9.4 MJ and 7.6 MJ) for the HS and WFS participants, respectively. Within-groups, energy and most of nutrient intakes did not change appreciably over time. Consumption of fruit and vegetables at baseline, were significantly higher (P = 0.023) for participants under the HS scheme (3.4 portions) compared to WFS participants (2.7 portions). Differences were sustained over time as HS women reported consuming 4.1 and 3.7 portions/day respectively at 8 and 12 weeks, as opposed to 2.8 and 2.7 portions/day reported by WFS women. The study findings provided evidence of the potential effectiveness of the HS scheme in a population subgroup at risk of dietary deficiencies. Early findings could provide a useful snapshot of the diet of such mobile population and should be further exploited. PMID:21050389

  11. The Absolute Bioavailability and Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Odanacatib: A Stable-Label i.v./Oral Study in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Zajic, Stefan; Rossenu, Stefaan; Hreniuk, David; Kesisoglou, Filippos; McCrea, Jacqueline; Liu, Fang; Sun, Li; Witter, Rose; Gauthier, Don; Helmy, Roy; Joss, Darrick; Ni, Tong; Stoltz, Randall; Stone, Julie; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2016-09-01

    A stable-label i.v./oral study design was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of odanacatib. Healthy, postmenopausal women received oral doses of unlabeled odanacatib administered simultaneously with a reference of 1 mg i.v. stable (13)C-labeled odanacatib. The absolute bioavailability of odanacatib was 30% at 50 mg (the phase 3 dose) and 70% at 10 mg, which is consistent with solubility-limited absorption. Odanacatib exposure (area under the curve from zero to infinity) increased by 15% and 63% when 50 mg was administered with low-fat and high-fat meals, respectively. This magnitude of the food effect is unlikely to be clinically important. The volume of distribution was ∼100 liters. The clearance was ∼0.8 l/h (13 ml/min), supporting that odanacatib is a low-extraction ratio drug. Population PK modeling indicated that 88% of individuals had completed absorption of >80% bioavailable drug within 24 hours, with modest additional absorption after 24 hours and periodic fluctuations in plasma concentrations contributing to late values for time to Cmax in some subjects. PMID:27402726

  12. Use a rabbit or a rhino to sell a carrot? The effect of character-product congruence on children's liking of healthy foods.

    PubMed

    de Droog, Simone M; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether unfamiliar characters are as effective as familiar characters in stimulating children's affective responses toward healthy foods. In particular, the authors investigated whether an unfamiliar character which is congruent with a product can be as effective as a familiar character. The authors tested 2 types of character-product congruence: conceptual congruence (on the basis of a familiar link), and perceptual congruence (on the basis of color similarity). In a repeated measures design, 166 children (4-6 years old) were exposed to a picture of a carrot combined randomly with 5 different types of character: an (incongruent) familiar character and four unfamiliar characters varying in character-product congruence (i.e., both conceptually and perceptually congruent, conceptual only, perceptual only, and incongruent). The authors measured children's automatic affective responses toward these character-product combinations using a time-constrained task, and elaborate affective responses using a nonconstrained task. Results revealed that the conceptually congruent unfamiliar characters were just as effective as the familiar character in increasing children's automatic affective responses. However, the familiar character triggered the most positive elaborate affective responses. Results are explained in light of processing fluency and parasocial relationship theories. PMID:22650613

  13. Social discourses of healthy eating. A market segmentation approach.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G; Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the framework, (b) to validate and further describe the segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes towards healthy eating, and (c) to explore differences across segments in types of associations with food and health, as well as perceptions of food healthfulness.316 Danish consumers participated in a survey that included measures of the underlying subject positions of the proposed framework, followed by a word association task that aimed to explore types of associations with food and health, and perceptions of food healthfulness. A latent class clustering approach revealed three consumer segments: the Common, the Idealists and the Pragmatists. Based on the addressed objectives, differences across the segments are described and implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20600410

  14. Study on Commercialization of Biogasification Systems in Ishikari Bay New Port Area - Proposal of Estimation Method of Collectable Amount of Food Waste by using Binary Logit Model -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Sho; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    This study proposed an estimation method for collectable amount of food waste considering the food waste generator's cooperation ratio ant the amount of food waste generation, and clarified the factors influencing the collectable amount of food waste. In our method, the cooperation ratio was calculated by using the binary logit model which is often used for the traffic multiple choice question. In order to develop a more precise binary logit model, the factors influencing on the cooperation ratio were extracted by a questionnaire survey asking food waste generator's intention, and the preference investigation was then conducted at the second step. As a result, the collectable amount of food waste was estimated to be 72 [t/day] in the Ishikari bay new port area under a condition of current collection system by using our method. In addition, the most critical factor influencing on the collectable amount of food waste was the treatment fee for households, and was the permitted mixture degree of improper materials for retail trade and restaurant businesses

  15. Conflict and Compromise in Public Health Policy: Analysis of Changes Made to Five Competitive Food Legislative Proposals Prior to Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinour, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Competitive foods in schools have historically been scrutinized for their ubiquity and poor nutritional quality, leading many states to enact legislation limiting the availability and accessibility of these items. Evaluations of these policy approaches show their promise in improving the healthfulness of school food environments, considered an…

  16. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  17. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  18. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Altern Complement Med United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Services. Plant guide: Chia. https://plants.usda. ... February 10, 2014.United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Services. Plant guide: Chia. https://plants.usda. ...

  19. Healthy food trends -- Brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... juice 1 teaspoon brown mustard (spicy) ½ teaspoon thyme (dried) ½ cup mushroom (sliced) Instructions Trim Brussels ... boil. Mix in the lemon juice, mustard, and thyme. Add the mushrooms. Boil until the broth is ...

  20. Healthy food trends -- Brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... top with garlic and olive oil. Add chicken, mushrooms, or beans for a hearty meal. Add whole ... mustard (spicy) ½ teaspoon thyme (dried) ½ cup mushroom (sliced) Instructions Trim Brussels sprouts and cut in ...

  1. Healthy doctors, healthy communities.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Donna; Katch, Ellen; Anderson, Patricia; Furlong, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    Promoting health and eliminating disease are goals of Healthy People 2010, a national initiative for all communities. Physician-directed interventions that advance these principles are most effective when directed by clinicians who regularly participate in such healthy behaviors themselves. This pilot study describes an 8-week intervention, "Well-being for You and Your Patients," for first-year medical students to experience health behavior change. In the 2-hour sessions, students set goals for changing health behavior in 6 dimensions of wellness; report their progress; and enjoy a 30-minute change-of-pace wellness activity. The authors recommend adapting the course for medical student alumni to facilitate health behavior change with small groups of adults, school-age children, teens, and elders in churches, schools, community health centers, and other community-based organizations. Through continuing medical education and Grand Rounds, residents and physicians in practice could also be trained to implement specific behavioral change strategies. PMID:15495745

  2. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people. PMID:10434969

  3. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  4. Effect of grapefruit juice and food on the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone in healthy Chinese volunteers: a diet-drug interaction study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinqing; Shang, Dewei; Xu, Xinwen; He, Xiuling; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhanzhang; Qiu, Chang; Deng, Shuhua; Lu, Haoyang; Zhu, Xiuqing; Huang, Wencan; Wen, Yuguan

    2016-06-01

    1. Ingestion of grapefruit juice and food could be factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone, a promising drug for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 2. A randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy Chinese male volunteers who were randomized to one of the three treatments: pirfenidone tablets (0.4 g) were orally administered to fasted or fed subjects, or with grapefruit juice. The washout period was 7 d. 3. Significantly reduced maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, 5.0 5 ± 1.39 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)), modestly affected area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 12 h post dosing (AUC0-12 h, 21.8 9 ± 6.47 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) and delayed time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were observed in fed group compared with fasted group. Similar effects on Cmax (5.8 2 ± 1.23 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)) and AUC0-12 h (modest but not statistically significant, 24.4 4 ± 7.40 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) were observed for grapefruit juice compared to fasted subjects. 4. Co-administration of pirfenidone with grapefruit juice resulted in modestly reduced overall oral absorption and significantly reduced peak concentrations compared to fasting, which was similar to effect of food ingestion. No adverse events were observed in the study, but relatively dramatic reduction of peak concentrations should raise concerns for clinical efficacy and safety. PMID:26407124

  5. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy. PMID:17678570

  6. Acute, food-induced moderate elevation of plasma uric acid protects against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Jonatan; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Sutlovic, Davorka; Salamunic, Ilza; Zaja, Ivan; Boban, Mladen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effects of acute, food-induced moderate increase of plasma uric acid (UA) on arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative damage in plasma in healthy males exposed to 100% normobaric oxygen. Acute elevation of plasma UA was induced by consumption of red wine, combination of ethanol and glycerol, or fructose. By using these beverages we were able to separate the effects of UA, wine polyphenols and ethanol. Water was used as a control beverage. Ten males randomly consumed test beverages in a cross-over design over the period of 4 weeks, one beverage per week. They breathed 100% O(2) between 60(th) and 90(th)min of the 4-h study protocol. Pulse wave augmentation index (AIx) at brachial and radial arteries, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) assessed by xylenol orange method, UA and blood ethanol concentrations were determined before and 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after beverage consumption. Consumption of the beverages did not affect the AIx, TBARS or LOOH values during 60 min before exposure to hyperoxia, while AOC and plasma UA increased except in the water group. Significant increase of AIx, plasma TBARS and LOOH, which occurred during 30 min of hyperoxia in the water group, was largely prevented in the groups that consumed red wine, glycerol+ethanol or fructose. In contrast to chronic hyperuricemia, generally considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, acute increase of UA acts protectively against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and related increase of arterial stiffness in large peripheral arteries. PMID:19457484

  7. A pilot school-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention improves diet, food knowledge, and self-efficacy for native Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Harris, Stewart B; Hanley, Anthony J G; Valente, Tom W; Zinman, Bernard

    2005-10-01

    The Sandy Lake school-based diabetes prevention program is a culturally appropriate intervention for Ojibway-Cree students in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades. This paper reports the results of the program in changing dietary intake behaviors and related psychosocial factors. Physical activity results are not included. The study was a pretest/post-test, single-sample design conducted during the 1998-1999 school year. A total of 122 students completed all 4 measurements (anthropometry, 24-h dietary recall, and 2 questionnaires), at baseline and follow-up. There were significant increases (P < 0.0001) in dietary intention, dietary preference, knowledge, and dietary self-efficacy, and in the curriculum knowledge scale between baseline and follow-up. Intervention exposure was significantly associated with being in the highest category for knowledge about foods that were low in dietary fat [Medium Exposure odds ratio (OR): 3.4; P < 0.05; High Exposure OR: 6.4; P < 0.05], being in the highest category for dietary self-efficacy (Medium Exposure OR: 3.7; P < 0.05; High Exposure OR: 3.9; P < 0.1), being in the highest category for knowledge about curriculum concepts (Medium Exposure OR: 3.4; P < 0.05; High Exposure OR: 9.4: P < 0.01), and for having met the age + 5 g dietary fiber intake/d (Medium Exposure OR: 2.9; P < 0.1; High Exposure OR: 11.0; P < 0.01). Exposure to the intervention was not associated with dietary intent or the percentage of energy from dietary fat. This program was associated with improved knowledge and the psychosocial factors related to healthy eating and dietary fiber intake of students in a remote First Nations community. PMID:16177202

  8. Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2012-12-28

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat. PMID:22370331

  9. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. PMID:23833807

  10. A proposed approach to monitor private-sector policies and practices related to food environments, obesity and non-communicable disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Kraak, V; Downs, S; Walker, C; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S

    2013-10-01

    Private-sector organizations play a critical role in shaping the food environments of individuals and populations. However, there is currently very limited independent monitoring of private-sector actions related to food environments. This paper reviews previous efforts to monitor the private sector in this area, and outlines a proposed approach to monitor private-sector policies and practices related to food environments, and their influence on obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention. A step-wise approach to data collection is recommended, in which the first ('minimal') step is the collation of publicly available food and nutrition-related policies of selected private-sector organizations. The second ('expanded') step assesses the nutritional composition of each organization's products, their promotions to children, their labelling practices, and the accessibility, availability and affordability of their products. The third ('optimal') step includes data on other commercial activities that may influence food environments, such as political lobbying and corporate philanthropy. The proposed approach will be further developed and piloted in countries of varying size and income levels. There is potential for this approach to enable national and international benchmarking of private-sector policies and practices, and to inform efforts to hold the private sector to account for their role in obesity and NCD prevention. PMID:24074209

  11. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  12. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    ... experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. Food preferences change with time, so a child may ... Allowing your child to be in control of food intake may seem hard at first. However, it will help promote healthy eating habits for a lifetime.

  13. Control of human norovirus surrogates in fresh foods by gaseous ozone and a proposed mechanism of inactivation.

    PubMed

    Predmore, Ashley; Sanglay, Gabe; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Fresh produce is a major concern for transmission of foodborne enteric viruses as it is normally consumed with no heat treatments and minimal other processing to ensure safety. Commonly used sanitizers are ineffective at removing foodborne viruses from fresh produce. Thus the use of gaseous ozone for viral inactivation was investigated. Ozone has great potential for improved food safety because of four benefits: It is a potent sanitizer, it is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, it is permitted for food use as regulated by the U.S. FDA and several other nations, and it spontaneously decomposes to oxygen leaving no residue. This study determined the effectiveness of gaseous ozone for the sanitization of two norovirus surrogates (MNV-1 and TV) from both liquid media and popular fresh foods where viral contamination is common-lettuce and strawberries. Foods were treated with gaseous ozone at 6% wt/wt ozone in oxygen for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, and surviving viruses were quantified by viral plaque assay. Our results showed that gaseous ozone inactivated norovirus in both liquid media and fresh produce in a dose-dependent manner. These results are promising because ozone treatment significantly reduced two important norovirus surrogates in both liquid and food matrices. Viruses are generally more resistant to sanitation treatments than bacteria, thus gaseous ozone is an effective means to improve fresh produce safety. PMID:25998824

  14. Healthy world, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Mcmichael, T

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges to human health from environmental degradation. The environment includes the social environment as well as the physical and chemical environment. Housing quality, recreation, population growth, density and mobility, social networks, and political and distributive equity also impact on health. There are well known examples of man-made disasters, such as in Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Love Canal. What are less understood are the general conditions of poor health, low life expectancy, and early death due to polluted air, contaminated drinking water, and pesticide and other chemical contamination. An estimated 66% of diarrhea episodes are attributed to contaminated food or water. Health and vital statistics do not measure public health problems, such as declines in intelligence from lead ingestion from auto emissions. Epidemiological tracking of cause and effect of environmental contaminants is elusive. Some key features of environmental impact are the threshold effect, indirect pathways, and long-term and systems effects. Environmental hazards may deplete or disrupt natural biophysical processes that are the basic source of sustained good health. These basic systems include the food production system, the vector borne disease routes, global hydrological cycles, and the stratosphere. Gains in life expectancy have been due to declines in infectious disease mortality in early life, food security, improved hygiene and water sanitation, vaccination, and antibiotics and other medical treatments. Rapid technological change, acquisitive consumerism, ignorance of distant and deferred environmental impacts, and a free market ethic limit social advancement and ignore public health and environmental stresses. The scale of today's environmental problems requires priority setting and socially and ecologically sustainable ways of living. PMID:12321048

  15. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule and interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-29

    This rule adopts as final, with some modifications, the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations set forth in the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on June 28, 2013. The requirements addressed in this rule conform to the provisions in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 regarding nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Most provisions of this final rule were implemented on July 1, 2014, a full year subsequent to publication of the interim final rule. This was in compliance with section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, which required that State and local educational agencies have at least one full school year from the date of publication of the interim final rule to implement the competitive food provisions. Based on comments received on the interim final rule and implementation experience, this final rule makes a few modifications to the nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools implemented on July 1, 2014. In addition, this final rule codifies specific policy guidance issued after publication of the interim rule. Finally, this rule retains the provision related to the standard for total fat as interim and requests further comment on this single standard. PMID:27476195

  16. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  17. Conflict and compromise in public health policy: analysis of changes made to five competitive food legislative proposals prior to adoption.

    PubMed

    Dinour, Lauren M

    2015-04-01

    Competitive foods in schools have historically been scrutinized for their ubiquity and poor nutritional quality, leading many states to enact legislation limiting the availability and accessibility of these items. Evaluations of these policy approaches show their promise in improving the healthfulness of school food environments, considered an important strategy for reducing childhood obesity. Yet little is known about the decision-making processes by which such legislation is formed and adopted. Using a comparative case study design, this study describes and analyzes the policy formation processes surrounding five state-level competitive food bills introduced in 2009-2010. Data for each case were drawn from multiple key informant interviews and document reviews. Case studies were conducted, analyzed, and written independently using a standard protocol and were subsequently compared for recurring and unique themes. Abbreviated case studies and summary tables are provided. Results indicate that bill cost is a major barrier to achieving strong, health-promoting policy change. Additionally, findings reveal that supporters of stronger competitive food policies often concede to changes that weaken a bill in order to neutralize opposition and achieve stakeholder buy-in. These challenges suggest that continued research on the development, implementation, and evaluation of public health policies can contribute to the advancement of new strategies for effective health promotion. PMID:25829121

  18. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  19. Proposed method to calculate FRMAC intervention levels for the assessment of radiologically contaminated food and comparison of the proposed method to the U.S. FDA's method to calculate derived intervention levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Hunt, Brian D.

    2014-02-01

    This report reviews the method recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for calculating Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) and identifies potential improvements to the DIL calculation method to support more accurate ingestion pathway analyses and protective action decisions. Further, this report proposes an alternate method for use by the Federal Emergency Radiological Assessment Center (FRMAC) to calculate FRMAC Intervention Levels (FILs). The default approach of the FRMAC during an emergency response is to use the FDA recommended methods. However, FRMAC recommends implementing the FIL method because we believe it to be more technically accurate. FRMAC will only implement the FIL method when approved by the FDA representative on the Federal Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health.

  20. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2015-10-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled "Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective", three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling.The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some "types" of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibitiona nd less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level. PMID:26665419

  1. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sarah J.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L.D.

    2015-01-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some “types” of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibition and less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level. PMID:26665419

  2. Healthy Eating for Vegetarians: 10 Tips for Vegetarians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Healthy Eating for Vegetarians You are here Home Healthy Eating ... Vegetarians Print Share 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Healthy Eating for Vegetarians 10 tips for vegetarians A vegetarian ...

  3. Managing your weight with healthy eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity level Know how many servings of dairy, fruits and vegetables, proteins, and grains and other starches ... piece of string cheese, or yogurt with fresh fruit. Choose different healthy foods from each food group. ...

  4. Food guide plate

    MedlinePlus

    ... The new guide encourages you to eat more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low- ... that make up a healthy diet: Grains Vegetables Fruits Dairy Protein foods You should eat foods from ...

  5. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Making Smart Food Choices Regular physical activity and a healthy ... through physical activity. Download the Tip Sheet Making Smart Food Choices (PDF, 488.99 KB) You Might ...

  6. Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

  7. Culturally-Based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food: Development and validation of the CHEF scale.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Rebecca R; Palmberg, Allison; Lydecker, Janet; Green, Brooke; Kelly, Nichole R; Trapp, Stephen; Bean, Melanie K

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority populations in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. To address this disparity, research has begun to investigate the role of culture, ethnicity, and experiences with racism on food choices and health interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new scale measuring the extent to which individuals' culture, as they perceive it, influences perceptions of food-related health messages. A diverse sample of 422 college students responded to the item pool, as well as surveys on race-related stress, self-efficacy in making healthy food choices, ethnic identity, and social support for health-related behaviors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a five-factor model: Connection (the extent to which food connected individuals with their culture), Authority (beliefs that health care providers were familiar with individuals' cultural foods), Unhealthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that individuals' cultural foods were perceived as unhealthy), Healthy Food Perceptions (beliefs that others perceive individuals' cultural foods to be healthy), and Social Value (the extent to which social relationships are improved by shared cultural food traditions). Authority and Healthy Food Perceptions were related to individuals' confidence in their ability to make healthy food choices. Authority was inversely correlated with negative coping with racism-related events. Ethnic identity was significantly correlated with all but Unhealthy Food Perceptions. Race/ethnicity differences were identified for Healthy Food Perceptions, Unhealthy Food Perceptions, Social Value, Connection, but not Authority. Applications and suggestions for further research using the Culturally-based Communication about Health, Eating, and Food (CHEF) Scale are proposed. PMID:26409643

  8. Evaluating the "Healthy Diabetes" Caribbean Food Plate and Website Portal for Diabetes Prevention and Management: Results of an Online Study and Implications for Reducing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nigel M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the challenge of cooking traditional Caribbean meals so they are consistent with the goals of diabetes prevention and management, the researcher created and evaluated a new website portal as e-health tailored to be culturally appropriate and teach the following: how to cook and prepare "Healthy Diabetes" Caribbean Plates. A social…

  9. Ethical Discourse about the Modification of Food for Therapeutic Purposes: How Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases View the Good, the Bad, and the Healthy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Krista L; Geller, Gail; Marshall, Patricia; Tilburt, Jon; Mercer, Marybeth; Brinich, Margaret A; Highland, Janelle; Farrell, Ruth M; Sharp, Richard R

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Researchers have the potential to utilize genetic modification (GM) technologies to create a hybrid of "food" and "medicine" that may challenge traditional understandings of what is "natural". Moral and ethical concerns are likely to arise in any discussion of these therapeutic foods and will affect the integration of products into clinical care and daily life. This study examined how patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases view probiotics as future bioengineered therapeutic foods. METHODS: A multi-site qualitative study consisting of focus groups with chronic GI diseases was conducted at Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, and Johns Hopkins University RESULTS: We conducted twenty-two focus groups with 136 patients with major GI diseases between March and August 2009. GI patients associated the term "natural" with concepts of diminished risk and morally "good"; conversely, patients associated the term "unnatural" with things that are "risky," "foreign", and morally "bad". Readily available unmodified probiotics were more commonly described as "natural" while genetically modified probiotics were more commonly labeled as "unnatural" and "risky". However, patients acknowledged that not all natural products are safe, nor are unnatural products always harmful. CONCLUSIONS: If GI patient perspectives are indicative of public perceptions of therapeutic foods, our findings suggest that the potential benefits and risks of clinical and public health initiatives employing therapeutic foods will be understood in moralistic terms. Bioethicists and others should be sensitive to the implicit normative appeals that are often embedded in the language of what is "natural" and "unnatural". PMID:22773953

  10. Research Approaches and Methods for Evaluating the Protein Quality of Human Foods Proposed by an FAO Expert Working Group in 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren Tk; Weisell, Robert; Albert, Janice; Tomé, Daniel; Kurpad, Anura V; Uauy, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) has been adopted for assessing protein quality in human foods since 1991, and the shortcomings of using the PDCAAS have been recognized since its adoption. The 2011 FAO Expert Consultation recognized that the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was superior to the PDCAAS for determining protein quality. However, there were insufficient human data on amino acid digestibility before adopting the DIAAS. More human data were needed before DIAAS could be implemented. In 2014, FAO convened an expert working group to propose and agree on research protocols using both human-based assays and animal models to study ileal amino acid digestibility (metabolic availability) of human foods. The working group identified 5 research protocols for further research and development. A robust database of protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed worldwide, including those consumed in low-income countries, is needed for an informed decision on adopting the DIAAS. A review on the impacts of using the DIAAS on public health policies is necessary. It would be advantageous to have a global coordinating effort to advance research and data collection. Collaboration with international and national agriculture institutes is desirable. Opportunities should be provided for young researchers, particularly those from developing countries, to engage in protein-quality research for sustainable implementation of DIAAS. To conclude, the DIAAS is a conceptually preferable method compared with the PDCAAS for protein and amino acid quality evaluation. However, the complete value of the DIAAS and its impact on public health nutrition cannot be realized until there are sufficient accumulated ileal amino acid digestibility data on human foods that are consumed in different nutritional and environmental conditions, measured by competent authorities. A future meeting may be needed to evaluate the size and quality of the data set

  11. Physicians' Plan for a healthy Minnesota. The MMA proposal for health care reform. The report of the Minnesota Medical Association Health Care Reform Task Force.

    PubMed

    2005-03-01

    The health care system in the United States, according to some, is on the verge of imploding. The rapidly rising cost of services is causing more and more Minnesotans to forego needed care. At the same time, the increasing costs are placing additional pressure on families, businesses, and state and local government budgets. The Minnesota Medical Association's (MMA) Health Care Reform Task Force has proposed a bold new approach that seeks to ensure affordable health care for all Minnesotans. The proposal is a roadmap to provide all Minnesotans with affordable insurance for essential health care services. In creating this plan, the task force strove to achieve three common reform goals: expand access to care, improve quality, and control costs. To achieve those ends, it has proposed a model built on four key features: (1) A strong public health system, (2) A reformed insurance market that delivers universal coverage, (3) A reformed health care delivery market that creates incentives for increasing value, (4) Systems that fully support the delivery of high-quality care. The task force believes that these elements will provide the foundation for a system that serves everyone and allows Minnesotans to purchase better health care at a relatively lower price. Why health care reform again? The average annual cost of health care for an average Minnesota household is about 11,000 dollars--an amount that's projected to double by 2010, if current trends continue. Real wages are not growing fast enough to absorb such cost increases. If unabated, these trends portend a reduction in access to and quality of care, and a heavier economic burden on individuals, employers, and the government. Furthermore, Minnesota and the United States are not getting the best value for their health care dollars. The United States spends 50 percent more per capita than any other country on health care but lags far behind other countries in the health measures of its population. PMID:15853031

  12. A simulation study of the potenial effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less...

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR IN REBUTTAL TO "INFLUENCE OF GLYCEMIC INEX/LOAD ON GLYCEMIC RESPONSE, APPETITE, AND FOOD INTAKE IN HEALTHY HUMANS"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In their recent article, Alfenas and Mattes(1) conclude that the glycemic index values (GI) of individual foods do not predict glycemic response (GR) to mixed meals, nor influence measures of hunger. Because the observed GR did not differ between diets, the lack of effect on appetite is not surprisi...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of the evogliptin/metformin extended-release (5/1,000 mg) fixed-dose combination formulation compared to the corresponding loose combination, and food effect in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Su-jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A new fixed-dose combination formulation of evogliptin 5 mg and metformin extended-release (XR) 1,000 mg (FDC_EVO5/MET1000) was developed to improve medication adherence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetics of FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was compared to the corresponding loose combination in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 36 healthy male subjects (Part 1), and the food effect on FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was assessed (under fasted or fed conditions) in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 28 healthy male subjects (Part 2). Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 72 hours, and pharmacokinetic parameters of evogliptin and metformin were calculated using non-compartmental methods. The geometric mean ratios (fixed-dose combination to loose combination) and 90% confidence intervals of pharmacokinetic parameters for evogliptin and metformin were all within 0.800–1.250, suggesting bioequivalent pharmacokinetic. After a single oral dose of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, food did not significantly affect evogliptin pharmacokinetic while systemic exposure of metformin was increased about 47.5% under the fed condition, which is consistent with the already established food effect on metformin XR. FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was generally well tolerated without any drug-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, FDC_EVO5/MET1000 can be substituted for the loose combination of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, providing better compliance with convenient administration. PMID:27110098

  15. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  16. Healthy Aging

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    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  17. Healthy Living

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    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  18. Healthy Sexuality

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    ... t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  19. Advice on healthy eating for older people.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Karen

    As part of its Food and Health Action Plan, the Department of Health is working with the food industry, and with other stakeholders, to establish a coherent national plan to help people in England improve their diets. Maintaining a healthy diet is important for all age groups, but healthy older people have particular needs. Karen Fisher describes the specific nutritional issues affecting healthy older people and suggests advice that nurses can offer people during opportunistic consultations in primary care. PMID:16350521

  20. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The “Double Pyramid Model” Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption. PMID:25988137

  1. Working toward Healthy and Sustainable Diets: The "Double Pyramid Model" Developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to Raise Awareness about the Environmental and Nutritional Impact of Foods.

    PubMed

    Ruini, Luca Fernando; Ciati, Roberto; Pratesi, Carlo Alberto; Marino, Massimo; Principato, Ludovica; Vannuzzi, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition has produced an updated version of the traditional food pyramid based on the Mediterranean diet in order to assess the simultaneous impact that food has on human health and the environment. The Double Pyramid Model demonstrates how the foods recommended to be consumed most frequently are also those exerting less environmental impact, whereas the foods that should be consumed less frequently are those characterized by a higher environmental impact. The environmental impacts resulting from three different menus were compared. All menus were equally balanced and comparable in terms of nutrition, but they differed in relation to the presence of absence of animal flesh and animal products. The first dietary pattern (omnivorous) included both animal flesh and products; the second (lacto-ovo-vegetarian) included animal products (eggs and dairy) but no flesh; and the third (vegan) was solely plant-based. The results obtained suggest that a diet based on the principles of the Mediterranean diet, as suggested by the Double Pyramid, generates a lower environmental impact compared to diets that are heavily based on daily meat consumption. PMID:25988137

  2. Ethical Discourse about the Modification of Food for Therapeutic Purposes: How Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases View the Good, the Bad, and the Healthy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Krista L.; Geller, Gail; Marshall, Patricia; Tilburt, Jon; Mercer, MaryBeth; Brinich, Margaret A.; Highland, Janelle; Farrell, Ruth M.; Sharp, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers have the potential to utilize genetic modification (GM) technologies to create a hybrid of “food” and “medicine” that may challenge traditional understandings of what is “natural”. Moral and ethical concerns are likely to arise in any discussion of these therapeutic foods and will affect the integration of products into clinical care and daily life. This study examined how patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases view probiotics as future bioengineered therapeutic foods. Methods A multi-site qualitative study consisting of focus groups with chronic GI diseases was conducted at Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, and Johns Hopkins University Results We conducted twenty-two focus groups with 136 patients with major GI diseases between March and August 2009. GI patients associated the term “natural” with concepts of diminished risk and morally “good”; conversely, patients associated the term “unnatural” with things that are “risky,” “foreign”, and morally “bad”. Readily available unmodified probiotics were more commonly described as “natural” while genetically modified probiotics were more commonly labeled as “unnatural” and “risky”. However, patients acknowledged that not all natural products are safe, nor are unnatural products always harmful. Conclusions If GI patient perspectives are indicative of public perceptions of therapeutic foods, our findings suggest that the potential benefits and risks of clinical and public health initiatives employing therapeutic foods will be understood in moralistic terms. Bioethicists and others should be sensitive to the implicit normative appeals that are often embedded in the language of what is “natural” and “unnatural”. PMID:22773953

  3. Effects of consumption of whole grain foods rich in lignans in healthy postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, A; Carcea, M; Adlercreutz, H; Azzini, E; Polito, A; Olivieri, L; Zaccaria, M; Meneghini, C; Maiani, F; Bausano, G; Martiri, F; Samaletdin, A; Fumagalli, A; Raguzzini, A; Venneria, E; Foddai, M S; Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Volpe, F; Maiani, G

    2014-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of an experimental period of intake of whole grain foods rich in lignans as part of an habitual diet on the plasma and urinary excretion of enterolignans, the biomarkers of lipid metabolism and the immunological and antioxidant status in a group of postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol. A randomized double-blind crossover study was completed on 13 subjects in 12-weeks after protocol approval of an ethical committee. The subjects consumed whole grain foods high in lignans (30 g/d of breakfast cereals or biscuits, etc., 80 g/d of whole grain pasta) or refined grain foods for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-weeks wash-out period. A modest hypocholesterolemic effect (p < 0.05) of the whole grain diet was observed and the intake of whole grain products rich in lignans was also associated with an increase in urinary enterodiol excretion (p < 0.05). PMID:24611636

  4. Do Indonesians follow its Dietary Guidelines?: evidence related to food consumption, healthy lifestyle, and nutritional status within the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Dietary Guidelines are sets of advisory statements that give dietary advice for population to promote nutritional well-being. They contain information on foods or behaviors that are encouraged and cautionary messages derived from scientific evidence-based reviews and specific local conditions. The Indonesian Dietary Guidelines consisting of 13 messages that were publicized by the Ministry of Health in 1995 and have not been reviewed afterward in relation to nutritional status and health outcome of the population. By reviewing studies on different age groups in the past 10 years and comparing the results with the recommended guidelines, this paper aims to identify if messages have been successfully applied and if there are relevant issues not yet covered in the guidelines. The reviews covered 29 out of 33 provinces, representing studies from sub-district or higher levels (district, provincial, national). Results showed that some messages have been better implemented than others; also that information for some messages was not available for which to conclude of its implementation. In addition, some practices were identified which are prevalent in several age groups and have important public health consequence, but not yet included in the 13-guidelines. These include: smoking, increased intakes of fruit and vegetables, limited intakes of salt and sugar, increased intakes of foods rich in zinc and calcium (besides iron), hand-washing before food preparation and eating, and weight-monitoring. For infants and young children, nutrient density, feeding responsiveness and stimulation should be specifically highlighted. Based on the results, several recommendations in revising the guidelines were given. PMID:21859671

  5. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). Following the pizza meal (155 min), yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in FI or appetite. This trial supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control. PMID:25302637

  6. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  7. Healthy Snacking

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute on Aging at NIH Search form Search this site ... between meals isn’t good for you. Snacks are okay, as long as they’re smart food choices . If you want an afternoon pick- ...

  8. Healthy ABCs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You ... American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take Action Advocacy Priorities State Priorities Federal ...

  9. Make Celebrations Fun, Healthy, and Active: 10 Tips to Creating Healthy, Active Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... on enjoying friends and family. 1 make healthy habits part of your celebrations Food and beverages are a part of an event, ... and tastes better. Plan in advance and buy foods on sale. 10 be a cheerleader for healthy habits It’s never too early for adults to set ...

  10. Eat healthily, stay healthy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

  11. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  12. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  13. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy for kids to choose healthy snacks by keeping fruits and vegetables on hand and ready to eat. ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping ... Award-Winning Cafeteria Recipes Garden-Fresh Lunches Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Kid's Guide ...

  14. Bioequivalence of fixed-dose combinations of dapagliflozin and metformin with single-component tablets in healthy subjects and the effect of food on bioavailability.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tjerk W A; Reele, Stots; Hamer-Maansson, Jennifer E; Parikh, Shamik; Tang, Weifeng

    2016-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of dapagliflozin and metformin administered as fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets (2.5 mg dapagliflozin/850 mg metformin or 5 mg dapagliflozin/1000 mg metformin) or as separate tablets in healthy subjects were evaluated in 2 separate studies. Study 1 evaluated PK by measuring mean ratios of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (time zero to infinity [AUCinf ]), AUC from zero to time of last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ), and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax ) for single-component or FDC tablets following a non-high-fat meal. Mean ratios of AUCinf , AUC0-t , and Cmax for FDC or single-component dapagliflozin and metformin tablets were close to unity. In study 2, AUCinf , AUC0-t , and Cmax for the FDC tablet were obtained fasting and after a high-fat meal. Dapagliflozin 5 mg and metformin 1000 mg geometric mean Cmax was increased in the fasted versus fed state (61.9 vs 43.9 and 1600 vs 1330 ng/mL, respectively), but AUC0-t was similar (267 and 265 and 11 000 and 10 600 ng · h/mL, respectively). In summary, FDC tablets were bioequivalent to single-component tablets, and total absorption (AUC) was similar for non-high-fat and high-fat meals. PMID:27138025

  15. Healthy Eating in Jamaica: The Cost Factor

    PubMed Central

    Henry, FJ; Caines, D; Eyre, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study was conducted to determine the importance of food cost in securing a healthy diet to combat non-communicable diseases. Several studies have evaluated whether healthier foods or diets cost more but a full range of health criteria has rarely been explored. Rather than merely comparing high and low energy dense foods, this study also included type of fat, vitamin, mineral and fibre content of foods in classifying them as healthy and less healthy. Method: Both ‘commonly consumed’ and ‘all available’ foods were ranked according to their nutritional value and potential positive or negative contribution to the development of major health problems in Jamaica such as obesity and chronic diseases. The costs of 158 food items were averaged from supermarkets, municipal markets and wholesale outlets in six parishes across Jamaica. Cost differentials were then assessed in comparing healthy and less healthy foods. Results: The study found that among the commonly consumed foods in Jamaica, healthy options cost J$88 (US$0.78) more than less healthy ones. However, when all the available food items were considered, the less healthy options cost more. The cheapest daily cost of a nutritionally balanced diet in Jamaica varied considerably by parish but was on average J$269 (US$2.40) per person. For a family of three, this translates approximately to the total minimum wage per week. Conclusion: Eating healthy in Jamaica can be achieved at low cost if appropriate information on nutrient content/value for money is provided to consumers. Effective promotions by public and private sector agencies are essential for consumer choice to be optimal. PMID:26426166

  16. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  17. Importing a change in diet: the proposed food safety law of 2010 and the possible impact on importers and international trade.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon G

    2010-01-01

    The current combination of widespread consumer alarm about foodborne illness outbreaks and industry concern about profitability has encouraged Congress, for the first time in many years, to consider major food safety reform. The House of Representatives has already passed its version of reform, the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009. The Senate appears ready to pass its bill, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Both bills will subject firms in the food industry to a number of new requirements and will considerably increase Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) enforcement authority. This article addresses how the passage of major food safety reform in 2010 will potentially affect food importation into the United States, by using the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009, the bill passed in the House, as a model for what food safety reform will entail. Under the bill, food facilities and importers will have to register yearly with FDA and pay a fee. Customs brokers will also have to register with FDA. FDA will have the authority to subject certain foods to a certification requirement for obtaining entry into the United States. Food facilities will be required to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls and food safety plans. FDA will establish mandatory performance standards and produce standards. Specific foods identified by FDA will be subject to traceability requirements. FDA will follow a mandatory risk-based inspection schedule, will have far greater access to records, and will have the authority to enforce mandatory recalls. U.S. trading partners may take issue with the substantial burdens placed on those importing food into the United States and may consider bringing a challenge against the United States claiming that the new food safety legislation violates World Trade Organization obligations. PMID:24475533

  18. [Foods related to the novel 'don quixote de la mancha'. did they follow the healthy nutritional recommendations which are advised nowadays?].

    PubMed

    Carbayo Herencia, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    It is known that Miguel de Cervantes's novel 'Don Quixote de La Mancha' has done and is still doing a great contribution to the universal literature. A book that has reached such category and grows in number of its readers, shows multiple dimensions for its study. One of them is nutrition. One of the aims of this study has been to value and expound, according to their own nutrients, the kinds of food cited in 'The Quixote' and in the times of Cervantes. This has allowed the comparison made between ways of nutrition in La Mancha and in Catalonia, as well as the regions situated at the beginning and end of the itinerary covered by its main characters Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. The evaluation of the nutrients in the middle part of the itinerary, placed mainly in Aragón, has not been considered in this study. Another purpose has been to check if these nutrients followed the current recommendations of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis and other valid agreements at the moment. PMID:25979663

  19. Acute effects of different dietary polysaccharides added in milk on food intake, postprandial appetite and glycemic responses in healthy young females.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Ishtiaq, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Imran, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we compared the postprandial glycemic and satiety responses of different dietary polysaccharides when added in milk (2% M.F.). The objective of this study was to evaluate different polysaccharides against postprandial glucose, appetite responses and food intake at subsequent meal. In a repeated measures design, 30 females (18-30 years) consumed 250 ml milk 2% M.F. (control), or milk with carrageenan (2.5 g), guar gum (2.5 g) and alginate (2.5 g), followed by an ad libitum pizza meal after 120 min. Alginate and guar gum addition resulted in lower caloric intake at subsequent pizza meal. The post-treatment (0-120 min) glucose and average appetite were suppressed by alginate and guar gum (p < 0.0001), with more pronounced effect of guar gum. However, alginate resulted in lower blood glucose (p < 0.0001) compared with control and carrageenan during post-treatment. Alginate and guar gum added beverages would be beneficial in short-term regulation of postprandial glycemia and satiety. PMID:27352777

  20. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  1. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  2. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  3. Healthy or unhealthy slogans: that's the question...

    PubMed

    Adams, Leen; Geuens, Maggie

    2007-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect on adolescents of different health appeals (healthy versus unhealthy) in ads for healthy and unhealthy perceived foods. The results did not reveal a main effect of product or slogan, but indicated a significant interaction effect between slogan and product. The healthy slogan only led to significantly more positive attitudes and purchase intentions when it promoted a healthy food product. An unhealthy food product received better results in combination with an unhealthy slogan than with a healthy one. This indicates that adolescents react better to ads in which the health appeal is congruent with the health perception of the product. Moreover, we took into account gender and health concern as potential moderators in the relationship between slogan and ad responses. Gender did not lead to different responses to healthy or unhealthy food ads, whereas health concern did interact significantly with the slogan type. Highly concerned adolescents responded more favorably to a healthy slogan in terms of attitudes. A necessary first step seems to be making adolescents more health conscious. A following step is to reinforce their positive attitudes toward healthy foods and turn these into real behavior. PMID:17365358

  4. Healthy carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods include dietary fiber consisting of health-promoting carbohydrates. We have produced novel prebiotics from orange peel and observed that they extend the shelf life of probiotic bacteria in synbiotics. Some pectic-oligosaccharides and xyloglucan-oligosaccharides also have anti-adhesi...

  5. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  6. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  7. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute on Aging at NIH Search form Search this site Menu Get Started Try These Exercises Go to My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . Here are some suggestions from Go4Life ...

  8. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  9. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Contents Go4Life from the National Institute on Aging at NIH is a national exercise and physical activity campaign aimed at people over ... gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities. ... More "Healthy Aging" Articles Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® / Making Smart Food ...

  10. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  11. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    PubMed

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  12. Keeping Children at a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor may ask you about: Your child’s eating habits Whether you have places to get healthy food for your child How much physical activity your ... child becoming overweight or obese, including: Unhealthy eating habits. ... too many unhealthy foods, or drink too many sugary drinks. Not getting ...

  13. Vegan Food Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... fortified foods like soy, rice, and almond milks; fruit juices; and breakfast cereals. Vitamin D. Vitamin D helps our bodies absorb calcium ... in fat, pair them with healthy salads, fresh fruits, and some colorful veggies, and you might not ever miss that ham and cheese ... Becoming a Vegetarian Vitamins and Minerals Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods ...

  14. Preserving Healthy Food for the Hungry Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Carson, Andre [D-IN-7

    2013-05-23

    06/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ½ medium onion 2 garlic cloves 2 tablespoons vegetable oil ½ teaspoon cumin (ground) ½ teaspoon salt ¼ ... In a medium sauce pan, heat your cooking oil over medium high heat. ... uncovered. Source: United States Department of Agriculture

  16. Healthy Foods under $1 Per Serving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Value for iron, 9% Daily Value for potassium Fresh or Canned Tomatoes (packed in tomato juice, reduced- ... potassium, 19% Daily Value of vitamin C Oranges (fruit 2-7/8” diameter) Great for: Snacks, green ...

  17. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the garlic aside. In a medium sauce pan, heat your cooking oil over medium high heat. Add the onions and sauté for 1 to ... When the beans begin to boil, reduce the heat to low, stir in the salt and oregano ...

  18. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    MedlinePlus

    ... program designed for families and communities to help children maintain healthy weight. It focuses on improved food choices, increased physical activity, and reduced television, computer, and videogame screen time. The NIH also ...

  19. How-tos for Wholesome Camp Menus: Planning Healthy Meals That Campers Will Enjoy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Viki Kappel

    1999-01-01

    Discusses tips for food-service staff for providing healthy, yet enticing camp menus. Provides a list of rules for preparing food that kids like, and suggests focusing on basic foods. Discusses cooking meats, preparing salad dressings, presenting food, providing vegetarian and meatless choices, and promoting healthy snack choices. (CDS)

  20. Healthy-eater identity and self-efficacy predict healthy eating behavior: a prospective view.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Shaelyn M; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2009-07-01

    Identity and Self-efficacy Theories were used to examine the relationship between healthy-eater identity, self-efficacy for healthy eating and healthy eating. Measures of healthy-eater identity, perception of healthy eating, nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy for both intake of fruits and vegetables and foods of low nutritional value were completed by 101 university students and staff. Two weeks later, participants recalled recent consumption of (a) fruits and vegetables and (b) foods of low nutritional value. For both eating outcomes, healthy-eater identity was a significant predictor after controlling for nutrition knowledge. The addition of self-efficacy improved prediction in the case of both eating outcomes. PMID:19515684

  1. Be a Healthy Role Model for Children: 10 Tips for Setting Good Examples

    MedlinePlus

    ... tips Nutrition Education Series be a healthy role model for children 10 tips for setting good examples ... replacement foods. 10 be a good food role model Try new foods yourself. Describe its taste, texture, ...

  2. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  3. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  4. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  5. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  6. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-08-01

    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles. PMID:26585634

  7. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and −10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

  8. Sprouting Healthy Kids Promotes Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin, Texas, Middle Schools: Promoting the Use of Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin City Schools. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiden, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Food Center, which promotes healthy food choices, partnered with six middle schools in Austin, Texas, to implement Sprouting Healthy Kids. The pilot project was designed to increase children's knowledge of the food system, their consumption of fruits and vegetables and their access to local farm produce. Most students at these…

  9. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Shearmur, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS), and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis), which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket), diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres) and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets). Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets. PMID:17295912

  10. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  11. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  12. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  13. Food-Related Beliefs, Eating Behavior, and Classroom Food Practices of Middle School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…

  14. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  15. Promoting Healthy Eating Attitudes Among Uninsured Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Tabler, Jennifer; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Stephens, Tamara; Aguilera, Guadalupe; Wright, Lindsey; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. While common prevention and treatment strategies to control unhealthy weight gain tend to target behaviors and lifestyles, the psychological factors which affect eating behaviors among underserved populations also need to be further addressed and included in practice implementations. The purpose of this study is to examine positive and negative emotional valence about food among underserved populations in a primary care setting. Uninsured primary care patients (N = 621) participated in a self-administered survey from September to December in 2015. Higher levels of perceived benefits of healthy food choice were associated with lower levels of a negative emotional valence about food while higher levels of perceived barriers to healthy food choice are related to higher levels of a negative emotional valence about food. Greater acceptance of motivation to eat was associated with higher levels of positive and negative emotional valence about food. Spanish speakers reported greater acceptance of motivation to eat and are more likely to have a negative emotional valence about food than US born or non-US born English speakers. The results of this study have important implications to promote healthy eating among underserved populations at a primary care setting. Healthy food choice or healthy eating may not always be achieved by increasing knowledge. Psychological interventions should be included to advance healthy food choice. PMID:26831483

  16. 76 FR 50225 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... is proposing an information collection activity as part of an evaluation of healthy marriage and... discussions will be held with administrators and managers of healthy marriage and responsible...

  17. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A.; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hunter, Gerald P.; Flórez, Karen R.; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A.; Sloan, Jennifer C.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts (areas with limited access to healthy foods) has been proposed as an important policy strategy to confront inequalities in healthy food access. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we enrolled n=1,372 randomly selected households from two comparable neighborhoods, one of which received a full-service supermarket in 2013. We looked at the impact on residents’ diet, perceived access to healthy foods and satisfaction with one’s neighborhood as a place to live. Baseline data was collected in 2011, and follow-up in 2014. Relative to the comparison neighborhood, we found a net positive change in the intervention neighborhood in overall dietary quality, total kilocalories, added sugars, and solid fats, alcohol and added sugars (SoFAAS). However, we did not observe differential improvement in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption or body mass index (BMI). Regular users of the new supermarket had significantly improved perceived access to healthy foods compared to others, but use of the new supermarket was not related to dietary changes or to improvements with neighborhood satisfaction. Our study is the first to our knowledge to have found significant improvements in multiple dietary outcomes and neighborhood satisfaction among residents of a food desert, following the opening of a supermarket. Our study supports the Healthy Food Financing Initiative and other policies that incentivize food retail venues to locate in food deserts, but we recommend further efforts proceed with caution until research has clarified the mechanisms through which diet is improved and associations with weight status/obesity have been observed. PMID:26526243

  18. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  19. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level. PMID:19887625

  20. When group members go against the grain: An ironic interactive effect of group identification and normative content on healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Banas, Kasia; Cruwys, Tegan; de Wit, John B F; Johnston, Marie; Haslam, S Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of group identification and normative content of social identities on healthy eating intentions and behaviour. In Study 1 (N = 87) Australian participants were shown images that portrayed a norm of healthy vs. unhealthy behaviour among Australians. Participants' choices from an online restaurant menu were used to calculate energy content as the dependent variable. In Study 2 (N = 117), female participants were assigned to a healthy or unhealthy norm condition. The dependent variable was the amount of food eaten in a taste test. Social group identification was measured in both studies. In Study 3 (N = 117), both American identification and healthiness norm were experimentally manipulated, and participants' choices from an online restaurant menu constituted the dependent variable. In all three studies, the healthiness norm presented interacted with participants' group identification to predict eating behaviour. Contrary to what would be predicted under the traditional normative social influence account, higher identifiers chose higher energy food from an online menu and ate more food in a taste test when presented with information about their in-group members behaving healthily. The exact psychological mechanism responsible for these results remains unclear, but the pattern of means can be interpreted as evidence of vicarious licensing, whereby participants feel less motivated to make healthy food choices after being presented with content suggesting that other in-group members are engaging in healthy behaviour. These results suggest a more complex interplay between group membership and norms than has previously been proposed. PMID:27282543

  1. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  2. A Tale of Two Localities: Healthy Eating on a Restricted Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Susan; Lawton, Julie; Caraher, Martin; Singh, Gulab; Horsley, Kayt; Mussa, Fozia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the availability and affordability of a healthy food basket and to model how those on low-incomes might manage. Design and methodology: After determining access and availability of key items from shops in two localities, called Deepdale and Ingol, a healthy food basket was developed. From this a week's healthy menu was…

  3. Economic constraints on taste formation and the true cost of healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how an interaction between economic constraints and children's taste preferences shapes low-income families' food decisions. According to studies of eating behavior, children often refuse unfamiliar foods 8 to 15 times before accepting them. Using 80 interviews and 41 grocery-shopping observations with 73 primary caregivers in the Boston area in 2013-2015, I find that many low-income respondents minimize the risk of food waste by purchasing what their children like--often calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. High-income study participants, who have greater resources to withstand the cost of uneaten food, are more likely to repeatedly introduce foods that their children initially refuse. Several conditions moderate the relationship between children's taste aversion and respondents' risk aversion, including household-level food preferences, respondents' conceptions of adult authority, and children's experiences outside of the home. Low-income participants' risk aversion may affect children's taste acquisition and eating habits, with implications for socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. This article proposes that the cost of providing children a healthy diet may include the possible cost of foods that children waste as they acquire new tastes. PMID:26650928

  4. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  5. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base. PMID:26636062

  6. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D.; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as “the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems.” Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of “ecologically sound and sustainable methods” of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base. PMID:26636062

  7. Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools’ ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research. PMID:23449281

  8. Climate Change and Global Food Security: Food Access, Utilization, and the US Food System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Antle, J. M.; Backlund, P. W.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Walsh, M.; Ammann, C. M.; Attavanich, W.; Barrett, C. B.; Bellemare, M. F.; Dancheck, V.; Funk, C.; Grace, K.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Jiang, H.; Maletta, H.; Mata, T.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Ojima, D. S.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper will summarize results from the USDA report entitled 'Climate change, Global Food Security and the U.S. Food system'. The report focuses on the impact of climate change on global food security, defined as "when all people at all times have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". The assessment brought together authors and contributors from twenty federal, academic, nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private organizations in four countries to identify climate change effects on food security through 2100, and analyze the U.S.'s likely connections with that world. This talk will describe how climate change will likely affect food access and food utilization, and summarize how the U.S. food system contributes to global food security, and will be affected by climate change.

  9. Weissella confusa: problems with identification of an opportunistic pathogen that has been found in fermented foods and proposed as a probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, Marilynn R.; Lephart, Paul R.; Salimnia, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Weissella confusa is found in fermented foods and has been suggested as a probiotic, but also causes sepsis and other serious infections in humans and animals. The incidence of human infections is underestimated partly due to confusion with viridans streptococci and partly due to difficulty making a definitive identification, even if the organism is recognized to belong to another genus, owing to the inability of commercial organism systems to identify it. We report our experiences identifying W. confusa isolated from two immune-compromised patients, both of whom developed sepsis with this organism. Two MicroScan gram positive combination panels, could not identify the organism because they did not have W. confusa in their data bases, but did not provide a false identification. Other laboratorians have reported failure to identify or false identifications of W. confusa with other commercial systems. W. confusa is in the data base of the RapID™ Str panel (Remel), which gave three incorrect, high probability results (≥95%). 16S rDNA sequencing identified the isolates as W. confusa. Maldi-Tof, performed by two of our reference laboratories, also correctly identified both isolates. Use of W. confusa as a probiotic should be approached with caution because its true incidence as an opportunisitic pathogen is unknown. PMID:24971076

  10. Biosensors as innovative tools for the detection of food borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pooja; Sindhu, Annu; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2011-10-15

    The wholesomeness of food is the real proviso for healthy life. Food freed from microbial and chemical cross-contaminations adds on to its hygienic and nutritive value. Infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people around the world. Food or food products are the potent transmitting agent of more than 250 known diseases. So far only in the United States, 76 million cases of food-borne illness, 32,500 cases of hospitalization and 5000 cases per annum of mortality are recognized. Health expert's estimate that the yearly cost of all the food borne diseases is approximately $5-6 billion. There is therefore, is an urgent need for the development of rapid, competent, and reliable methods for direct detection and identification of foodborne brown pathogens. In this overview, we have concentrated specifically on microbe-based biosensing methods such as optical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), amperometric, potentiometric, whole-cell, electrochemical, impedimetric, piezoelectric for the rapid detection of food borne pathogens. Furthermore, we have focused our attention on the discussion of principal concepts, applications, and examples from analyte to the configuration of potential biosensors that have been achieved up until now to detect potential foodborne pathogens. The article presents foreseeable future trends in biosensor research activities for paving the way for fresh and healthy food proposal. PMID:21763122

  11. Eaten up by boredom: consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Andrew B; van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Igou, Eric R; Wisman, Arnaud; Donnelly, Alan E; Mulcaire, Jessie B

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that being bored affectively marks an appraised lack of meaning in the present situation and in life. We propose that state boredom increases eating in an attempt to distract from this experience, especially among people high in objective self-awareness. Three studies were conducted to investigate boredom's effects on eating, both naturally occurring in a diary study and manipulated in two experiments. In Study 1, a week-long diary study showed that state boredom positively predicted calorie, fat, carbohydrate, and protein consumption. In Study 2, a high (vs. low) boredom task increased the desire to snack as opposed to eating something healthy, especially amongst those participants high in objective self-awareness. In addition, Study 3 demonstrated that among people high in objective self-awareness, high (vs. low) boredom increased the consumption of less healthy foods and the consumption of more exciting, healthy foods. However, this did not extend to unexciting, healthy food. Collectively, these novel findings signify the role of boredom in predicting maladaptive and adaptive eating behaviors as a function of the need to distant from the experience of boredom. Further, our results suggest that more exciting, healthy food serves as alternative to maladaptive consumption following boredom. PMID:25883579

  12. Eaten up by boredom: consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Andrew B.; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.; Igou, Eric R.; Wisman, Arnaud; Donnelly, Alan E.; Mulcaire, Jessie B.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that being bored affectively marks an appraised lack of meaning in the present situation and in life. We propose that state boredom increases eating in an attempt to distract from this experience, especially among people high in objective self-awareness. Three studies were conducted to investigate boredom’s effects on eating, both naturally occurring in a diary study and manipulated in two experiments. In Study 1, a week-long diary study showed that state boredom positively predicted calorie, fat, carbohydrate, and protein consumption. In Study 2, a high (vs. low) boredom task increased the desire to snack as opposed to eating something healthy, especially amongst those participants high in objective self-awareness. In addition, Study 3 demonstrated that among people high in objective self-awareness, high (vs. low) boredom increased the consumption of less healthy foods and the consumption of more exciting, healthy foods. However, this did not extend to unexciting, healthy food. Collectively, these novel findings signify the role of boredom in predicting maladaptive and adaptive eating behaviors as a function of the need to distant from the experience of boredom. Further, our results suggest that more exciting, healthy food serves as alternative to maladaptive consumption following boredom. PMID:25883579

  13. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 ounces yogurt ¾ ounce cheese 1 string cheese Some foods are easy for your child to choke on while eating. Skip hard, small, whole foods, such as popcorn, nuts, seeds, and hard candy. Cut up foods such ...

  14. Healthy Aging: What's On Your Plate? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging What's On Your Plate? Past Issues / Winter 2015 ... On Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/whats-your- ...

  15. After Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes, Healthy Diet May Ease Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes, Healthy Diet May Ease Blood Pressure Eating nutritious foods seems to counter higher risk, ... to reduce their future risk of high blood pressure by eating a healthy diet, researchers report. Their ...

  16. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog . Alternate Language URL Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Page Content The steps you take to ... and heart disease. Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy: Keep your blood pressure at the target ...

  17. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  18. Organizing for Better School Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the…

  19. Fad Diets vs. Healthy Weight Management: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... refined grains such as cookies and pastry. Choosing lean meats . Chicken and fish or vegetarian sources of ... from all food groups (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, low-fat dairy, and healthy dietary fats) ...

  20. 20 healthy snacks with 100 calories or less

    MedlinePlus

    ... you full. Healthy snacks are: Whole grain Low-calorie Low-salt Low-sugar Fresh foods, rather than ... damage), and other disease-fighting nutrients. Choosing low-calorie snacks can help you or your child maintain ...