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Sample records for proposta para um

  1. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  2. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  3. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  4. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  5. Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

  6. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  7. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  8. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  9. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  10. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  11. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  12. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    obtenidos en diferentes momentos, por los comentarios efectuados por los participantes durante las actividades y por los altos índices de aprobación al final de la etapa, consideramos que la propuesta atingió los objetivos establecidos y puede ser repetida con certeza de éxito. Neste relato, descreve-se o desenvolvimento de uma proposta metodológica que aborda conceitos básicos de astronomia fundamentada pedagogicamente na Aprendizagem Significativa. A proposta, que compreende quatro encontros, foi desenvolvida por professores e acadêmicos do curso de Licenciatura em Física da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), através de um curso de extensão, a um grupo de dez estudantes do ensino médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Passo Fundo, RS. O trabalho centrou-se em conceitos básicos de astronomia. Os indícios da aprendizagem significativa foram obtidos por instrumentos de pesquisa e avaliação aplicados ao término de cada encontro. A avaliação da proposta foi efetuada através de um questionário final respondido pelos participantes ao término do desenvolvimento das atividades. Pelos resultados obtidos nos diferentes instrumentos, pelos comentários efetuados pelos participantes durante as atividades e pelos altos índices de aprovação alcançados no questionário final, consideramos que a proposta atingiu os objetivos estabelecidos e pode ser repetida com convicção de sucesso.

  13. Ensino de gravitação clássica no nível médio: uma proposta de abordagem e resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, G. C. M.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    O ensino de gravitação clássica é comumente realizado de maneira formal e descontextualizado da experiência com a força-peso e da história do tema. Fustigados por anos de experiência de ensino no assunto, nem sempre com bons resultados, propomos uma abordagem ancorada nos eixos: a) contextualização histórica; e b) reconhecimento do peso como a força de atração gravitacional. O primeiro eixo integra o tema no desenvolvimento cultural do ser humano, praticando a interdisciplinaridade. O segundo eixo embasa construtivamente a abordagem, levando o aluno a realizar experiências e a vivenciar o reconhecimento de uma força universal. A abordagem foi construída através das etapas: 1) análise crítica do tema em livros didáticos; 2) elaboração de um curso para professores das várias disciplinas do ensino médio, identificando conexões para a prática da interdisciplinaridade; 3) elaboração de material didático; e 4) avaliação da eficácia da abordagem. No trabalho discutimos em detalhe as quatro etapas. Como resultados, adiantamos que: tabulamos a abordagem de gravitação nos livros didáticos, ainda muito tradicional e carecedora de atividades criativas que poderiam melhor explorar esse assunto; mapeamos, junto aos professores, padrões de conceitos espontâneos e erros associados ao tema; e, no curso, adaptamos e testamos a eficiência de materiais instrucionais existentes e criamos outros novos (e.g., para trabalhar excentricidades das órbitas planetárias), além disto elaboramos roteiros e figuras para tratamentos qualitativo e quantitativo da lei da gravitação universal. As avaliações feitas pelos professores foram muito animadoras. O espaço da presente reunião será aproveitado para socializar a proposta e os resultados obtidos e para submeter o projeto à análise crítica. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  14. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  15. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  16. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  17. A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

  18. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    algunos estudiantes sabían que un espectro puede estar formado por un prisma o red de difracción, la mayor parte de ellos desconocía la naturaleza de las líneas espectrales. A lo largo del curso, esta cuestión fue trabajada con un enfoque práctico mediante la observación del espectro solar y de las lámparas durante clases expositivas/dialogadas. Los resultados obtenidos en el curso mustran la importancia de los centros de ciencia como un apoyo en la educación formal. En este caso en particular, la Sala Solar del Observatorio Dietrich Schiel se destaca como un entorno favorable para la enseñanza de la física moderna en la escuela secundaria. Este trabalho analisa resultados obtidos em um curso sobre física solar para alunos do ensino médio promovido pelo Observatório Dietrich Schiel da USP. O curso foi elaborado pelos autores com a intenção de investigar concepções sobre o Sol, ensinar tópicos de física moderna relacionados ao Sol e conhecimentos gerais sobre o astro rei. A metodologia de coleta de dados consistiu em gravação em áudio e vídeo das aulas e das entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e respostas a questionários escritos. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos participantes concebeu o Sol como constituído por fogo e as manchas solares como buracos na superfície solar. Embora alguns alunos soubessem que um espectro pode ser formado por um prisma ou rede de difração, a maior parte deles desconhecia a natureza das linhas espectrais. Ao longo do curso, este tema foi trabalhado com uma abordagem prática com observação do espectro solar e de lâmpadas e em aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Os resultados obtidos no curso apontam para a importância dos centros de ciências como parceiros da educação formal. Neste caso específico, a Sala Solar do Observatório Dietrich Schiel é um ambiente propício para o ensino de física moderna no ensino médio.

  19. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    There are several interesting astronomical topics that must be addressed in the High School and Elementary/Middle School in the disciplines of Geography and of Sciences. Among them, the topic of time zones which is one of the most important to understand the correlation of the Earth's rotation and its implications on daily activities of citizens in local scale, regional and global scales which involve problems of time differences. For the teaching of time zones in the lessons of Geography, for example, there are bi-dimensional representations of thematic maps of world time zones, textbooks and atlas. It happens that teachers face some difficulties to permit its students to view three-dimensionally this astronomical phenomenon from the textbooks available in schools. The aim of this paper is to present two proposals with low-cost materials, which allow the preparation of three-dimensional models for the teaching of time zones. Há vários temas astronômicos interessantes que devem ser trabalhados nos Ensinos Médio e Fundamental, nas disciplinas de Geografia e de Ciências. Entre eles, o tema dos fusos horários que é um dos mais importantes para se correlacionar a rotação da Terra e suas implicações nas atividades cotidianas dos cidadãos em escala local, regional e global, que envolvem problemas de diferenças horárias. Para o ensino dos fusos horários nas aulas de Geografia, por exemplo, há representações bidimensionais de mapas temáticos de fusos horários mundiais, nos livros didáticos e nos atlas. Ocorre que os professores enfrentam algumas dificuldades para possibilitar aos seus alunos a visão tridimensional deste fenômeno astronômico, a partir dos materiais didáticos disponíveis nas escolas. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas propostas para a confecção de materiais de baixo custo, que possibilitem a elaboração de modelos tridimensionais para o ensino dos fusos horários. Hay algunos temas astronómicos interesantes que se

  20. Um Infixation and Prefixation in Toba Batak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Megan J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the behavior of the morpheme, um, in Toba Batak and Tagalog, which alternates as a prefix or an infix, arguing that the variation is conditioned by constraints on consonant clusters. Three patterns of variation that occur with um are described, noting that the stages involved in changing from infixed to prefixed positions over time are…

  1. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    en la comprensión de estas cuestiones y demostraron un gran interés por esta metodología. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar parte dos resultados obtidos com a intervenção feita como projeto da dissertação de mestrado do autor, que consistiu no desenvolvimento de um conjunto de aulas de Astronomia, com alunos do 1º Ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola da rede privada do Distrito Federal (Brasília, Brasil), empregando como recurso principal um material didático chamado miniplanetário (MP). Utilizando como pressuposto teórico norteador dessas aulas as ideias de contextualização e dialogicidade de Paulo Freire, foi proposta aos estudantes a montagem e utilização desse recurso em uma sessão de planetário. Durante o projeto, enfatizaram-se assuntos como a trajetória aparente das estrelas para o céu de Brasília, a localização dos pontos cardeais a partir da constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul, as cores das estrelas e as estrelas vistas de uma determinada localidade. Apurou-se que os alunos apresentaram melhoria na compreensão desses assuntos, bem como demonstraram expressiva empolgação com essa metodologia desenvolvida.

  2. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  3. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  4. "Uh" and "Um" Revisited: Are They Interjections for Signaling Delay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers "uh" and "um" are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of "uh" and "um" and of silent…

  5. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    interpretación, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluación diagnóstica que la mayoría de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos científicos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 º grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significación de los conceptos científicos propuestos para la enseñanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluación diagnóstica han servido como referencia para la organización del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didáctica a las características de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento también pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliação diagnóstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prévio de conceitos científicos, necessários à compreensão do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6ª série do Ensino Fundamental. A ação pedagógica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prévios, do estudante, antes de ensiná-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliação diagnóstica foi composta por 25 questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretação, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribuídos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliação diagnóstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos científicos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6ª série. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representações relevantes que contribuíram para a (re)significação dos conceitos científicos propostos

  6. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  7. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluación Diagnóstica Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliação Diagnóstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Célia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    interpretación, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluación diagnóstica que la mayoría de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos científicos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 º grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significación de los conceptos científicos propuestos para la enseñanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluación diagnóstica han servido como referencia para la organización del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didáctica a las características de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento también pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliação diagnóstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prévio de conceitos científicos, necessários à compreensão do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6ª série do Ensino Fundamental. A ação pedagógica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prévios, do estudante, antes de ensiná-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliação diagnóstica foi composta por 25 questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretação, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribuídos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliação diagnóstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos científicos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6ª série. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representações relevantes que contribuíram para a (re)significação dos conceitos científicos propostos

  8. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A

  9. Instrumentation for Astronomy Teaching: Projecting the Sun Image. (Spanish Title: Instrumentación Para la Enseñanza de Astronomía: Proyectando la Imagen del Sol.) Instrumentação Para O Ensino de Astronomia: Projetando a Imagem do Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovan, Odilon; Balen, Osvaldo; Siqueira da Silva, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe a simple optical device to project the Sun image which is useful for solar eclipses observing and for sunspots' size estimating.

    Se describe un dispositivo óptico simple para proyectar la imagen del Sol, lo cual es apropiado para las observaciones de eclipses solares y para estimar las dimensiones de las manchas solares.

    É descrito um dispositivo ótico simples para projetar a imagem do Sol, adequado para observações de eclipses solares e à estimativa do tamanho das manchas solares.

  10. Ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy for brain imaging at 6 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Akkin, Taner; Magnain, Caroline V.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Cramer, Avilash; Wang, Ruopeng; Sakadžic, Sava; Boas, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Neuroanatomical pathways form the basis for functional activity of brain circuits. In the past, we developed a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography with serial scanning to achieve large-scale brain imaging. The system was able to visualize 3D fiber tracts of ~20 um in diameter. To investigate the neuroanatomical pathways at finer scales, we have now built a polarization-maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscope (PS-OCM) at 1300 nm. The PS-OCM has an axial resolution of 3.5 um in tissue. The detection setup consists of two spectrometers, acquiring spectral interference on orthogonal polarization channels. With a single measurement, the setup generates four contrasts: reflectivity, cross-polarization, retardance and optic axis orientation. To investigate the capability of PS-OCM at different resolutions, we used three microscope objectives that yield lateral resolutions of 6.0 um, 3.4 um and 1.3 um. Blocks of formalin fixed mouse brain and human brain were scanned. The cross-polarization and retardance images clearly depict the neuronal fiber structures, which are comparable with that generated by the maximum projection of volumetric reflectivity data. The optic axis orientation quantifies the in-plane fiber orientation. With the lateral resolution of 1.3 um, the retardance contrast is weak in white matter due to the shallow depth of focus. Overall, the ultra-high resolution PS-OCM provides a new tool to reveal neuroanatomical maps in the brain at cellular resolution.

  11. Uh and um revisited: are they interjections for signaling delay?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2005-11-01

    Clark and Fox Tree (2002) have presented empirical evidence, based primarily on the London-Lund corpus (LL; Svartvik & Quirk, 1980), that the fillers uh and um are conventional English words that signal a speaker's intention to initiate a minor and a major delay, respectively. We present here empirical analyses of uh and um and of silent pauses (delays) immediately following them in six media interviews of Hillary Clinton. Our evidence indicates that uh and um cannot serve as signals of upcoming delay, let alone signal it differentially: In most cases, both uh and um were not followed by a silent pause, that is, there was no delay at all; the silent pauses that did occur after um were too short to be counted as major delays; finally, the distributions of durations of silent pauses after uh and um were almost entirely overlapping and could therefore not have served as reliable predictors for a listener. The discrepancies between Clark and Fox Tree's findings and ours are largely a consequence of the fact that their LL analyses reflect the perceptions of professional coders, whereas our data were analyzed by means of acoustic measurements with the PRAAT software (www.praat.org). A comparison of our findings with those of O'Connell, Kowal, and Ageneau (2005) did not corroborate the hypothesis of Clark and Fox Tree that uh and um are interjections: Fillers occurred typically in initial, interjections in medial positions; fillers did not constitute an integral turn by themselves, whereas interjections did; fillers never initiated cited speech, whereas interjections did; and fillers did not signal emotion, whereas interjections did. Clark and Fox Tree's analyses were embedded within a theory of ideal delivery that we find inappropriate for the explication of these phenomena. PMID:16341914

  12. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  13. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic π that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated

  14. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  15. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.

  16. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  17. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors using GDAPS (UM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Chang, K.; Byun, K.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    After the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began issuing official five-day tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts in 2003, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started issuing official five-day forecasts of TCs in May 2012 after 2 year of beta test. Forming a selective consensus (SCON) by proper removal of a likely erroneous track forecast is hypothesized to be more accurate than the non-selective consensus (NCON) of all model tracks that are used for the five-day forecasts. Conceptual models describing large track error mechanisms, which are related to known tropical cyclone motion processes being misrepresented in the dynamical models, are applied to forecasts during the 2012 western North Pacific typhoon season by the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS (UM N512 L70)) which is KMA's main operational model. GDAPS (UM) is one of consensus members used in making KMA's five-day forecasts and thus analysis of its track error tendencies would be useful for forming a SCON forecast. All 72-h track errors greater than 320 km are examined on the basis of the approach developed by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b). Tropical-influenced error sources caused 37% (47 times / 126 erroneous forecasts) of the GDAPS (UM) large track forecast errors primarily because an incorrect beta effect-related process depicted by the model contributed to the erroneous forecasts. Midlatitude-influenced error sources accounted for 63% (79 times / 126 error cases) in the GDAPS (UM) erroneous forecasts mainly due to an incorrect forecast of the midlatitude system evolutions. It is proposed that KMA will be able to issue more reliable TC track information if a likely model track error is recognized by optimum use of conceptual models by Carr and Elsberry (2000a, b) and a selective consensus track is then the basis for an improved warning.

  18. Imagens do céu ontem e hoje - um multimídia interativo de astronomia e uma nova exposição no MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Lima, F. P.; Requeijo, F.; Vieira, G. G.; Alves, F.; Valente, M. E. A.; de Almeida, R.; de Garcia, G. C.; Quixadá, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    "Imagens do Céu Ontem e Hoje" é o título de uma nova exposição que está sendo inaugurada no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MCT), que inclui experimentos interativos, maquetes, réplicas e 8 terminais de computador com um multimídia interativo sobre Astronomia para consulta dos visitantes. O multimídia apresenta um conteúdo bastante extenso, que engloba quase todos os temas em Astronomia, consistindo numa fonte de divulgação e pesquisa para um público que vai das crianças até estudantes universitários. O conteúdo está distribuído em mais de 500 páginas de texto divididas em 4 módulos: "O Universo", "Espectroscopia", "Telescópios" e "Observando o Céu". Cada módulo é subdividido em 5 seções, em média, cada uma iniciada por uma animação que ilustra os temas a serem abordados na seção. Ao final da animação, uma lista de temas é apresentada sob o título "Saiba Mais". Para exemplificar, o módulo "O Universo" contém as seguintes seções: "O Universo visto pelo homem", "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", "Indo além do Sistema Solar", "Nossa Galáxia, a Via-Láctea" e "Indo mais além, a imensidão do Universo". A seção "Conhecendo o Sistema Solar", por sua vez, tem os seguintes temas: "A origem do Sistema Solar", "O Sol", "Os planetas", "Satélites, asteróides, cometas e outros bichos..." e "O Sistema Solar em números". Cada texto é repleto de imagens, quadros, desenhos, esquemas, etc, além de passatempos ao final de cada seção, incluindo jogos interativos, quadrinhos e curiosidades, que auxiliam o aprendizado de forma divertida. Apresentamos neste trabalho as idéias gerais que permearam a produção da exposição, e uma viagem pelo multimídia para exemplificar sua estrutura e conteúdo. O multimídia será posteriormente disponibilizado para o público externo pela página eletrônica do MAst e/ou por intermédio de uma publicação comercial.

  19. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  20. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  1. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, P.; Telles, E.; Nigoche-Netro, A.

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  2. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  3. Separating para and ortho water.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Długołęcki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-10-27

    Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. PMID:25196938

  4. A VLT VIMOS integral-field spectroscopic study of perturbed blue compact galaxies: UM 420 and UM 462

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on optical integral-field spectroscopy of two unrelated blue compact galaxies mapped with the 13× 13 arcsec2 Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit at a resolution of 0.33× 0.33 arcsec2. Continuum and background subtracted emission line maps in the light of [OIII] λ5007, Hα and [NII] λ6584 are presented. Both galaxies display signs of ongoing perturbation and/or interaction. UM 420 is resolved for the first time to be a merging system composed of two starbursting components with an `arm-like' structure associated with the largest component. UM 462 which is a disrupted system of irregular morphology is resolved into at least four starbursting regions. Maps of the Hα radial velocity and full width at half-maximum are discussed. No underlying broad-line region was detected from either galaxy as the emission lines are well fitted with single Gaussian profiles only. Electron temperatures and densities as well as the abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur were computed from spectra integrated over the whole galaxies and for each area of recent star formation. Maps of the O/H ratio are presented: these galaxies show oxygen abundances that are ~20 per cent solar. No evidence of substantial abundance variations across the galaxies that would point to significant nitrogen or oxygen self-enrichment is found (<~0.2 dex limit). Contrary to previous observations, this analysis does not support the classification of these blue compact dwarf galaxies as Wolf-Rayet galaxies as the characteristic broad-emission-line features have not been detected in our spectra. Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich emission-line-ratio diagrams which were constructed on a pixel-by-pixel basis indicate that the optical spectra of these systems are predominantly excited by stellar photoionization. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile, under programmes 078.B-0353(B, E). E-mail: bj@star.ucl.ac.uk

  5. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  6. Influence of a Novel Inhibitor (UM8190) of Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) on Appetite and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabey, F. M.; Gadepalli, R.S.V.S.; Diano, S.; Cheng, Q.; Tabrizian, T.; Gailani, D.; Rimoldi, J.M.; Shariat-Madar, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical pharmacological characterization of a novel inhibitor (UM8190) of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) was investigated. We synthesized and evaluated a library of proline-based analogs as prospective recombinant PRCP (rPRCP) inhibitors and inhibitors of PRCP-dependent prekallikrein (PK) activation on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC). Among the newly synthesized compounds, UM8190 was further characterized in vivo using methods that encompassed a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model and animal model of food consumption. (S)-N-dodecyl-1-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide [Compound 3 (UM8190)] was selected for further evaluation from the initial assessment of its PRCP inhibitory action (Ki= 43 µM) coupled with its ability to block PRCP-dependent PK activation on HPAEC (Ki= 34 µM). UM8190 demonstrated excellent selectivity against a panel of carboxypeptidases and serine proteases and blocked bradykinin (BK) generation and BK-induced permeability by 100%, suggesting that it may be useful in preventing the local production of large amounts of BK. Furthermore, UM8190 showed an anorexigenic effect when systemically administered to fasted mice, reducing food intake in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, it also demonstrated an antithrombotic effect. UM8190 is a selective PRCP inhibitor and it may represent a new anorexigenic, and antithrombotic drug, that works by inhibiting PRCP–mediated mechanisms. PMID:22664251

  7. Uma Visão do Universo Segundo um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Araújo, M.; Amaral, L. H.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M.

    2005-08-01

    A astronomia, embora seja uma ciência popular, com inúmeras descobertas de interesse público, ainda é apresentada desconsiderando-se os aspectos históricos e científicos relacionados ao seu desenvolvimento, sendo geralmente veiculada nos meios de comunicação de maneira pouco esclarecedora e não raro com imprecisões. Neste trabalho analisou-se a concepção de um grupo de estudantes de Ensino Médio sobre conceitos de astronomia, visando identificar sua visão de mundo a respeito do Universo, envolvendo idéias sobre espaço e tempo. Para issso, foi aplicado um questionário em três escolas da grande São Paulo em um espaço amostral de 270 alunos. Constatou-se que, embora o ensino de astronomia esteja previsto nos PCNEM, os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que há grande deficiência no conhecimento dos temas investigados. Nesse sentido, verificou-se que apenas 20% dos alunos eram capazes de relacionar a sucessão das semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra. Por outro lado, somente 23% dos alunos tinham noções das distâncias entre os objetos celestes próximos da Terra e 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo. Finalmente, constatou-se que 37% reconheciam o ano-luz como uma unidade de distância e 60% reconheciam o Sol como sendo uma estrela. Apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem que a escola é a principal fonte para aquisição dos conhecimentos de astronomia, conclui-se que seus conceitos nessa área ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de ampliação e aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos nos ambientes escolares.

  8. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  9. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  10. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  11. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Câmera Fotográfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Céu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo será introducido un método de astrofotografia que utiliza una cámara fotográfica non-reflex (un método de bajo costo). Serán revisados algunos procesos fotográficos comúnmente utilizados actualmente para comparación con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um método de astrofotografia utilizando uma câmera fotográfica não reflex, de baixo custo. É feita uma revisão do processo fotográfico comumente empregado para fins de comparação com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  12. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  13. UM-PRS: An implementation of the procedural reasoning system for multirobot applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaeho; Huber, Marcus J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The Procedural Reasoning System (PRS) is used in applications where predetermined situations might arise. The UM-PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM-PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM-PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment. PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation.

  14. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  15. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  16. METHOD 100.2 - DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS STRUCTURES OVER 10 UM IN LENGTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is collected in a polyethylene or glass container and shipped to the laboratory. nown aliquots of the sample are filtered through a 0.1 to 0.22 um pore mixed cellulose ester (MCE). arbon extraction replica is prepared from a portion of the filter and is examined in the TEM ...

  17. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  18. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  19. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  20. Uh, Um, and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Christina A; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-03-01

    Filler disfluencies--uh and um--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an 'optimal outcome' (OO), as well as in peers with typical development (TD). While uh rates did not differ, participants with ASD produced um less frequently than OO or TD groups. Um rate was associated with autism symptom severity, but not executive function or language abilities, suggesting that um serves a pragmatic, listener-oriented function. Moreover, in contrast to minimal production in ASD, the typical OO um production substantiates the normalization of subtle social communication in this population. PMID:26586555

  1. Laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Lymph nodes are the main pathway in the spread of gynaecological malignancies, being a well-known prognostic factor. Lymph node dissection is a complex surgical procedure and requires surgical expertise to perform the procedure, thereby minimising complications. In addition, lymphadenectomy has value in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with gynaecologic cancer. Therefore, a video focused on the para-aortic retroperitoneal anatomy and the surgical technique of the extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy is presented. PMID:26435746

  2. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  3. The merging dwarf galaxy UM 448: chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph optical integral field unit observations, we present a detailed study of UM 448, a nearby blue compact galaxy (BCG) previously reported to have an anomalously high N/O abundance ratio. New Technology Telescope/Superb-Seeing Imager images reveal a morphology suggestive of a merger of two systems of contrasting colour, whilst our Hα emission maps resolve UM 448 into three separate regions that do not coincide with the stellar continuum peaks. UM 448 exhibits complex emission line profiles, with most lines consisting of a narrow [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ≲ 100 km s-1], central component, an underlying broad component (FWHM ˜ 150-300 km s-1) and a third, narrow blueshifted component. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM 448, with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy. A spatially resolved, chemodynamical analysis, based on the [O iii] λλ4363, 4959, [N ii] λ6584, [S ii] λλ6716, 6731 and [Ne iii] λ3868 line maps, is presented. Whilst the eastern tail of UM 448 has electron temperatures (Te) that are typical of BCGs, we find a region within the main body of the galaxy where the narrow and broad [O iii] λ4363 line components trace temperatures differing by 5000 K and oxygen abundances differing by 0.4 dex. We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM 448, and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe. A region of enhanced N/O ratio is indeed found, extended over a ˜0.6 kpc2 region within the main body of the galaxy. Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet (WR

  4. Comparação de modelos para o cálculo de perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Pinto, J.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais com finalidades geodinâmicas requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular marés terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbações adicionais no movimento de satélites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atração exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elásticos em seu interior e uma protuberância em sua superfície. O resultado é uma pequena variação na distribuição da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbações nos elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais terrestres devidas a maré terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equações de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanças induzidas pela maré terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variações nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda não foram comparados para um mesmo satélite. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e comparadas as variações de longo período e seculares nas perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do IERS. Resultados preliminares mostram, para os satélites SCD2 e CBERS1, e para a Lua em movimento elíptico e precessionando, as perturbações seculares no argumento do perigeu e na longitude do nodo ascendente.

  5. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Subaru H images of UM673 (Koptelova+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptelova, E.; Chiueh, T.; Chen, W. P.; Chan, H.-H.

    2014-05-01

    We carried out H-band observations of UM673 with the Subaru Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS) using an adaptive optics system with 188 control elements (AO188). The images were reduced following the procedure described in "Subaru Data Reduction CookBook: Imaging Observation with IRCS" by Y. Minowa (see also Minowa et al. 2005ApJ...629...29M). The final Subaru H-band stack image of UM673 was created by coadding 22 reduced single exposure images. We also created the exposure time map of the stack image. The 17x10arcsec subframe of the stack image and the corresponding exposure map displayed in Figures 1 and 2 of the paper are available as fits files. (2 data files).

  7. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  8. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 11.5um image of NGC 835 (Gonzalez-Martin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Hernandez-Garcia, L.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Espaza Arredondo, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared imaging of NGC 835. This nucleus was observed with Canari-cam/GTC on 23 September 2014. Images were taken using the Si5 filter (at 11.5um with an effective width of 0.9um) in two separate observing blocks with a total on-source time of 993s. (2 data files).

  10. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

  11. FDA aprueba la primera inmunoterapia para linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    La FDA ha aprobado nivolumab (Opdivo®) para el tratamiento de pacientes con el linfoma clásico de Hodgkin que ha recaído o empeorado después de recibir un trasplante autólogo hematopoyético seguido de brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

  12. Design of a ROIC with 15um pitch for MWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhang, Qiwen; Ding, Ruijun

    2015-10-01

    A 640×512 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with 15um pixel pitch for middle-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) is designed in this paper. The 15um pixel pitch presents several challenges to the ROIC design, such as achieving the required charge storage capacity to preserve the high SNR and reading or processing the pixel signals correctly to achieve the required frame rate. A novel structure that four neighboring pixels share one integration capacitor is presented as a feasible approach to getting a large charge capacity in the limited pixel area. Meanwhile, the pixel circuit chooses the direct injection (DI) which occupies the small layout area as the input stage for MW and contains two sample and hold modules to further increase the charge capacity. Moreover,the peripheral analog signal chain circuit, which is composed of a PMOS source follower, a column amplifier and the complementary output stage, is designed to transfer the signals from unit cell with less voltage loss,lower power consumption, lower noise and higher linearity. More importantly, in our design, only half chain circuit are required therefore the corresponding power consumption will be reduced greatly. In order to accommodate this design, two kinds of pixel signal readout sequences are compared. By adopting the 0.18um 1P6M mixed signal CMOS process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 13Me- per pixel with 1.38V final output range. The 4×4 circuit layout will be fulfilled as a whole and in this way the effective integration capacitor can be increased. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 3.3V power supply and achieves 10MHZ readout rate and less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  13. Isoalantolactone Inhibits UM-SCC-10A Cell Growth via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minjun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jiehua; Weng, Zhiyong; Li, Chenyuan; Li, Hong; Zhao, Yan; Mei, Xifan; Ren, Fu; Li, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Isoalantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the roots of Inula helenium L. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoalantolactone possesses antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-helminthic and anti-proliferative properties in a variety of cells, but there are no studies concerning its effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, an MTT assay demonstrated that isoalantolactone has anti-proliferative activity against the HNSCC cell line (UM-SCC-10A). Immunostaining identified that this compound induced UM-SCC-10A cell apoptosis but not necrosis. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects, flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that the apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest during the G1 phase, up-regulation of p53 and p21, and down-regulation of cyclin D. Furthermore, our results revealed that induction of apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway led to up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression (Bax), down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression (Bcl-2), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (Cyto c), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 (Casp-3). Involvement of the caspase apoptosis pathway was confirmed using caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK pretreatment. Together, our findings suggest that isoalantolactone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway and was associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in UM-SCC-10A cells. Therefore, isoalantolactone may become a potential drug for treating HNSCC. PMID:24098753

  14. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  15. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  16. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  17. Traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum par plaque vissée

    PubMed Central

    Hammou, Nassreddine; Abid, Hatim; Shimi, Mohammed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures du calcanéum sont peu fréquentes mais le plus souvent graves. Le traitement chirurgical par plaque vissée est ardemment défendu. L'objectif de notre travail rétrospectif est d’évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical des fractures articulaires du calcanéum à travers une série de 12 patients opérée aux service d'orthopédie du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une durée de 3 ans, et les comparer aux données de la littérature. L’âge moyen dans notre série était de 34 ans, le geste opératoire était réalisé au 7ème jour. Tous nos patient ont bénéficie d'une réduction à foyer ouvert avec une ostéosynthèse par plaques vissées. Le recul moyen était de 12 mois et les résultats fonctionnels ont été évaluer selon le score de Kitaoka. PMID:26161214

  18. Uh and um in children with autism spectrum disorders or language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kyle; Olson, Lindsay; Hill, Alison Presmanes; Lunsford, Rebecca; Heeman, Peter A; van Santen, Jan P H

    2016-08-01

    Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with delays or deficits in structural language. This study investigated the use of the "fillers" uh and um by children ages 4-8 during the autism diagnostic observation schedule. Fillers reflect speakers' difficulties with planning and delivering speech, but they also serve communicative purposes, such as negotiating control of the floor or conveying uncertainty. We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment (SLI), reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent. Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Autism Res 2016, 9: 854-865. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800246

  19. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  20. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  1. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  2. Detector Technologies for Sub-500um High-Sensitivity PET Imaging via a Novel PET Insert Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2011-12-21

    The objective of this project was to develop detector technologies that would enable an ultrahigh resolution Virtual Pinhole (VP) PET insert device to provide sub-500 um resolution high-sensitivity PET imaging of a mouse in the future. To achieve this goal, we proposed to develop and characterize finely pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors and the associated readout electronics with the following specific aims: 1. Develop pixellated CZT detectors with 350um pitches using 2-5 mm substrates; characterize their spatial, energy and timing performance through experiments; and optimize the anode design with steering grid if found necessary. 2. Develop a high-bandwidth readout system using a novel ASIC that can be directly bonded to CZT detectors with 2048 anodes of 350um pitches; optimize its overall performance for VP-PET applications considering the tradeoffs between spatial resolution (in 3D), count rate capability, timing and energy resolutions. 3. Evaluate the performance of a VP-PET insert based on the proposed detector technology through Monte Carlo simulation and experimental validation. Overall, we have completed all three specific aims and demonstrated that pixelated CZT detectors of 350um pitches, combined with VP-PET geometry, can provide PET image resolution of ~460 um FWHM for small animal imaging applications.

  3. Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR.

    PubMed

    Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1-4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far. PMID:23932399

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, Julie E; Hernández-León, Rocio; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Santoyo, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens strain UM270 was isolated form the rhizosphere of wild Medicago spp. A previous work has shown that this pseudomonad isolate was able to produce diverse diffusible and volatile compounds involved in plant protection and growth promotion. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens strain UM270. The sequence covers 6,047,974 bp of a single chromosome, with 62.66 % G + C content and no plasmids. Genome annotations predicted 5,509 genes, 5,396 coding genes, 59 RNA genes and 110 pseudogenes. Genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in biological control and plant-growth promoting activities. We anticipate that the P. fluorescens strain UM270 genome will contribute insights about bacterial plant protection and beneficial properties through genomic comparisons among fluorescent pseudomonads. PMID:26767092

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium iranicum UM_TJL against representative mycobacterial species suggests its environmental origin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joon Liang; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Ng, Hien Fuh; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium iranicum is a newly reported mycobacterial species. We present the first comparative study of M. iranicum UM_TJL and other mycobacteria. We found M. iranicum to have a close genetic association with environmental mycobacteria infrequently associated with human infections. Nonetheless, UM_TJL is also equipped with many virulence genes (some of which appear to be the consequence of transduction-related gene transfer) that have been identified in established human pathogens. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. iranicum is an environmental bacterium adapted for pathogenicity in the human host. This comparative study provides important clues and forms the basis for future functional studies on this mycobacterium. PMID:25417557

  6. Localization of the 5f level across the UM 5-xT x series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoł; nierek, Z̵.; Troc, R.; Tran, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    We review the results of bulk measurements on selected pseudoternary compounds within the UM 5- xT x system where M = Cu, Ni and Pt, and T = Ag, Au, Pd and Ir. These ternary compounds crystallize in the cubic AuBe 5 crystal structure. The results obtained on about 20 specimens clearly show that the 5f-localization of the uranium depends on the degree of f-d and/or f-s hybridization. The strength of the hybridization is a function of the concentration of s- and d-conduction electrons and is controlled chemically by the extent of the “M 5- xT x” alloying.

  7. Correlated magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) is a tool kit to assess the dynamics of glioma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Breckwoldt, Michael O; Bode, Julia; Kurz, Felix T; Hoffmann, Angelika; Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Deumelandt, Katrin; Krüwel, Thomas; Schwarz, Daniel; Fischer, Manuel; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Kirschbaum, Klara; Solecki, Gergely; Chiblak, Sara; Abdollahi, Amir; Winkler, Frank; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Tews, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult. We have developed a combined magnetic resonance and optical toolkit to study neoangiogenesis in glioma models. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlative ultramicroscopy (UM) of ex vivo cleared whole brains to track neovascularization. T2* imaging allows the identification of single vessels in glioma development and the quantification of neovessels over time. Pharmacological VEGF inhibition leads to partial vascular normalization with decreased vessel caliber, density, and permeability. To further resolve the tumor microvasculature, we performed correlated UM of fluorescently labeled microvessels in cleared brains. UM resolved typical features of neoangiogenesis and tumor cell invasion with a spatial resolution of ~5 µm. MR-UM can be used as a platform for three-dimensional mapping and high-resolution quantification of tumor angiogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11712.001 PMID:26830460

  8. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  9. "Um, I Can Tell You're Lying": Linguistic Markers of Deception versus Truth-Telling in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David; Villar, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of "um" and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling. Results obtained using a…

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  11. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. PMID:27514485

  12. On Lightlike Geometry of Para-Sasakian Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Acet, Bilal Eftal; Kılıç, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We study lightlike hypersurfaces of para-Sasakian manifolds tangent to the characteristic vector field. In particular, we define invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces, respectively, and give examples. Integrability conditions for the distributions on a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface of para-Sasakian manifolds are investigated. We obtain a para-Sasakian structure on the leaves of an integrable distribution of a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface. PMID:24892072

  13. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  14. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Veenstra, Mike; Purewal, Justin; Xu, Chunchuan; Yang, Jun; Blaser, Rachel; Sudik, Andrea; Siegel, Don; Ming, Yang; Liu, Dong'an; Chi, Hang; Gaab, Manuela; Arnold, Lena; Muller, Ulrich

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  15. Origin and characteristics of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions (N Kuwait)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dousari, Ali. M.; Al-Elaj, Maraheb; Al-Enezi, Eqbal; Al-Shareeda, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Although Arabia hosts one of the largest deserts in the world, studies regarding aeolian erosional features in general and yardangs in particular are rare. The principal aim of this study is to delineate and investigate the various forms of yardangs in the Um Al-Rimam depressions in the northern part of Kuwait. The study area consists of two main depressions connected by neck area made up of continental sediments. Both depressions are surrounded by a dissected escarpment and their floors host muddy playas. On lithological bases, three main types of yardang have been identified: 7 yardangs are sculptured in sandstones of Lower Fars Formation (Lower to Middle Miocene), 23 are carved in calcretic rocks of Ghar Formation (Oligocene to Lower Miocene), and 11 yardangs are developed in Quaternary sediments. Their mean orientation NW (297°) coincides with the prevailing direction of the strong local northwesterly wind called the shamal. The average length/width ratio is 1.5:1. The wide geographic distribution of yardangs around the margins of the northern depression is due to sand blasting. This is explained by the annual sand accumulation measured in the study area where the northern depression shows 143 times higher accumulation than the southern depression, the neck area and the platform above the depressions. Also, the field measurements for annual erosional rates show that the sides of the yardangs are more affected by erosion compared to their middle parts. Remarkably slight mineralogical variations were detected within the surface sediments of Um Al-Rimam depressions and the Quaternary muddy yardangs which indicate a common origin. The age of yardangs is unknown but annual erosional rates on a small Quaternary muddy yardang suggest that they range in age between 44 and 1500 years depending on yardang size. It is believed, as indicated from field observation and interpretation of aerial photos, that the majority of yardangs are pre-existing bedrock forms. These

  16. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    PubMed

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  17. Evaluation of natural radionuclides at Um-Greifat area, eastern desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nada, A

    2003-02-01

    Air borne radiometric maps and remote sensing techniques were used to explore for the occurrence of radioactive materials. The previous techniques recorded radioactive mineralization for the first time along the NW-SE trending fault zones within the Miocene clastic-carbonate sediments. In the present study, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of this mineralization. Concentrations of radionuclides, associated within the iron ochre at Um-Greifat area, have been measured, using a hyper-pure germanium spectrometer. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into A, B and C regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. In region A, average concentration in Bqkg(-1) has been observed to range from 1858 to 4062 for 238U, between 29 and 151 for 232Th, from 60 to 136 for 235U and between 46 and 409 Bqkg(-1) for 40K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) in addition to external and internal hazard indices (H(ex), H(in)) have also been determined. Ra(eq) varies between 1901 and 4307Bqkg(-1), which exceeds the permitted value (370Bqkg(-1)) and H(ex) and H(in) are higher than 1. The high activity concentration within region A points to an environmental hazard, while regions B and C have less exposure effect on human beings. PMID:12573328

  18. An evaluation of China's water cycle in the MetUM-GC2 coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Marzin, Charline

    2015-04-01

    There is a general consensus in climate projections that the global hydrological cycle is likely to experience significant changes in the future, in response to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. At the regional scale, model simulations show large variations in the predictions of changes in the components of the water cycle. Increasing confidence in regional prediction of the water cycle is at the top of the NWP and climate research agenda, requiring a comprehensive evaluation of the physical processes which may play an important role. Here we present preliminary results of an evaluation of the capacity of the MetUM-GC2 coupled model to reproduce the characteristics of the water cycle in the region of China. Using water budget techniques in the atmospheric and terrestrial branches we test the water cycle components and the model's ability to replicate the climatological annual cycle and its interannual variability. Recent drought and flood events are evaluated and various metrics are employed to compare the role played by the atmospheric general circulation including the boreal summer and winter monsoon regimes and soil moisture feedback in model and observations.

  19. Dipolar induced para-hydrogen-induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Buntkowsky, Gerd; Gutmann, Torsten; Petrova, Marina V; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Bommerich, Ute; Plaumann, Markus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the signal enhancement in solid-state PHIP NMR spectroscopy mediated by homonuclear dipolar interactions and single pulse or spin-echo excitation are developed and simulated numerically. It is shown that an efficient enhancement of the proton NMR signal in solid-state NMR studies of chemisorbed hydrogen on surfaces is possible. Employing typical reaction efficacy, enhancement-factors of ca. 30-40 can be expected both under ALTADENA and under PASADENA conditions. This result has important consequences for the practical application of the method, since it potentially allows the design of an in-situ flow setup, where the para-hydrogen is adsorbed and desorbed from catalyst surfaces inside the NMR magnet. PMID:25218522

  20. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  1. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  3. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  5. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  6. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  7. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus. PMID:27626635

  8. UM-SCC-104: a new human papillomavirus-16 containing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alice L.; Davis, Samantha J.; Owen, John H.; Graham, Martin P.; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Park, Jung Je; Walline, Heather; Stoerker, Jay; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Chepeha, Douglas; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines exist. We established UM-SCC-104, a new HPV(+) HNSCC cell linefrom a recurrent oral cavity tumor, and characterized it for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). METHODS Tumor cells were tested for biomarker expression by immunohistology and the presence of HPV was assessed by several methods. RESULTS UM-SCC-104 has a unique genotype, contains HPV-16 and expresses E6/E7. Inoculation of (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase) ALDH(+) and ALDH(−) cells in an immunocompromised mouse resulted in tumor growth from the ALDH(+) cells after 6 weeks that recapitulated the histology of the primary, while ALDH(−) cells did not produce tumors. CONCLUSIONS UM-SCC-104, a new HPV-16, CSC-containing HNSCC cell line will aid in studying recurrent HPV(+) tumors. The aggressive nature of this tumor is consistent with high uniform expression of EGFR and a functionally significant proportion of ALDH(+) CSC. PMID:22162267

  9. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  10. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  11. The response of chemistry and climate to the 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Ewa; Telford, Paul; Maycock, Amanda; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    It is now generally agreed that the UV variability associated with the 11-year solar cycle leads to changes in ozone and temperature in the upper stratosphere. In addition, a range of observational and modelling studies suggest that such changes are the starting point for a chain of processes (including feedbacks) resulting in circulation changes in many areas of the atmosphere. However, precise details of the interactions between chemistry and meteorology induced by solar variability remain under question. In our study, we use a version of the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model with consistent spectrally-resolved solar variability. While the solar cycle in heating rates has been applied with the method used in HadGEM2-ES, fine spectrally-resolved solar variability has been uniquely incorporated into the Fast-JX photolysis scheme. We perform two 50-year-long perpetual year solar maximum and solar minimum integrations and complement them with a three member ensemble of a transient 1960-2010 integration in which boundary conditions correspond by and large to the CCMI Ref-C1 scenario. We show how the inferred solar signals vary between the individual experiments. This indicates high natural variability and the resulting contamination of the solar signal with contributions from other processes as well as the existence of possible non-linearities between the solar cycle and other atmospheric forcings. Therefore, we highlight that long data series are needed to ensure correct attribution of the modelled and observed anomalies. In addition, we present results from two perpetual year experiments in which the solar cycle was applied exclusively in either short-wave heating or photolysis. We find large non-linearities in the modelled anomalies as compared to the realistic integration with both modulations included. This highlights the subtle nature of the dynamical response to the solar cycle forcing and indicates the need for interactive chemistry with a detailed photolysis

  12. Project UM-HAUL: A self-unloading reusable lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done. In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation. One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc. The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. In this view, the idea of a 'Self-Unloading Reusable Lunar Lander' (SURLL) arises naturally. The general scenario depicts the lander being brought to low lunar orbit (LLO) from Earth atop a generic Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit. The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. Our response to this demand is UM-HAUL, or the UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

  13. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  14. Construction of a Para-Ortho Hydrogen Test Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, J.; Haberstroh, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In a prospective hydrogen economy it is necessary to verify the para concentration of the employed hydrogen. In case of a short storage time of about a few days only it has been shown that a partial conversion into para-hydrogen gives an optimized overall efficiency. Hence, an easy and reliable method of measuring the para-hydrogen concentration is needed. In this paper, the concept and construction of a small test cryostat are described and first results are presented. The measuring principle is based on a catalytic induced adiabatic ortho-para conversion of a hydrogen gas flow starting from a known temperature. The operation of the system only requires a certain amount of liquid nitrogen as coolant. To determine the concentration of para-hydrogen it is only necessary to measure the temperature of the gas before and after the adiabatic catalyst cell. The measuring cryostat is used for further investigation of the spontaneous para-ortho conversion in the supercritical state. In addition, the design of the cryostat allows the investigation of different catalyst materials regarding the catalytic activity and possible degradation by using a known para concentration for the measurement.

  15. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  16. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  17. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  18. Microwave window breakdown experiments and simulations on the UM/L-3 relativistic magnetron.

    PubMed

    Hoff, B W; Mardahl, P J; Gilgenbach, R M; Haworth, M D; French, D M; Lau, Y Y; Franzi, M

    2009-09-01

    Experiments have been performed on the UM/L-3 (6-vane, L-band) relativistic magnetron to test a new microwave window configuration designed to limit vacuum side breakdown. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1.75 cm wide aperture. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows. The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. No vacuum side window breakdown was observed in the new window configuration at single waveguide output powers of 120+MW (a factor of 3 increase in measured microwave pulse duration and factor of 3 increase in measured peak power over the baseline case). Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV. Calculations performed using electron impact angle and energy data predict a first generation secondary electron yield of 65% of the primary electron population. The effects of the primary aperture electron

  19. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  20. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  1. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, Barney J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions.

  2. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  3. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M; Al Shaikh, Ismail; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  4. Community Structure and Activity of a Highly Dynamic and Nutrient-Limited Hypersaline Microbial Mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Roda; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Al-Raei, Abdul Munem; Ferdelman, Tim; Thang, Nguyen M.; Shaikh, Ismail Al; Al-Ansi, Mehsin; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1–L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%–42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%–97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods. PMID:24658360

  5. The U. S. Geological Survey, Digital Spectral Library: Version 1 (0.2 to 3.0um)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Gallagher, Andrea J.; King, Trude V.V.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes 498 spectra of 444 samples (some samples include a series of grain sizes) measured from approximately 0.2 to 3.0 um . The spectral resolution (Full Width Half Maximum) of the reflectance data is <= 4 nm in the visible (0.2-0.8 um) and <= 10 nm in the NIR (0.8-2.35 um). All spectra were corrected to absolute reflectance using an NIST Halon standard. Library management software lets users search on parameters (e.g. chemical formulae, chemical analyses, purity of samples, mineral groups, etc.) as well as spectral features. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate (cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate) classes are represented. X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series. Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U.S.G.S. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files (a separate U.S.G.S. open file report). Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U.S.G.S. in Denver for anonymous ftp to users on the Internet. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features. The

  6. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  7. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo E-mail: etelles@on.br E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx

    2009-06-15

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with {approx}750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' ({approx}375 and {approx}250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' ({approx}500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of H{alpha} emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using H{beta} equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of {approx}5 Myr with stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 4} M {sub sun}. We have also used [O III]/H{beta} and [S II]/H{alpha} ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The H{alpha} emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of {delta}(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 {+-} 0.06-8.05 {+-} 0.04) were found, considering all data points

  8. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid metamorphic complex, Sinai, Egypt: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Zaky

    2013-08-01

    The Um Zariq and Malhaq formations occupy roughly the northern half of the Kid metamorphic complex of SE Sinai, in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an old sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813 ± 6 Ma), whereas the Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma). The Um Zariq Formation is mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists, while the Malhaq Formation comprises a series of structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded with mica-rich phyllites and schists. The Um Zariq metasediments are depleted in SiO2, CaO and K2O and enriched in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of the Malhaq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. The source rocks of the Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of the Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq Formation metasediments. They are collectively geochemically immature and have suffered minor sedimentary recycling, with the experience of the Malhaq Formation metasediments from higher degree of sorting and reworking. The Malhaq and Um Zariq metasediments were originally deposited in a continental arc setting, most probably back

  9. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  10. Quantitation of deposition, clearance and routes of elimination of 3 um insoluble particles in the sheep lung

    SciTech Connect

    Langenback, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    This study is the first to completely determine the number of particles deposited in the lung, the number of particles cleared over a period of a hundred days and the pathways by which the particles exit the lungs. The study uses long lived radioactively (/sup 57/Co) tagged 3 um insoluble polystyrene particles to follow clearance in a sheep animal model. Particle clearance was characterized by 4 phases. Periodic sacrifice and autopsy showed no particle accumulation in regional lymph nodes draining the lung and no particle accumulation in the liver, spleen or kidneys. Urine and blood samples throughout clearance were devoid of particles, but fecal excretion of particles matched lung elimination of particles and mirrored clearance closely. Thus the avenues of long-term clearance of a 3 um polystrene particle has been established from the alveolar portion of the lung: virtually all particles cleared in 101 days were removed by transport from the alveoli to the mucociliary escalator, either as free particles and/or associated with macrophages and subsequently swallowed and excreted. Particles remaining in the lungs after 101 days continued to be cleared from the lungs via the mucociliary escalator with a t/sub 1/2/ = 38 days. This suggests that particles leave a sequestered state, re-enter the airways and are cleared.

  11. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  12. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  13. Reducing Striping and Near Field Response Influence in the MODIS 1.38um Cirrus Detection Band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Moeller, C. C.; Frey, R. A.; Gumley, L. E.; Menzel, W. P.

    2002-05-01

    Since first light in February 2000, the MODIS L1B data from Terra has exhibited detector striping in the cirrus detection band at 1.38 um (B26). This band's unique characteristic is that it is potentially able to discriminate very thin cirrus (optical depth of 0.1) because water vapor absorption effectively attenuates the upwelling signal from the earth's surface, leaving a flat dark background underneath the thin cirrus. The striping has diminished the power of this band for detecting thin cirrus in the MODIS Cloud Mask (MOD35) over the global environment by imparting a structure on the background. The striping amplitude (valley to peak) is 10 - 15% of the MODIS Ltyp radiance in B26 over land backgrounds, thus exceeding the 5% radiance prelaunch accuracy specification for the band. Also unexpected has been the presence of earth surface reflectance in B26. Forward model calculations indicate that the two-way transmittance of B26 in-band (1% to 1% response) should be < .003 when total precipitable water (TPW) exceeds about 12 mm. However, MODIS B26 imagery has routinely shown land surface reflectance, such as Florida, even in very moist (TPW > 30 mm) tropical air masses. MODIS prelaunch test data suggests that a near field response (NFR) at about 1.3 um in the B26 filter may be contributing to this behavior. A destriping and out-of-band correction algorithm has been under development at the University of Wisconsin to address the these issues. The simple linear algorithm is based on tuning detector dependent influence coefficients for B26 as a function of B5 (1.24 um) radiance so that the corrected B26 radiance is near zero for all B26 detectors in moist atmospheric conditions. B5 was chosen as a surrogate to characterize the NFR leak in the B26 filter because of its close spectral proximity to the NFR leak. Real MODIS L1B data is being used to estimate the influence coefficients. The paper will describe the B5 based destriping and NFR correction algorithm and

  14. Mental health problems of undocumented migrants (UMs) in the Netherlands: a qualitative exploration of help-seeking behaviour and experiences with primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teunissen, Erik; Sherally, Jamilah; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Dowrick, Chris; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health-seeking behaviour and experiences of undocumented migrants (UMs) in general practice in relation to mental health problems. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants 15 UMs in the Netherlands, varying in age, gender, country of origin and education; inclusion until theoretical saturation was reached. Setting 4 cities in the Netherlands. Results UMs consider mental health problems to be directly related to their precarious living conditions. For support, they refer to friends and religion first, the general practitioner (GP) is their last resort. Barriers for seeking help include taboo on mental health problems, lack of knowledge of and trust in GPs competencies regarding mental health and general barriers in accessing healthcare as an UM (lack of knowledge of the right to access healthcare, fear of prosecution, financial constraints and practical difficulties). Once access has been gained, satisfaction with care is high. This is primarily due to the attitude of the GPs and the effectiveness of the treatment. Reasons for dissatisfaction with GP care are an experienced lack of time, lack of personal attention and absence of physical examination. Expectations of the GP vary, medication for mental health problems is not necessarily seen as a good practice. Conclusions UMs often see their precarious living conditions as an important determinant of their mental health; they do not easily seek help for mental health problems and various barriers hamper access to healthcare for them. Rather than for medication, UMs are looking for encouragement and support from their GP. We recommend that barriers experienced in seeking professional care are tackled at an institutional level as well as at the level of GP. PMID:25416057

  15. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  16. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  17. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  18. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  19. Cabozantinib y lenvatinib para cáncer renal

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog del NCI sobre la aprobación reciente de la FDA de cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) y de lenvatinib (Lenvima®) para el tratamiento de pacientes cuyo cáncer avanzado de riñón ha evolucionado después de tratamiento con terapias antiangiogénicas.

  20. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  2. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  3. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  4. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  6. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  7. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-07-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  10. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  12. A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

  13. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  15. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic metasediments of Malhaq and Um Zariq formations, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt: implications for source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and depositional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bialy, Mohammed Z.

    2013-04-01

    The Kid Metamorphic Complex of SE Sinai represents a thick volcano-sedimentary succession that underwent polyphase deformation and greenschist to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the NE part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The Malhaq and Um Zariq Formations, the target of this study, occupy roughly the northern half of this complex. The Malhaq Formation records several phases of Ediacaran sedimentation and volcanic activity (615-607 Ma), whereas Um Zariq Formation metasediments are relicts of an older sedimentary sequence (Cryogenian; 813±6 Ma). The Malhaq Formation comprises a series of dark gray structureless to schistose felsic to intermediate metavolcanics interbedded and intercalated with fine- to medium-grained foliated mica-rich phyllites and schists, while the Um Zariq Formation is a dominantly metasedimentary sequence, mainly represented by well-bedded metapelitic schists. Malhaq metasediments are enriched in SiO2, CaO and K2O and depleted in TiO2, Al2O3 and K2O relative to those of Um Zariq Formation. Aside from the relatively low Ni and Cr concentrations, compatible transition elements of these metasediments are comparable to average crustal contents. Except for marked Sr depletion, LILEs are around average continental crust values. Pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies in all samples, and general enrichment of Um Zariq samples in Th, U, Zr, Ti and Y relative to Malhaq ones are the main features of HFSEs. The REE patterns of all samples are parallel to sub-parallel LREE-enriched, with distinct negative Eu anomalies and weakly fractionated HREE segments. Geochemical investigations have revealed that the source rocks of Malhaq Formation metasediments underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering, whereas those of Um Zariq Formation have suffered severe chemical weathering. These metasediments are predominately derived from felsic to intermediate igneous sources, with a particular slight addition from recycled sedimentary source to the Malhaq

  16. DESIGN NOTE: A compact catalytic converter for the production of para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, A. M.; Cubric, D.; King, G. C.

    2002-05-01

    The design and operation of a compact converter to produce a constant flow of para-hydrogen from normal hydrogen is described. The converter features a paramagnetic compound (nickel sulfate) that catalyses the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen at temperatures of 14-21 K. The converter has been tested by measuring rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra in the para-hydrogen produced. The percentage of the para-hydrogen species in the converted gas was determined to be >97%.

  17. Evaluation of high-resolution MetUM and AMPS forecasts of near-surface meteorological variables over Larsen C ice shelf and northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Kirchgaessner, Amelie; King, John; Weeks, Mark; Gadian, Alan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Steffen, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution weather forecasts are an important tool for understanding the detailed patterns of surface melt on the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS), Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the skill of UK Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) and Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts with horizontal grid spacing of 4-5 km for a 1 month period during January-February 2011 by comparing near-surface model output to automatic weather station measurements at 5 sites on the LCIS and 3 on the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Forecasts for the range 12-24 h showed a fairly homogeneous performance over the LCIS. The 2 m temperature simulated by AMPS has a correlation with observations of 0.5-0.6 and a systematic cold bias of around -1 degrees centigrade. By comparison, the MetUM had a higher correlation and was less negatively biased. The simulated surface pressure has a correlation of 0.99 and small biases in both models. AMPS yielded better results than the MetUM for 10 m wind speed, being able to capture particularly well synoptically-driven high wind speeds which the MetUM systematically underestimated. Both models struggle to simulate the 10 m wind direction when the wind conditions are highly variable. The simulation of specific humidity by both models was poor. Both models showed a general reduction in performance over the northern Antarctic Peninsula compared to the LCIS. Extending the analysis to consider the 12-36 h forecast range demonstrated a relatively weak dependence of model skill to the length of the forecast. The study focuses particularly on the representation of foehn wind events, which are an important contributor to surface melt over the LCIS, by examining additional ~1 km scale forecasts using the MetUM.

  18. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  19. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  20. The dependence of land-atmosphere interactions on atmospheric parametrizations in the JULES/UM modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Helen; Best, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood for a while now that atmospheric behaviour is affected by land surface processes, modelling this relationship however still presents challenges. Most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models couple an atmospheric model to a land surface model in order to forecast the weather and/or climate. The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) demonstrated that soil moisture variability has considerable control over atmospheric behaviour, particularly impacting on precipitation and temperature variability. The study also suggested that differences in coupling strengths between models may be due to differences in atmospheric parametrizations. There have since been other studies which support this claim but it is not yet clear which parameters control the land-atmosphere coupling strength or indeed what it should be. In this study we investigate whether certain atmospheric parameters hold more control than others over model sensitivity to land surface changes. We focus on the interaction of the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model with the Met Office Unified Model (UM) that is used for operational NWP and climate prediction. For computational efficiency we ran the UM at a single site using a single column model (SCM) rather than running a global model simulation. A site in the Sahel region of West Africa was chosen as this is an area that was identified by GLACE as being especially responsive to changes in soil moisture. JULES was run several times with various different initial soil moisture profiles to create an ensemble of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes that could be used to force a set of different SCM runs in order to simulate a range of different atmospheric conditions. Various atmospheric parameters in the SCM were then perturbed to create additional sets of SCM runs with different sensitivities to soil moisture changes. By analysing the difference in spread between the standard configuration and the

  1. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  2. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  3. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  4. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  5. Calcareous benthonic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Paleocene transition of Gebel Um El-Ghanayem, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Khalil, Hamza M.

    2014-08-01

    The studies of benthic calcareous foraminifera of the Maastrichtian-early Paleocene Dakhla Formation in Gebel Um El-Ghanayem (Western Desert, Egypt), improve reconstruction of depositional environments of these successions. In total, 68 taxa of benthic foraminifera were identified in the studied succession. The late Maastrichtian assemblages (Zone CF3) are dominated by calcareous foraminifera with tapered tests, this tapered taxon Loxostomum applinae, Lox. tegulatum various dentalinid taxa, and Buliminella cushmani dominate in CF3 Biozone. We thus interpret these faunas as being dominated by infaunal morphogroups, suggesting a moderately eutrophic environment. Danian assemblages are characterized by abundant epifaunal trochospiral species, such as Cibicidoides abudurbensis, Cibicidoides farafraensis, and Gyroidinoides girardanus. The infaunal morphogroups make up 25-47% of fauna in the Danian, in contrast to 62-76% in the Upper Maastrichtian. This dominance of the Danian benthic foraminiferal assemblages by epifaunal or mixed epifaunal/infaunal morphogroups suggests that the food supply to the benthos was less abundant than in the latest Cretaceous. The Cretaceous/Paleocene boundary (K/Pg) is within the upper unit of the Lower Kharga Member and marked by a hiatus in at least the top of CF3 Zone of the Upper Maastrichtian to the Lower Paleocene (base Plc Zone).

  6. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed. PMID:26624774

  7. The UmGcn5 gene encoding histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis is involved in dimorphism and virulence.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Juan Manuel; Rosas-Quijano, Raymundo; Domínguez, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2014-10-01

    We isolated a gene encoding a histone acetyltransferase from Ustilago maydis (DC.) Cda., which is orthologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN5 gene. The gene was isolated from genomic clones identified by their specific hybridization to a gene fragment obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This gene (Umgcn5; um05168) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1421bp that encodes a putative protein of 473 amino acids with a Mr. of 52.6kDa. The protein exhibits a high degree of homology with histone acetyltransferases from different organisms. Null a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were constructed by substitution of the region encoding the catalytic site with a hygromycin B resistance cassette. Null a1b1 ΔUmgcn5 mutants were isolated from genetic crosses of a2b2 ΔUmgcn5 and a1b1 wild-type strains in maize. Mutants displayed a slight reduction in growth rate under different conditions, and were more sensitive than the wild type to stress conditions, but more important, they grew as long mycelial cells, and formed fuzz-like colonies under all conditions where wild-type strains grew in the yeast-like morphology and formed smooth colonies. This phenotype was not reverted by cAMP addition. Mutants were not virulent to maize plants, and were unable to form teliospores. These phenotypic alterations of the mutants were reverted by their transformation with the wild-type gene. PMID:25242418

  8. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  9. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  10. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  11. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, James G; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Blanvillain, Robert; Nunes, Wylla M; Chiniquy, Dawn; Thilmony, Roger; Ow, David W

    2009-04-01

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis lines harboring a chromosomally integrated MRS-flanked target. The ParA recombinase excised the MRS-flanked DNA and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of ParA, indicating germinal transmission of the excision event. The precise site-specific deletion by the ParA recombination system in planta demonstrates that the ParA recombinase can be used to remove transgenic DNA, such as selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired in the final product. PMID:18704739

  12. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection for patients with primary colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Chun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic intrarenal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph node dissection. Methods The inclusion criteria for the laparoscopic approach were patients with infrarenal para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer. Patients who had any other distant metastatic lesion or metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis were excluded from this study. Perioperative outcomes and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Between November 2004 and October 2013, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The mean operating time was 192.3 ± 68.8 minutes (range, 100-400 minutes) and the mean estimated blood loss was 65.6 ± 52.6 mL (range, 20-210 mL). No patient required open conversion. The postoperative complication rate was 15.0%. Sixteen patients (40.0%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. In patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes, the 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 65.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a laparoscopic approach for patients with colorectal cancer with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes can be a reasonable option for selected patients. PMID:26793690

  13. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  14. The Workload of the UMS Faculty. A Report to the Joint Chairs of the Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ. System Administration, Adelphi.

    This report provides the results of a study of faculty workloads in the University of Maryland System (UMS) during the 1994-95 academic year. It was found that 19,446 course units were taught by full-time (FT) faculty at degree-granting institutions, an increase of 158 course units from the previous year while the number of FT faculty decreased by…

  15. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  16. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  17. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  18. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  19. Spectroscopy of Single Dibenzoterrylene Molecules in para-Dichlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Verhart, Nico R; Müller, Mathias; Orrit, Michel

    2016-05-18

    We study single dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules embedded in 1,4-dichlorobenzene (para-dichlorobenzene, pDCB) at 1.2 K. Due to the relatively low melting point of pDCB (53 °C), this host-guest system can be easily prepared from the molten phase. Narrow linewidths, stable molecular lines and high saturation count rates of single DBT molecules were observed. For this reason, we consider this host-guest system a promising candidate for the study of interactions of single molecules with other small objects such as waveguides or nanoparticles. PMID:26840901

  20. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize andmore » enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results

  1. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  2. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  3. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3.6um S4G Galactic bars characterization (Diaz-Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Garcia, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.; Herrera-Endoqui, M.

    decomposition model ('rotationcurve_decomposition.dat'), with the stellar component inferred from the 3.6~um imaging and the halo component estimated using the universal rotation curve models). (5 data files).

  5. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low. PMID:23530629

  6. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  7. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  8. Spectroscopy of Defects in Epitaxially Grown Para-sexiphenyl Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Beynik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    We present a study of steady-state- and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films on KCl grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Using different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites but keeping virtually untouched their chemical structure. By this comparative study we prove that the broad red-shifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to be drastically suppressed in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  9. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  10. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  11. Wave intensity analysis of para-aortic counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pong-Jeu; Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Wu, Meng-Yu; Hung, Chun-Hao; Chan, Ming-Yao; Hsu, Tzu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) was used to delineate and maximize the efficacy of a newly developed para-aortic blood pump (PABP). The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was employed as the comparison benchmark. Acute porcine experiments using eight pigs, randomly divided into IABP (n = 4) and PABP (n = 4) groups, were conducted to compare the characteristics of intra- and para-aortic counterpulsation. We measured pressure and velocity with probes installed in the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta, during and without PABP assistance. Wave intensity for aortic and left coronary waves were derived from pressure and flow measurements with synchronization correction applied. To achieve maximized support efficacy, deflation timings ranging from 25 ms ahead of to 35 ms after the R-wave were tested. Similar to those associated with IABP counterpulsation, the PABP-generated backward-traveling waves predominantly drove aortic and coronary blood flows. However, in contrast with IABP counterpulsation, the nonocclusive nature of the PABP allowed systolic unloading to be delayed into early systole, which resulted in near elimination of coronary blood steal without diminution of systolic left ventricular ejection wave intensities. WIA can elucidate subtleties among different counterpulsatile support means with high sensitivity. Total accelerating wave intensity (TAWI), which was defined as the sum of the time integration of accelerated parts of the positive and negative wave intensities, was used to quantify counterpulsation efficacy. In general, the larger the TAWI gain, the better the counter-pulsatile support efficacy. However, when PABP deflation timings were delayed to after the R-wave, the TAWI was found to be inversely correlated with coronary perfusion. In this delayed deflation timing setting, greater wave cancellation occurred, which led to decreased TAWI but increased coronary perfusion attributed to blood regurgitation reduction. PMID:22227124

  12. The Clearance of Creatinine, Inulin, Para-aminohippurate and Phenosulphothalein in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Osbaldiston, G. W.; Fuhrman, W.

    1970-01-01

    Endogenous creatinine, inulin, para-amino-hippurate and phenolsulphothalein clearances for healthy cats are presented. The values for inulin and para-aminohippurate clearances (ml/kg/min) are similar to those for the dog. Creatinine clearance was less than inulin clearance values. Pnenolsulphothalein clearance may be a better index of glomerular rather than tubular function in the cat. PMID:4246836

  13. Chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of naphthols to para-quinone methides.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuk Fai; Wang, Zhaobin; Sun, Jianwei

    2016-06-28

    An asymmetric addition of naphthols to in situ generated para-quinone methides catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid is described. A range of useful triarylmethanes can be generated from stable general para-hydroxybenzyl alcohols with good efficiency and enantioselectivity. PMID:26932597

  14. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddangouda B; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S; Biradar, Ashok N

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  15. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  16. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddangouda B.; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S.; Biradar, Ashok N.

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  17. Performance of immersion lithography for 45-nm-node CMOS and ultra-high density SRAM with 0.25um2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimotogi, Shoji; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tominaga, Makoto; Fujise, Hiroharu; Sho, Koutaro; Katsumata, Mikio; Hane, Hiroki; Ikegami, Atsushi; Nagahara, Seiji; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Asano, Masafumi; Kanai, Hideki; Kimura, Taiki; Iwai, Masaaki

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography was applied to 45nm node logic and 0.25um2 ultra-high density SRAM. The predictable enhancement of focus margin and resolution were obtained for all levels which were exposed by immersion tool. In particular, the immersion lithography enabled to apply the attenuating phase shift mask to the gate level. The enough lithography margin for the alternating phase shift mask was also obtained by using not only immersion tool but also dry tool for gate level. The immersion lithography shrunk the minimum hole pitch from 160nm to 140nm. Thus, the design rule for 45nm node became available by using immersion lithography.

  18. Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Duche, Daniel; Garrigues, Alexia; Meunier, Pierre-Alain; Toutain, Herve; Leclaire, Jacques

    2005-09-15

    We investigated the biotransformation of the oxidative arylamine (AA) hair dye ingredients [14C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) and [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes. Human epidermis quantitatively transformed PAP to its N-acetylated derivative (APAP), whereas hepatocytes transformed PAP to sulfate or glucuronic acid conjugates of APAP or PAP as well as free APAP. Epidermis and hepatocytes converted PPD to N-mono- (MAPPD) and N,N'-di-acetylated (DAPPD) derivatives. At higher concentrations of PPD (250-1000 microM), epidermis or hepatocytes produced more of the MAPPD, whereas concentrations below 250 microM and lower favoured formation of the DAPPD metabolite. When compared with epidermis, human hepatocytes had a three-fold or eight-fold greater capacity for generation of MAPPD or DAPPD, respectively. No evidence of transformation of PAP or PPD to N-hydroxylated derivatives was found in epidermis or hepatocytes. Our results suggest that (i) after dermal absorption of PAP or PPD, humans are systemically exposed to acetylated derivatives; (ii) current in vitro skin absorption studies may be inadapated for determination of human systemic exposure to AAs due to reduced or absent metabolic capacity of non-viable skin; (iii) due to qualitative differences between dermal and hepatic metabolism, oral toxicity studies may be unsuited for the hazard assessment of dermal exposure to AAs; and (iv) use of induced rodent liver S9 metabolic activation systems for in vitro genotoxicity studies may produce misleading results on the hazard of human dermal exposure to AAs. In conclusion, our data support the growing evidence that AAs are transformed in human skin and suggest that current practices of safety assessment of AAs should take these findings into account. PMID:15890478

  19. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  20. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies. PMID:14504782

  1. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:21503294

  2. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  3. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  4. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  5. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  6. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  7. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  8. Anise oil as para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) precursor.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Dieter; Bruneel, Noël; Tytgat, Jan

    2003-04-23

    These days, MDMA is one of the most popular drugs of abuse. Due to its illegality, MDMA and its chemical precursors are watched by governmental organizations in many countries. To avoid conflicts with legal instances, underground chemists have tried to market several new unregulated amphetamine analogues, such as 4-MTA. Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), on the other hand, is regulated by law but its precursors are easily obtained since they are cheap and unwatched. This article presents such a case, namely the large scale synthesis of PMA using anethole, a main constituent of anise oil, as precursor. Anethole has been converted to its phenyl acetone analogue via peracid oxidation, while PMA itself has been synthesized using this ketone as precursor in the Leuckart synthesis. The synthesis of PMA using anethole as starting product has been investigated applying GC/MS and GC-HSPME/MS techniques, hereby discovering new specific (4-methoxyphenol) and already identified synthesis impurities (4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzyl methyl ketimine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzaldimine). The new impurity 4-methoxyphenol is specific for the application of a peracid oxidation method where anethole is used as precursor. PMID:12742705

  9. Metabolism of para-aminophenol by rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Nikelly, J G; Killmer, L; Tarloff, J B

    2000-08-01

    Autoxidation of para-aminophenol (PAP) has been proposed to account for the selective nephrotoxicity of this compound. However, other studies suggest that hepatic metabolites of PAP rather than the parent compound may be responsible for renal damage. These studies were designed to investigate PAP metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. We synthesized several proposed metabolites for analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry and compared those results with HPLC/mass spectrometric analyses of metabolites found after incubating hepatocytes with PAP. Hepatocytes prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C for 5 h with 2.3 mM PAP under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% O2. Aliquots were withdrawn at 0.1 h of incubation and then hourly through 5 h of incubation. Reactions were terminated by the addition of acetonitrile. Hepatocyte viability was unaltered with PAP present in the incubation medium. We found that hepatocytes converted PAP to two major metabolites (PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates) and several minor metabolites [PAP-O-glucuronide, acetaminophen (APAP), APAP-O-glucuronide, APAP-GSH conjugates, and 4-hydroxyformanilide]. Preincubating hepatoyctes with 1-aminobenzotriazole, an inhibitor of cytochromes P450, did not alter the pattern of PAP metabolism. In conclusion, we found that PAP was metabolized in hepatocytes predominantly to PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates in sufficient quantities to account for the nephrotoxicity of PAP. PMID:10901695

  10. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  11. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Uninfected Para-Anastomotic Aneurysms after Infrarenal Aortic Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Nano, Giovanni; Cusmai, Francesco; Ramponi, Fabio; Stegher, Silvia; Dell'Aglio, Daniela; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This single-institution retrospective review examines the management of uninfected para-anastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA), developed after infrarenal grafting. Materials and Methods From October 1979 to November 2005, 31 PAAA were observed in our Department. Twenty-six uninfected PAAA of degenerative etiology, including 24 false and 2 true aneurysms, were candidates for intervention and retrospectively included in our database for management and outcome evaluation. Six (23%) patients were treated as emergencies. Surgery included tube graft interposition (n = 12), new reconstruction (n = 8), and graft removal with extra-anatomic bypass (n = 3). Endovascular management (n = 3) consisted of free-flow tube endografts. Results The mortality rate among the elective and emergency cases was 5% and 66.6%, respectively (p = 0.005). The morbidity rate in elective cases was 57.8%, whereas 75% in emergency cases (p = 0.99). The survival rate during the follow-up was significantly higher for elective cases than for emergency cases. Conclusion Uninfected PAAA is a late complication of aortic grafting, tends to evolve silently and is difficult to diagnose. The prevalence is underestimated and increases with time since surgery. The mortality rate is higher among patients treated as an emergency than among patients who undergo elective surgery, therefore, elective treatment and aggressive management in the case of pseudoaneurysm are the keys to obtain a good outcome. Endovascular treatment could reduce mortality. Patients who undergo infrarenal aortic grafting require life-long surveillance after surgery. PMID:19430556

  13. Para-Tyrosine Supplementation Improves Insulin- and Liraglutide- Induced Vasorelaxation in Cholesterol-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Sélley, Eszter; Kun, Szilárd; Kürthy, Mária; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István; Molnár, Gergo A

    2015-01-01

    Former data of our workgroup indicated that the accumulation of oxidized amino acids (meta- and ortho-tyrosine) due to oxidative stress may play an important role in the impaired insulininduced vasoactive properties of different arterial segments. There are evidences, that incorporation of these amino acids into cellular proteins leads to certain hormonal resistances, which might be restored by supplementation with the physiologic isoform, para-tyrosine. Rats in the control group were kept on a regular diet, rats in the cholesterol-fed group received high-fat diet, while the third group of rats received high-fat diet with para-tyrosine supplementation for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol level was significantly higher in the cholesterol-fed group, while the level of cholesterol in the cholesterol+para-tyrosine group did not differ significantly from that of the controls. Plasma level of insulin after glucose stimulation was decreased in the cholesterol-fed group, while that in the para-tyrosine supplemented group did not differ significantly from the controls. Vascular para-, meta- and ortho-tyrosine content was measured with HPLC. Elevated vascular meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio of cholesterol fed rats could be avoided by para-tyrosine supplementation. Vascular response of the thoracic aorta to insulin and liraglutide was assessed by a DMT multi-myograph. Cholesterol feeding resulted in vascular insulin-and liraglutide resistance, which was restored by para-tyrosine supplementation. Incorporation of the oxidative stress induced pathological tyrosine isoforms leads to vascular-hormone-resistances. We show that the physiological amino acid para-tyrosine is capable of restoring hypercholesterolemia-induced increased meta-tyrosine content of the vascular wall, thus attenuating functional vascular damage. PMID:26202368

  14. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  15. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  16. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  17. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  18. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  19. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction. PMID:24060742

  20. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  1. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  2. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  3. Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bron, Emeric; Le Petit, Franck; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Context. Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and it has been proposed that this mechanism plays a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures. It is based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models that neglect the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is very insensitive to the values of the model's microphysical parameters. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions and can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

  4. A comparison of extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy for staging of endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pakish, Janelle; Soliman, Pamela T.; Frumovitz, Michael; Westin, Shannon N.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; dos Reis, Ricardo; Munsell, Mark F.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study was to compare the surgical outcomes of extraperitoneal laparoscopic, transperitoneal laparoscopic, and robotic transperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer staging. Methods A retrospective review was performed from January 2007 to November 2012. Three groups were compared: extraperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy and robotic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (“extraperitoneal group”; N=34); laparoscopic hysterectomy and transperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (“transperitoneal laparoscopic group”; N=108); and robotic hysterectomy and transperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (“transperitoneal robotic group”; N=52). Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis, and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05. Results Median number of para-aortic lymph nodes obtained was higher in the extraperitoneal group than in the transperitoneal laparoscopic and robotic groups (10, 5, and 4.5 nodes, respectively; P<0.001). Among patients with BMI <35 kg/m2, the median number of para-aortic nodes harvested was higher in the extraperitoneal group than in the transperitoneal laparoscopic and robotic groups (9, 4, and 5 nodes, respectively; P<0.01). The same pattern was observed among patients with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (10, 6, and 3 nodes, respectively) (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in median estimated blood loss between the extraperitoneal group and either the transperitoneal laparoscopic group (100 vs. 112.5 mL; P=0.06) or the transperitoneal robotic group (100 vs. 67.5 mL; P=0.23). Conclusion Extraperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy resulted in a higher number of para-aortic lymph nodes removed than transperitoneal laparoscopic or robotic lymphadenectomy. The extraperitoneal approach should be considered for endometrial cancer staging. PMID:24361579

  5. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  6. Astronomia cultural e meio ambiente segundo uma abordagem holística

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho ampliamos a discussão da abordagem holística para o ensino de astronomia que temos desenvolvido nos últimos anos, analisamos novos resultados e apresentamos exemplos práticos para interessados em experimentá-la. A constatação básica a orientar este enfoque é que cursos introdutórios em astronomia costumam ser excessiva e prematuramente técnicos, além de assumirem uma visão tradicional, muito estreita, do que seja educação científica, herdada da era cartesiana e positivista da ciência. Fundamentamos porque é importante que elementos de astronomia cultural ofereçam o mote e constituam o eixo norteador daqueles cursos e porque é urgente revermos a visão que temos da relação entre astronomia e meio ambiente. Um ponto central nesta abordagem é explorar formas de reativar e atualizar uma relação orgânica com o meio e excitar a consciência de nossa inevitável e profunda interdependência com ele em nível cósmico. Neste trabalho exemplificamos a possibilidade de concretização desta proposta em três diferentes situações: disciplinas de cursos de licenciatura em geografia e em física; escolas de nível fundamental; e, neste caso ainda a ser implementada, comunidades carentes. Estes casos envolvem públicos e espaços diferenciados para educação formal e não-formal. Dos casos já implementados, destacamos os resultados alcançados pelos alunos: enriquecimento cultural, aprendizagem significativa de conteúdos astronômicos tradicionais; mudanças de comportamento, incorporando contato diário com o céu; e freqüentes vivências de sentimentos empáticos que redirecionam a relação com a natureza e a consciência ecológica global. Além disto, para interessados em aplicar esta proposta, também socializamos procedimentos e cuidados para a implementação de ações alternativas consonantes com a mesma. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  7. Ortho-Para Mixing Interaction in the Vinyl Radical Detected by Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy and Prediction of Fast Ortho-Para Conversion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Hayashi, Masato; Ohtsuki, Mitsuhiko; Harada, Kensuke; Tanaka, Takehiko

    2010-06-01

    Ortho-para mixing interaction due to the coupling of nuclear and electron spins was detected for the first time by millimeter-wave spectroscopy of deuterated vinyl radicals, H_2CCD and D_2CCD, of which the ground states are split by the tunneling motion of the α deuteron into two components 0^+ and 0^-, whose separations have been determined to be Δ E_0 = 1186.644(16) and 771.978(18) MHz, respectively. The observed tunneling-rotation spectra are significantly perturbed by the othro-para mixing interaction expressed by < 0^± |H'|0^mprangle = (δ aF(β)/2) S \\cdot(I_β 1-I_β 2), where I_β 1 and I_β 2 are spins of the two hydrogen nuclei in the β position and S is the electron spin, which connects rotational levels in the 0^+ and 0^- states, one being an ortho level and the other a para level. The δ aF(β) constants for H_2CCD and D_2CCD have been determined to be 68.06(53) and 10.63(94) MHz, respectively, consistent each other within the isotopic mass relation. The othro and para states are mixed by about 0.097% and 0.0123% due to this interaction. The δ aF constant for H_2CCH should be similar to that for H_2CCD because of the same probability density of the unpaired electron at the β protons, but could not be determined independently in our previous study. It is because the mixing of para- and ortho-levels of about 0.00044% is much smaller than that for H_2CCD due to the large tunneling splitting of Δ E_0=16271.8429(59) MHz. The rate constant of para to ortho (I_β = 0 → 1) conversion is predicted as 1.2× 10^5 s-1 torr-1 for H_2CCD, suggesting extremely rapid mutual conversion between ortho and para nuclear spin isomers of H_2CCD, which is more than 106 times faster compared with that in closed shell molecules such as H_2CO and H_2CCH_2. K. Tanaka, M. Hayashi, M. Ohtsuki, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 131, 111101 (2009). K. Tanaka, M. Toshimitsu, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 120, 3604 (2004).

  8. para-Sulphonato-calix[n]arenes as selective activators for the passage of molecules across the Caco-2 model intestinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Roka, Eszter; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Bacskay, Ildiko; Félix, Caroline; Rhimi, Moez; Coleman, Anthony W; Perret, Florent

    2015-06-01

    The passage of Lucifer Yellow across the Caco-2 intestinal model membrane has been studied for the para-sulphonato-calix[n]arenes, the results show that para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and para-sulphonato-calix[8]arene activate membrane passage when used simultaneously with a transport probe, Lucifer Yellow, whereas para-sulphonato-calix[6]arene has no effect. PMID:25958962

  9. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  10. Ensino de astronomia e óptica: é possível fazê-lo de forma contextualizada no nível médio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrinho, A. A.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Discutimos nossa participação em um curso de treinamento para professores de diversas disciplinas do ensino médio. Nossa preocupação básica foi desenvolver instrumentos educacionais adequados para levar à sala de aula, nesse nível de ensino, de forma contextualizada, questionamentos freqüentes dos alunos sobre astronomia e sua relação com tecnologia e sociedade. Encaminhamos questões como: a evolução da astronomia, suas relações com outros ramos do conhecimento humano e conseqüentes aplicações; avanços na tecnologia dos instrumentos ópticos versus a importância da observação do céu a olho nu; a relação entre olho humano, luneta e telescópio; e desenvolvimento da tecnologia espacial e sua influência em nosso cotidiano. Objetivamos com isto fazer um resgate histórico e pedagógico das aplicações e observações do céu no cenário escolar, destacando a relação entre eventos astronômicos, olho humano, instrumentos mediadores e suas contextualizações históricas e sociais. Produtos desta abordagem foram o desenvolvimento e a adaptação de práticas e materiais instrucionais diversos (e.g., "espelhos" de isopor e "raios luminosos" de bolinhas de gude; montagens envolvendo velas, lasers, lentes e espelhos; desmonte e análise de peças de um telescópio; etc.). Além disto, como outro resultado deste trabalho, elaboramos textos sobre história da astronomia e da óptica para atividades em classe. Com estas ações visamos facilitar a concretização de conceitos físicos envolvidos, exemplificar um ensino contextualizado e interdisciplinar motivado por temas astronômicos e favorecer que práticas e discussões feitas com os treinandos possam ser transpostas para a sala de aula. A reação dos professores às práticas propostas foi bastante positiva. Todos esses aspectos são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  11. Vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine in a henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Rachel U; Francis, Nick D; Basarab, Tamara; Morar, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis reaction to topical "black henna" tattoo is usually described secondary to the organic dye para-phenylenediamine, a derivative of analine. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to para-phenylenediamine are well recognized and most commonly involve an eczematous reaction that may become generalized and an acute angio-edema. Only four previous instances have been reported of an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives, including only one mild reaction to a tattoo. A vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction has not been reported. An erythema multiforme-like reaction to contact allergens is usually caused by potent allergens including plant quinolones in Compositae and sesquiterpene lactones in exotic woods, and it is also reported to topical drugs, epoxy resin, metals (particularly nickel), and various chemicals. A generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction is unusual, and rarely reported. We describe a 6-year-old boy who developed a localized, eczematous and severe generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine secondary to a henna tattoo. As henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular, one should be aware of the possibility of such a reaction. This presentation also highlights the call to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives in dyes. PMID:18429780

  12. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  13. On the Ortho:Para Ratio of H+ 3 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-03-01

    The excitation temperature T 01 derived from the relative intensities of the J = 0 (para) and J = 1 (ortho) rotational levels of H2 has been assumed to be an accurate measure of the kinetic temperature in interstellar environments. In diffuse molecular clouds, the average value of T 01 is ~70 K. However, the excitation temperature T(H+ 3) derived from the (J, K) = (1, 1) (para) and (1, 0) (ortho) rotational levels of H+ 3 has been observed to be ~30 K in the same types of environments. In this work, we present observations of H+ 3 in three additional diffuse cloud sight lines for which H2 measurements are available, showing that in four of five cases T 01 and T(H+ 3) are discrepant. We then examine the thermalization mechanisms for the ortho:para ratios of H+ 3 and H2, concluding that indeed T 01 is an accurate measure of the cloud kinetic temperature, while the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 need not be thermal. By constructing a steady-state chemical model taking into account the nuclear spin dependence of reactions involving H+ 3, we show that the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 in diffuse molecular clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination with electrons and thermalization via reactive collisions with H2. Based in part on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program ID 384.C-0618.

  14. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  15. Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, X.; Altan, H.; Saint, A.; Matten, D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor in 0.2-2.4THz range from low to high humidity at room temperature. The observed absorption lines are due to the water molecular rotations in the ground vibrational state. We find that the absorption strength of para transitions increases as humidity increases, while the absorption strength of ortho transitions increases and then decreases in intensity with increasing humidity. We explain this difference based on the nuclear spin statistics based ratio of ortho to para water monomer populations at room temperature. The preferential adsorption on the solid surfaces of para water leads to an ortho dominated vapor cloud whose monomer rotational absorption intensity decreases due to the effects of dimerization, molecular collisions, clustering, and interactions with liquid droplets at high concentrations.

  16. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

  17. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  18. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  19. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  20. Simulation Studies of the Vibrational Dynamics of para-HYDROGEN Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruk, Nabil F.; Yang, Jing; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the construction and application of reduced-dimensional potential energy surfaces for use in performing simulation of para-hydrogen clusters. Simple spherical averaging and `adiabatic-hindered-rotor' averaging treatments of the angular degrees of freedom are considered and compared. The resulting one-dimensional surface is used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of para-hydrogen clusters of varying sizes. Energetic, and structural properties are computed and compared to previously published results, and vibrational frequency shifts are predicted and compared to available experimental measurements. H. Li, P.N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 104305 (2010).

  1. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  2. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  3. [PDS cord fixation of sternoclavicular dislocation and para-articular clavicular fractures].

    PubMed

    Friedl, W; Fritz, T

    1994-05-01

    Sternoclavicular joint dislocation and para-articular fractures of the clavicle are rare injuries. Because severe complications of dorsal dislocations have often been seen and because functional impairment has often followed ventral dislocations, we treat most patients with such injuries operatively. Internal fixation with K-wires frequently leads to severe complications. We present our operation techniques with a resorbable 2 mm polydioxanon cord. This pack up technique can be used in both dislocations and para-articular fractures with no risk of implant dislocation. PMID:8052863

  4. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  5. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  6. Project UM-HAUL (UnManned Heavy pAyload Unloader and Lander): The design of a reusable lunar lander with an independent cargo unloader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project UM-Haul is the preliminary design of a reusable lunar transportation vehicle that travels between a lunar parking orbit and the lunar surface. This vehicle is an indispensible link in the overall task of establishing a lunar base as defined by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative. The response to this need consists of two independent vehicles: a lander and an unloader. The system can navigate and unload itself with a minimum amount of human intervention. The design addresses structural analysis, propulsion, power, controls, communications, payload handling and orbital operations. The Lander has the capacity to decend from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface carrying a 7000 kg payload, plus the unloader, plus propellant for ascent to LLO. The Lander employs the Unloader by way of a motorized ramp. The Unloader is a terrain vehicle capable of carrying cargoes of 8,500 kg mass and employs a lift system to lower payloads to the ground. The system can perform ten missions before requiring major servicing.

  7. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Archibald, A. T.; Maycock, A. C.; Abraham, L.; Telford, P.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine theses scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impacts of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. Under a scenario for moderate climate change (RCP4.5), we find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the tropical upward mass flux at 70hPa of 17%), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of 9%) and 4) the tropospheric ozone burden decreases by 10% given mitigation of its precursor emissions but this is offset by climate change and stratospheric ozone recovery (9% and 6% increases in the burden respectively).

  8. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  9. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. he data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. ull-sc...

  10. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of para-aminophenol ionization in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, H.; Salehabadi, H.

    2015-03-01

    Ionization of para-aminophenol was investigated using an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a corona discharge as ionization source. The experimental results were confirmed with the use of theoretical method, based on density functional theory. Two peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum in the positive ion mode which was corresponded to the protonated isomers of para-aminophenol. It was observed that the relative intensities of the peaks depend on the sample concentration and the nature of the reactant ions. The relative energies of ions derived from protonation of para-aminophenol and its topical proton affinities were determined for different sites in the gas phase. The peak with the lower drift time was assigned to the oxygen protonated isomer and the other peak was ascribed to the nitrogen protonated isomer of para-aminophenol. The calculated dipole moment and localized charge of each isomer were used to verify the ion mobility peak separation. It was shown that combination of theoretical and experimental tools leads to reliable prediction of reactive protonation sites of chemicals in a corona discharge.

  12. Synthesis and properties of para-substituted NCN-pincer palladium and platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Slagt, Martijn Q; Rodríguez, Gema; Grutters, Michiel M P; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; Klopper, Wim; Jenneskens, Leonardus W; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; van Koten, Gerard

    2004-03-19

    A variety of para-substituted NCN-pincer palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes [MX(NCN-Z)] (M=Pd(II), Pt(II); X=Cl, Br, I; NCN-Z=[2,6-(CH(2)NMe(2))(2)C(6)H(2)-4-Z](-); Z=NO(2), COOH, SO(3)H, PO(OEt)(2), PO(OH)(OEt), PO(OH)(2), CH(2)OH, SMe, NH(2)) were synthesised by routes involving substitution reactions, either prior to or, notably, after metalation of the ligand. The solubility of the pincer complexes is dominated by the nature of the para substituent Z, which renders several complexes water-soluble. The influence of the para substituent on the electronic properties of the metal centre was studied by (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Both the (195)Pt chemical shift and the calculated natural population charge on platinum correlate linearly with the sigma(p) Hammett substituent constants, and thus the electronic properties of predesigned pincer complexes can be predicted. The sigma(p) value for the para-PtI group itself was determined to be -1.18 in methanol and -0.72 in water/methanol (1/1). Complexes substituted with protic functional groups (CH(2)OH, COOH) exist as dimers in the solid state due to intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:15034878

  13. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  16. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  17. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  18. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  19. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  20. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this…

  1. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  3. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  4. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

  6. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  7. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes.

  8. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  9. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  11. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  12. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  13. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Cáncer de pene—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  17. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  18. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Cáncer de uretra—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de uretra, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  2. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  3. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  4. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety.

    PubMed

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i-6m and 8f-8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  5. Up from Apathy: Para-Professional Training for the Socially Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark J.; Wright, Bobbye S.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a program of training for young men to fill a para-professional position in the growing field of social services. The program provides training in human relations, basic skills, and on-the-job techniques. Training Technology is a quarterly supplement to Educational Technology Magazine. (GR)

  6. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  7. Construction of erythrinane skeleton via Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular dearomatization of para-aminophenols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Qi; Gu, Qing; Wu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Zhuo-An; You, Shu-Li

    2014-11-01

    A novel Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular arylative dearomatization of para-aminophenol derivatives is described. In the presence of 1.25 mol % [Pd(C3H5)Cl]2 and 3.75 mol % RuPhos, the arylative dearomatization reaction proceeds smoothly for a broad range of substrates, offering an efficient synthetic route to erythrinane derivatives in excellent yields. PMID:25308898

  8. Fabrication of multipotent poly-para-xylylene particles in controlled nanoscopic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruei-Hung; Li, Yi-Jye; Sun, Ho-Yi; Wu, Chih-Yu; Guan, Zhen-Yu; Ho, Hsin-Ying; Fang, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, poly-para-xylylene-based multifunctional nanoparticles (PPX-NPs) were fabricated. Based on the solubility characteristics determined for asymmetrically substituted poly-para-xylylenes in polar solvents, well-dispersed nanocolloids with a controllable size ranging from 50 to 800nm were produced in solution by the displacement of the solvent (water). These size ranges were found to have acceptable cellular compatibility through examinations of cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells treated with the PPX-NPs. In addition, these nanoscale PPX-NPs exhibited versatile bioconjugation properties in that a variety of available functional groups can be adopted from their counterpart, thin-film poly-para-xylylenes, during the production of these nanoparticles. For instance, bifunctional PPX-NPs with maleimide and benzoyl moieties were produced to enable immobilization via a maleimide-thiol reaction concurrent with a photochemical reaction. A cleavable PPX-NP was also produced with a thiol-exchangeable surface property. Additionally, by performing electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions of selected poly-para-xylylenes, Janus-type or multicompartment PPX-NPs were created. The PPX-NPs can potentially be used for various biomedical applications such as combined diagnostics and drug delivery, multiplexing of detection, multiple-drug loading, and the targeted delivery of biomolecules or drugs. PMID:26724467

  9. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  10. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  11. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  12. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  14. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  15. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  16. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  17. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  18. Age-related Changes in Auditory Nerve – Inner Hair Cell Connections, Hair Cell Numbers, Auditory Brain Stem Response and Gap Detection in UM-HET4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, RA; Dolan, DF; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, DC; Miller, RA; Schacht, J

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in Gap Detection, the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons, and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell – auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in Gap Detection. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in gap detection, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of gap detection or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

  19. Age-related changes in auditory nerve-inner hair cell connections, hair cell numbers, auditory brain stem response and gap detection in UM-HET4 mice.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, R A; Dolan, D F; Halsey, K; Kanicki, A; Deng, N; Martin, C; Eberle, J; Kohrman, D C; Miller, R A; Schacht, J

    2015-04-30

    This study compared the timing of appearance of three components of age-related hearing loss that determine the pattern and severity of presbycusis: the functional and structural pathologies of sensory cells and neurons and changes in gap detection (GD), the latter as an indicator of auditory temporal processing. Using UM-HET4 mice, genetically heterogeneous mice derived from four inbred strains, we studied the integrity of inner and outer hair cells by position along the cochlear spiral, inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections, spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), and determined auditory thresholds, as well as pre-pulse and gap inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Comparisons were made between mice of 5-7, 22-24 and 27-29 months of age. There was individual variability among mice in the onset and extent of age-related auditory pathology. At 22-24 months of age a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was restricted to the apical third of the cochlea and threshold shifts in the auditory brain stem response were minimal. There was also a large and significant loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve connections and a significant reduction in GD. The expression of Ntf3 in the cochlea was significantly reduced. At 27-29 months of age there was no further change in the mean number of synaptic connections per inner hair cell or in GD, but a moderate to large loss of outer hair cells was found across all cochlear turns as well as significantly increased ABR threshold shifts at 4, 12, 24 and 48 kHz. A statistical analysis of correlations on an individual animal basis revealed that neither the hair cell loss nor the ABR threshold shifts correlated with loss of GD or with the loss of connections, consistent with independent pathological mechanisms. PMID:25665752

  20. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  1. Modelling future changes in climate, ozone-depleting substances and ozone precursor emissions using the whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Antara; Maycock, Amanda; Archibald, Alexander; Telford, Paul; Abraham, Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently upgraded whole-atmosphere UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we investigate the atmospheric response to future changes in a) greenhouse gases under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios for climate change, b) ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and a recovery of the ozone layer and c) ozone precursor emissions and tropospheric oxidising capacity. In addition, we combine these scenarios in order to explore the interactions between individual perturbations. Within this framework, the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system and whole-atmosphere chemistry allows us to study the impact of changes in composition of the stratosphere on the troposphere and vice versa. We find that by the year 2100: 1) the stratosphere significantly impacts the troposphere via changes in stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) but the chemical changes induced in the troposphere do not impact the stratosphere, 2) perturbations are linearly additive with regard to the total ozone column and tropospheric odd oxygen budget, 3) while the Brewer-Dobson Circulation strengthens under climate change (with an increase in the DJF 70hPa tropical upwards mass flux of ~20% at RCP4.5 and exceeding 30% at RCP8.5), this strengthening is offset by ozone recovery (which on its own leads to a decrease in the mass flux of ~10%) and 4) tropospheric ozone decreases given mitigation of its precursor emissions (with a 10% decrease in ozone burden) but this can be offset by climate change at both RCP4.5 and 8.5 and stratospheric ozone recovery (increasing the burden by 6-13%).

  2. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  3. Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere

  4. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  5. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster. PMID:19103191

  6. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  7. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  8. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  9. Forms of Appropriation of Tools for the Astronomy Education in Continuous Training of Teachers. (Spanish Title: Formas de Apropriación de Herramientas Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Formación Docente Continua.) Formas de Apropriação de Instrumentos Para o Ensino de Astronomia na Formação Continuada de Professores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Soares, Leonardo; Sousa Nascimento, Silvania

    2012-07-01

    siete relatos. O objetivo principal desse artigo é apresentar algumas reflexões sobre a maneira como um grupo de professores se apropriaram dos instrumentos do KIT PARA O ENSINO DE ASTRONOMIA (KITPEA). Os sujeitos dessa pesquisa participaram do curso de especialização em ensino de astronomia oferecido pelo Projeto de Formação Continuada (Foco) no Centro de Ensino de Ciências e Matemática (CECIMIG) da Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). Coletamos as informações por meio de um questionário e de uma entrevista, aplicados a esses professores. Estruturamos a análise dessas informações com a ajuda da Teoria da Atividade e da Teoria da Ação Mediada. Interpretamos as falas dos professores usando como dispositivo analítico os elementos constituintes do sistema de atividade e os conceitos de apropriação e domínio. Dentre os 11 sujeitos que participaram da pesquisa, foi possível identificar a apropriação dos instrumentos em 7 narrativas.

  10. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  11. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization.

    PubMed

    Boursalian, Gregory B; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions. PMID:27442288

  12. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  13. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  14. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved. PMID:27505165

  15. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  16. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

    2013-12-01

    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

  17. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  18. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C–H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions.

  19. Repeated Topical Application of para-Phenylenediamine Induces Renal Histopathological Changes in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Basumatary, Rajeev; Rahman, Taibur; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia and rhabdomyolysis have been often reported to be an adverse effect of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity both in experimental and real-life scenario. para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a derivative of para-nitroaniline and has been found as an ingredient of almost all hair dye formulations in varying concentrations from 2% to 4% w/v. Earlier studies have reported that the accidental oral ingestion of PPD in humans can lead to acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis. In the present investigation, we have tested the chronic topical application of PPD and its effect on the renal histology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment provides clear evidence that topically applied PPD induces hemolytic anemia as evident from the decrease in the total RBC count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin content apart from rhabdomyolysis which subsequently causes acute renal failure in rats. PMID:22778510

  20. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  1. Polar Effects Control the Gas-phase Reactivity of Charged para-Benzyne Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Wittrig, Ashley M.; Archibold, Enada F.; Sheng, Huaming; Nash, John J.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2014-01-01

    The gas-phase reactivity of charged para-benzynes is entirely unexplored as they and/or their precursors tend to undergo ring-opening upon their generation. We report here a gas-phase reactivity study of two such benzynes, the 2,5-didehydropyridinium and 5,8-didehydroisoquinolinium cations, generated in a modified dual-linear quadrupole ion trap (DLQIT) mass spectrometer. Both biradicals were found to form diagnostic products with organic molecules, indicating the presence of two radical sites. As opposed to earlier predictions that the singlet-triplet (S-T) splitting controls the radical reactivity of such species, the 2,5-didehydropyridinium cation reacts much faster in spite of its larger S-T splitting. Calculated vertical electron affinities of the radical sites of the para-benzynes, a parameter related to the polarity of the transition states of their reactions, appears to be the most important reactivity controlling factor. PMID:25838787

  2. Iodine(III)-Mediated para-Selective Direct Imidation of Anilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Bergès, Julien; Sabourin, Axel; Vinck, Robin; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The direct, nucleophilic imidation of acetanilide derivatives has been performed under mild, iodine(III)-mediated or -catalyzed conditions, employing lithium triflimide as the nitrogen source. The reaction exhibits exclusive regioselectivity for the para position and shows a good tolerance for varied functional groups at both the ortho or meta positions. Preliminary mechanistic data suggest that the LiNTf2 reagent plays a key role in the reactivity. PMID:26095155

  3. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen-Cope rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng; Zhang, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4'-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4'-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen-Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  4. Conformerism, enantiomorphism and double catemer motifs in para-substituted nostoclide analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Valero Antolinez, Isabel; de Souza Corrêa, Rodrigo; Martins, Felipe Terra; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We have here elucidated the crystal structures of five nostoclide analogues. A common feature in all compounds is a substituent at the para-position of the benzylidene group. Compounds with either bromine (3) or hydroxyl (4) as para-substituent crystallizes with Z' = 2 as result of conformerism. It was also observed that Z' > 1 in the compound with a para-dimethylamino substituent (1). However, its four crystallographically independent molecules are conformationally similar. They are not related by crystallographic symmetry due to the offset packing of their C-H … Odbnd C nonclassical hydrogen bonded double chains. This compound (1) has also crystallized in a chiral space group (P21) despite the lack of a stereocenter. Such enantiomorphism phenomenon is related to the presence of only one of the two mirror benzyl conformations with phenyl ring at the equatorial position opposite the lactone oxygen atom. The molecular mean plane of nostoclide analogues has been featured by high level of planarity, except in the brominated compound where two twisted conformations occurred due to rotations on the single bond axis into benzylidene group. The benzyl conformation has been the greatest difference between the two crystallographically independent molecules of the para-hydroxylated compound (4). The crystal packing of the compounds is marked by double catemer motif assembled through C-H … Odbnd C non-classical hydrogen bonds, although C-H … π interactions do play an important role in stabilizing the crystal packing of some compounds of the series.

  5. Highly regioselective para-methylthiolation/bridging methylenation of arylamines promoted by NH4I.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinfeng; Cong, Tiantian; Liu, Ping; Sun, Peipei

    2015-10-14

    Aryl methyl thioethers and methylene-bridged arylamines were synthesized via highly regioselective para-methylthiolation/bridging methylenation of arylamines using DMSO as the methylthio or methylene source in the presence of NH4I under metal-free conditions. For the substrates with both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents, the reaction proceeded smoothly and gave moderate to good yields. PMID:26337143

  6. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in CO2-pumped para-H2

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.

    1983-09-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300 K multipass cell filled with para-H2 with a single-mode CO2 pump laser was studied using a single-mode OPO as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the So(0) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. For an incident CO2 pump laser energy of 1.5 J, a photon conversion efficiency of 47 percent is observed.

  7. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

    2006-06-09

    This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

  8. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  9. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas

  10. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

    2004-04-29

    We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

  11. Stable self-trapping and ring formation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ewan M.; Lawrence, Brian L.; Torruellas, William; Stegeman, George

    1995-12-01

    Numerical simulations of two-dimensional beam propagation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate measured values for n2>0 and n3<0 , where Delta n=n2I+n 3I2 , predict stable self-trapping and a new phenomenon in which a spatial ring evolves from a Gaussian input beam. We interpret the numerical results theoretically, using the variational model of nonlinear Gaussian beam propagation.

  12. Towards physical interpretation of substituent effects: the case of meta- and para-substituted anilines.

    PubMed

    Szatylowicz, Halina; Siodla, Tomasz; Stasyuk, Olga A; Krygowski, Tadeusz M

    2016-04-28

    Quantum chemical modeling was used to investigate the electron-donating properties of the amino group in a series of meta- and para-X-substituted anilines (X = NMe2, NH2, OH, OMe, CH3, H, F, Cl, CF3, CN, CHO, COMe, CONH2, COOH, NO2, and NO). Different methods (HF, B3LYP, and M06-2X) and basis sets (6-31+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p), and aug-cc-pVDZ) were applied and compared with the MP2 approach. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method was chosen as the most appropriate one. The substituent properties were described by σ, cSAR(X) and SESE descriptors; the amino group was characterized by structural (dCN, dNH and ΣNH2) and electronic [δ(N) and cSAR(NH2)] parameters; whereas the transmitting moiety was characterized by aromaticity indices HOMA and NICS, as well as by QTAIM characteristics at the ring critical point. All the used parameters were found to be mutually interrelated with much better correlations for the para-derivatives than the meta-derivatives. It was numerically confirmed that sensitivity of the amino group to the substituent effect was greater by over three times when the substituent was located in the para-position. In the case of the meta-derivatives, variability of characteristics for both the reaction center and the substituent was small. The reverse substituent effect was clearly shown by comparison of the cSAR(X) characteristics for monosubstituted benzenes, and meta- and para-substituted anilines. PMID:26725941

  13. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

  14. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  15. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of symmetric and asymmetric para-disubstituted benzene molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejeva, Anna; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William D.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    We give a description of the phenyl-ring-localized vibrational modes of the ground states of the para-disubstituted benzene molecules including both symmetric and asymmetric cases. In line with others, we quickly conclude that the use of Wilson mode labels is misleading and ambiguous; we conclude the same regarding the related ones of Varsányi. Instead we label the modes consistently based upon the Mulliken (Herzberg) method for the modes of para-difluorobenzene (pDFB). Since we wish the labelling scheme to cover both symmetrically- and asymmetrically-substituted molecules, we apply the Mulliken labelling under C2v symmetry. By studying the variation of the vibrational wavenumbers with mass of the substituent, we are able to identify the corresponding modes across a wide range of molecules and hence provide consistent assignments. Particularly interesting are pairs of vibrations that evolve from in- and out-of-phase motions in pDFB to more localized modes in asymmetric molecules. We consider the para isomers of the following: the symmetric dihalobenzenes, xylene, hydroquinone, the asymmetric dihalobenzenes, halotoluenes, halophenols and cresol.

  16. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  17. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  18. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  19. ParaGard gets mixed reviews at one-year anniversary.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    IUDs fill a need for reliable convenient contraceptives in multiparous, monogamous women who have no history of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, or sexually transmitted disease, and who are primarily interested in birth spacing or who have completed their family and do not opt for sterilization. The only IUDs currently available in the US are Progestasert, a progestin-releasing device that must be replaced after 1 year, and ParaGard, a copper-bearing device manufactured by GynoPharma, that can be left in place for up to 4 years. IUD use has declined in the US because of adverse publicity and lawsuits. Both IUDs have problems with insertion. There is an incidence of 1.8 cervical lacerations for every 100 insertions, and the ParaGard inserter is likely to drop to the floor if the clinician fails to use the thumb ring, which is designed to keep it from doing so. ParaGard is accompanied by a 5-page consent form to protect the manufacturer, which deters many women. Prophylactic administration of antibiotics before insertion is recommended, and some clinicians recommend ibuprofen to prevent inflammation. Both IUDs cost about $80. PMID:12282179

  20. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  1. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  2. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  3. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.3 nm, 1.3 ± 0.2 nm, and 1.1 ± 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species. PMID:27242019

  4. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

  5. Single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites grown on KCl(100).

    PubMed

    Haber, T; Oehzelt, M; Resel, R; Andreev, A; Thierry, A; Sitter, H; Smilgies, D M; Schaffer, B; Grogger, W; Resel, R

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on studies of the single crystal nature of para-sexiphenyl structures grown on freshly cleaved KCl(100) surfaces. Two different kinds of morphologies, namely terrace like structures and needle like structures, are found by atomic force microscopy as well as by electron microscopy. Regardless of the morphology the individual crystallites show highly regular shapes. The crystalline alignment and the degree of order of the crystallites on the surface are determined by X-ray diffraction. Several epitaxial alignments of para-sexiphenyl on KCl(100) are observed and all of them are perfectly aligned on the surface. The rocking curve widths of the organic crystallites do not exceed 800" which is approximately only the four fold of the substrates' ones. The single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites is proven by transmission electron microscopy, diffraction patterns, dark field imaging and high resolution techniques. Single crystalline terraced mounds reach diameters of several microns and heights of 50 nm. Single crystal needles show heights and breadths of more than 100 nm and lengths of several microns. PMID:16573123

  6. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of Vibrational Frequency Shifts of CO in Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Stimulated by Fajardo's remarkable study of the rovibrational spectra of CO isotopologues trapped in solid para-hydrogen, we have performed quantum Monte Carlo simulations to predict his observed vibrational frequency shifts and inertial rotational constants using 2-body potentials based on the best available models for the pH_2-pH_2 and CO-pH_2, potential energy functions. We started by fitting an analytic `Morse/Long-Range' (MLR) function to the 1D ``adiabaic hindered rotor" version of Hinde's 5D pH_2-pH_2 potential developed by Faruk et al. We then modified it to take account of many-body effects by scaling it until it yielded the correct equilibrium lattice parameters for the fcc and hcp structures of pure solid para-hydrogen. A CO molecule was then placed at different interstitial or substitution sites in large equilibrated fcc or hcp para-hydrogen lattices, and the structural and dynamical behaviors of the micro-solvation environment around CO were simulated with a PIMC algorithm using a 2D effective pH_2-CO potential based on the 5D H_2--CO potential energy surface recently reported by Li et al., with a lattice sum of values of the 2D CO vibrational difference potential being use to predict the vibrational frequency shift. The effective rotational constants Beff for CO in different solid para-hydrogen structures were also calculated and compared with the experimental observations and with predicted Beff values for CO in large-sized para-hydrogen--CO clusters. M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). R. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys., 128, 154308 (2008). H. Li, X-L. Zhang, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164315 (2013). R.J. Le Roy, C.C. Haugen, J. Tao and Hui Li, Mol. Phys., 109, 435 (2011) N. Faruk, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted December 2013). Y. Mizumoto and Y. Ohtsuki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 501, 304 (2011).

  8. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

  9. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  10. Charge-transfer complexation and photoreduction of viologen derivatives bearing the para-substituted benzophenone group in dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Chiho; Nambu, Yoko; Endo, Takeshi

    1992-08-20

    New viologen derivatives having the various para-substituted benzophenone groups connected with a -(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}-linkage were effectively photoreduced by dimethyl sulfoxide by the intramolecular charge transfer complex formation between the viologen and benzophenone groups through effective stacking. The photoreduction was enhanced by the introduction of electron-donating para-substituents on the benzophenone units which were favorable for the intramolecular charge transfer complexation. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Catabolic para-Nitrophenol 4-Monooxygenase and para-Benzoquinone Reductase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Xian-En; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M. J. Moonen, N. M. Kamerbeek, A. H. Westphal, S. A. Boeren, D. B. Janssen, M. W. Fraaije, and W. J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190:5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked. PMID:19218392

  13. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paraná. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educación básica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por más cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bóveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educación en astronomía. El trabajo que aquí se presenta propone la presentación de los resultados de la observación del movimiento aparente del sol a través de la marcación de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una división de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paraná. El proyecto en sí se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo

  14. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W.; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 +/- 0.3 nm, 1.3 +/- 0.2 nm, and 1.1 +/- 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species.Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent

  15. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  16. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  17. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-01-01

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene. Images PMID:7912436

  18. Improvement of DNA minicircle production by optimization of the secondary structure of the 5'-UTR of ParA resolvase.

    PubMed

    Šimčíková, Michaela; Alves, Cláudia P A; Brito, Liliana; Prather, Kristala L J; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2016-08-01

    The use of minicircles in gene therapy applications is dependent on the availability of high-producer cell systems. In order to improve the performance of minicircle production in Escherichia coli by ParA resolvase-mediated in vivo recombination, we focus on the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of parA messenger RNA (mRNA). The arabinose-inducible PBAD/araC promoter controls ParA expression and strains with improved arabinose uptake are used. The 27-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of parA mRNA was optimized using a predictive thermodynamic model. An analysis of original and optimized mRNA subsequences predicted a decrease of 8.6-14.9 kcal/mol in the change in Gibbs free energy upon assembly of the 30S ribosome complex with the mRNA subsequences, indicating a more stable mRNA-rRNA complex and enabling a higher (48-817-fold) translation initiation rate. No effect of the 5'-UTR was detected when ParA was expressed from a low-copy number plasmid (∼14 copies/cell), with full recombination obtained within 2 h. However, when the parA gene was inserted in the bacterial chromosome, a faster and more effective recombination was obtained with the optimized 5'-UTR. Interestingly, the amount of this transcript was 2.6-3-fold higher when compared with the transcript generated from the original sequence, highlighting that 5'-UTR affects the level of the transcript. A Western blot analysis confirmed that E. coli synthesized higher amounts of ParA with the new 5'-UTR (∼1.8 ± 0.7-fold). Overall, these results show that the improvements made in the 5'-UTR can lead to a more efficient translation and hence to faster and more efficient minicircle generation. PMID:27147534

  19. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  20. A centroid molecular dynamics study of liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium.

    PubMed

    Hone, Tyler D; Voth, Gregory A

    2004-10-01

    Centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) is applied to the study of collective and single-particle dynamics in liquid para-hydrogen at two state points and liquid ortho-deuterium at one state point. The CMD results are compared with the results of classical molecular dynamics, quantum mode coupling theory, a maximum entropy analytic continuation approach, pair-product forward- backward semiclassical dynamics, and available experimental results. The self-diffusion constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements for all systems studied. Furthermore, it is shown that the method is able to adequately describe both the single-particle and collective dynamics of quantum liquids. PMID:15446940

  1. Various Spectrum of MRI Findings in Articular and Para-articular Tuberculosis: Pictorial Assay.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Hiten; Chiripal, Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis continues to be a health-related issue in India. Musculoskeletal tuberculosis is noted to occur dramatically as isolates, primarily accounting for large numbers of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis since early diagnosis is always a priority; with good prognosis, it is a curable disease. Delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity. Musculoskeletal tuberculosis accounts for a large number of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. In this article, we describe various articular and para-articular MRI spectrum findings that are seen in patients with tuberculosis. MRI is the perfect modality to study the extent of involvement and its related complications. PMID:26730089

  2. Unprecedented new nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate isolated from Erythrina excelsa and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kwamou, Guy M N; Sandjo, Louis P; Kuete, Victor; Wandja, Anaelle A K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Efferth, Thomas; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2015-01-01

    A new unprecedented cinnamate derivative (1) was obtained from Erythrina excelsa (Leguminosae) and identified as nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate. This compound was isolated together with three known compounds, namely lupeol (2), mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol (3), and isoneorautenol (4). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data in conjunction with those reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for its capability of inhibiting cancer cell lines and growth of a panel of microbial strains. It turned out that 1 is moderately to significantly cytotoxic against six cancer cell lines and shows weak to no antimicrobial activity. PMID:25220189

  3. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in CO/sub 2/ - pumped para - H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.

    1983-09-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300 K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/ pump laser was studied using a single-mode OPO as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/ (0) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. For an incident CO/sub 2/ pump laser energy of 1.5 J, a photon conversion efficiency of 47 percent is observed.

  4. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. PMID:25469476

  5. Three-dimensional treatment planning for para-aortic node irradiation in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munzenrider, J.E.; Doppke, K.P.; Brown, A.P.; Burman, C.; Cheng, E.; Chu, J.; Chui, C.; Drzymala, R.E.; Goitein, M.; Manolis, J.M. )

    1991-05-15

    Three-dimensional treatment planning has been used by four cooperating centers to prepare and analyze multiple treatment plans on two cervix cancer patients. One patient had biopsy-proven and CT-demonstrable metastasis to the para-aortic nodes, while the other was at high risk for metastatic involvement of para-aortic nodes. Volume dose distributions were analyzed, and an attempt was made to define the role of 3-D treatment planning to the para-aortic region, where moderate to high doses (50-66 Gy) are required to sterilize microscopic and gross metastasis. Plans were prepared using the 3-D capabilities for tailoring fields to the target volumes, but using standard field arrangements (3-D standard), and with full utilization of the 3-D capabilities (3-D unconstrained). In some but not all 3-D unconstrained plans, higher doses were delivered to the large nodal volume and to the volume containing gross nodal disease than in plans analyzed but not prepared with full 3-D capability (3-D standard). The small bowel was the major dose limiting organ. Its tolerance would have been exceeded in all plans which prescribed 66 Gy to the gross nodal mass, although some reduction in small bowel near-maximum dose was achieved in the 3-D unconstrained plans. All plans were able to limit doses to other normal organs to tolerance levels or less, with significant reductions seen in doses to spinal cord, kidneys, and large bowel in the 3-D unconstrained plans, as compared to the 3-D standard plans. A high probability of small bowel injury was detected in one of four 3-D standard plans prescribed to receive 50 Gy to the large para-aortic nodal volume; the small bowel dose was reduced to an acceptable level in the corresponding 3-D unconstrained plan. An optimum beam energy for treating this site was not identified, with plans using 4, 6, 10, 15, 18, and 25 MV photons all being equally acceptable. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  7. ParaHox gene expression in larval and postlarval development of the polychaete Nereis virens (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Kulakova, Milana A; Cook, Charles E; Andreeva, Tatiana F

    2008-01-01

    Background Transcription factors that encode ANTP-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in determining the body plan organization and specification of different organs and tissues in bilaterian animals. The three-gene ParaHox family descends from an ancestral gene cluster that existed before the evolution of the Bilateria. All three ParaHox genes are reported from deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but not to date from any ecdysozoan taxa, and there is evidence that the ParaHox genes, like the related Hox genes, were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. However, unlike the Hox genes, there is as yet no strong evidence that the ParaHox genes are expressed in spatial and temporal order during embryogenesis. Results We isolated fragments of the three Nereis virens ParaHox genes, then used these as probes for whole-mount in situ hybridization in larval and postlarval worms. In Nereis virens the ParaHox genes participate in antero-posterior patterning of ectodermal and endodermal regions of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells in the segment ganglia. The expression of these genes occurs in larval development in accordance with the position of these cells along the main body axis and in postlarval development in accordance with the position of cells in ganglia along the antero-posterior axis of each segment. In none of these tissues does expression of the three ParaHox genes follow the rule of temporal collinearity. Conclusion In Nereis virens the ParaHox genes are expressed during antero-posterior patterning of the digestive system (ectodermal foregut and hindgut, and endodermal midgut) of Nereis virens. These genes are also expressed during axial specification of ventral neuroectodermal cell domains, where the expression domains of each gene are re-iterated in each neuromere except for the first parapodial segment. These expression domains are probably predetermined and may be directed on the antero-posterior axis by the Hox genes, whose

  8. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  9. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  10. Determination of the ortho to para ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from submillimeter observations.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G; Roueff, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O(+), H2Cl(+), and HCl(+), which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O(+) and H2Cl(+), in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) ortho-to-para ratios. PMID:23869910

  11. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  12. Semantics-based distributed I/O with the ParaMEDIC framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Lin, H.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; North Carolina State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Many large-scale applications simultaneously rely on multiple resources for efficient execution. For example, such applications may require both large compute and storage resources; however, very few supercomputing centers can provide large quantities of both. Thus, data generated at the compute site oftentimes has to be moved to a remote storage site for either storage or visualization and analysis. Clearly, this is not an efficient model, especially when the two sites are distributed over a wide-area network. Thus, we present a framework called 'ParaMEDIC: Parallel Metadata Environment for Distributed I/O and Computing' which uses application-specific semantic information to convert the generated data to orders-of-magnitude smaller metadata at the compute site, transfer the metadata to the storage site, and re-process the metadata at the storage site to regenerate the output. Specifically, ParaMEDIC trades a small amount of additional computation (in the form of data post-processing) for a potentially significant reduction in data that needs to be transferred in distributed environments.

  13. Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

  14. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  15. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Para-Articular Osteochondroma: A Ten-Year Follow-up and Review

    PubMed Central

    Bombaci, Hasan; Bilgin, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Para-articular masses are not clear enough in terms of their etiology and nomenclature. Although surgical removal of the mass is the preferred treatment, long term follow-up after surgical treatment has not been reported yet. The current study presents a patient with the osteo-cartilaginous mass of infrapatellar region, diagnosed after a trauma. This case has the longest follow-up period in the literature. Case Presentation: A 52-year-old female patient referred after falling down on her right knee. Lateral radiographs of the knee revealed a mass in the infrapatellar area. The case was treated surgically by total excision of the mass. The mass was extra-capsular with lobular and irregular shape. After mass removal the clinical course was uneventful and at the 10-year follow-up, no signs of recurrence were evident clinically or radiologically. Conclusions: Tumor-like lesions within the infrapatellar fat pad should remind the para-articular osteochondroma. Although its etiology has not yet been elicited, operative removal of the mass is the preferred treatment of choice and also curative in long-term follow-up. PMID:26566510

  16. A non-equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio of water in the Orion PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Plume, R.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2O is thought to be sensitive to the temperature of water formation. The OPR of H2O is thus useful for studying the formation mechanism of water. Aims: We investigate the OPR of water in the Orion PDR (photon-dominated region), at the Orion Bar and Orion S positions, using data from Herschel/HIFI. Methods: We detect the ground-state lines of ortho- and para-H218O in the Orion Bar and Orion S and estimate the column densities using local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE methods. Results: Based on our calculations, the OPR in the Orion Bar is 0.1-0.5, which is unexpectedly low given the gas temperature of ~85 K, and also lower than the values measured for other interstellar clouds and protoplanetary disks. Toward Orion S, our OPR estimate is below 2. Conclusions: This low OPR at 2 positions in the Orion PDR is inconsistent with gas phase formation and with thermal evaporation from dust grains, but it may be explained by photodesorption. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. O-Methylation of Chlorinated para-Hydroquinones by Rhodococcus chlorophenolicus

    PubMed Central

    Häggblom, Max M.; Apajalahti, Juha H. A.; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S.

    1988-01-01

    Rhodococcus chlorophenolicus PCP-I, a degrader of polychlorinated phenols, guaiacols (2-methoxyphenols), and syringols (2,6-dimethoxyphenols), was shown to O-methylate the degradation intermediate, a chlorinated para-hydroquinone, into 4-methoxyphenol. O-methylation was constitutively expressed, whereas the degradation of chlorophenols and chlorohydroquinones was inducible in R. chlorophenolicus. The O-methylating reaction required two hydroxyl groups in positions para to each other. R. chlorophenolicus selectively methylated the hydroxyl group flanked by two chlorine substituents. Tetrachlorohydroquinone, trichlorohydroquinone, and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone were methylated into tetrachloro-4-methoxyphenol, 2,3,5-trichloro-4-methoxyphenol, and 3,5-dichloro-4-methoxyphenol, respectively. Chlorohydroquinones with only one chlorine adjacent to a hydroxyl group were methylated only in trace amounts, and no metabolite was formed from hydroquinone. The degradation intermediates formed in hydroxylation of tetrachloroguaiacol and trichlorosyringol by R. chlorophenolicus were O-methylated into two isomeric trichlorodimethoxyphenols and two isomeric dichlorotrimethoxyphenols, respectively. R. chlorophenolicus also degraded the polychlorinated methylation products (tetrachlorinated and trichlorinated 4-methoxyphenols), but not mono- and dichlorinated 4-methoxyphenols. PMID:16347691

  18. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  19. Resonances in the reaction ortho- and para- D2 + H at temperatures below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, I.; Côté, R.

    2016-05-01

    In a previous study we reported cross sections for the reaction H2 + D in the temperature regime 10-6 < T < 10 K, and found pronounced shape resonances, especially in the p and d partial waves. We found that the resonant structures were sensitive to the initial rovibrational state of H2; in particular, we showed that the effect of the nuclear-spin symmetry was very important, since ortho- and para- H2 gave significantly different results. We now investigate the reaction D2 + H for vibrationally excited ortho- and para- D2, and compare and contrast these results with those for H2 + D. We remark that this benchmark system is a prototypical example of reactions with a strong barrier, which have very small cross sections in the cold and ultracold regimes. However, shape resonances can enhance the reaction cross sections by orders of magnitude for temperatures around and below T = 1 K. Moreover, resonant features would provide stringent tests for quantum chemistry calculations of potential energy surfaces. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0213).

  20. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics. PMID:25105858

  1. Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Holmes, Dawn E; Zhang, Tian

    2015-10-01

    Two pathways for para-cresol (p-cresol) degradation by anaerobic bacteria have been elucidated; one involves fumarate addition at the methyl group of p-cresol by a hydroxylbenzylsuccinate synthase protein while the other utilizes a methylhydroxylase protein (PCMH) to catalyze hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol. In Geobacter metallireducens, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that p-cresol is degraded via the methylhydroxylation pathway. However, prior to this study these results had not been confirmed by genetic analyses. In this work, the gene coding for benzylsuccinate-CoA dehydrogenase (bbsG), an enzyme required for toluene degradation by G. metallireducens that is homologous to the p-hydroxybenzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in p-cresol degradation by Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 via fumarate addition, and the gene encoding the alpha prime subunit of PCMH (pcmI), were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. The absence of a functional PcmI protein completely inhibited p-cresol degradation, while deletion of the bbsG gene had little impact. These results further support the observation that G. metallireducens utilizes a PCMH-initiated pathway for p-cresol degradation. PMID:26316547

  2. Projeto educação em ciências com observatórios virtuais: a participação da Escola Moppe no período 2000-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, C. A.; Gavioli, E.; Oliveira, A. L. P. R. S.; da Silva, C.; Cardoso, H. P.; Estácio, S.

    2003-08-01

    O projeto Educação em Ciências com Observatórios Virtuais foi concebido pelo Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico da USP, agregando diversas instituições de ensino e pesquisa no país para desenvolver competências diversas na educação fundamental, média e superior utilizando a astronomia como ferramenta multidisciplinar. Este trabalho descreve a participação da MOPPE, escola-piloto do INPE no projeto, no período de 2000-2003. Serão apresentadas 1) a criação de um clube de ciências (1999 a 2001) cujo tema foi a colonização de Marte e 2) a ementa de astronomia trabalhada com as 7a. e 8a. séries do ensino fundamental. A proposta do projeto Colonizando Marte foi estudar diversos aspectos de uma missão interplanetária e construir experiementos que permitissem quantificar esses aspectos. Os resultados obtidos incluiram apresentações nas SBPC Jovem em 2000 e 2001. Discutiremos também as ementas de astronomia trabalhadas desde 2001 e o envolvimento dos alunos com atividades ligadas a astronomia, fora da aula de ciências. A inclusão de astronomia no currículo das últimas séries motivou a participação de mais alunos culminando com a conquista de duas medalhas para alunos da 7a. série na Olimpiada Brasileira de Astronomia em 2002. Houve também um aumento no número de participantes na OBA 2003 e nos projetos de astronomia mais elaborados nas Feira de Ciências de 2001 e 2002. Destacamos em 2003 a inclusão da MOPPE no projeto TIE - Telescopes in Education - da NASA, que utiliza o telescópio do Observatório de Mount Wilson (EUA) para observações remotas em projetos pedagógicos para o ensino de astronomia.

  3. Computational studies of the regioselectivities of COMT-catalyzed meta-/para-O methylations of luteolin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Hui-Di; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2014-01-16

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) plays a central role in the inactivation of neurotransmitters sharing a catecholic motif by transferring a methyl group from AdoMet. Methylation of the meta-hydroxyl is much more common than that of the para-hydroxyl in many COMT substrates, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Our experimental data showed that quercetin preferred meta-methylation but luteolin favored a para-methylation. To elucidate the mechanism for different preferences of methylations of quercetin and luteolin, we performed a theoretical investigation on the different regioseletivities of COMT-catalyzed methylations for quercetin and luteolin by a combined approach of MD simulations, ab initio calculations, and QM/MM computations. The ab initio calculation results showed that both quercetin and luteolin have more negative charge distributions on the meta-O atom than the para-O atom, which indicated that meta-O preferred SN2 reaction for their methylation. Our QM/MM computations also confirmed that these two flavonoids have lower reaction energetic barriers for COMT-catalyzed meta-O-methylation than para-O-methylation. On the other hand, our binding free energy computation results indicated that quercetin has a more stable binding mode for meta-O-methylation than para-O-methylation but luteolin has a more stable binding mode for para-O-methylation than meta-O-methylation. We gave a comprehensive explanation considering both thermodynamics and reaction kinetics aspects and discussed the protein-inhibitor interactions as well as the O-methylation mechanism in our present work. PMID:24354565

  4. Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Dominique; Mazet, Françoise; Berney, Cédric; Schummer, Michèl; Kreger, Sylvia; Pawlowski, Jan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 have diploblastic homologs, Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, NK-2, and Prh/Hex, Not, and Dlx, reported here. Among the Hox/paraHox, poriferan sequences were not found, and the cnidarian sequences formed at least five distinct cnox families. Two are significantly related to the paraHox Gsx (cnox-2) and the mox (cnox-5) sequences, whereas three display some relatedness to the Hox paralog groups 1 (cnox-1), 9/10 (cnox-3) and the paraHox cdx (cnox-4). Intermediate Hox/paraHox genes (PG 3 to 8 and lox) did not have clear cnidarian counterparts. In Hydra, cnox-1, cnox-2, and cnox-3 were not found chromosomally linked within a 150-kb range and displayed specific expression patterns in the adult head. During regeneration, cnox-1 was expressed as an early gene whatever the polarity, whereas cnox-2 was up-regulated later during head but not foot regeneration. Finally, cnox-3 expression was reestablished in the adult head once it was fully formed. These results suggest that the Hydra genes related to anterior Hox/paraHox genes are involved at different stages of apical differentiation. However, the positional information defining the oral/aboral axis in Hydra cannot be correlated strictly to that characterizing the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates or arthropods. PMID:10781050

  5. Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

  6. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  7. Experimental verification of equilibrium para-hydrogen levels in hydrogen moderators irradiated by spallation neutrons at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Takada, H.; Futakawa, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    By sampling gaseous hydrogen from a circulating liquid hydrogen loop for Laser Raman spectroscopy, we measured the para-/ortho-hydrogen fractions in liquid hydrogen under neutron irradiation for the first time to identify whether irradiated hydrogen has an elevated ortho-hydrogen fraction. This measurement indicates that para-hydrogen equilibrium persists at 300 kW proton power in the presence of an iron(III) oxide hydroxide [Fe(OH)3] catalyst. The measurements will be repeated as the power at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) increases to the MW level.

  8. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Liese-Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. The successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  9. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  10. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear picture of the fate of polychlorinated

  11. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  12. Statistical ortho-to-para ratio of water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The anomalously low ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) exhibited by gaseous water in space have been used to determine the formation temperature (<50 kelvin) of ice on cold interstellar dust. This approach assumes that the OPR of water desorbed from ice is related to the ice formation temperature on the dust. However, we report that water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin shows a statistical high-temperature OPR of 3, even when the ice is produced in situ by hydrogenation of O2, a known formation process of interstellar water. This invalidates the assumed relation between OPR and temperature. The necessary reinterpretation of the low OPRs will help elucidate the chemical history of interstellar water from molecular clouds and processes in the early solar system, including comet formation.

  13. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  14. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  16. Surface treatment of para-aramid fiber by argon dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruxi; Yu, Junrong; Hu, Chengcheng; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Hu, Zuming

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on influence of argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the adhesive performance and wettability of para-aramid fibers and three parameters including treated power, exposure time and argon flux were detected. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was greatly increased by 28% with 300 W, 60 s, 2 L min-1 argon flux plasma treatment. The content of oxygen atom and oxygen-containing polar functional groups were enhanced after the argon plasma treated, so as the surface roughness, which contributed to the improvement of surface wettability and the decrease of contact angle with water. However, long-time exposure, exorbitant power or overlarge argon flux could partly destroy the prior effects of the treatment and damage the mechanical properties of fibers to some degree.

  17. Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2009-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  18. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  19. Study and manufacture of a para-/ortho-hydrogen catalytic converter for a space cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baston, A. H.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Butler, G.; Clark, N. S.; Chadwick, A. T.; Harris, D. H. C.; Leach, F.; Norris, J. O. W.; Price, D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and optimization of a para-/ortho-hydrogen converter to increase the efficiency and lifetime of the hydrogen cryogenic system of the ISO project are described. Catalyst technology and associated heat transfer technology is evaluated. Four catalyst systems were characterized. Their catalytic activity under the orbital conditions anticipated for the three radiation shields of ISO are reported. Results from experiments on in situ deactivation and reactivation are given, indicating that this is a key parameter. Iron oxide gel is the most promising catalyst system. A full scale prototype converter was designed to ESTEC specifications, and three converters were manufactured and tested. Performance, except for two small details, meets or exceeds specification. Plans for the development and testing of flight unit converters are proposed.

  20. Beard dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine use in Arabic men.

    PubMed

    Hsu, T S; Davis, M D; el-Azhary, R; Corbett, J F; Gibson, L E

    2001-05-01

    The most common active ingredient in hair coloring is para-phenylenediamine (PPDA), which can produce contact dermatitis, particularly in persons who dye their scalp hair and in hairdressers. We have identified another group of patients also at risk, namely men from Arab countries, who commonly grow beards and dye them. We searched the computerized patient database at the Mayo Clinic for patients with beard dermatitis associated with dye use. Eight Arabic men presented to the Mayo Clinic between 1994 and 1999 with beard dermatitis and a positive patch test to PPDA. The lesions were described as pruritic, erythematous, papular eruptions that developed in the jaw area after each application of beard dye. The symptoms subsided after the patients discontinued use of the PPDA-containing dye and received treatment with topical corticosteroids. Allergic contact dermatitis in the beard area due to PPDA occurs in Arabic men as a result of their propensity to dye their beards. PMID:11312440

  1. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  2. Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  3. A Very Rare Cause of a Relapsing Para-Oesophageal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wespi, Simon Peter; Frei, Remus; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is uncommon and most often accompanied by involvement of more distal parts. Its presentation is mostly non-specific, and therefore a diagnosis, especially in isolated oesophageal disease, is difficult. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient who was referred to our gastroenterology department because of a para-oesophageal abscess. Under antibiotic treatment the abscess healed, but despite great diagnostic efforts, its aetiology remained unclear. Three years later the patient was hospitalized again because of an abscess at the same site. Endoscopy showed disseminated ulcerations of the lower oesophagus, raising suspicion of CD. After excluding other possible causes, we made the diagnosis of isolated CD of the oesophagus. We review the available literature on this topic and discuss the clinical presentation, symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histology as well as treatment of oesophageal CD. PMID:27403115

  4. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  5. Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations. PMID:23713712

  6. Conformational study of a single molecule of poly para phenylene ethynylenes in dilute solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, Sabina; Pierce, Flint; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2011-06-01

    The conformation of single molecules of dialkyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs), electro-active polymers, is studied in solutions using molecular dynamics simulations. The conformation of conjugated polymers affects their electro-optical properties and therefore is critical to their current and potential uses, though only limited theoretical knowledge is available regarding the factors that control their configuration. The present study investigates the affects of molecular parameters including molecular weight of the polymer and chemical structure of the side chains of PPEs in different solvents on the conformation of the polymers. The PPEs are modeled atomistically where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. The study finds that PPEs assume extended configuration which is affected by the length of the polymer backbone and the nature and length of substituting side chains. While the polymer remains extended, local dynamics is retained and no long range correlations are observed within the backbone. The results are compared with scattering experiments.

  7. Single strand dna breaks in human lymphocytes exposed to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chye, Soi Mei; Hseu, You Cheng; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Hui; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2008-01-01

    Para-Phenylenediamine (PPD), the main aromatic amines used in the hair dye formation, and its four derivatives (2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, 4-chloro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine) were examined for their potential to produce single strand DNA breaks in human lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. Results revealed that all the tested chemicals within the range of doses from 100 microM to 500 microM showed the genotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner after the incubation of lymphocytes with these chemicals for 2 h. In this study, we first reported that PPD and its four derivatives can elicit the type of single strand breaks in human lymphocytes. PMID:18058049

  8. Properties of single crystal para-terphenyl as medium for high resolution TOF detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Pizzigoni, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the last years organic scintillators have been largely investigated in order to achieve high light yield together with good time response. Pure organic compound with high quality crystalline structure can achieve both this goals. Among a large type of organic compound, para-terphenyl (C18H14) have proven to have practical applications as detector medium for particle physics. In this work, the characterization of different sizes high quality mono-crystal p-terphenyl samples is presented. The optical and scintillation properties (emission spectrum, light yield, attenuation length, and decay time) are investigated. Coupling a Silicon PhotoMultiplier-based readout system to the crystal, a small prototype for a high resolution TOF detector was built; the preliminary results, obtained on a 20×30×3 mm3 sample, with dual-side read-out (Hamamatsu S10931-050P SiPMs) and irradiated with 90Sr source, show a time resolution of 35 ps.

  9. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho–para conversion

    PubMed Central

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)–para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o–p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o–p conversion. PMID:26587262

  10. Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2 years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. PMID:24862413

  11. Development of a para-orthohydrogen catalytic converter for a solid hydrogen cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nast, T. C.; Hsu, I. C.

    1984-01-01

    Design features of a tested catalytic converter for altering vented cryogenic parahydrogen used as a coolant on spacecraft into a para-ortho equilibrium for channeling to other cooling functions are described. The hydrogen is expected to be stored in either liquid or solid form. A high surface area Ni-on-Si catalyst was selected for tests at an operating pressure of 2 torr at a ratio of 1000 gr catalyst for a gr/sec hydrogen flow. Cylindrical and radial flow geometries were tried and measurements centered on the converter efficiencies at different operating temperatures when the converter was placed in the vent line of the H2 cooler. Efficiencies ranging from 10-100 percent were obtained for varying flow rates. Further testing is necessary to characterize the converter performance under a wider range of operating temperatures and environments.

  12. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  13. Surface Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen Ortho-Para Conversion on Amorphous Solid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Naoki; Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The surface temperature dependence of the ortho-to-para conversion of H2 on amorphous solid water is first reported. A combination of photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques allowed us to sensitively probe the conversion on the surface of amorphous solid water at temperatures of 9.2-16 K. Within a narrow temperature window of 8 K, the conversion time steeply varied from ˜4.1 ×103 to ˜6.4 ×102 s . The observed temperature dependence is discussed in the context of previously suggested models and the energy dissipation process. The two-phonon process most likely dominates the conversion rate at low temperatures.

  14. Surface Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen Ortho-Para Conversion on Amorphous Solid Water.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Naoki; Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-06-24

    The surface temperature dependence of the ortho-to-para conversion of H_{2} on amorphous solid water is first reported. A combination of photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques allowed us to sensitively probe the conversion on the surface of amorphous solid water at temperatures of 9.2-16 K. Within a narrow temperature window of 8 K, the conversion time steeply varied from ∼4.1×10^{3} to ∼6.4×10^{2}  s. The observed temperature dependence is discussed in the context of previously suggested models and the energy dissipation process. The two-phonon process most likely dominates the conversion rate at low temperatures. PMID:27391719

  15. ACT-asthma control y tratamiento para niños: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; de la Sota, A; Rachelefsky, G; Lewis, C E; Quinones, H; Richards, W

    1987-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial is in progress to evaluate an asthma educational program for Latino children and their parents. The intervention, "ACT-Asma Control y Tratamiento Para Niños," was adapted from ACT for Kids, an asthma self-management program for English-speaking families. Results of a pilot study indicated that socioeconomic status was a critical variable to be considered in the design of such programs. Latino children and parents encounter significant barriers to access and continuity of medical care. Therefore, the intervention was redesigned to include "linkages" using a nurse to reduce barriers and to coordinate care. The lesson plans emphasize concrete, experimental learning experiences, with repetition of key points in each session. PMID:3654235

  16. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho-para conversion.

    PubMed

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)-para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o-p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o-p conversion. PMID:26587262

  17. Food for Life/Comida para la Vida: Creating a Food Festival to Raise Diabetes Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the “Food for Life Festival,” or “Festival Comida para la Vida.” This article will describe the community’s perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  18. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-10-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. PMID:8119251

  19. Constraining the ortho-to-para ratio of H2 with anomalous H_2CO absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troscompt, N.; Faure, A.; Maret, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen is a fundamental parameter in understanding the physics and chemistry of molecular clouds. In dark and cold regions, however, H2 is not directly observable and the OPR of H2 in these sources has so far remained elusive. Aims: We show that the 6 cm absorption line of ortho-formaldehyde (H2CO) can be employed to constrain both the density and the OPR of H2 in dark clouds. Methods: Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ortho-H2CO toward the molecular cloud Barnard 68 (B68) are reported. Non-LTE radiative transfer calculations combined with the well-constrained structure of B68 are then employed to derive the physical conditions in the absorption region. Results: We provide the first firm confirmation of the Townes & Cheung mechanism: propensity rules for the collisions of H2CO with H2 molecules are responsible for the sub-2.7 K cooling of the 6 cm doublet. Non-LTE calculations show that in the absorption region of B68, the kinetic temperature is ˜ 10 K, the ortho-H2CO column density amounts to ˜ 2.2× 1013 cm-2, the H2 density is in the range 1.4{-}2.4× 10 4 cm-3, and the OPR of H2 is close to zero. Our observations thus provide fresh evidence that H2 is mostly in its para form in the cold gas, as expected from theoretical considerations. Our results also suggest that formaldehyde absorption originates in the edge of B68, at visual extinctions A_V⪉ 0.5 mag. This work has been inspired by our colleague and friend Pierre Valiron, who passed away in August 2008. This paper is dedicated to his memory.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jeon, Yong Woo; Kim, Kidong; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jae-Weon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nodal staging surgery before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in the era of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods A modified Markov model was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of para-aortic staging surgery before definite CRT when no uptake is recorded in the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) on PET/CT. Survival and complication rates were estimated based on the published literature. Cost data were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Strategies were compared using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed, including estimates for the performance of PET/CT, postoperative complication rate, and varying survival rates according to the radiation field. Results We compared two strategies: strategy 1, pelvic CRT for all patients; and strategy 2, nodal staging surgery followed by extended-field CRT when PALN metastasis was found and pelvic CRT otherwise. The ICER for strategy 2 compared to strategy 1 was $19,505 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Under deterministic sensitivity analyses, the model was relatively sensitive to survival reduction in patients who undergo pelvic CRT alone despite having occult PALN metastasis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the case results, with a 91% probability of cost-effectiveness at the willingness-to-pay thresholds of $60,000/QALY. Conclusion Nodal staging surgery before definite CRT may be cost-effective when PET/CT imaging shows no evidence of PALN metastasis. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results to guidelines. PMID:25925292

  1. The analysis of para-cresol production and tolerance in Clostridium difficile 027 and 012 strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in recent years its increased prevalence has been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent clones such as the PCR-ribotype 027. Characteristically, C. difficile infection (CDI) occurs after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal gut microflora and allow C. difficile to flourish. One of the relatively unique features of C. difficile is its ability to ferment tyrosine to para-cresol via the intermediate para-hydroxyphenylacetate (p-HPA). P-cresol is a phenolic compound with bacteriostatic properties which C. difficile can tolerate and may provide the organism with a competitive advantage over other gut microflora, enabling it to proliferate and cause CDI. It has been proposed that the hpdBCA operon, rarely found in other gut microflora, encodes the enzymes responsible for the conversion of p-HPA to p-cresol. Results We show that the PCR-ribotype 027 strain R20291 quantitatively produced more p-cresol in-vitro and was significantly more tolerant to p-cresol than the sequenced strain 630 (PCR-ribotype 012). Tyrosine conversion to p-HPA was only observed under certain conditions. We constructed gene inactivation mutants in the hpdBCA operon in strains R20291 and 630Δerm which curtails their ability to produce p-cresol, confirming the role of these genes in p-cresol production. The mutants were equally able to tolerate p-cresol compared to the respective parent strains, suggesting that tolerance to p-cresol is not linked to its production. Conclusions C. difficile converts tyrosine to p-cresol, utilising the hpdBCA operon in C. difficile strains 630 and R20291. The hypervirulent strain R20291 exhibits increased production of and tolerance to p-cresol, which may be a contributory factor to the virulence of this strain and other hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027 strains. PMID:21527013

  2. Self-assembled catalytic DNA nanostructures for synthesis of para-directed polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Gang; Zhan, Pengfei; Ding, Baoquan

    2013-02-26

    Templated synthesis has been considered as an efficient approach to produce polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures. The features of DNA molecules enable a DNA template to be an intriguing template for fabrication of emeraldine PANI. In this work, we assembled HRP-mimicking DNAzyme with different artificial DNA nanostructures, aiming to manipulate the molecular structures and morphologies of PANI nanostructures through the controlled DNA self-assembly. UV-vis absorption spectra were used to investigate the molecular structures of PANI and monitor kinetic growth of PANI. It was found that PANI was well-doped at neutral pH and the redox behaviors of the resultant PANI were dependent on the charge density of the template, which was controlled by the template configurations. CD spectra indicated that the PANI threaded tightly around the helical DNA backbone, resulting in the right handedness of PANI. These reveal the formation of the emeraldine form of PANI that was doped by the DNA. The morphologies of the resultant PANI were studied by AFM and SEM. It was concluded from the imaging and spectroscopic kinetic results that PANI grew preferably from the DNAzyme sites and then expanded over the template to form 1D PANI nanostructures. The strategy of the DNAzyme-DNA template assembly brings several advantages in the synthesis of para-coupling PANI, including the region-selective growth of PANI, facilitating the formation of a para-coupling structure and facile regulation. We believe this study contributes significantly to the fabrication of doped PANI nanopatterns with controlled complexity, and the development of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:23272944

  3. Controlling electronic product branching at conical intersections in the UV photolysis of para-substituted thiophenols.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas A A; King, Graeme A; Tew, David P; Dixon, Richard N; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2012-12-27

    H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translation spectroscopy and high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to explore the photodissociation dynamics of three para-substituted thiophenols (p-YPhSH; Y = CH(3), F, and MeO). UV excitation in the wavelength range 305 > λ(phot) > 240 nm results in S-H bond fission and formation of p-YPhS radicals in their ground (X̃(2)B(1)) and first excited (Ã(2)B(2)) electronic states; the X̃/Ã state product branching ratio, Γ, varies with para-Y substituent and excitation wavelength. Excitation at λ(phot) < 265 nm results in direct population of the dissociative 1(1)πσ* potential energy surface (PES). Γ falls across the series p-CH(3)PhSH > p-FPhSH > p-MeOPhSH. Branching is ultimately determined at the conical intersection (CI) formed by the 1(1)πσ* and ground (S(0)) PESs at extended R(S-H) bond length but is sensitively dependent on the orientation of the S-H bond (relative to the ring plane) in the S(0) molecules prior to photoexcitation. Excitation at λ(phot) > 265 nm populates quasi-bound levels of the respective 1(1)ππ* states, which predissociate rapidly by tunneling under the lower diabats of the 1(1)ππ*/1(1)πσ* CI at short R(S-H). Less extreme X̃/Ã product branching ratios are measured, implicating intramolecular vibrational redistribution within the photoexcited 1(1)ππ* molecules prior to their sampling the region of the 1(1)πσ*/S(0) CI. PMID:23110379

  4. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. PMID:22882839

  5. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  6. Enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  7. Pruebas sin beneficio comprobado se usan aún para viiglar cáncer de ovario

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y Relatos del NCI sobre un estudio que indica que los medicos clínicos siguen usando análisis de CA-125 y exploraciones con TC para vigilar de rutina las recurrencias aunque no se ha comprobado el beneficio de estas pruebas.

  8. ParaStream: A parallel streaming Delaunay triangulation algorithm for LiDAR points on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; Guan, Xuefeng; Gong, Jianya

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a robust parallel Delaunay triangulation algorithm called ParaStream for processing billions of points from nonoverlapped block LiDAR files. The algorithm targets ubiquitous multicore architectures. ParaStream integrates streaming computation with a traditional divide-and-conquer scheme, in which additional erase steps are implemented to reduce the runtime memory footprint. Furthermore, a kd-tree-based dynamic schedule strategy is also proposed to distribute triangulation and merging work onto the processor cores for improved load balance. ParaStream exploits most of the computing power of multicore platforms through parallel computing, demonstrating qualities of high data throughput as well as a low memory footprint. Experiments on a 2-Way-Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform show that ParaStream can triangulate approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 16 min with only 600 MB physical memory. The total speedup (including I/O time) is about 6.62 with 8 concurrent threads.

  9. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  10. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the marginalization…

  11. PLASMA CLEARANCE OF VITELLOGENIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17BETA-ESTRADIOL AND PARA-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were performed to determine the rate of vitellogenin plasma accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (p-NP). Adult fish were continuously exposed to aqu...

  12. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  13. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  14. Cáncer de piel (incluye el melanoma)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  15. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  17. Cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del NCI para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  18. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Reish, Andrew G.; Beddar, A. Sam; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

  20. Long-term results of para-aortic irradiation for patients with stage I seminoma of the testis

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, Tamim M.; Souhami, Luis . E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Sultanem, Khalil; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Freeman, Carolyn

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant postoperative para-aortic lymph nodal irradiation is an acceptable alternative to para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic irradiation postorchiectomy for patients with Stage I seminoma of the testis. In this article, we report the long-term results of our prospective evaluation of para-aortic irradiation only for such patients. Methods and materials: Between March 1991 and September 2000, 71 patients with Stage I seminoma were treated with adjuvant irradiation to the para-aortic region only after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Radiotherapy was delivered using parallel-opposed fields extending from T11 to L5. A total dose of 25 Gy in 15 fractions was prescribed to midpoint. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for the first year, every 4 months for the second and third years, every 6 months for the fourth and fifth years, and annually thereafter. Chest X-ray, tumor markers, and computed tomography scan of the pelvis were performed routinely as part of the follow-up investigation. Results: At a median follow-up of 75 months, 68 of 71 patients are alive and free of relapse. Only 1 patient (1.4%) experienced failure in the ipsilateral inguinal nodal region. Two patients (2.8%) died of unrelated causes. The actuarial 10-year relapse free survival is 98.5% and the actuarial 10-year overall survival is 92%. No late toxicity has been encountered. Conclusion: Patients with Stage I seminoma of the testis may be safely treated with para-aortic radiotherapy only. Risk of pelvic failure is very low and treatment toxicity minimal.

  1. The Ortho-to-Para Ratio and the Chemical Properties of C3 H2 in Dark Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Mikami, Hitomi; Saito, Masao

    2001-04-01

    We have observed cyclic C3H2 (JKaKc = 212-101, 202 - 111, 312 - 303) lines at the 3 mm wavelength region toward the starless TMC-1C cloud and the protostellar core of L 1527 with the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. In both clouds, the 212-101 and 202 - 111 lines are strongly detected, while the 312 - 303 line is only detected toward the center of the protostellar core L 1527. From our statistical equilibrium analyses of the ortho-C3H2(212-101) and the para-C3H2(202-111)lines, the ortho-to-para ratios of C3H2 are determined to be 2.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 in TMC-1C and L 1527, respectively. These values are lower than the statistical value of 3, although the error of the ratio in L 1527 is large. Since thermal equilibrium with a dust temperature of 10 K still gives a ratio of 3 in c-C3H2, this result should suggest the lower ortho-to-para ratio of the precursor molecule, c-C3H+3, which is thought to be mainly produced by C3H++H2. Thus, we conclude that the lower ortho-to-para ratio of c-C3H2 is due to a lower ortho-to-para ratio of H2 than the statistical value.

  2. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  3. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  4. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  5. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage-specific characteristics

  6. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes

  7. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  8. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  9. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  10. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  11. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan; Li, Longjiang

    2015-11-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells' viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy. PMID:26302210

  12. Para-dichlorobenzene toxicity – a review of potential neurotoxic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Vibhash D.; Pass, Steven E.; Sawhney, Anshudha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is an active ingredient of mothballs, deodorizers and fumigants. Due to the easy availability of this chemical, there is a considerable risk for accidental or intentional toxic exposure. Recently, multiple cases of PDCB toxicity due to mothball ingestion were reported. PDCB toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, skin, lung and the central nervous system (CNS). CNS toxicity often results in leukoencephalopathy and heterogeneous neurological manifestations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to illustrate the clinical presentation, imaging findings, diagnosis and management of PDCB toxicity. Methods: We carried out a literature review of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of PDCB. Conclusions: PDCB and other aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of CNS tissue damage and in promoting functional neurological decline. While very little is currently known about prevalence of PDCB addiction, it cannot be ruled out that its illicit use among young people is under-recognized. The number of cases of PDCB toxicity might also rise due to the increasing industrial and domestic use of this chemical. PMID:24790648

  13. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  14. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)–6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+–62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of −0.137 Å−1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  15. Ab initio study of vibrational anharmonic coupling effects in oligo(para-phenylenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimel, G.; Somitsch, D.; Knoll, P.; Zojer, E.

    2002-06-01

    In this work, we clarify the nature of a previously not precisely identified Fermi dyad in the frequency range around 1600 cm-1 in oligo( para-phenylenes). To this end, we deploy a novel method to calculate third order anharmonic coupling effects in molecules. This Fermi dyad is shown to yield important information on the structural properties of the investigated materials. The nature of all vibrations contributing to this quantum mechanical resonance phenomenon is explained on the basis of a detailed normal coordinate analysis. The anharmonic coupling is then closely investigated by applying our theoretical model. In particular, we discuss the intensity redistribution among the two components of the Fermi doublet as well as their energetic separation. Subsequently, we establish a relation between these features and the structural conformation of the molecules. We show, how oligomer length and planarity of these systems can be determined from experimental Raman spectra by extracting the positions and relative intensities of the two components of the Fermi doublet. Furthermore, this Fermi resonance is shown to be sensitive to chemical modification on the molecules such as deuteration or substitution. Finally, we extend our model to electronically excited states in this class of molecules, as well as to charged species.

  16. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  17. Health promotion programs related to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jeni; Chelvatzoglou, Fotini C; Minogiannis, Panagiotis S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    Background The Olympic Games constitute a first-class opportunity to promote athleticism and health messages. Little is known, however on the impact of Olympic Games on the development of health-promotion programs for the general population. Our objective was to identify and describe the population-based health-promotion programs implemented in relation to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods A cross-sectional survey of all stakeholders of the Games, including the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, all ministries of the Greek government, the National School of Public Health, all municipalities hosting Olympic events and all official private sponsors of the Games, was conducted after the conclusion of the Games. Results A total of 44 agencies were surveyed, 40 responded (91%), and ten (10) health-promotion programs were identified. Two programs were implemented by the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, 2 from the Greek ministries, 2 from the National School of Public Health, 1 from municipalities, and 3 from official private sponsors of the Games. The total cost of the programs was estimated at 943,000 Euros; a relatively small fraction (0.08%) of the overall cost of the Games. Conclusion Greece has made a small, however, significant step forward, on health promotion, in the context of the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee and the future hosting countries, including China, are encouraged to elaborate on this idea and offer the world a promising future for public health. PMID:16504120

  18. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  19. Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, entrepreneurship has gained an important role in many economic and social policies, with the consequent growth of entrepreneurial research in many social areas. However, in the Spanish psychometric context, there is not an updated scale including recent contributions to entrepreneurship attitudes literature. The aim of this study is to present and validate a new scale named Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes-EAEE, (Entrepreneurial Attitudes Scale for Students, EASS), in two samples of high school and university Spanish students. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey of 524 high school and undergraduate students, from Valencia (Spain). Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were estimated, together with reliability and validity evidence of the scale. Results offered evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of the EASS. The CFAs showed overall and analytical adequate fit indexes (χ 2 (120) = 163.19 (p < .01), GFI = .906, CFI = .959, SRMR = .044, RMSEA = .040 [CI .022-.054]); reliability indices of the entrepreneurial attitudes were appropriate for most of the entrepreneurial attitudes (α were between .63 and .87 for the different dimensions); and external evidence relating entrepreneurial dimensions to personality traits was similar to in previous studies. The scale could be a useful instrument both for previous diagnosis and effectiveness assessment of programs on entrepreneurship promotion. PMID:26055696

  20. Analysis of passive motion of para- and retropharyngeal structures during swallowing using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Haraguchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Shuji; Katayama, Reiji; Sato, Kiminori; Fukahori, Mioko; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Abe, Toshi; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze passive motion of the para- and retropharyngeal space (PRS) during swallowing using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We conducted a preliminary study involving 30 healthy volunteers who underwent dynamic MRI. Consecutive MRI axial images were obtained by examining the plane parallel to the hard palate at the level of the anterior inferior corner of C2. Anterior displacement of the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) was measured as a motion index of pharyngeal contraction. The displacement and internal angle of the bilateral external and internal carotid arteries (ECA and ICA) and the bilateral centroids of the PRS area, as well as the increase in PRS area, were calculated at rest and at maximum pharyngeal contraction. In most participants, the bilateral ECA, ICA, and centroids were anterointernally displaced by pharyngeal contraction. The normalized ECA displacement (r = 0.64, r (2) = 0.41), normalized ICA displacement (r = 0.60, r (2) = 0.37), and normalized centroid displacement (r = 0.43, r (2) = 0.19) were more than moderately positively correlated with the normalized PPW displacement. The normalized PRS area increase (r = 0.35, r (2) = 0.12) was weakly positively correlated with the normalized PPW displacement. These results revealed that PRS area increased as the ECA and ICA were drawn anterointernally via its passive motion by pharyngeal contraction. PMID:24859486

  1. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a β- detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β- emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting β- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  2. Crystal structures of supramolecular assemblies based on a para-dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uil with metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiao; Chen, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Qian-Jiang; Xue, Sai-Feng; Tao, Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Five crystals based on para-dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uil (DCyHQ[6]) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. They are {Dioxane@DCyHQ[6]}·18H 2O ( 1), {[Cu(HO)6]2DCyHQ[6]}·2SO42-·10HO ( 2), {[Zn(HO)6]2DCyHQ[6]}·2SO42-·10HO ( 3), {[Sr(HO)5]2DCyHQ[6]}·5Cl·(HO)+·8HO ( 4), {[Na(HO)4]2DCyHQ[6]}·4Br·2(HO)+·14HO ( 5). The compound 1 which is a dioxane @DCyHQ[6] inclusion host-guest complex; the other three crystal structures of the compounds 2, 3 and 4 show supramolecular assemblies comprising of DCyHQ[6] and metal ions or their aqueous complexes through hydrogen bonding; while the crystal structure of the compound 5 shows a one-dimensional supramolecular polymer through direct coordination of sodium cations to the portal carbonyl oxygen atoms of the DCyHQ[6].

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Folate Metabolism and the Mechanistic Basis for para-Aminosalicylic Acid Susceptibility and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Yusuke; Thiede, Joshua M.; Kordus, Shannon Lynn; McKlveen, Edward J.; Turman, Breanna J.

    2015-01-01

    para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) entered clinical use in 1946 as the second exclusive drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). While PAS was initially a first-line TB drug, the introduction of more potent antitubercular agents relegated PAS to the second-line tier of agents used for the treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Despite the long history of PAS usage, an understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms governing the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to this drug has lagged behind that of most other TB drugs. Herein, we discuss previous studies that demonstrate PAS-mediated disruption of iron acquisition, as well as recent genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic studies that have revealed that PAS is a prodrug that ultimately corrupts one-carbon metabolism through inhibition of the formation of reduced folate species. We also discuss findings from laboratory and clinical isolates that link alterations in folate metabolism to PAS resistance. These advancements in our understanding of the basis of the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to PAS will enable the development of novel strategies to revitalize this and other antimicrobial agents for use in the global effort to eradicate TB. PMID:26033719

  4. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  5. Porous poly(para-phenylene) scaffolds for load-bearing orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Frensemeier, Mareike; Schneider, Andreas S; Safranski, David L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Frick, Carl P

    2014-02-01

    The focus of this study was to fabricate and investigate the mechanical behavior of porous poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) for potential use as a load-bearing orthopedic biomaterial. PPPs are known to have exceptional mechanical properties due to their aromatic backbone; however, the manufacturing and properties of PPP porous structures have not been previously investigated. Tailored porous structures with either small (150-250µm) or large (420-500µm) pore sizes were manufactured using a powder-sintering/salt-leaching technique. Porosities were systematically varied using 50 to 90vol%. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to verify an open-cell structure and investigate pore morphology of the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical behavior of solid and porous PPP samples was characterized through tensile and compressive testing. Both modulus and strength decreased with increasing porosity and matched well with foam theory. Porous scaffolds showed a significant decrease in strain-to-failure (<4%) under tensile loading and experienced linear elasticity, plastic deformation, and densification under compressive loading. Over the size ranges tested, pore size did not significantly influence the mechanical behavior of the scaffolds on a consistent basis. These results are discussed in regards to use of porous PPP for orthopedic applications and a prototype porous interbody fusion cage is presented. PMID:24374261

  6. Theoretical study of para-nitro-aniline adsorption on the Au(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cui; Monti, Susanna; Li, Xin; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ågren, Hans; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure, bonding properties and dynamics of para-nitro-aniline (PNA) adsorbed on the Au(111) surface for a sub-monolayer coverge have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) static calculations and quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Four main adsorption geometries have been identified by DFT energy optimization with the gradient corrected PBE functional and accounting for the role of the van del Waals (vdW) interaction. Quantum dynamics calculations starting from the four different structures have been performed at room temperature to estimate the relative stability of the adsorbates and the presence of barriers for their interconversion. Quantum simulations suggest that the most stable adsorption geometry at room temperature is that of PNA with a slightly distorted molecular plane almost parallel to the Au(111) surface. In a second less populated configuration the PNA molecule interacts with the substrate by its NO2 group while the molecular plane is orthogonal to the surface. The N 1s electron photoemission spectrum has been simulated for the identified adsorbate geometries and a measurable variation of the absolute and relative chemical shift for the two nitrogen atoms in comparison with the known values for PNA in gas phase is predicted.

  7. Performance of three different anodes in electrochemical degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Murugaesan, Pramila; Aravind, Priyadharshini; Muniyandi, Neelavannan Guruswamy; Kandasamy, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, removal of pollutants from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation has become an attractive method. The present investigation deals with the degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol (4-PNP) by electrochemical oxidation using three different anodes, namely TiO2-RuO2-IrO2/Ti (titanium substrate insoluble anode - TSIA)), IrO2-PbO2/Ti and graphite. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-PNP was carried out employing sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte, at pH 7 with a current density of 15 mA/cm(2). The degradation of 4-PNP by electro-oxidation was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. The performance efficiency and current efficiency of the three anodic materials in this study were evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Comparisons of energy consumption for the three anodes employed were also calculated. Among electrodes investigated, the IrO2-PbO2/Ti electrode resulted in 98% of COD removal in 30 min comparatively at a less energy consumption of 1 × 10(-2) kWh m(-3), depicting its higher performance efficiency in 4-PNP degradation. PMID:25885262

  8. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-01

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  9. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  10. The Protonation Site of para-Dimethylaminobenzoic Acid Using Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Weng, Guofeng; Shen, Shanshan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-01

    The protonation site of para-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ( p-DMABA) was investigated using atmospheric pressure ionization methods (ESI and APCI) coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational chemistry. Theoretical calculations and NMR experiments indicate that the dimethyl amino group is the preferred site of protonation both in the gas phase and aqueous solution. Protonation of p-DMABA occurs at the nitrogen atom by ESI independent of the solvents and other operation conditions under typical thermodynamic control. However, APCI produces a mixture of the nitrogen- and carbonyl oxygen-protonated p-DMABA when aprotic organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran) are used, exhibiting evident kinetic characteristics of protonation. But using protic organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) in APCI still leads to the formation of thermodynamically stable N-protonated p-DMABA. These structural assignments were based on the different CID behavior of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA. The losses of methyl radical and water are the diagnostic fragmentations of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA, respectively. In addition, the N-protonated p-DMABA is more stable than the O-protonated p-DMABA in CID revealed by energy resolved experiments and theoretical calculations.

  11. Conformational Analysis of R-(+)-3-METHYLCYCLOPENTANONE by IR Spectroscopy in Para-Hydrogen Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Basheer, Watheq; Toh, Shin Yi; Miyazaki, Jun; Momose, Takamasa

    2014-06-01

    Para-hydrogen (pH_2) soft quantum crystal is an ideal isolation matrix due to its impressive intrinsic properties, i.e. its significant lattice constant, large zero-point vibration as well as its ability to repair itself of crystal defects. To investigate molecular conformation of a chiral ketone, IR spectra of R-(+)-3-methylcyclopentanone (R3MCP), hosted in pH_2 crystal, were recorded as a function of sample concentration and host pH_2 crystal temperature over the low deposition range {3.5-6.0K}. IR spectra of R3MCP in pH_2 crystal will be presented and compared against corresponding spectra in Ar matrix as well as IR spectra of the neat crystalline R3MCP at low deposition temperatures. Furthermore, density functional theory calculations of simulated IR spectra for the optimized geometries of R3MCP, equatorial-methyl and axial-methyl conformers are compared against experimental spectra for the purpose of investigating molecular conformation. Upon comparison between theoretical and experimental IR spectra, vibrational modes arising from equatorial and axial conformers have been successfully assigned and related to the individual conformer's structure.

  12. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-09-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+-62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å-1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results.

  13. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A "hybridized redox-asymmetry" method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N(•+)) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 1(2+)-6(2+) by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å(-1). DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  14. High performance hybrid supercapacitors by using para-Benzoquinone ionic liquid redox electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-02-01

    A solution of 0.4M para-Benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) was used as a redox electrolyte in hybrid supercapacitors. Two carbons with very different textural properties, Pica carbon and Vulcan carbon, were used as electrode material. Electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). Unlike SCs with pure IL electrolyte, new battery-like features appeared in the CV curves and CD profiles. This electrochemical performance, associated with the faradaic contribution of the redox electrolyte, results in a significant improvement of the electrochemical performance of the hybrid system. For Vulcan carbon with low specific surface area (SBET = 240 m2 g-1), specific capacitance (Cs) and specific real energy (Ereal) values as high as 70 Fg-1 and 10.3 WhKg-1 were obtained at 5 mAcm-2 with hybrid SC operating at 3 V. This represents an increment of 300% in Cs and Ereal with respect to the SC based on pure PYR14TFSI. For high surface area carbon such as Pica (SBET = 2410 m2g-1), the addition of the redox quinone molecule resulted in a moderate enhancement reaching values of 156 Fg-1 and 30 WhKg-1 under the same experimental conditions (36% and 10% increment, respectively).

  15. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  16. Para-cresyl sulfate acutely impairs vascular reactivity and induces vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gross, Priscilla; Massy, Ziad A; Henaut, Lucie; Boudot, Cédric; Cagnard, Joanna; March, Cécilia; Kamel, Saïd; Drueke, Tilman B; Six, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by vascular remodeling and the retention of uremic toxins, several of which are independently associated with the high cardiovascular mortality rate in CKD patients. Whether the association between these uremic toxins and cardiovascular mortality is due to induction of vascular dysfunction and resulting vascular remodeling remains to be determined. This study evaluates the effects of para-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a newly identified uremic toxin, on vascular function and remodeling. PCS acutely induced oxidative stress in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, with a maximal effect at 0.15 mM, corresponding to the mean "uremic" concentration found in dialysis patients. PCS significantly increased within 30 min phenylephrine-induced contraction of mouse thoracic aorta, through direct activation of rho-kinase, independently of oxidative stress induction, as demonstrated by the capacity of rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 to abolish this effect. After exposure of the aorta to PCS for 48 h, we observed inward eutrophic remodeling, a hallmark of uremic vasculopathy characterized by a reduction of the area of both lumen and media, with unchanged media/lumen ratio. In conclusion, elevated PCS concentrations such as those observed in CKD patients, by promoting both vascular dysfunction and vascular remodeling, may contribute to the development of hypertension and to cardiovascular mortality in CKD. PMID:25899466

  17. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  18. Testicular toxicity of para-phenylenediamine after subchronic topical application in rat.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a most widely used chemical in almost all hair dye formulations. The present experiment was conducted in order to assess the reproductive toxicity of PPD in male rats. After sub-chronic topical application of different doses (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg/day) of PPD, the male albino rats exhibited significant decrease in the total sperm count (p<0.05, 0.01) with consistent decrease in the testicular weight (p<0.05), increase in the germ cell apoptosis indicated by cellular morphology as well as loss of germinal layer, sloughing of testicular cellular layers. Elevation of lipid peroxidation product in the testicular tissue indicated the potential oxidative stress that may be crucial in the induction of the apoptosis and further tissue injury in the PPD-treated rats. The study was designed to examine the testicular effect of 1% to 3% PPD which mimic the actual dosage available in most of the hair dying formulation. The possibilities of impaired testicular function after sub-chronic topical exposure to PPD on male rats have demonstrated. PMID:22149045

  19. Hematopathology in Sprague-Dawley rats following sub-chronic topical application of para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the hematological profile of male SD rats treated topically with aqueous solution of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a component of almost all hair dye formulations. The rats were painted with different concentration of PPD (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg Kg(-1) Day(-1)) for 90 days and then sacrificed. The hematological profile indicated severe anemia characterized by significant (p < 0.05, 0.001) reduction of total RBC count (59%), packed cell volume (PCV, 50%) and haemoglobin level (70%) in the peripheral blood of PPD treated animals when compared to control group. The leucocytes profile exhibited an overall elevation of around twofold as compared to the control group with significant lymphocytosis (44.4%) and a higher percentage of blast cells (8.5%) as well as smudge (10.3%) and hairy cells (6.2%) in the peripheral blood of treated animals. Histopathological examination of spleen from treated rat's exhibit red pulp congestion, expansion of the germinal centre, hyperplasia of the membrane capsule and extensive accumulation of hemosidderin pigments in the red pulp of the spleen. Overall this study indicated an abnormal pathophysiological condition indicating adverse effect of PPD in the treated animal groups. The risk assessment of hair dye formulation needs to be reviewed in view of widespread usage of paraphenylenediamine in almost all hair dye formulation. PMID:22886424

  20. From clusters to fibers: Parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst; Rubahn, Horst-Guenter

    2008-02-28

    All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17 eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46 eV, for width growth of 0.19 eV, and for height growth of 0.07 eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1x10{sup 9}, 6x10{sup 4}, and 3x10{sup 2} nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120 deg. for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given.

  1. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  2. Robotic Transperitoneal Infrarenal Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy With Double Docking: Technique, Learning Curve, and Perioperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Jordi; Barahona, Marc; Pla, Maria Jesus; Rovira, Jordi; Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Gil-Ibanez, Blanca; Gaspar, Hugo Manuel; Sabria, Enric; Bartolomé, Carlos; Marti, Lola

    2016-01-01

    Para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) is a challenging procedure performed by minimally invasive surgery in very few centers, owing to its intrinsic technical complexity. We describe and assess the feasibility and learning curve of robotic double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL combined with oncological pelvic surgery. Fifty patients who underwent this procedure using the Da Vinci S surgical system between March 2010 and May 2013 were included. The mean operating time for PAL surgery was 76 minutes (range, 32-150 minutes), and the mean number of lymph nodes per patient was 11.8 (range, 1-44). There were no conversions to laparotomy or laparoscopy. The mean length of hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-25 days). Statistically significant decreases were noted for mean table rotation time (17 ± 6.8 minutes vs 13 ± 3.6 minutes; p = .02) and mean PAL operating time (85.4 ± 25.8 minutes vs 69.8 ± 24.6 minutes; p = .04) when comparing the first 20 patients and the last 30 patients. The number of nodes was similar in the first 20 patients and last 30 patients. The double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL technique combined with oncological pelvic surgery is feasible, with minimal morbidity and a short learning curve. PMID:26898894

  3. Clinical and experimental aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    McFadden, John P; Yeo, Lyndsey; White, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    The allergenicity of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is related to oxidative processes on and in the skin. Patients with stronger reactions to PPD are significantly more likely to have a clear history of reacting to normal consumer hair dye. Those with stronger reactions are much less likely to be still dyeing their hair. Individuals allergic to PPD have a significant frequency of simultaneous sensitivity to chemically related clothing dyes. A 24-hour test application of hair dye, which has been proposed as a self-screen, does not reliably predict all individuals allergic to PPD. Duration studies have proven that exposures of 5 to 30 minutes, the period used for hair dyeing, are sufficient to elicit reactions. A significant rise in the frequency of PPD allergy was observed over 7 years among our patch test population. Active sensitization from standard PPD patch testing is not common. Immunologic findings relating to PPD can correctly predict that if hair dyes are commonly used there will be a significant prevalence of allergy to PPD among the normal adult population and that some clinical reactions will be severe. To protect the public from allergy to chemicals in consumer products, immunologic and epidemiologic data should both be used by regulatory authorities. PMID:21496741

  4. Selective para hydroxylation of phenol and aniline by singlet molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Briviba, K; Devasagayam, T P; Sies, H; Steenken, S

    1993-01-01

    Phenol reacts with singlet oxygen (1O2) generated in aqueous solution (H2O or D2O) by (a) the exposure of methylene blue to light or (b) the thermal dissociation of the endoperoxide of 3,3'-(1,4-naphthylidene)dipropionate to lead selectively to hydroquinone as the primary product. The other isomers of phenol hydroxylation, catechol and resorcinol, were not observed. In agreement with the involvement of 1O2 as the reactive species in the hydroxylation, in D2O the yield of hydroquinone is 7 times that in H2O, and the 1O2 quenchers azide and the thiols, glutathione and dithiothreitol, suppress the production of hydroquinone. In contrast, the hydroxyl radical scavengers, tert-butyl alcohol, propanol, or sodium formate, are without effect. In a follow-up reaction, hydroquinone is converted into benzoquinone. Reaction of 1O2 with aniline leads to the selective formation of 4-hydroxyaniline as the initial product. This is further converted to hydroquinone with formation of ammonia (deamination), and then to benzoquinone. On the basis of these results, the selective para hydroxylation of phenol or aniline may be used as an indicator for the involvement of singlet oxygen as compared to .OH radical- or cytochrome P450-mediated reactions. PMID:8374055

  5. Hyperfine excitation of CN by para- and ortho-H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugina, Yulia; Lique, François

    2015-01-01

    Among the interstellar molecules, the CN radical is of particular interest since it is a good probe of cold dark molecular clouds, and especially prestellar cores. Modelling of CN emission spectra from these dense molecular clouds requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation by collisions with the most abundant species. We calculate fine- and hyperfine-structure-resolved excitation rate coefficients of CN(X2Σ+) by para- and ortho-H2. The calculations are based on a new potential energy surface obtained recently from highly correlated ab initio calculations. State-to-state rate coefficients between fine and hyperfine levels of CN were calculated for low temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The new results are compared to available CN rate coefficients. Significant differences are found between the different sets of rate coefficients. This comparison shows that the new CN-H2 rate coefficients have to be used for observations interpretations. We expect that their use will help significantly to have a new insight into the physical conditions of prestellar cores.

  6. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  7. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Renner de Souza; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; Lopes, Ysabel Arianne Cordeiro Ferreira; Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves

    2013-05-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region. PMID:23670475

  8. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  9. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  10. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer: Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Giorgio; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Ghezzi, Fabio; Rossetti, Diego; Mariani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current evidence on the role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer. In 1988, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended surgical staging for endometrial cancer patients. However, 25 years later, the role of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Although the findings of two large independent randomized trials suggested that pelvic lymphadenectomy provides only adjunctive morbidity with no clear influence on survival outcomes, the studies have many pitfalls that limit interpretation of the results. Theoretically, lymphadenectomy may help identify patients with metastatic dissemination, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy, thus reducing radiation-related morbidity. Also, lymphadenectomy may eradicate metastatic disease. Because lymphatic spread is relatively uncommon, our main effort should be directed at identifying patients who may potentially benefit from lymph node dissection, thus reducing the rate of unnecessary treatment and associated morbidity. This review will discuss the role of lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer, focusing on patient selection, extension of the surgical procedure, postoperative outcomes, quality of life and costs. The need for new surgical studies and efficacious systemic drugs is recommended. PMID:24472047

  11. Critical point of a para-ferrimagnetic phase transition of the ANNNI model in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznajd, J.

    2012-10-01

    The finite field para-ferrimagnetic phase transition in the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model is studied by using the linear perturbation real space renormalization group transformation. The method is examined in systems of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Ising chains coupled by ferromagnetic interactions in the longitudinal field. As one would expect, the external field in the first case destroys the continuous phase transition and in the second shifts the critical point toward a lower temperature according to the square law. For the ferromagnetic chains coupled by the competing interchain nearest-neighbor J1 < 0 and next-nearest-neighbor J2 < 0 interactions, the external field changes the character of the phase transition from continuous to discontinuous. However, it has been found that for the ratio J2/J1 around 0.5 there is a critical value of the field for which an isolated critical point exists. The temperature dependences of the specific heat for several values of J2/J1 and the external field are presented.

  12. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-01-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. Images p414-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8119251

  13. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-02-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (-NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (-NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (-NO2) and amine (-NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4‧-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (-NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (-NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (-NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment.

  14. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  15. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg

    2013-11-15

    A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (∼2.7 × 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup −2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

  17. Breaking the Barrier to Slow Water Exchange Rates for Optimal Magnetic Resonance Detection of paraCEST Agents.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W Shirangi; Martins, André F; Zhao, Piyu; Wu, Yunkou; Kiefer, Garry E; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-03-21

    EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes as paraCEST agents offer an attractive platform for designing biological sensors and responsive agents. The early versions of these agents showed low sensitivity at temperature and power levels suitable for in vivo applications partly due to non-optimal water exchange rates. Here we report two new EuDOTA derivatives having glutamyl-phosphonate side arms that display the slowest water exchange rates of any other paraCEST agent reported so far. The advantages of such systems are demonstrated experimentally both in vitro and in vivo and DFT calculations were performed to help understand the physical-chemical reasons for this interesting behavior. PMID:26937683

  18. The total neutron cross-section of an ortho-para mixture of gaseous hydrogen at 75K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, G.; Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    2004-07-01

    From the data of a transmission experiment we have extracted the total neutron cross-section of a sample of gaseous hydrogen (T=75.03K, p=84.8bar, n=8.42nm-3) with a thermodynamic equilibrium ortho-para content (48% ortho, 52% para). The experiment was carried out on the PEARL instrument operating at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. After an accurate data reduction, the neutron spectra have been analyzed in the framework of the Modified Young and Koppel (MYK) theory, which is a successful extension to interacting fluids of the original Young and Koppel model valid for a dilute gas of hydrogen molecules. The total cross-section calculated with MYK theory, whose unique unknown parameter-the mean kinetic energy of the molecular centre of mass-was obtained through an independent path integral Monte Carlo simulation, shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Explica qué es la infección por el VPH; los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, entre ellos la prueba de Pap, la prueba del VPH y la prueba conjunta de Pap y del VPH; las pautas para los exámenes de detección; los posibles resultados de la

  20. Vanadium-catalyzed oxidative Strecker reaction: α-C–H cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Ji-Bao; Chen, Chuo

    2013-01-01

    We describe an oxidative Strecker reaction that allows for direct cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. A vanadium(V) complex was used as the catalyst and TBHP as the oxidant. The cyanation occurs at the α-C position bearing either an alkyl or an aromatic group. This method provides a direct access to α-aminonitrile from amines with one-carbon extension. PMID:24415804