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Sample records for prospective screening study

  1. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  2. Screening for Acromegaly in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Study (ACROCARP).

    PubMed

    Zoicas, F; Kleindienst, A; Mayr, B; Buchfelder, M; Megele, R; Schöfl, C

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis of acromegaly prevents irreversible comorbidities and facilitates surgical cure. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in acromegaly and patients have often undergone surgery for CTS prior to the diagnosis of acromegaly. We hypothesized that screening CTS-patients for acromegaly could facilitate active case-finding. We prospectively enrolled 196 patients [135 women, 56.9 (range 23-103) years] who presented with CTS for surgery. Patients were asked about 6 symptoms suggestive of acromegaly using a questionnaire calculating a symptom score (0-6 points), and insulin-like-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured. If IGF-1 was increased, IGF-1 measurement was repeated, and random growth hormone (GH) and/or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of GH-suppression were performed. The mean symptom score was 1.7±1.3 points. Three patients reported the maximal symptom score of 6 points, but none of them had an increased IGF-1. There was no correlation between the symptom score and IGF-1-SDS (standard deviation score) (r=0.026; p=0.71). Four patients had an IGF-1>2 SDS. In 2 patients acromegaly was ruled out using random GH and OGTT. One patient had normal IGF-1 and random GH at follow-up. One patient refused further diagnostics. In this prospective cohort of patients with CTS, the observed frequency of acromegaly was at most 0.51% (95% CI 0.03 to 2.83%). In this prospective study, none of the 196 patients with CTS had proven acromegaly. Thus, we see no evidence to justify general screening of patients with CTS for acromegaly. PMID:26849823

  3. Prospective study of predictors of attendance for breast screening in inner London.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S; Bickler, G; Sancho-Aldridge, J; Saidi, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the predictors of first-round attendance for breast screening in an inner city area. DESIGN--Prospective design in which women were interviewed or completed a postal questionnaire before being sent their invitation for breast screening. Sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and attitudes, beliefs, and intentions were used as predictors of subsequent attendance. A randomised control group was included to assess the effect of being interviewed on attendance. SETTING--Three neighbouring health districts in inner south east London. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 3291 women aged 50-64 years who were due to be called for breast screening for the first time. The analysis of predictors was based on a subsample of 1301, reflecting a response rate of 75% to interview and 36% to postal questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS--Attendance was 42% overall, and 70% in those who gave an interview or returned a questionnaire. There was little evidence for an interview effect on attendance. The main findings from the analysis of predictors are listed below. (These were necessarily based on those women who responded to interview/questionnaire and so may not be generalisable to the full sample.) (1) Sociodemographic factors: Women in rented accommodation were less likely to go for screening but other indicators of social class and education were not predictive of attendance. Age and other risk factors for breast cancer were unrelated to attendance, as was the distance between home and the screening centre. Married or single women were more likely to attend than divorced, separated, or widowed women, and black women had a higher than average attendance rate; however, neither of these relationships was found in the interview sample. (2) Health behaviours: Attenders were less likely to have had a recent breast screen, more likely to have had a cervical smear, more likely to go to the dentist for check ups, and differed from non-attenders with regard to drinking frequency

  4. Screening for Vulnerability in Older Cancer Patients: The ONCODAGE Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Soubeyran, Pierre; Bellera, Carine; Goyard, Jean; Heitz, Damien; Curé, Hervé; Rousselot, Hubert; Albrand, Gilles; Servent, Véronique; Jean, Olivier Saint; van Praagh, Isabelle; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Périn, Stéphane; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc; Terret, Catherine; Desauw, Christophe; Girre, Véronique; Mertens, Cécile; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Rainfray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Background Geriatric Assessment is an appropriate method for identifying older cancer patients at risk of life-threatening events during therapy. Yet, it is underused in practice, mainly because it is time- and resource-consuming. This study aims to identify the best screening tool to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment by comparing the performance of two short assessment tools the G8 and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13). Patients and Methods The diagnostic accuracy of the G8 and the (VES-13) were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 1674 cancer patients accrued before treatment in 23 health care facilities. 1435 were eligible and evaluable. Outcome measures were multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA), sensitivity (primary), specificity, negative and positive predictive values and likelihood ratios of the G8 and VES-13, and predictive factors of 1-year survival rate. Results Patient median age was 78.2 years (70-98) with a majority of females (69.8%), various types of cancer including 53.9% breast, and 75.8% Performance Status 0-1. Impaired MGA, G8, and VES-13 were 80.2%, 68.4%, and 60.2%, respectively. Mean time to complete G8 or VES-13 was about five minutes. Reproducibility of the two questionnaires was good. G8 appeared more sensitive (76.5% versus 68.7%, P =  0.0046) whereas VES-13 was more specific (74.3% versus 64.4%, P<0.0001). Abnormal G8 score (HR = 2.72), advanced stage (HR = 3.30), male sex (HR = 2.69) and poor Performance Status (HR = 3.28) were independent prognostic factors of 1-year survival. Conclusion With good sensitivity and independent prognostic value on 1-year survival, the G8 questionnaire is currently one of the best screening tools available to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment, and we believe it should be implemented broadly in daily practice. Continuous research efforts should be pursued to refine the selection process of older cancer patients

  5. A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in China: Evaluation of Different Screening Criteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuping; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Ruijuan; Tang, Hongyi; Chen, Haihua; Feng, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in Beijing, North China, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different ROP screening criteria, we conducted a prospective cohort study in a single-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A total of 2997 premature infants with birth weight (BW) ≤ 2000 g and/or gestational age (GA) ≤ 34 weeks had completed ROP screening. ROP was diagnosed in 356 (11.9%) infants. The mean GA was 30.46 ± 1.98 weeks and the mean BW was 1477.35 ± 371.29 g. Of the 59 (2.0%) infants receiving treatment, the mean GA was 29.37 ± 2.10 weeks, and the mean BW was 1240.80 ± 330.71 g. The incidence of ROP declined from 14.7% in 2009 and 11.1% in 2010 to 9.5% in 2011. The United Kingdom (UK) criteria could reduce the screening number by 40.8%, and 3 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, but none in 2011. The United States (US) criteria could reduce the screening number by 66.5%, and 10 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, including one in 2011. So the UK criteria may be appropriate for screening of ROP in our NICU in 2011. Future multisite epidemiologic studies are required to establish suitable ROP screening criteria in China. PMID:27382487

  6. A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in China: Evaluation of Different Screening Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuping; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Ruijuan; Tang, Hongyi; Chen, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in Beijing, North China, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different ROP screening criteria, we conducted a prospective cohort study in a single-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A total of 2997 premature infants with birth weight (BW) ≤ 2000 g and/or gestational age (GA) ≤ 34 weeks had completed ROP screening. ROP was diagnosed in 356 (11.9%) infants. The mean GA was 30.46 ± 1.98 weeks and the mean BW was 1477.35 ± 371.29 g. Of the 59 (2.0%) infants receiving treatment, the mean GA was 29.37 ± 2.10 weeks, and the mean BW was 1240.80 ± 330.71 g. The incidence of ROP declined from 14.7% in 2009 and 11.1% in 2010 to 9.5% in 2011. The United Kingdom (UK) criteria could reduce the screening number by 40.8%, and 3 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, but none in 2011. The United States (US) criteria could reduce the screening number by 66.5%, and 10 infants with type I ROP needing treatment were missed, including one in 2011. So the UK criteria may be appropriate for screening of ROP in our NICU in 2011. Future multisite epidemiologic studies are required to establish suitable ROP screening criteria in China. PMID:27382487

  7. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening. PMID:27496148

  8. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  9. Screening for symptomatic metal sensitivity: a prospective study of 92 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Otani, Toshiro; Yatabe, Taku; Kondo, Makoto; Yoshimine, Fumihiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2005-03-01

    Metal sensitivity (MS) reactions to implant metals represent a rare but well-documented complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Although 20-25% of post-TJA patients develop MS, only a few highly susceptible patients (< 1%) exhibit symptoms. Whether surgeons should perform screening for MS is currently a matter of debate. The present study investigated the clinical importance of screening for patients predisposed to symptomatic MS, and the specific metals causing symptomatic MS following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Between 2000 and 2002, a total of 108 primary TKAs were performed on 92 patients. Preoperatively, all patients underwent modified lymphocyte stimulation test (mLST) to Ni, Co, Cr, and Fe. Of the 92 patients, 24 (26%) displayed positive preoperative responses to at least one metal. Five patients displayed implant metal-related eczema and were all mLST-positive preoperatively, suggesting that screening for symptomatic MS is clinically useful. Two of these underwent revision TKA and thereafter, eczema healed and mLST results changed from positive to negative. All mLST-positive patients were divided into three groups: Group I, patients with eczema; Group II, patients with clear history of MS; and Group III, patients neither eczema nor history of MS. When the type of sensitive metals were compared among the three groups, a significant association between presence of Cr-sensitivity and development of eczema (P < 0.05) was identified. No significant association was observed between other metals and development of eczema or history of MS. This indicates that Cr is a potential candidate metal for causing eczema in our TKA series, and Cr-sensitivity may offer a potential predictor for symptomatic MS. The present study indicates that the surgeons should undertake routine preoperative screening for MS, particularly to Cr. PMID:15369690

  10. Alloimmunization screening after transfusion of red blood cells in a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vitor Mendonça; Martins, Paulo Roberto Juliano; Soares, Sheila; Araújo, Gislene; Schmidt, Luciana Cayres; Costa, Sidneia Sanches de Menezes; Langhi, Dante Mário; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Background Several irregular red blood cell alloantibodies, produced by alloimmunization of antigens in transfusions or pregnancies, have clinical importance because they cause hemolysis in the fetus and newborn and in transfused patients. Objective a prospective analysis of patients treated by the surgical and clinical emergency services of Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (HC/UFTM), Brazil was performed to correlate alloimmunization to clinical and epidemiological data. Methods Blood samples of 143 patients with initial negative antibody screening were collected at intervals for up to 15 months after the transfusion of packed red blood cells. Samples were submitted to irregular antibody testing and, when positive, to the identification and serial titration of alloantibodies. The Fisher Exact test and Odds Ratio were employed to compare proportions. Results Fifteen (10.49%) patients produced antibodies within six months of transfusion. However, for 60% of these individuals, the titers decreased and disappeared by 15 months after transfusion. Anti-K antibodies and alloantibodies against antigens of the Rh system were the most common; the highest titer was 1:32 (anti-K). There was an evident correlation with the number of transfusions. Conclusions Given the high incidence of clinically important red blood cell alloantibodies in patients transfused in surgical and clinical emergency services, we suggest that phenotyping and pre-transfusion compatibilization for C, c, E, e (Rh system) and K (Kell system) antigens should be extended to all patients with programmed surgeries or acute clinical events that do not need emergency transfusions. PMID:23049421

  11. Prospective Screening for Blunt Cerebrovascular Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Preston R.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Cagiannos, Catherine; Williams, J. Scott; Vang, Meng; Qaisi, Waleed G.; Felker, Richard E.; Timmons, Shelly D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine outcomes associated with an aggressive screening protocol for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI), and to compare the accuracy of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) versus conventional angiography with respect to BCVI diagnosis. Summary Background Data In the past 5 years, BCVI (carotid and vertebral arteries) has been recognized with increasing frequency. Initial studies described blunt carotid injuries and their associated morbidity, while more recent reports have established the devastating potential of blunt vertebral injuries. It has been suggested that early diagnosis and anticoagulation will improve outcomes and that less-invasive diagnostic techniques than conventional angiography are desirable for screening. However, there are neither established screening criteria nor studies comparing optimal diagnostic modalities. Methods The screened population included all patients with cervical spine fractures, LeFort II or III facial fractures, Horner’s syndrome, skull base fractures involving the foramen lacerum, neck soft tissue injury, or neurological abnormalities unexplained by intracranial injuries. Patients underwent screening with four-vessel cerebral angiography. During the first half of the study, patients also underwent helical CTA. Selected patients during this same period underwent MRA. At the time of diagnosis, anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy was instituted unless clinically contraindicated. Results of this screening protocol were compared to a previously published cohort with cerebrovascular injuries (1995–1999) from the authors’ institution. Results Two hundred sixteen patients were screened over a 2-year period (3.5% of all blunt trauma admissions). Angiography identified 24 patients with carotid artery injuries (CAI) and 43 patients with vertebral artery injuries (VAI) for an overall screening yield of 29%. While the incidence of CAI remained similar between

  12. Comparing two theories of health behavior: a prospective study of noncompletion of treatment following cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Orbell, Sheina; Hagger, Martin; Brown, Val; Tidy, John

    2006-09-01

    Some women receiving abnormal cervical screening tests do not complete recommended treatment. A prospective study (N = 660) investigated the value of conceptualizing attendance at colposcopy for treatment as either (a) an active problem-solving response to a health threat, motivated by attitudes toward an abnormal result, as implied by self-regulation theory (H. Leventhal, D. Meyer, & D. Nerenz, 1980); or (b) as a behavior motivated by attitudes toward clinic attendance, as implied by the theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985). Responses to questionnaires containing variables specified by these models were used to predict women's subsequent attendance or nonattendance for treatment over the following 15 months. Although the TPB offered superior prediction of intentions and completion of treatment, discriminant function analyses showed that consideration of both models was important in distinguishing between those who attended all their appointments as scheduled, attended after being prompted, or ceased attending. Implications for measurement and theory in health protection are discussed. PMID:17014278

  13. Validity of self-reported hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)

    PubMed Central

    Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Taylor, Henry; Kalsi, Jatinderpal; Ryan, Andy; Burnell, Matthew; Sharma, Aarti; Apostolidou, Sophia; Campbell, Stuart; Jacobs, Ian; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of self-reported hysterectomy against the gold standard of uterine visualisation using pelvic ultrasound. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) based in 13 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Participants Between April 2001 and October 2005, 48 215 postmenopausal women aged 50–74 randomised to the ultrasound screening arm of UKCTOCS underwent the first (initial) scan on the trial. Interventions At recruitment, the women completed a recruitment questionnaire (RQ) which included previous hysterectomy. The sonographer asked each woman regarding previous hysterectomy (interview format, IF) prior to the scan. At the scan, in addition to ovarian morphology, endometrial thickness (ET)/endometrial abnormality were captured if the uterus was visualised at the scan. Outcome measures Self-reported hysterectomy at RQ or IF was compared to ultrasound data on ET/endometrial abnormality (as surrogate uterine visualisation markers) on the first (initial) scan. Results Of 48 215 women, 3 had congenital uterine agenesis and 218 inconclusive results. The uterus was visualised in 39 121 women. 8871 self-reported hysterectomy at RQ, 8641 at IF and 8487 at both. The uterus was visualised in 39 123, 39 353 and 38 969 women not self-reporting hysterectomy at RQ, IF or both. Validity, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of using RQ alone, IF or both RQ/IF were 99.6%, 98.9%, 99.7%, 98.9% and 99.7%; 98.9%, 98.4%, 99.1%, 95.9% and 99.7%; 99.8%, 99.6%, 99.9%, 99.4% and 99.9%, respectively. Conclusions Self-reported hysterectomy is a highly accurate and valid source for studying long-term associations of hysterectomy with disease onset. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN)—22488978 PMID:24589827

  14. Prospective Study of Congenital Toxoplasmosis Screening with Use of IgG Avidity and Multiplex Nested PCR Methods ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hideto; Nishikawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Mizue, Yuka; Yamada, Takashi; Morizane, Mayumi; Tairaku, Shinya; Nishihira, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can cause congenital toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening with the use of IgG avidity and multiplex nested PCR methods was effective to detect a high-risk pregnancy. In a prospective study, serum T. gondii IgG avidity was measured in consecutive 146 pregnant women testing positive for T. gondii antibody and either positive or equivocal for IgM. Multiplex nested PCR for T. gondii DNA on amniotic fluid, maternal blood, and umbilical cord blood were performed with informed consent. A total of 51 (34.9%) women presented with low IgG avidity (<30%), 15 (10.3%) presented with borderline avidity (30 to 35%), and 80 (54.8%) presented with high avidity (>35%) indices. Amniotic fluid obtained at amniocentesis or birth yielded positive PCR results in nine women with low IgG avidity indices. Of these nine women, three had congenital toxoplasmosis. None of women with high or border line IgG avidity indices had a positive PCR result in the amniotic fluid or congenital toxoplasmosis. No congenital toxoplasmosis was detected in women whose amniotic fluids yielded negative PCR results. Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat was found to be the main risk factor for acute T. gondii infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis screening with a combination of IgG avidity in the maternal blood and multiplex nested PCR in the amniotic fluid was useful for detecting a high risk pregnancy and diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21543572

  15. Feasibility of nephrinuria as a screening tool for the risk of pre-eclampsia: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Tianyue; Furuta, Itsuko; Akaishi, Rina; Kawabata, Kosuke; Chiba, Kentaro; Umazume, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Morikawa, Mamoru; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the possibility of nephrinuria as a screening tool for the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE). Design Prospective observational study. Setting A single university hospital. Changes in urinary nephrin:creatinine ratio (NCR, ng/mg) and protein:creatinine ratio (PCR, mg/mg) in pregnancy were determined. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy (SPIP) was defined as PCR>0.27. PE was diagnosed in women with both SPIP and hypertension. Participants 89 pregnant women in whom neither hypertension nor SPIP was present at enrolment, providing 31, 125 and 93 random urine samples during first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Results PE developed in 14 of the 89 women. NCR increased with increasing PCR in 14 women with PE (correlation coefficient, 0.862; p<0.0001). In contrast, NCR did not change significantly despite significant increases in PCR in 75 women with normotensive pregnancies defined as neither SPIP nor hypertension, indicating that there was little increase in nephrinuria over the physiological range of proteinuria in pregnancy. Relative risk of later development of PE among asymptomatic second and third trimester women with NCR (ng/mg) >122 (95th centile value for 75 women with normotensive pregnancies) was 5.93 (95% CI 2.59 to 13.6; 60% (6/10) vs 10% (8/79)) and 13.5 (95% CI 3.31 to 55.0; 75% (6/8) vs 5.5% (2/36)), respectively, compared with women with NCR≤122 at that time. Conclusions Nephrinuria was unlikely to increase in normal pregnancy. A certain NCR cut-off may efficiently differentiate women at higher risk of PE. PMID:27486123

  16. The Belgian Diabetes in Pregnancy Study (BEDIP-N), a multi-centric prospective cohort study on screening for diabetes in pregnancy and gestational diabetes: methodology and design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommends universal screening with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using stricter criteria for gestational diabetes (GDM). This may lead to important increases in the prevalence of GDM and associated costs, whereas the gain in health is unclear. The goal of ‘The Belgian Diabetes in Pregnancy Study’ (BEDIP-N) is to evaluate the best screening strategy for pregestational diabetes in early pregnancy and GDM in an ethnically diverse western European population. The IADPSG screening strategy will be followed, but in addition risk questionnaires and a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) will be performed, in order to define the most practical and most cost effective screening strategy in this population. Methods BEDIP-N is a prospective observational cohort study in 6 centers in Belgium. The aim is to enroll 2563 pregnant women in the first trimester with a singleton pregnancy, aged 18–45 years, without known diabetes and without history of bariatric surgery. Women are universally screened for overt diabetes and GDM in the first trimester with a fasting plasma glucose and for GDM between 24–28 weeks using the 50 g GCT and independently of the result of the GCT, all women will receive a 75 g OGTT using the IADPSG criteria. Diabetes and GDM will be treated according to a standardized routine care protocol. Women with GDM, will be reevaluated three months postpartum with a 75 g OGTT. At each visit blood samples are collected, anthropometric measurements are obtained and self-administered questionnaires are completed. Recruitment began in April 2014. Discussion This is the first large, prospective cohort study rigorously assessing the prevalence of diabetes in early pregnancy and comparing the impact of different screening strategies with the IADPSG criteria on the detection of GDM later in pregnancy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02036619. Registered 14

  17. Using postural reactions as a screening test to identify high-risk infants for cerebral palsy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, D I; Tsikoulas, I G; Kremenopoulos, G M; Kontopoulos, E E

    1998-08-01

    To clarify the predictive value of the seven more commonly used postural reactions (PR) in the 1st year of life regarding the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP), we prospectively examined 204 high-risk infants of whom 58 developed CP, 22 had developmental retardation (DR) and 124 were normal at follow-up at 3 years of age. Abnormalities of five or more PR from the 1st month of life were correlated with spastic CP, while five or six abnormal PR were also correlated with athetoid CP. Three or less abnormal PR correlated with a normal outcome. All seven PR tested were significantly abnormal in children with spastic CP from the 1st month compared to normal children. Athetoid children demonstrated abnormalities of the Peiper-Isbert (P-I) reaction and Vojta reaction from the 1st month and of the vertical, horizontal and Collis vertical suspension from the 3rd month. Children with DR had significantly abnormal Collis horizontal and Collis vertical suspension, Vojta reaction and traction response from the 1st month and Peiper-Isbert reaction from the 3rd month. Ataxic children demonstrated significantly abnormal traction response from the 1st month, Collis horizontal reaction from the 7th month and Peiper-Isbert reaction from the 11th month. We conclude that the examination of PR is a useful quantitative and qualitative diagnostic screening tool for high-risk infants from the 1st month of life. PMID:9761000

  18. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  19. A Prospective Study of Socioeconomic Status, Prostate Cancer Screening and Incidence Among Men at High Risk for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Sheehan, Daniel; Jankowski, Michelle; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Higher socio-economic status (SES) men are at higher risk of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis, an association commonly interpreted as a function of higher rates of prostate screening among higher-SES men. However, the extent to which screening explains this association has not been well quantified. Methods Within a Detroit-area cohort of 6,692 men followed up after a benign prostate procedure, a case-control study was conducted of 494 PCa cases and controls matched on age, race, duration of follow-up, and date of initial benign finding. 2000 Census data were used in a principal component analysis to derive a single factor, labeled the Neighborhood SES Index (NSESI), representing zip code-level SES. Results Among cases, higher SES was associated with a younger age at initial biopsy: −1.48 years (95% CI, −2.32, −0.64) per unit NSESI. After adjustment for confounders and duration of follow-up, higher SES was associated with more PSA tests and DRE during follow-up; 9% (95% CI, 2, 16) and 8% (95% CI, 1, 15) more respectively, per unit NSESI. Higher SES was associated with a higher risk of PCa diagnosis during follow-up, multivariable adjusted OR = 1.26 per unit increase in NSESI (95% CI, 1.04, 1.49). Further adjustment for screening frequency somewhat reduced the association between SES and PCa risk (OR = 1.19 per unit NSESI, 95% CI, 0.98, 1.44). Conclusions Differences in screening frequency only partially explained the association between higher zip code SES and PCa risk; other health care related factors should also be considered as explanatory factors. PMID:23224323

  20. The Screening Performance of Serum 1,3-Beta-D-Glucan in Patients with Invasive Fungal Diseases: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tie-Ying; Wang, Shou-Hong; Liang, Sui-Xin; Jiang, Wen-Xin; Luo, Dan-Dong; Huang, De-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The serum 1,3-beta-D-glucan (BG) assay aids in the early diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) and has been approved for their diagnosis. However, reports on the screening performance of BG are scarce. We performed a meta-analysis of data extracted from only prospective cohort studies to evaluate the screening performance of the BG assay in the diagnosis of IFDs. We specifically searched 4 databases (the PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Cochrane Collaboration databases) according to EORTC-MSG criteria. A total of 1068 patients in 11 studies were analyzed. Deeks’ funnel plot asymmetry test suggested a low likelihood of publication bias for the included studies (p = 0.055). The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, with 95% confidence intervals, were 0.75(0.63,0.84), 0.87(0.81,0.92), 5.85(3.96,8.63), 0.30(0.20,0.45), 19.53(11.16,34.18), and 0.89(0.86,0.91), respectively. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the BG assay is a useful screening tool with high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between patients with and without IFDs. In clinical practice, BG assay results should be evaluated together with clinical and microbiological findings. PMID:26146829

  1. Does perceived risk predict breast cancer screening use? Findings from a prospective cohort study of female relatives from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Meghan J.; Mirea, Lucia; Glendon, Gord; Ritvo, Paul; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Chiarelli, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective While the relationship between perceived risk and adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines has been studied extensively, the majority of studies are cross-sectional. We prospectively examined this relationship among women with familial risk. Materials and Methods The prospective association between perceived risk and screening behaviors was examined in 913 women aged 25 to 72, with varying levels of familial breast cancer risk from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Associations between perceived lifetime breast cancer risk and subsequent use of screening mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE) and genetic testing were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, perceived risk did not predict subsequent use of screening mammography, CBE or genetic testing. Women at moderate/high familial risk who perceived their risk as greater than 50% were significantly less likely to have a CBE (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30–0.91, p=0.04), and less likely to have a mammogram (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.40–1.20, p=0.70) or genetic test (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.34–1.10, p=0.09) compared to women who perceive their risk as 50%. In contrast, women at low familial risk who perceived their risk as greater than 50% were non-significantly more likely to have a mammogram (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59–2.16, p=0.78), CBE (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.63–1.95, p=0.74) or genetic test (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.50– 3.33, p=0.35) compared to women who perceive their risk as 50%. Conclusion Perceived risk did not significantly predict subsequent screening use overall, however this relationship may be moderated by level of familial risk. Results may inform risk education and management strategies among women with varying levels of familial breast cancer risk. PMID:24821458

  2. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. Method This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. Results A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN12582470 PMID:24576042

  3. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  4. Screening for fetal growth restriction with universal third trimester ultrasonography in nulliparous women in the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sovio, Ulla; White, Ian R; Dacey, Alison; Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Smith, Gordon C S

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of adverse perinatal outcome. Screening procedures for fetal growth restriction need to identify small babies and then differentiate between those that are healthy and those that are pathologically small. We sought to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of universal ultrasonic fetal biometry in the third trimester as a screening test for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and whether the risk of morbidity associated with being small differed in the presence or absence of ultrasonic markers of fetal growth restriction. Methods The Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study was a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women with a viable singleton pregnancy at the time of the dating ultrasound scan. Women participating had clinically indicated ultrasonography in the third trimester as per routine clinical care and these results were reported as usual (selective ultrasonography). Additionally, all participants had research ultrasonography, including fetal biometry at 28 and 36 weeks' gestational age. These results were not made available to participants or treating clinicians (universal ultrasonography). We regarded SGA as a birthweight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and screen positive for SGA an ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. Markers of fetal growth restriction included biometric ratios, utero-placental Doppler, and fetal growth velocity. We assessed outcomes for consenting participants who attended research scans and had a livebirth at the Rosie Hospital (Cambridge, UK) after the 28 weeks' research scan. Findings Between Jan 14, 2008, and July 31, 2012, 4512 women provided written informed consent of whom 3977 (88%) were eligible for analysis. Sensitivity for detection of SGA infants was 20% (95% CI 15–24; 69 of 352 fetuses) for selective ultrasonography and 57% (51–62; 199 of 352 fetuses) for universal

  5. The Retinal Disease Screening Study: Prospective Comparison of Nonmydriatic Fundus Photography and Optical Coherence Tomography for Detection of Retinal Irregularities

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yanling; Heussen, Florian M.; Keane, Pearse A.; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Walsh, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the sensitivity of volume scanning with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to nonmydriatic color fundus photography (FP) for the detection of retinal irregularities in asymptomatic populations. Methods. Asymptomatic subjects without known ocular disease were recruited over a 6-month period. For each eye, two undilated 45° fundus images and four undilated volume OCT image sets covering the macula and optic nerve were obtained. Color images were evaluated for irregularities both inside and outside the area covered by OCT. OCT image sets were evaluated for internal limiting membrane irregularities, abnormal retinal thickness, hyper/hyporeflective features, and photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) irregularities. Detection sensitivities were compared and false-negative cases were analyzed. Results. A total of 284 eyes (144 subjects) were included, with a mean age of 38.1 years (range 18–77). Among 253 eyes (135 subjects) with gradable images from both FP and OCTs, the detection sensitivities for OCT were higher (96.2% infield and 85.7% in full field) than for FP (19.9% infield and 43.8% in full field) for all irregularities evaluated in the study (including epiretinal irregularities, abnormal retinal thickness, intraretinal hyperreflective/hyporeflective features, and photoreceptor/RPE irregularities). Overall, the presence of definite irregularities on either fundus imaging or OCT by eye in this asymptomatic population was 42.6% (121/284), with 39.4% (112/284) of eyes having RPE irregularities such as drusen. Conclusions. For detection of a variety of retinal irregularities evaluated in the current study, volume OCT scanning was more sensitive than nonmydriatic retinal photography in our asymptomatic individuals. OCT detected clinically relevant disease features, such as subretinal fluid, that were missed by FP, and had a lower ungradable image rate. It is likely that OCT will be added to photography screening in the near future for

  6. The utility of screening for perinatal depression in the second trimester among Chinese: a three-wave prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chan, Kin Sin

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to study the pattern of perinatal depressive symptomatology and determine the predictive power of second trimester perinatal depressive symptoms for future perinatal periods. A population-based sample of 2,178 women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the second and third trimesters and at 6 weeks postpartum. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the EPDS scores across three stages. The predictive power of the second trimester EPDS score in identifying women with an elevated EPDS score in the third trimester and at 6 weeks postpartum were determined. The predictive power of the second trimester EPDS score was further assessed using stepwise logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves. EPDS scores differed significantly across three stages. The rates were 9.9%, 7.8%, and 8.7% for an EPDS score of >14 in the second and third trimesters and at 6 weeks postpartum, respectively. Using a cut-off of 14/15, the second trimester EPDS score accurately classified 89.6% of women in the third trimester and 87.2% of those at 6 weeks postpartum with or without perinatal depressive symptomatology. Women with a second trimester EPDS score >14 were 11.78 times more likely in the third trimester and 7.15 times more likely at 6 weeks postpartum to exhibit perinatal depressive symptomatology after adjustment of sociodemographic variables. The area under the curve for perinatal depressive symptomatology was 0.85 in the third trimester and 0.77 at 6 weeks postpartum. To identify women at high risk for postpartum depression, healthcare professionals could consider screening all pregnant women in the second trimester so that secondary preventive intervention may be implemented. PMID:20058040

  7. Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Mace, J; Paton, R W

    2015-02-01

    Over a 15-year prospective period, 201 infants with a clinically unstable hip at neonatal screening were subsequently reviewed in a 'one stop' clinic where they were assessed clinically and sonographically. Their mean age was 1.62 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.89). Clinical neonatal hip screening revealed a sensitivity of 62% (mean, 62.6 95%CI 50.9 to 74.3), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.7 to 99.8) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 24% (mean, 26.2, 95% CI 19.3 to 33.0). Static and dynamic sonography for Graf type IV dysplastic hips had a 15-year sensitivity of 77% (mean, 75.8 95% CI 66.9 to 84.6), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.8 to 99.8) and a PPV of 49% (mean, 55.1, 95% CI 41.6 to 68.5). There were 36 infants with an irreducible dislocation of the hip (0.57 per 1000 live births), including six that failed to resolve with neonatal splintage. Most clinically unstable hips referred to a specialist clinic are female and stabilise spontaneously. Most irreducible dislocations are not identified from this neonatal instability group. There may be a small subgroup of females with instability of the hip which may be at risk of progression to irreducibility despite early treatment in a Pavlik harness. A controlled study is required to assess the value of neonatal clinical screening programmes. PMID:25628293

  8. Does perceived risk predict breast cancer screening use? Findings from a prospective cohort study of female relatives from the Ontario site of the breast cancer family registry.

    PubMed

    Walker, Meghan J; Mirea, Lucia; Glendon, Gord; Ritvo, Paul; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Chiarelli, Anna M

    2014-08-01

    While the relationship between perceived risk and breast cancer screening use has been studied extensively, most studies are cross-sectional. We prospectively examined this relationship among 913 women, aged 25-72 with varying levels of familial breast cancer risk from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Associations between perceived lifetime breast cancer risk and subsequent use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE) and genetic testing were assessed using logistic regression. Overall, perceived risk did not predict subsequent use of mammography, CBE or genetic testing. Among women at moderate/high familial risk, those reporting a perceived risk greater than 50% were significantly less likely to have a CBE (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.91, p = 0.04), and non-significantly less likely to have a mammogram (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.40-1.20, p = 0.70) or genetic test (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.34-1.10, p = 0.09) compared to women reporting a perceived risk of 50%. In contrast, among women at low familial risk, those reporting a perceived risk greater than 50% were non-significantly more likely to have a mammogram (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.16, p = 0.78), CBE (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.63-1.95, p = 0.74) or genetic test (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.50-3.33, p = 0.35) compared to women reporting a perceived risk of 50%. Perceived risk did not significantly predict screening use overall, however this relationship may be moderated by level of familial risk. Results may inform risk education and management strategies for women with varying levels of familial breast cancer risk. PMID:24821458

  9. Real Time Identification of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) through Daily Screening of ALT Results: A Prospective Pilot Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    M'Kada, Helmi; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ramanujam, Nittia; Fautrel, Bruno; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Ratziu, Vlad; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Leblond, Véronique; Delattre, Jean Yves; Samson, Yves; Caen, Olivier Lyon; Bricaire, François; Khayat, David; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Herson, Serge; Amoura, Zahir; Tilleul, Patrick; Deckmyn, Olivier; Coriat, Pierre; Delpech, Vincent Nicolas; Boulogne, Philippe; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Poynard, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identification of drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is difficult, even among hospitalized patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a specific strategy for DILI screening. Design We prospectively compared the number of acute DILI cases identified in one week of a proactive strategy based on centralized elevated ALT values to those identified with a standard of care strategy for 24-week period based on referral cases to the hepatology unit. In the centralized strategy, a designated study biochemist identified patients with ALT greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal values (ULN) and notified the designated hepatologists, who then went to the patients' wards, analyzed the charts, and if necessary, interviewed the identified patients. During these two periods, patients with possible DILI were included after signing an informed consent in an ongoing European diagnostic study (SAFE-T consortium). Results During the 24-week period of the standard strategy, 12 (0.04%) patients out of a total of 28,145 were identified as having possible DILI, and 11 of these accepted to be included in the protocol. During the one-week proactive period, 7 patients out of a total of 1407 inpatients (0.498%) [odds ratio vs. standard = 12.1 (95% CI, 3.9–32.3); P<0.0001] were identified with possible DILI, and 5 were included in the protocol. Conclusion A simple strategy based on the daily analysis of cases with ALT >3 ULN by designated biochemists and hepatologists identified 12 times more acute cases of drug-induced liver disease than the standard strategy. This pilot cohort is registered on the number AP-HP P110201/1/08-03-2011 and AFSSAPS B110346-70. PMID:22905129

  10. Study protocol—investigation of the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS) for the routine detection of delirium in the care home setting: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Teale, Elizabeth; Young, John; Siddiqi, Najma; Munyombwe, Theresa; Harrison, Jennifer; Schuurmanns, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is a common and distressing condition associated with frailty, dementia and comorbidity. These are common in long-term care settings. Residents in care homes are therefore at particular risk of delirium. Despite this, methods to detect delirium in care homes are lacking, with existing diagnostic tools taking too long, or requiring specific training to deliver. This limits their feasibility for use for the routine detection of delirium by care home staff. Routine screening for delirium in care homes would allow timely attention to exacerbating factors to attenuate the episode, and facilitate future research into delirium in the care home environment. Methods Residents from 4 large care homes will be asked to consent (or their consultees asked to provide a declaration of agreement) to participate in the study. Care home staff will administer the 25-item Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS)—a delirium screening tool based on observed behaviours—and this will be tested against the research standard Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) administered by trained research assistants performed two times per week for all participating residents. Analysis Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and a diagnostic OR will be calculated for the detection of delirium with the 25-item DOSS. The feasibility of routine delirium screening and the scaling properties of the 25-item DOSS will also be explored. Ethics and Dissemination For residents lacking capacity to participate, a consultee will be approached for a declaration of agreement for inclusion in the study. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated in written format to clinical commissioning groups, general practitioners and relevant third parties. Trial registration number ISRCTN14608554. PMID:27324706

  11. The discriminatory capability of existing scores to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia: a prospective colonoscopy study of 5,899 screening participants

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C. S.; Ching, Jessica Y. L.; Ng, Simpson; Lam, Thomas Y. T.; Luk, Arthur K. C.; Wong, Sunny H.; Ng, Siew C.; Ng, Simon S. M.; Wu, Justin C. Y.; Chan, Francis K. L.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of seven existing risk scoring systems in predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia in an asymptomatic Chinese cohort. We prospectively recruited 5,899 Chinese subjects aged 50–70 years in a colonoscopy screening programme(2008–2014). Scoring systems under evaluation included two scoring tools from the US; one each from Spain, Germany, and Poland; the Korean Colorectal Screening(KCS) scores; and the modified Asia Pacific Colorectal Screening(APCS) scores. The c-statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values(PPVs), and negative predictive values(NPVs) of these systems were evaluated. The resources required were estimated based on the Number Needed to Screen(NNS) and the Number Needed to Refer for colonoscopy(NNR). Advanced neoplasia was detected in 364 (6.2%) subjects. The German system referred the least proportion of subjects (11.2%) for colonoscopy, whilst the KCS scoring system referred the highest (27.4%). The c-statistics of all systems ranged from 0.56–0.65, with sensitivities ranging from 0.04–0.44 and specificities from 0.74–0.99. The modified APCS scoring system had the highest c-statistics (0.65, 95% C.I. 0.58–0.72). The NNS (12–19) and NNR (5-10) were similar among the scoring systems. The existing scoring systems have variable capability to predict advanced neoplasia among asymptomatic Chinese subjects, and further external validation should be performed. PMID:26838178

  12. Selection of competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening: a prospective study with sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in time-lapse monitoring in IVF treatment have provided new morphokinetic markers for embryonic competence. However, there is still very limited information about the relationship between morphokinetic parameters, chromosomal compositions and implantation potential. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effects of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing on pregnancy and implantation outcomes for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Methods A total of 1163 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved from 138 PGS patients at a mean age of 36.6 ± 2.4 years. These sibling MII oocytes were then randomized into two groups after ICSI: 1) Group A, oocytes (n = 582) were cultured in the time-lapse system and 2) Group B, oocytes (n = 581) were cultured in the conventional incubator. For both groups, whole genomic amplification and array CGH testing were performed after trophectoderm biopsy on day 5. One to two euploid blastocysts within the most predictive morphokinetic parameters (Group A) or with the best morphological grade available (Group B) were selected for transfer to individual patients on day 6. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between the two groups. Results There were significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates between Group A and Group B (71.1% vs. 45.9%, respectively, p = 0.037). The observed implantation rate per embryo transfer significantly increased in Group A compared to Group B (66.2% vs. 42.4%, respectively, p = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase in ongoing pregnancy rates was also observed in Group A compared to Group B (68.9% vs. 40.5%. respectively, p = 0.019). However, there was no significant difference in miscarriage rate between the time-lapse system and the conventional incubator (3.1% vs. 11.8%, respectively, p = 0.273). Conclusions This is the first prospective investigation using

  13. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  14. [Prospective view concerning organization of breast cancer screening in France].

    PubMed

    Baudier, F

    1998-01-01

    Development of an organized cancer screening is today an essential axis of Public Health. Successive sequences are the test, the experience and the generalization. There are three principles for this generalization: 1. transparence with a specific act coding; 2. selectivity to assure the quality at each stage of this process; 3. responsibility on both professionals and policy holder levels. A such organization can only find its reasons in: 1. a legislative text who sets a very strict frame in accordance with regulations with a specific list and therefore differed for the act itself; 2. professionals and structures approved for organized screening acts, covered at 100%. The regional level will certainly be at the center of this system. Three authorities are marked out for playing significant role: the Regional Direction of Sanitary and Social Action, the Regional Union of Sickness Insurance Funds and the Regional Union of Liberal Physicians. If those measures and this organization might improve the quality of screening acts, they would be for the major part ineffective if they don't allow to get back to women who today escape, for the major part, this prevention process. They are essentially persons aged of 55 years old and over and the most deprived public. In this prospect, the general practitioner must play an essential role in a same time to go back to those public and ease an open to a dialogue around screening. PMID:10188310

  15. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet) is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103) and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483) answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3%) compared to referent boys (18.8%) (Adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0

  16. A Prospective Virtual Screening Study: Enriching Hit Rates and Designing Focus Libraries To Find Inhibitors of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ.

    PubMed

    Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L; Bembenek, Scott D; Venable, Jennifer W; Castro, Glenda G; Mangelschots, Lieve; Peeters, Daniëlle C G; Mcallister, Heather M; Edwards, James P; Disepio, Daniel; Mirzadegan, Taraneh

    2016-05-12

    Here, we report a high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) study using phosphoinositide 3-kinase (both PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ). Our initial HTVS results of the Janssen corporate database identified small focused libraries with hit rates at 50% inhibition showing a 50-fold increase over those from a HTS (high-throughput screen). Further, applying constraints based on "chemically intuitive" hydrogen bonds and/or positional requirements resulted in a substantial improvement in the hit rates (versus no constraints) and reduced docking time. While we find that docking scoring functions are not capable of providing a reliable relative ranking of a set of compounds, a prioritization of groups of compounds (e.g., low, medium, and high) does emerge, which allows for the chemistry efforts to be quickly focused on the most viable candidates. Thus, this illustrates that it is not always necessary to have a high correlation between a computational score and the experimental data to impact the drug discovery process. PMID:27043133

  17. Comparing the DN4 tool with the IASP grading system for chronic neuropathic pain screening after breast tumor resection with and without paravertebral blocks: a prospective 6-month validation study.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Faraj W; Morgan, Pamela J; Cil, Tulin; Escallon, Jaime M; Semple, John L; Chan, Vincent W

    2015-04-01

    Investigating protective strategies against chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) after breast cancer surgery entails using valid screening tools. The DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 questions) is 1 tool that offers important research advantages. This prospective 6-month follow-up study seeks to validate the DN4 and assess its responsiveness in screening for CNP that satisfies the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition and fulfills its grading system criteria after breast tumor resection with and without paravertebral blocks (PVBs). We randomized 66 females to standardized general anesthesia and sham subcutaneous injections, or PVB and total intravenous anesthesia. The 6-month CNP risk was assessed using the IASP grading system and the DN4 screening tools. We evaluated the DN4 sensitivity, specificity, and responsiveness in capturing the impact of PVB on the CNP risk relative to the IASP grading system. Data from 64 patients showed similar demographic characteristics in both groups. Twenty patients in both groups met the grading system CNP criteria; among these, 18 patients also met the DN4 CNP criteria. Furthermore, 15 patients in both groups did not meet the grading system CNP criteria; among these, 9 patients also did not meet the DN4 CNP criteria. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of the DN4 were estimated at 90% and 60%, respectively. Both screening tools suggested that PVB reduced the 6-month CNP risk. Our results suggest that the DN4 can reliably identify CNP at 6 months after breast tumor resection and detect the preincisional PVB effect on the risk of developing such pain. PMID:25719620

  18. Can injury in major junior hockey players be predicted by a pre-season functional movement screen – a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Khaled; Cashman, Glenn; Howitt, Scott; West, Bill; Murray, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool that is commonly used to predict the occurrence of injury. Previous studies have shown that a score of 14 or less (with a maximum possible score of 21) successfully predicted future injury occurrence in athletes. No studies have looked at the use of the FMS to predict injuries in hockey players. Objective: To see if injury in major junior hockey players can be predicted by a preseason FMS. Methods: A convenience sample of 20 hockey players was scored on the FMS prior to the start of the hockey season. Injuries and number of man-games lost for each injury were documented over the course of the season. Results: The mean FMS score was 14.7+/−2.58. Those with an FMS score of ≤14 were not more likely to sustain an injury as determined by the Fisher’s exact test (one-tailed, P = 0.32). Conclusion: This study did not support the notion that lower FMS scores predict injury in major junior hockey players. PMID:25550667

  19. Screening for carbon monoxide exposure in selected patient groups attending rural and urban emergency departments in England: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Simon; Keshishian, Catherine; Murray, Virginia; Kafatos, George; Ruggles, Ruth; Coultrip, Elizabeth; Oetterli, Sam; Earle, Daniel; Ward, Patricia; Bush, Stephen; Porter, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure does not produce a classical toxidrome and so it is thought that it may easily be missed, allowing patients to continue to be exposed to CO. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of raised carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in a targeted population of patients presenting to four emergency departments (EDs) in England. Design A prospective observational study undertaken over a 9-month period. Setting Four EDs; one in a rural/suburban area and three serving urban populations. Participants 1758 patients presenting to the EDs with chest pain, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-traumatic headache, seizures or flu-like symptoms. Main outcome Measures COHb levels measured using a pulse CO-oximeter or venous sample. Patients with COHb levels ≥2.5% (non-smokers) or ≥5% (smokers) completed a questionnaire assessing potential sources. Patients were defined to be positive for CO exposure if they had a positive COHb and either an identified source or no other reason for their raised level. Results Proportion of positive patients was: overall—4.3%; COPD—7.5%; headache—6.3%; flu-like—4.3%; chest pain—3.3%; seizures—2.1%. A variety of gas and solid (predominantly charcoal) fossil fuel sources were identified. Conclusions This study showed that 4.3% of patients presenting to EDs with non-specific symptoms had unexpectedly raised COHb levels 1.4% of patients had a source of CO identified. Study limitations included non-consecutive recruitment, delays in COHb measurements and a lack of ambient CO measurements, which precludes precise determination of incidence. However, this study should alert clinicians to consider CO exposure in patients presenting with non-specific symptoms, in particular headache and exacerbation of COPD, and if necessary refer patients for suitable public-health follow-up, even in the presence of low COHb readings. Further research should include standardised

  20. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: A pictorial review of screen-detected cancers and false recalls attributed to tomosynthesis in prospective screening trials.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lång, Kristina; Bernardi, Daniela; Tagliafico, Alberto; Zackrisson, Sophia; Skaane, Per

    2016-04-01

    This pictorial review highlights cancers detected only at tomosynthesis screening and screens falsely recalled in the course of breast tomosynthesis screening, illustrating both true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) detection attributed to tomosynthesis. Images and descriptive data were used to characterise cases of screen-detection with tomosynthesis, sourced from prospective screening trials that performed standard (2D) digital mammography (DM) and tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in the same screening participants. Exemplar cases from four trials highlight common themes of relevance to screening practice including: the type of lesions frequently made more conspicuous or perceptible by tomosynthesis (spiculated masses, and architectural distortions); the histologic findings (both TP and FP) of tomosynthesis-only detection; and the need to extend breast work-up protocols (additional imaging including ultrasound and MRI, and tomosynthesis-guided biopsy) if tomosynthesis is adopted for primary screening. PMID:27017251

  1. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  2. [Methodology of Screening New Antibiotics: Present Status and Prospects].

    PubMed

    Trenin, A S

    2015-01-01

    Due to extensive distribution of pathogen resistance to available pharmaceuticals and serious problems in the treatment of various infections and tumor diseases, the necessity of new antibiotics is urgent. The basic methodological approaches to chemical synthesis of antibiotics and screening of new antibiotics among natural products, mainly among microbial secondary metabolites, are considered in the review. Since the natural compounds are very much diverse, screening of such substances gives a good opportunity to discover antibiotics of various chemical structure and mechanism of action. Such an approach followed by chemical or biological transformation, is capable of providing the health care with new effective pharmaceuticals. The review is mainly concentrated on screening of natural products and methodological problems, such as: isolation of microbial producers from the habitats, cultivation of microorganisms producing appropriate substances, isolation and chemical characterization of microbial metabolites, identification of the biological activity of the metabolites. The main attention is paid to the problems of microbial secondary metabolism and design of new models for screening biologically active compounds. The last achievements in the field of antibiotics and most perspective approaches to future investigations are discussed. The main methodological approach to isolation and cultivation of the producers remains actual and needs constant improvement. The increase of the screening efficiency can be achieved by more rapid chemical identification of antibiotics and design of new screening models based on the biological activity detection. PMID:26863741

  3. Screen Study Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Barry

    1969-01-01

    This study guide for Arthur Lipsett's film "Very Nice, Very Nice" is in four parts. First, it describes and evaluates the film, discusses Lipsett's unusual juxtapositions, fast cutting, and fragmented speeches as indications of his satirical intent, and suggests that the only meaningful summation of the film's content is through pattern…

  4. [HbA1c is not enough in screening for impaired glucose metabolism. Glucose tolerance tests are also needed, as shown in Swedish prospective epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Margareta; Daka, Bledar; Larsson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    An HbA1c threshold of ≥ 42 mmol/mol has been proposed to diagnose prediabetes. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the proposed threshold for detection of individuals with prediabetes was examined in a study of 573 randomly selected individuals from Vara and Skövde. In addition, the utility of the FINDRISC questionnaire and of a fasting glucose test in combination with three short questions concerning BMI, heredity for type 2 diabetes and known hypertension was examined. Results from an oral glucose tolerance test were used as reference. The sensitivity of HbA1c and FINDRISC to detect individuals with IGT was 16 and 26 per cent respectively. Questions regarding BMI, heredity and hypertension together with a fasting glucose test yielded a sensitivity of 50%, but a lower specificity and positive predictive value. We conclude that HbA1c inefficiently detected individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and that oral glucose tolerance tests can still preferably be recommended. PMID:26418933

  5. Should prospective dental students be screened for colour vision deficits?

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, F; Baraas, R C; Al-Saud, L M; Mirghani, I; van der Zee, C; Yates, E; Keeling, A; Mon-Williams, M A; Manogue, M

    2016-09-01

    A perennial question in dental education is: what skills and aptitudes should be assessed in prospective dental students? Intellectual capacity and manual dexterity understandably rank highly, but are there minimum thresholds for visual perception that applicants need be able to demonstrate before they enter the profession? We have recently flagged this issue with regard to the thresholds of stereoscopic acuity required for a dentist when operating on teeth. In the present article, we highlight the issue of identifying a minimum acceptable level of colour vision. PMID:27608568

  6. Scaffold-Focused Virtual Screening: Prospective Application to the Discovery of TTK Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe and apply a scaffold-focused virtual screen based upon scaffold trees to the mitotic kinase TTK (MPS1). Using level 1 of the scaffold tree, we perform both 2D and 3D similarity searches between a query scaffold and a level 1 scaffold library derived from a 2 million compound library; 98 compounds from 27 unique top-ranked level 1 scaffolds are selected for biochemical screening. We show that this scaffold-focused virtual screen prospectively identifies eight confirmed active compounds that are structurally differentiated from the query compound. In comparison, 100 compounds were selected for biochemical screening using a virtual screen based upon whole molecule similarity resulting in 12 confirmed active compounds that are structurally similar to the query compound. We elucidated the binding mode for four of the eight confirmed scaffold hops to TTK by determining their protein–ligand crystal structures; each represents a ligand-efficient scaffold for inhibitor design. PMID:23672464

  7. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  8. Prospective screening increases the detection of potentially curable hepatocellular carcinoma: results in 8900 high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Francesco; Piccirillo, Mauro; Albino, Vittorio; Palaia, Raffaele; Belli, Andrea; Granata, Vincenza; Setola, Sergio; Fusco, Roberta; Petrillo, Antonella; Orlando, Raffaele; Tosone, Grazia; Scordino, Fabrizio; Curley, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Historically, only 10% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed with early-stage, potentially curable disease. In this study, chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients were prospectively screened to determine: (i) the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable HCC, and (ii) survival following curative therapy. Methods The study included 8900 chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients enrolled in a prospective screening programme, of whom 1335 (15.0%) were infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 7120 (80.0%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 445 (5.0%) with both HBV and HCV. Screening was conducted every 6 months and included serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement and ultrasonography. Curative treatments included liver transplantation, resection, radiofrequency ablation and/or ethanol injection. Results Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 765 (8.6%) patients. Of 1602 patients with cirrhosis, 758 (47.3%) developed HCC. Curative treatment was possible in 523 (68.4%) of the 765 HCC patients. Two- and 5-year rates of overall survival in the curative treatment group were 65% and 28%, respectively, compared with 10% and 0% in the advanced disease group (P < 0.001). Conclusions Prospective screening of patients at high risk for the development of HCC increases the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable disease. This may result in an increase in the number of longterm survivors. Screening strategies should focus on patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection who have progressed to cirrhosis because more than 40% of these patients will develop HCC. PMID:23607636

  9. Prospective screening for ALK: clinical features and outcome according to ALK status.

    PubMed

    Fallet, Vincent; Cadranel, Jacques; Doubre, Hélène; Toper, Cécile; Monnet, Isabelle; Chinet, Thierry; Oliviero, Gérard; Foulon, Guillaume; De Cremoux, Hubert; Vieira, Thibault; Antoine, Martine; Wislez, Marie

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the clinico-pathological characteristics and outcomes of a cohort of French patients who were prospectively screened for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) rearrangement. One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients screened for ALK rearrangement to be recruited into a crizotinib registration trial were included from eight French centres. ALK rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Seventeen patients (14.6%) were positive for ALK. ALK+ patients were younger (p = 0.049) and more likely to be males (p=0.032), non- or light-smokers (p = 0.048) and without underlying respiratory disease (p=0.025) compared to ALK- patients. Thyroid-transcription factor-1 expression was present in all ALK+ tumours. ALK+ tumours tended to have lymph node and brain metastases. In multivariate analyses, gender, smoking history and N stage were independently associated with ALK status. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached for ALK+ patients and was significantly longer than for ALK- patients (hazard ratio for death for ALK- patients 2.98; 95% CI [1.29-6.90], p=0.01). French ALK+ patients present a specific phenotype. ALK rearrangement should be determined to improve OS with an effective targeted therapy. PMID:24589437

  10. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  11. Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience

    PubMed Central

    van Karnebeek, C D M; Koevoets, C; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E; Smeets, D; Redeker, E; Hennekam, R; Hoovers, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. Methods: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). Results: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. Conclusions: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre. PMID:12161591

  12. Genetic screening of prospective parents and of workers: some scientific and social issues.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R; Henifin, M S

    1985-01-01

    Genetic screening programs are based on assumptions and values that reflect the history of racial and social eugenics in the United States and Europe. They stigmatize individuals by shifting the focus from social, economic, and political decisions that affect the health of prospective parents, newborns, and workers to "bad genes," that is, intrapersonal factors that are given the status of "causes" of disease. Prenatal screening, at best, can help the relatively few individuals who know that their future children are at risk for a particular inherited disease or disability; it has little positive value for the average person. Workplace genetic screening has not been shown to reduce occupational disease, but it has led to employment discrimination and has drawn attention away from controlling exposures to toxic chemicals in the workplace. PMID:3158618

  13. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  14. USR-VS: a web server for large-scale prospective virtual screening using ultrafast shape recognition techniques

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-S.; Wong, Man-H.; Ballester, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-based Virtual Screening (VS) methods aim at identifying molecules with a similar activity profile across phenotypic and macromolecular targets to that of a query molecule used as search template. VS using 3D similarity methods have the advantage of biasing this search toward active molecules with innovative chemical scaffolds, which are highly sought after in drug design to provide novel leads with improved properties over the query molecule (e.g. patentable, of lower toxicity or increased potency). Ultrafast Shape Recognition (USR) has demonstrated excellent performance in the discovery of molecules with previously-unknown phenotypic or target activity, with retrospective studies suggesting that its pharmacophoric extension (USRCAT) should obtain even better hit rates once it is used prospectively. Here we present USR-VS (http://usr.marseille.inserm.fr/), the first web server using these two validated ligand-based 3D methods for large-scale prospective VS. In about 2 s, 93.9 million 3D conformers, expanded from 23.1 million purchasable molecules, are screened and the 100 most similar molecules among them in terms of 3D shape and pharmacophoric properties are shown. USR-VS functionality also provides interactive visualization of the similarity of the query molecule against the hit molecules as well as vendor information to purchase selected hits in order to be experimentally tested. PMID:27106057

  15. USR-VS: a web server for large-scale prospective virtual screening using ultrafast shape recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-S; Wong, Man-H; Ballester, Pedro J

    2016-07-01

    Ligand-based Virtual Screening (VS) methods aim at identifying molecules with a similar activity profile across phenotypic and macromolecular targets to that of a query molecule used as search template. VS using 3D similarity methods have the advantage of biasing this search toward active molecules with innovative chemical scaffolds, which are highly sought after in drug design to provide novel leads with improved properties over the query molecule (e.g. patentable, of lower toxicity or increased potency). Ultrafast Shape Recognition (USR) has demonstrated excellent performance in the discovery of molecules with previously-unknown phenotypic or target activity, with retrospective studies suggesting that its pharmacophoric extension (USRCAT) should obtain even better hit rates once it is used prospectively. Here we present USR-VS (http://usr.marseille.inserm.fr/), the first web server using these two validated ligand-based 3D methods for large-scale prospective VS. In about 2 s, 93.9 million 3D conformers, expanded from 23.1 million purchasable molecules, are screened and the 100 most similar molecules among them in terms of 3D shape and pharmacophoric properties are shown. USR-VS functionality also provides interactive visualization of the similarity of the query molecule against the hit molecules as well as vendor information to purchase selected hits in order to be experimentally tested. PMID:27106057

  16. Current situation and prospects of newborn screening and treatment for Phenylketonuria in China — compared with the current situation in the United States, UK and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lin; Song, Peipei; Kokudo, Norihiro; Xu, Lingzhong; Tang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a treat-able and prevent-able inborn error of metabolism which leads to severe mental retardation and neurobehavioral abnormalities. A screening program, especially for early detection, combined with a Phe-restricted therapeutic diet can help to control the process of PKU of most patients. The China government has put more emphasis on newborn screening and treatment against PKU, yet by comparing the situation of newborn screening and treatment against PKU in China and the relatively developed countries — United States, United Kingdom and Japan, the newborn screening and treatment against PKU in China is relatively weak and many deficiencies are found. More studies concerning multi-stage target blood Phe concentration criteria, a policy that requires newborn screening has to be taken, better financial support for newborn screening, publicity for newborn screening, and national guidelines for treatment of PKU may be prospects in China and may provide some support for better development of newborn screening and treatment against PKU in China. PMID:25343113

  17. [Effectiveness of screening colonoscopy in a community-based study].

    PubMed

    Hüppe, D; Hartmann, H; Felten, G; Kemen, M; Tannapfel, A; Gillessen, A; Katalinic, A

    2008-02-01

    In 2002 screening colonoscopy was introduced in Germany for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC mortality. Individuals took part in a prospective study from October 2002 until September 2005 performed at a single centre for gastroenterology. Histopathological data, surgical-pathological stages and further follow-up events were recorded until 31st of December 2006. For screened individuals without symptoms, the data obtained were compared to those from age-matched patients who presented with clinical symptoms/signs and who underwent colonoscopy during the same period in time. A total of 5066 individuals underwent screening colonoscopy. In this group, colorectal cancer was detected in 46 individuals (0.9%). Endoscopic treatment was considered adequate for 21 cancers. In this group of 46 patients, 94.5% were classified into UICC stages I-II by pathological staging. In 504 screened individuals, colorectal polyps were detected (12.2%) and removed by polypectomy. Of these polyps, 16 were classified as cancer, 496 as adenomas and 1 as a carcinoid tumour. High grade dysplasia was noted in 41 polyps (8.3% of adenomas). In comparison, 4099 symptomatic patients underwent colonoscopy. In this group 100 cancers (2.4%) were detected. Advanced malignant tumours were noted in 39% of these; endoscopic treatment was feasible in 16% of the cancers. As of December 2006, cancer-related deaths were observed in 20% of symptomatic patients with CRC. Screening colonoscopy detects colorectal cancers in the early stages. Given the favourable prognosis in these stages, screening can reduce CRC-related mortality. PMID:18253898

  18. Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA (neurotoxins), fillers, and laser hair removal users were studied. The data show that the average private practice cosmetic surgery patient in this study is a married (67.5%), college-educated or greater (66.9%), employed (74.3%), mother (74.5%). In the fillers category, 50 percent of women were older than their partners, as opposed to 14.8 percent in 2008 Census data. Additionally, women were more educated and employed to a higher percentage than similar women in 2008 Census data. Data on motivations were statistically not significant. Conclusion: Data from this study show potential correlations with Census data norms in marital status and motherhood status categories, but not in the age in relation to partner, education, and employment level categories. Motivations of individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery will need further analysis in future studies. PMID:21103314

  19. Prospective study of definite caterpillar exposures.

    PubMed

    Balit, Corrine R; Geary, Merilyn J; Russell, Richard C; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to caterpillars results in a variety of clinical effects depending on the species involved. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical effects from caterpillar exposures within Australia. Cases were recruited prospectively from calls to a poison information centre. Subjects were included if they had a definite exposure and they had collected the caterpillar or cocoon. The caterpillars were identified to genus and species level where possible. There were 36 included cases: two were contact exposures to caterpillar contents, one was an ingestion of a caterpillar and the remaining 33 patients had definite reactions from caterpillar or cocoon exposure. There were five families of caterpillars identified in the study: Arctiidae, Limacodidae, Anthelidae, Lymantriidae and Sphingidae, many of which occur worldwide. Clinical effects ranged from severe pain to an urticarial response depending on the species involved. There were no adverse effects following ingestion in this study. Treatment consisted primarily of removal of the caterpillar or cocoon. Other treatment measures consisted of symptomatic treatment such as ice packs and antihistamines. This is the first prospective study of caterpillar exposures within Australia and demonstrates that exposures can result in a variety of reactions depending on the family and species involved. PMID:14602121

  20. Student Awareness of the Use of Social Media Screening by Prospective Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Teri; McKay, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Hiring professionals are increasingly using social media sites as screening tools. The primary purpose of this study was to determine what students thought employers considered important information when researching profiles. A survey was given to students enrolled in College of Business classes at a university in the Southeast. Students were…

  1. Chemoprevention studies within lung cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, G; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A; Infante, M; Bonanni, B

    2015-01-01

    While aggressive tobacco control and help to stop smoking are essential weapons in the fight against lung cancer, screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk populations and chemoprevention may also contribute to reducing lung cancer deaths. Persons undergoing LDCT screening are an ideal population to be tested for agents potentially able to prevent the development of lung cancer by the regression of precancerous lesions, which are routinely monitored as part of the screening process. Peripheral subsolid nodules appear as particularly suitable targets, since many are adenocarcinoma precursors. A study on inhaled budesonide (a potential chemopreventive drug) for 1 year found that the mean size of non-solid lung nodules was significantly reduced over 5 years of follow-up, compared to inhaled placebo, in a population of high-risk individuals with indeterminate lung nodules not requiring immediate specific investigation for lung cancer and detected as part of a lung cancer screening program with LDCT. A new randomised placebo-controlled phase-II trial to test the ability of aspirin to induce the regression of non-solid and partially solid nodules detected by LDCT screening has been started. The effect of aspirin on a miRNA signature able to predict the presence of both cancer and precancerous lesions in high-risk asymptomatic individuals is also being monitored in the trial. This signature was previously shown to predict the presence of both lung cancer and non-solid lung nodules in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:26635901

  2. Abdominal Lipectomy: A Prospective Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Semer, Nadine B; Ho, Wan C; Mills, Sharrie; Rajashekara, BM; Taylor, Jason R; Trung, Nguyen B; Young, Henry; Kivuls, Juris

    2008-01-01

    Context/objective: Abdominal lipectomy is performed by plastic surgeons to provide symptomatic, functional, and cosmetic relief for patients with excess abdominal tissue. However, there are few clinical outcome studies looking at the utility of this procedure: this is the first prospective oucomes study. Design: Patients who underwent abdominal lipectomy at the Bellflower Medical Center during a 12-month period (September 2004 through September 2005) were prospectively studied. Data were collected at the preoperative visit, during surgery, and at the one-week, one-month, and six-month postoperative visits. Outcome measures: Complications, both major (requiring rehospitalization or reoperation) and minor (requiring local outpatient care) were identified. To evaluate the impact on our patients' perceived health and well-being as well as body image, we administered the Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) to participants at their preoperative and six-month postoperative visits. Results: For the 72 patients enrolled in the study, the postoperative major complication rate was 5.6% (four patients) and the minor complication rate was 27.8% (20 patients); 98.3% were happy to have had the surgery. Two components of the MBSRQ, feelings of attractiveness and body area satisfaction, showed significant improvement (p < 0.0001 for each) at six-month postoperative testing. No component of the SF-36 reached statistical significance between pre- and postoperative testing. Conclusion: Because the complication rate for cosmetic abdominoplasty in our study did not significantly differ from rates reported for other studies, and given our data on perceived patient satisfaction and improvement in outcomes, our study validates the utility of abdominal lipectomy for patients with symptomatic lower abdominal pannus. PMID:21364808

  3. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  4. Performance Studies on Distributed Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Jens; de la Garza, Luis; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Nagel, Wolfgang E.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) is an invaluable method in modern drug discovery. It permits screening large datasets or databases of chemical structures for those structures binding possibly to a drug target. Virtual screening is typically performed by docking code, which often runs sequentially. Processing of huge vHTS datasets can be parallelized by chunking the data because individual docking runs are independent of each other. The goal of this work is to find an optimal splitting maximizing the speedup while considering overhead and available cores on Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs). We have conducted thorough performance studies accounting not only for the runtime of the docking itself, but also for structure preparation. Performance studies were conducted via the workflow-enabled science gateway MoSGrid (Molecular Simulation Grid). As input we used benchmark datasets for protein kinases. Our performance studies show that docking workflows can be made to scale almost linearly up to 500 concurrent processes distributed even over large DCIs, thus accelerating vHTS campaigns significantly. PMID:25032219

  5. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  6. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  7. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  8. Ossiculoplasty: A Prospective Study of 80 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Shrinivas Shripatrao; Jain, Prateek V; Vedi, Jeevan N; Rai, Dharmendra kumar; Kadri, Himayat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of ossicular graft material in ossicular chain reconstruction has significantly improved hearing results hearing after tympanoplasty and tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media. Today, otologists have a wide array of tools from which to choose, but may find it difficult to know which middle ear implant works best. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 80 patients who underwent ossiculoplasty was performed in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department at a tertiary health care facility from 2011 to 2013. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with an air-bone gap (ABG) of >25 dB with ossicular involvement were included in the study. Total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP), and refashioned incus were used. Success was defined as ABG <25 dB on postoperative Day 90. Results: The majority patients were of middle age with moderate conductive hearing loss. Incus was the most susceptible ossicle. Overall success rate in this study was 80.0% with an average change of 15.76 dB in ABG. Conclusion: With continuing advances in our understanding of middle ear mechanics, the results of ossiculoplasty are improving and results can be very rewarding in experienced hands. Severity of preoperative ear discharge, preoperative mastoid cellularity, presence of disease, and surgical procedure proved to be significant prognostic factors. Autograft incus and PORP fared better when the malleus handle was present while TORP gave better results when the malleus handle was eroded. PMID:25009804

  9. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  10. Self-rated health is prospectively associated with uptake of screening for the early detection of colorectal cancer, not vice versa.

    PubMed

    Neter, Efrat; Stein, Nili; Rennert, Gad; Hagoel, Lea

    2016-07-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a consistent predictor of mortality and other health outcomes. One of the mechanisms hypothesized to explain its validity as a predictor is that SRH affects the adoption of health behaviors. The present study examined the prospective association between SRH and performance of a recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test. One thousand four hundred and seventy-six men and women aged 50-74 years, eligible for CRC screening, who had undergone the test a year before were interviewed 1-2 weeks (long interview, before testing) or 2 months (short interview, after testing) following the mailing of a test kit. Test performance was ascertained using an HMO's computerized data set. Respondents in the long interview group who rated their health as 'higher than others' performed the screening test 2 months following the invitation more than those who rated their health as similar to or lower than that of others (65.4, 61.6, and 49.1%, respectively, χ=8.02, P=0.018). At the same time, these respondents perceived the risk of CRC as significantly lower than that of those who rated their health as comparable with or lower than that of others. In a multivariate logistic regression of CRC screening behavior that included demographic and perceptual variables, age, intentions, and SRH were found to be significant predictors. Among respondents in the short interview, who tested before the interview, there was no significant association between SRH and behavior. SRH prospectively predicts uptake of CRC screening better than other perceptual variables, after accounting for demographic variables. PMID:26230609

  11. A prospective study of rock climbing injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; McNaughton, G W; Grant, P T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the rate, causes, and nature of rock climbing injuries presenting to an accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: Patients presenting with rock climbing injuries to an urban A&E department were studied prospectively for one year. RESULTS: 19 rock climbers presented during the year, at a rate of one per 2774 A&E attendances. Fourteen climbers were injured on outdoor cliffs and five on the local indoor climbing wall, where the safety mats were noted to be in poor condition. Eighteen climbers had been injured during falls, 17 hitting the ground. Twelve of these climbers sustained fractures, four of which were missed on initial attendance. The remaining climber sustained the characteristic A2 pulley finger injury, which was treated conservatively with a good result. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of rock climbing in Britain would be reduced if lead climbers arranged protection at earlier stages of climbs. Sports centres with climbing walls should regularly inspect and repair their safety equipment. It is important for staff in A&E departments to appreciate the large forces involved in any climbing fall, in order that significant injuries are not missed. Those treating injured climbers should also be aware of the specific injuries to which elite climbers are predisposed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8799601

  12. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  13. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  14. Superwarfarin poisoning in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smolinske, S C; Scherger, D L; Kearns, P S; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1989-09-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence, severity, time of onset, and duration of coagulopathy in children following accidental ingestion of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides, often called "superwarfarins." Of 110 children, who ingested superwarfarins and in whom one or more prothrombin time values were obtained, 8 had a prothrombin time ratio (patient to control) of greater than or equal to 1.2, indicative of anticoagulation. Prothrombin time values obtained 48 hours after ingestion were more likely to be prolonged (6/34, 17.6%) than values obtained 24 hours after ingestion (2/104, 1.9%) (P less than .005). The occurrence of an abnormal prothrombin time could not be predicted based on the history of amount ingested or on the presence of the characteristic green-blue product dye in or around the child's mouth. Acute toxicity was evidenced by transient abdominal pain, vomiting, and heme positive stools in 2 patients. The duration of prothrombin time prolongation could not be determined because of the few values obtained after 48 hours. To detect all possible abnormal prothrombin time values, 24- and 48-hour determinations are recommended after a child has ingested a superwarfarin. PMID:2771552

  15. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  16. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula. PMID:3945202

  17. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  18. Screening for diabetes in lower limb amputees: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Treweek, S P; Condie, M E; Gilmour, D G

    1998-04-01

    The Saint Vincent Declaration includes 5-year targets to improve the outcome of diabetic patients as a central tenet. Meeting these targets requires a comprehensive screening and monitoring programme to establish the current incidence of diabetic complications and show that the major goals of the declaration are being achieved. The Scottish Physiotherapy Amputee Research Group and the Scottish Vascular Audit Group jointly organized a three month prospective screening programme of 146 patients presenting for a lower limb amputation. The results suggest that a significant proportion of patients have undiagnosed diabetes. Further, only around half of the patients eligible for testing actually had a test done, highlighting the difficulties associated with establishing a national screening programme. This programme is now ongoing and particular importance is being given to improving the proportion of patients actually being tested. PMID:9621529

  19. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mir, Inocencia; García-López, Mercedes; Palop, Vicente; Ferrer, José M; Rubio, Elena; Morales-Olivas, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    Aims There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. Methods An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. Results A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. Conclusions Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients. PMID:10383547

  20. The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE): a randomized prospective population-based study. Design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel; Høiberg, Mikkel; Barkmann, Reinhard; Gram, Jeppe; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Bech, Mickael; Rasmussen, Ole; Glüer, Claus C; Brixen, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15% were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish National guidelines. The primary outcome is incident clinical fractures as evaluated through annual follow-up using the Danish National Patient Registry. The secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, participation rate, and patient preferences. 20,904 (60%) women participated and included in the baseline analyses (10,411 in screening and 10,949 in control group). The mean age was 71 years. As expected by randomization, the screening and control groups had similar baseline characteristics. Screening for osteoporosis is at present not evidence based according to the WHO screening criteria. The ROSE study is expected to provide knowledge of the effectiveness of a screening strategy that may be implemented in health care systems to prevent fractures. PMID:25578146

  1. Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ​.

    PubMed

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

  2. Recent trends and future prospects in computational GPCR drug discovery: from virtual screening to polypharmacology.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Antonio; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Lentini, Giovanni; Ritchie, David W

    2013-01-01

    Extending virtual screening approaches to deal with multi-target drug design and polypharmacology is an increasingly important aspect in drug design. In light of this, the concept of accessible chemical space and its exploration should be reviewed. The great advantages of re-using drugs with safe pharmacological profiles with favourable pharmacokinetic properties highlights drug repositioning as a valid alternative to rational drug design, massive drug development efforts, and high-throughput screening, especially when supported by in silico techniques. Here, we discuss some of the advantages of multi-target approaches, and we review some significant examples of their application in the last decade to that well known class of pharmaceutical targets, the G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:23651484

  3. The Early Screening Profiles: A Stability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    Stability of the Early Screening Profiles (ESP), developed by P. Harrison, was examined with a sample of 23 non-handicapped preschool children (14 females and 9 males) ranging in age from 3 years 0 months to 6 years 0 months at the time of initial testing. The sample was drawn from a rural/suburban community in the midwest with a predominantly…

  4. Colorectal Cancer in the Arab World--Screening Practices and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Farhat, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates have dropped 30% in the US in the last 10 years among adults ages 50 and older due to the widespread uptake of colonoscopy, yet incidences in the Arab countries have been increasing in the past ten years, albeit with lower figures when compared with developed countries. Lifestyle changes, food consumption patterns and obesity have been observed during the past years where the regular consumption of traditional foods is being replaced with more Western-style and ready-made foods. Most high income countries have implemented population based colorectal cancer screening programs, which aid in decreasing the incidence and mortality of cancer, while these are lacking in most of the Arab world countries due to many cultural and religious barriers to CRC screening as well as lack of high education or familiarity. What is needed is health education to modify risky lifestyle, and to increase motives and enhance positive attitudes towards early screening especially amongst high risk groups in addition to policy designed to encourage healthier living. PMID:26625738

  5. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  6. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  7. VISION SCREENING OF THE PRESCHOOL CHILD, REPORT OF A STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVITZ, ROBERTA A.; AND OTHERS

    USING A SAMPLE OF 94 CHILDREN (31 TO 54 MONTHS OLD), THIS STUDY COMPARED EIGHT VISION SCREENING PROCEDURES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN IN THE ABILITY TO TEST FOR SEVERAL VISUAL FUNCTIONS, AND PREFERENCE AMONG THEM BY CHILDREN. THE SUBJECTS WERE ORIGINALLY TESTED USING THE EIGHT SCREENING TESTS, AND 6 MONTHS LATER 40 OF THE CHILDREN WERE RETESTED FOR…

  8. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  9. Surface reflectance and material studies for the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, Alyssa; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT Experiment aims to probe the existence of sterile neutrino oscillations by measuring the energy spectrum of antineutrinos emanating from nuclear reactors in a matrix of optically separated target scintillator cells at a variety of reactor-detector baselines. By measuring the absolute spectrum we also learn about reactors and what isotopes they produce. In order to properly model and optimise PROSPECT's energy resolution and background rejection capabilities, the reflective properties of the cell surfaces must be well understood. To address this, a study of various reflective surfaces under consideration to be used in the detector was conducted at non-normal incident angles through liquid using a custom-built laser-based reflectance measurement system. This presentation will describe the apparatus, reflectance measurements, and implications for the PROSPECT optical cell performance. Future plans to incorporate measurements into existing optical simulations will also be discussed. Funding provided by Illinois Institute of Technology College of Science.

  10. Novel risk markers for gastric cancer screening: Present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Shotaro; Maekita, Takao; Ohata, Hiroshi; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Oka, Masashi; Ichinose, Masao

    2010-12-16

    Initial identification of populations at high risk of gastric cancer (GC) is important for endoscopic screening of GC. As serum pepsinogen (PG) test-positive subjects with progression of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) show a high likelihood of future cancer development, this population warrants careful follow-up observation as a high-risk GC group. By combining the PG test with Helicobacter pylori (HP) antibody titers, the HP-related chronic gastritis stage can be classified, thus identifying not only a GC high-risk group but also a low-risk group. Among PG test-negative patients without CAG, those with high serum PG II levels and HP antibody titers are thought to have severe gastric mucosal inflammation and the risk of diffuse-type GC is also high. Meanwhile, in gastric mucosae obtained by endoscopic biopsy, HP infection induces aberrant DNA methylation in CpG islands in multiple gene regions and the extent of methylation clearly correlates with GC risk. By quantifying aberrant DNA methylation in suitable gene markers, we can determine the extent of the epigenetic field for cancerization. These novel concepts and risk markers will have many clinical applications in gastrointestinal endoscopy, including more efficient endoscopic GC screening and a strategic approach to metachronous multiple GCs after endoscopic treatment. PMID:21191511

  11. A Qualitative Study on the Prospective Social Studies Teachers' Role-Model Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this study is intended to investigate prospective social studies teachers' role model preferences and the reflections of these preferences to their daily lives. This study was designed as a qualitative study in the form of descriptive model. The participants consisted of 306 prospective social studies teachers enrolled in nine different…

  12. Does Gender Discrimination Impact Regular Mammography Screening? Findings from the Race Differences in Screening Mammography Study

    PubMed Central

    DAILEY, AMY B.; KASL, STANISLAV V.; JONES, BETH A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. Methods African American and white women (1451) aged 40–79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Results Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of ≥$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women. PMID:18321171

  13. Prospects of Elliptic Flow Studies at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraksiev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying elliptic flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the elliptic flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.

  14. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  15. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  16. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  17. Prospective Nationwide Study of Aeromonas Infections in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Brigitte; Kodjo, Angeli; Laurent, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical Aeromonas infections in France. During 6 months (May to October 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. They included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections. PMID:19244464

  18. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  19. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  20. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease

  1. Breast Cancer Challenges and Screening in China: Lessons From Current Registry Data and Population Screening Studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Xin-Na; Yang, Hua-Bing; Li, Yu-Chen; Wu, Jiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    incidence, and an early age of onset. The 2009 to 2011 BC screening program targeting women aged 35–59 years had a low detection rate that resulted in a second-generation screening program that extended the cohort size and ages screened to 35–64 years. Implications for Practice: Cancer registration has been active in China for decades; however, a national survey of registries has not been routinely reported. This study used MapInfo to describe the reported data and found asymmetric registration activities, geographic variations in breast cancer (BC) burdens, and an increasing incidence with a peak at age 50. The initial Chinese BC screening programs focused on a relatively young population of women aged 35–59 years and had a low detection rate, but 69.7% of patients had early stage BC. Older women were included in the second-generation screening programs, and an additional 6 million women were screened. Consideration of regional variations and age is necessary to optimize the efficiency and utility of BC screening in China, with the ultimate goal to reduce BC mortality. PMID:26001390

  2. Screening of Diabetic Foot in Surgical Inpatients: A Hospital-Based Study in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elsharawy, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Khairi; AlAwad, Naif; Kredees, Ali; Almulhim, Abdelmohsen

    2012-01-01

    Previous reports found that identification of diabetic patients at high risk of foot ulcers, and managing the risk factors early, lower extremity amputations could be prevented. The aim of this study is to determine the value of screening diabetics in estimating the risk of foot ulceration among surgical inpatients. This is a prospective study on all diabetic patients admitted to the surgical department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2011. Patients were screened for the presence of diabetic foot. They were classified according to the international working group on the diabetic foot into four grades [0 (lowest risk patients), 1, 2, 3 (highest risk patients)]. During the study period, 391 patients had diabetes mellitus (DM), of these 73 (19%) had active ulcer and were excluded from the study and the rest were screened. Grade 0 was in 174 (54.5%) patients, the rest were grades 1, 2, and 3. There was significant difference between low-risk groups (grades 0, 1) and high-risk groups (grades 2, 3) as regards age, smoking and duration of DM. This study indicates that prevalence of diabetic patients with risk of foot ulceration in surgical inpatients was high. Routine screening of diabetic foot is recommended specially in old patients. PMID:24293979

  3. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  4. Communication Studies in Australia: Achievements and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The introduction of communications studies in Australian higher education and problems and achievements of the past decade are discussed. Attention is directed to: the development of formal college coursework; staff training and retraining schemes to support development; academic and professional associations; journals in the field; and research,…

  5. Problems and Prospect of Chinese Communication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    Chinese have systematically practiced communication for over two thousand years, but from the Western perspective communication education and research in Chinese societies only began to burgeon in recent decades. In addition to summarizing the Western and traditional Chinese communication study and practice, this paper identified four problems…

  6. The National Lung Screening Trial: overview and study design.

    PubMed

    Aberle, Denise R; Berg, Christine D; Black, William C; Church, Timothy R; Fagerstrom, Richard M; Galen, Barbara; Gareen, Ilana F; Gatsonis, Constantine; Goldin, Jonathan; Gohagan, John K; Hillman, Bruce; Jaffe, Carl; Kramer, Barnett S; Lynch, David; Marcus, Pamela M; Schnall, Mitchell; Sullivan, Daniel C; Sullivan, Dorothy; Zylak, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a randomized multicenter study comparing low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Five-year survival rates approach 70% with surgical resection of stage IA disease; however, more than 75% of individuals have incurable locally advanced or metastatic disease, the latter having a 5-year survival of less than 5%. It is plausible that treatment should be more effective and the likelihood of death decreased if asymptomatic lung cancer is detected through screening early enough in its preclinical phase. For these reasons, there is intense interest and intuitive appeal in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. The use of survival as the determinant of screening effectiveness is, however, confounded by the well-described biases of lead time, length, and overdiagnosis. Despite previous attempts, no test has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, an endpoint that circumvents screening biases and provides a definitive measure of benefit when assessed in a randomized controlled trial that enables comparison of mortality rates between screened individuals and a control group that does not undergo the screening intervention of interest. The NLST is such a trial. The rationale for and design of the NLST are presented. PMID:21045183

  7. STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDY PROTOCOLS:

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ‐ meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings. PMID:23091782

  8. Biomarker research with prospective study designs for the early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Pesch, B; Brüning, T; Johnen, G; Casjens, S; Bonberg, N; Taeger, D; Müller, A; Weber, D G; Behrens, T

    2014-05-01

    This article describes the principles of marker research with prospective studies along with examples for diagnostic tumor markers. A plethora of biomarkers have been claimed as useful for the early detection of cancer. However, disappointingly few biomarkers were approved for the detection of unrecognized disease, and even approved markers may lack a sound validation phase. Prospective studies aimed at the early detection of cancer are costly and long-lasting and therefore the bottleneck in marker research. They enroll a large number of clinically asymptomatic subjects and follow-up on incident cases. As invasive procedures cannot be applied to collect tissue samples from the target organ, biomarkers can only be determined in easily accessible body fluids. Marker levels increase during cancer development, with samples collected closer to the occurrence of symptoms or a clinical diagnosis being more informative than earlier samples. Only prospective designs allow the serial collection of pre-diagnostic samples. Their storage in a biobank upgrades cohort studies to serve for both, marker discovery and validation. Population-based cohort studies, which may collect a wealth of data, are commonly conducted with just one baseline investigation lacking serial samples. However, they can provide valuable information about factors that influence the marker level. Screening programs can be employed to archive serial samples but require significant efforts to collect samples and auxiliary data for marker research. Randomized controlled trials have the highest level of evidence in assessing a biomarker's benefit against usual care and present the most stringent design for the validation of promising markers as well as for the discovery of new markers. In summary, all kinds of prospective studies can benefit from a biobank as they can serve as a platform for biomarker research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:24361552

  9. Adherence to immunosuppression: a prospective diary study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Prohaska, T R; Gallant, M P; Siminoff, L A

    2007-12-01

    Immunosuppression adherence among kidney transplant recipients is essential for graft survival. However, nonadherence is common, jeopardizing graft survival. Besides skipping dosages, little is known about other forms of medication nonadherence and their underlying reasons. This study sought to examine patients' extent of medication adherence over time and reasons for nonadherence. Thirty-nine new kidney transplant recipients were asked to complete a month-long medication-taking diary that included reporting medication nonadherence such as skipped medications, medications taken early or late, taking dosages greater or less than prescribed, and the reason for each occurrence of nonadherence. Of the 20 (51%) patients who completed the diary, 11 (55%) reported at least 1 form of nonadherence. Eleven patients reported taking their immunosuppression at least 1 hour later than the prescribed time, 1 patient reported skipping medication, but no patients reported changing the dosage on their own. Immunosuppression was taken on average 1.5 hours after the prescribed time. Of those patients who took their medications late, there were on average 3.1 occasions of taking it late. The most common reasons for this behavior included health care-related issues, followed by oversleeping, being away from home, work-related barriers, and forgetting. The majority of kidney transplant recipients took medications later than prescribed during 1 month. Future research should determine the clinical impact on graft function of late administration of immunosuppression. Interventions should be designed to better assist kidney recipients with taking medications on time, especially when they are away from home. PMID:18089327

  10. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-01

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes. PMID:88763

  11. Improving newborn screening for cystic fibrosis using next-generation sequencing technology: a technical feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mei W.; Atkins, Anne E.; Cordovado, Suzanne K.; Hendrix, Miyono; Earley, Marie C.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many regions have implemented newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) using a limited panel of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations after immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) analysis. We sought to assess the feasibility of further improving the screening using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Methods An NGS assay was used to detect 162 CFTR mutations/variants characterized by the CFTR2 project. We used 67 dried blood spots (DBSs) containing 48 distinct CFTR mutations to validate the assay. NGS assay was retrospectively performed on 165 CF screen–positive samples with one CFTR mutation. Results The NGS assay was successfully performed using DNA isolated from DBSs, and it correctly detected all CFTR mutations in the validation. Among 165 screen-positive infants with one CFTR mutation, no additional disease-causing mutation was identified in 151 samples consistent with normal sweat tests. Five infants had a CF-causing mutation that was not included in this panel, and nine with two CF-causing mutations were identified. Conclusion The NGS assay was 100% concordant with traditional methods. Retrospective analysis results indicate an IRT/NGS screening algorithm would enable high sensitivity, better specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). This study lays the foundation for prospective studies and for introducing NGS in NBS laboratories. PMID:25674778

  12. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15–24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Results Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15–24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15–24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). Conclusions This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. Trial registration The trial was

  13. Problems and Limitations in Studies on Screening for Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten; Westerlund, Monica; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice…

  14. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  15. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment. PMID:25726819

  16. Intake of coffee and tea and risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Silvera, Stephanie A N; Jain, Meera; Howe, Geoffrey R; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    There is some evidence from case-control studies that coffee consumption might be positively associated with ovarian cancer risk, whereas the epidemiologic evidence regarding tea consumption and ovarian cancer is inconsistent. To date, there have been few prospective studies of these associations. Therefore, we examined ovarian cancer risk in association with both coffee and tea intake in a prospective cohort study of 49,613 Canadian women enrolled in the National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire between 1980 and 1985. Linkages to national mortality and cancer databases yielded data on deaths and cancer incidence, with follow-up ending between 1998 and 2000. Data from the food frequency questionnaire were used to estimate daily intake of coffee and tea. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between categories of coffee and tea intake and ovarian cancer risk. During a mean 16.4 years of follow-up, we observed 264 incident ovarian cancer cases. Tea intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in our study population. In contrast, a borderline positive association was observed among women who drank > 4 cups coffee/day compared to women who did not drink coffee (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.95-2.75, P(trend) = 0.06). Given the pervasive use of these beverages, the associations between coffee and tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk warrant investigation in further prospective studies. PMID:17571963

  17. Prospective pregnancy study designs for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicants.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Germaine M; Lynch, Courtney D; Stanford, Joseph B; Sweeney, Anne M; Schieve, Laura A; Rockett, John C; Selevan, Sherry G; Schrader, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    The determinants of successful human reproduction and development may act as early as periconceptionally, underscoring the need to capture exposures during these critical windows when assessing potential toxicants. To identify such toxicants, couples must be studied longitudinally prior to conception without regard to a couple's ability to ascertain a clinically recognized pregnancy. We examined the utility and feasibility of prospective pregnancy study designs by conducting a systematic review of the literature to summarize relevant information regarding the planning, implementation, and success of previously published prospective pregnancy studies. Information concerning design elements and participation was abstracted from 15 eligible studies (from a total of 20 identified studies) using a standardized form. The primary author of each study was contacted to review our summary of their work and obtain missing information. Our findings confirm the ability to recruit women/couples from diverse populations using a variety of recruitment strategies. Among the studies we reviewed, 4-97% of eligible individuals were successfully contacted, with enrollment rates ranging from 42 to 100%. Length of follow-up varied from 3 to 12 months. A high percentage of women provided urine (57-98%) and blood (86-91%) specimens and most male partners (94-100%) provided semen samples. These data support the feasibility of this design. PMID:14698935

  18. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-03-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium (/sup 47/Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO/sub 3/. In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the /sup 47/Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison.

  19. Ureteral stricture formation after ureteroscope treatment of impacted calculi: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singam, Praveen; Ho, Christopher Chee Kong; Sridharan, Radhika; Hod, Rozita; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Goh, Eng Hong; Tan, Guan Hee; Zainuddin, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary calculi is a familiar disease. A well-known complication of endourological treatment for impacted ureteral stones is the formation of ureteral strictures, which has been reported to occur in 14.2% to 24% of cases. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study. Ureterotripsy treatment was used on patients with impacted ureteral stones. Then, after 3 months and 6 months, the condition of these patients was assessed by means of a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) ultrasound. If the KUB ultrasound indicated moderate to serious hydronephrosis, the patient was further assessed by means of a computed tomography intravenous urogram or retrograde pyelogram to confirm the occurrence of ureteral strictures. Results Of the 77 patients who participated in the study, 5 developed ureteral strictures. Thus, the stricture rate was 7.8%. An analysis of the intraoperative risk factors including perforation of the ureter, damage to the mucous membrane, and residual stone impacted within the ureter mucosa revealed that none of these factors contributed significantly to the formation of the ureteric strictures. The stone-related risk factors that were taken into consideration were stone size, stone impaction site, and duration of impaction. These stone factors also did not contribute significantly to the formation of the ureteral strictures. Conclusions This prospective study failed to identify any predictable factors for ureteral stricture formation. It is proposed that all patients undergo a simple postoperative KUB ultrasound screening 3 months after undergoing endoscopic treatment for impacted ureteral stones. PMID:25598938

  20. The Impact of Brief Messages on HSV-2 Screening Uptake Among Female Defendants in a Court Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial Utilizing Prospect Theory

    PubMed Central

    ROTH, ALEXIS M.; VAN DER POL, BARBARA; FORTENBERRY, J. DENNIS; DODGE, BRIAN; REECE, MICHAEL; CERTO, DAVID; ZIMET, GREGORY D.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV-2. Participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing factors associated with antibody test uptake/refusal and were offered free point-of-care HSV-2 serologic testing. Although individuals in the loss-frame group accepted testing at the highest rate, an overall statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by group (p ≤.43) was not detected. The majority of the sample (74.6%) characterized receiving a serological test for HSV-2 as health affirming. However, this did not moderate the effect of the intervention nor was it significantly associated with test acceptance (p ≤.82). Although the effects of message framing are subtle, the findings have important theoretical implications given the participants’ characterization of HSV-2 screening as health affirming despite being a detection behavior. Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are also explored. PMID:25494832

  1. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  2. Equestrian injuries--a one year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    McLatchie, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A one year prospective study of equestrian injuries was carried out in an area where horse riding is a popular pursuit. 115 persons suffered injury--eighty females and thirty-five males of whom sixty were under fifteen years of age. No fatalities were recorded and there were 0.2 injuries per 100 rides. Most injuries were minor and to the musculo-skeletal system. Visceral and cerebral injuries were not common but the former were life threatening in all cases. It is concluded that young riders should be supervised. PMID:465903

  3. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study 1

    PubMed Central

    Borghardt, Andressa Tomazini; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Rogenski, Noemi Marisa Brunet; Bringuente, Maria Edla de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients. METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow) upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories. RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71%) and low specificity (21% and 47%) respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale. CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power. PMID:25806628

  4. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  5. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  6. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC): design and methods of a three-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM). Screening for the presumed cancer precursor, high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in a manner analogous to cervical cancer screening has been proposed. Uncertainty remains regarding anal HPV natural history and the role of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) as screening tests. Well-designed cohort studies are required to address these issues. Methods/design The SPANC study is a prospective study of the epidemiology of low-risk and high-risk anal HPV infection and related cytological and histological abnormalities in HIV-negative and HIV-positive homosexual men aged 35 years and over. The study aims to recruit 600 men from community-based settings in Sydney, Australia. There are six study visits over three years. At the first five visits men undergo a digital ano-rectal examination (DARE), an anal “Papanicolaou” (Pap) test for HPV detection, genotyping and anal cytology, followed by HRA and directed biopsy of any visible abnormalities. The men also complete a behavioural questionnaire before each visit. Questions include a detailed history of sexual behaviour, of anal symptoms, possible anal cancer risk factors and validated quality of life and psychosocial questions. Questionnaires are also completed 2 weeks and 3 months following the provision of test results and include questions on participant experience during the procedure and post-procedure symptoms, including pain and bleeding in addition to quality of life/ psychosocial outcomes. Discussion Recruitment for the study began in September 2010 and will conclude in mid-2015, with follow up continuing to 2018. Thus far, over 350 men have been recruited from a variety of community-based settings and are broadly representative of the target screening population. The SPANC study is one of only a small number of cohort studies globally to perform HPV

  7. Micronutrient Levels and Supplement Intake in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. Results The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients. PMID:25470614

  8. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Sepsis: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Shen, Yong; Wang, Hairong; Ge, Qinmin; Fei, Aihua; Pan, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Background. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easily accessible biological marker that has been reported to represent disease severity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between NLR and mortality in patients with sepsis. Methods. A total of 333 consecutive adult patients with sepsis were screened for eligibility in this prospective, observational study cohort. Severity scores and leukocyte counts were prospectively recorded upon entry to the intensive care unit (ICU). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and binary logistic regression models were used to assess the performance of NLR in predicting unfavorable outcome. Correlations between variables and disease severity were analyzed through Spearman correlation tests. Results. Median NLR levels were significantly higher in patients who died than in survivors. NLR had a modest power for predicting poor outcome as suggested by area under the curve (AUC) of 0.695 ± 0.036. Multivariate linear regression indicated that increased NLR levels were related to unfavorable outcome independently of the effect of possible confounders. Spearman correlation tests showed that there was a positive correlation between NLR levels and disease severity. Conclusions. Increased NLR levels were independently associated with unfavorable clinical prognosis in patients with sepsis. Further investigation is required to increase understanding of the pathophysiology of this relationship. PMID:27110067

  9. Bariatric support line: a prospective study of support line activity.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Kirsten; Segaran, Ella; Sufi, Pratik; Heath, Dugal I

    2010-03-01

    In this prospective study, we examine the workload of the North London Obesity Surgery Service Bariatric telephone support line (BTSL) and its effects on service provision. Over a 3-month period (June to August 2008), a prospective record was kept of all calls, who they were from, whether the patient was presurgery or postsurgery, the type of procedure planned or undertaken, the nature of the enquiry, and the time taken to answer the query. Seventy-five (72%) calls were related to patients who were postsurgery and 29 (28%) presurgery. Patients scheduled for or having undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass accounted for 46 (44%) calls; 24 (23%) were preprocedure and 22 (21%) postprocedure. Patients scheduled for or having undergone gastric banding accounted for 56 (54%) calls; five (0.5%) were preprocedure and 51 (49%) postprocedure. Patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy accounted for two (<1%) calls. Both calls were postprocedure. The reason for the support line enquiry was psychological support in 15 (14%) patients, questions postsurgery in 26 (25%), general enquiries in 27 (26%), and clinical enquiries in 36 (36%). This study of the BTSL has allowed us to identify areas of need within our bariatric population and improve the service we deliver. The changes we have made should lead to a better use of the team's time, greater patient compliance, and satisfaction as well as reduced complaints and litigation. PMID:19711140

  10. Endogenous hormones and breast cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, P G; Pasternack, B S; Shore, R E; Sonnenschein, E; Koenig, K L; Rosenberg, C; Strax, P; Strax, S

    1991-05-01

    A cohort study is under way in New York City to evaluate how levels of endogenous reproductive hormones influence the risk of breast cancer. The study, in which approximately 15,000 women are being recruited, utilizes a prospective design in which volunteers are asked to provide repeated specimens of serum during the period 1985-1992. A case-control study nested within the cohort is planned by which specimens from all cases arising in the population and from a randomly selected sample of time-matched controls will be analyzed and compared. As of December 31, 1989, 13,609 volunteers had donated blood specimens, about 50% of whom had already donated more than once. Of the 187 incident breast cancer cases who are expected to arise in the cohort before the end of 1992, 77 have been detected thus far. PMID:1873553

  11. Paramedic Recognition of Sepsis in the Prehospital Setting: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Andrew H.; Cain, Edward; Campbell, Samuel G.; Jensen, Jan L.; Petrie, David A.; Erdogan, Mete; Patrick, Gredi; Patrick, Ward

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with sepsis benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Accurate paramedic recognition of sepsis is important to initiate care promptly for patients who arrive by Emergency Medical Services. Methods. Prospective observational study of adult patients (age ≥ 16 years) transported by paramedics to the emergency department (ED) of a Canadian tertiary hospital. Paramedic identification of sepsis was assessed using a novel prehospital sepsis screening tool developed by the study team and compared to blind, independent documentation of ED diagnoses by attending emergency physicians (EPs). Specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value, and likelihood ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Results. Overall, 629 patients were included in the analysis. Sepsis was identified by paramedics in 170 (27.0%) patients and by EPs in 71 (11.3%) patients. Sensitivity of paramedic sepsis identification compared to EP diagnosis was 73.2% (95% CI 61.4–83.0), while specificity was 78.8% (95% CI 75.2–82.2). The accuracy of paramedic identification of sepsis was 78.2% (492/629, 52 true positive, 440 true negative). Positive and negative predictive values were 30.6% (95% CI 23.8–38.1) and 95.9% (95% CI 93.6–97.5), respectively. Conclusion. Using a novel prehospital sepsis screening tool, paramedic recognition of sepsis had greater specificity than sensitivity with reasonable accuracy. PMID:27051533

  12. Pregnancy-Onset Habitual Snoring, Gestational Hypertension, and Pre-eclampsia: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O’BRIEN, Louise M.; BULLOUGH, Alexandra S.; OWUSU, Jocelynn T.; TREMBLAY, Kimberley A.; BRINCAT, Cynthia A.; CHAMES, Mark C.; KALBFLEISCH, John D.; CHERVIN, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to prospectively examine the impact of chronic vs. pregnancy-onset habitual snoring on gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Study Design Third trimester pregnant women were recruited from a large, tertiary medical center, between March 2007 and December 2010 and screened for the presence and duration of habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep-disordered breathing. Clinical diagnoses of gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes were obtained. Results Of 1,719 pregnant women, 34% reported snoring, with 25% reporting pregnancy-onset snoring. After adjusting for confounders pregnancy-onset, but not chronic snoring, was independently associated with gestational hypertension (odds ratio 2.36, 95%CI 1.48–3.77, p<0.001) and pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 1.59, 95%CI 1.06–2.37 p=0.024) but not gestational diabetes. Conclusion New-onset snoring during pregnancy is a strong risk factor for gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. In view of the significant morbidity and healthcare costs associated with hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, simple screening of pregnant women may have clinical utility. Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT01030003 PMID:22999158

  13. [Study of screening pseudoallergenic substances of Shuanghuanglian injection].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yan; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Hai-yu; Xiao, Hong-bin; Li, Gui-qin; Lu, Yu-ting; Han, Jia-yin; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hong-jie; Si, Nan; Liang, Ai-hua; Bian, Bao-lin

    2015-07-01

    In this study, chemistry, biology and pharmacology were combinated to screen pseudoallergenic substances of Shuang-huanglian injection (SHLI) so that to establish a scientific and systematic approach to screen pseudoallergenic substances of traditional Chinese medicine injections. The mouse pseudoallergic reaction models were used to screen the pseudoallergic reaction of SHLI's intermediate extract and the intermediate extract's component or ingredient. Among the three intermediates of Shuanghuanglian injection (extract of Scutellaria baicalensis, extract of Lonicera japonica, extract of Forsythia suspensa) , pseudoallergic action of Forsythia suspensa was the strongest, Forsythia suspesnsa's pseudoallergic reaction mainly associated with the composition with largerchemical polarity. Further it was found that forsythiaside A and arctiin which existed in the the composition with largerchemical polarity caused obvious pseudoallergic reactions. SHLI with removal forsythoside A with the technology of HPLC-MS displayed reduced pseudoallergic reaction and a significant improved safety. This study provided a scientific basis for SHLI process improvements and also offered idea and research foundation for screening pseudoallergenic substances injections in other TCM injections. PMID:26666017

  14. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  15. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks. PMID:19123106

  16. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  17. Prospective study of surveillance testing for metastasis in 100 high-risk uveal melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Piperno-Neumann, S; Servois, V; Mariani, P; Plancher, C; Lévy-Gabriel, C; Lumbroso-Le Rouic, L; Couturier, J; Asselain, B; Desjardins, L; Cassoux, N

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in the local treatment of UM, half of patients develop metastases typically to the liver with poor survival. Microscopic complete surgical resection (R0) of liver metastases improves survival in high selected patients. Early identification of high-risk patients might allow detection of asymptomatic metastases, and increase R0 liver surgery rate. From October 2006 to December 2009, we conducted a prospective study to detect early minimal lesions with 6-monthly liver function tests (LFTs) and liver MRI in 100 high-risk patients. High risk was defined by primary tumor clinical or genomic criteria: thickness>8mm or diameter>15 mm, or extra-scleral extension, or monosomy 3 by FISH or aCGH. With a median follow-up of 49 months, the 5-year metastasis-free survival and overall survival were 47 and 33%, respectively. Of the 60 patients who became metastatic, 50 (83%) had exclusive liver metastasis. LFTs screening had no sufficient accurary, but biannual MRI showed high predictive value to detect metastasis and select patients eligible for curative surgery: 25/50 underwent laparotomy and among them, 8/25 (32%) had a R0 surgery. Median survival after metastasis was 14 months, mean survival reached 40 months in the R0 resected population. Six-monthly liver MRI screening is recommended in patients with large tumors or genomic high risk in order to detect early patient candidates to complete resection of liver metastases. PMID:25978872

  18. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p < .001), persistent anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p < .001). Socio-economic status (SES) was positively related to academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes. PMID:26054835

  19. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  20. Prospective study of erythema toxicum neonatorum: epidemiology and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Labandeira, Javier; Cabanillas, Miguel; Acevedo, Antonio; Toribio, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We performed a prospective study of 1,000 neonates investigated in the first 72 hours of life in the health area of Ferrol (northwest of Spain) to assess the prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum, the anatomical sites most frequently involved, the influence of different maternal and neonatal parameters, day of life of medical examination, and type of delivery (vaginal or Cesarean). Overall prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum was 16.7%. Lesions most frequently involved the trunk, buttocks, and proximal areas of limbs. A higher prevalence of this dermatosis was found in Caucasian newborns (p = 0.01) and those with higher birthweight (p < 0.05), greater gestational age (p < 0.05), vaginal delivery (p < 0.05), maternal age of <30 years (p = 0.28), and fewer than two previous pregnancies (p = 0.12). PMID:22066938

  1. Predictors of early precocious talking: a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Skeat, Jemma; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena; Eadie, Patricia; Bretherton, Lesley; Bavin, Edith L; Ukoumunne, Obioha C

    2010-11-01

    This study examines potential predictors of 'precocious talking' (expressive language ≥90th percentile) at one and two years of age, and of 'stability' in precocious talking across both time periods, drawing on data from a prospective community cohort comprising over 1,800 children. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between precocious talking and the following potential predictors: gender, birth order, birth weight, non-English speaking background, socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal mental health scores, and vocabulary and educational attainment of parents. The strongest predictors of precocity (being female and having a younger mother) warrant further exploration. Overall, however, it appears that precocity in early vocabulary development is not strongly influenced by the variables examined, which together explained just 2.6% and 1% of the variation at 1;0 and 2;0 respectively. PMID:19874641

  2. Recent results and future prospects for asteroseismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglio, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade the study and interpretation of global oscillations in stars has undergone a dramatic development thanks to the advent of space-based telescopes such as CoRoT and Kepler. In this contribution I will review our endeavours towards a detailed understanding of stellar structure and evolution and I will discuss the symbiosis between stellar seismology and both exoplanetary and Galactic science. I will then emphasise the wider significance of asteroseismology as a tool for testing stellar physics, with examples on how seismic predictions depend on our (often poor) knowledge of the relevant physics. Future prospects in the light of future ambitious space missions such as NASA-TESS and ESA-Plato will also be briefly presented.

  3. Palliative Care Caregivers' Grief Mediators: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra M; Delalibera, Mayra A; Barbosa, António

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the mediators of complicated grief in a Portuguese sample of caregivers. Grief mediators were prospectively evaluated using a list of risk factors completed by the palliative care team members, during the predeath and bereavement period. More than 6 months after the death, we applied PG-13 to diagnose prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The sample was composed of 64 family caregivers. Factors associated with PGD were insecure and dependent relationship, unresolved family crisis, and the perceived deterioration and disfigurement of the patient. The results show relational factors are relevant, but we must consider the reciprocal influence among factors, as well as their impact on specific symptoms. PMID:25601321

  4. An archival prospective study of mental health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Wingard, D L; Tomlinson-Keasey, C

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-decade follow-up period. The differences among causes of death were nonsignificant, but there was some indication that mental health problems were more strongly related to deaths from injury and cardiovascular disease. The overall relationship was significant for men but weaker for women. The effect was not substantially mediated by alcohol consumption, obesity, or cigarette smoking. PMID:7498108

  5. Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar < 4. Twenty-nine in the planned vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p < 0.001) were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. However, only one infant was admitted for ≥4 days. According to follow-up data (median six years) none of these infants had long-term sequelae. Regarding maternal morbidity, blood loss was the only variable that was significantly higher in the planned cesarean section group versus in the vaginal delivery group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Strict guidelines were followed in all cases. There were no neonatal deaths. Two infants had serious neonatal morbidity in the planned

  6. The pleiotropic effects of metformin: time for prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Daniel I; Yellon, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes has risen to epidemic proportions and the trend is predicted to continue. The consequent burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern and new treatments are required to mitigate the deleterious effects of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is well known to exacerbate the harmful effects of acute myocardial infarction and subsequent therapeutic reperfusion, and several mechanical and pharmacological approaches to mitigating this injury have been investigated. Metformin, which is cheap, relatively safe and widely used in type 2 diabetes, is one such pharmacotherapy with considerable pre-clinical evidence for cardioprotective utility beyond its glucose-lowering effect. However, despite convincing basic evidence its translation to clinical application has largely been limited to studies of cardiovascular risk. There are several barriers to prospective randomized assessment in the context of acute myocardial infarction, not least the accessibility and already widespread use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events. In the place of class 1 evidence, well-designed prospective cohort studies of the potential pleiotropic utility of metformin in cardiovascular disease, and particularly its benefit in ischaemia-reperfusion injury, are needed. Given the availability of metformin worldwide, this is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where the optimal therapy for acute myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, may not be available, and instead patients are managed with thrombolysis. As this is less effective, metformin as an adjunct to thrombolysis (or PPCI) could represent an effective, cheap means of cardioprotection with global relevance. PMID:26271457

  7. Early carotid endarterectomy after a nondisabling stroke: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Illuminati, G; Bouin-Pineau, M H; Demarque, C; Camiade, C; Blecha, L; Neau, J P

    2000-01-01

    On the recommendation of several studies, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) should be delayed for at least 6 weeks in patients suffering an acute nondisabling stroke. Our objective was to determine if these patients could be safely operated on earlier, thus decreasing the risk of a recurrent stroke prior to surgery. This prospective study, carried out from January 1990 to December 1997, included 72 consecutive patients having a nondisabling hemispheric stroke with severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis (NASCET 70-99%). All patients underwent CEA within 15 days of stroke onset. Patients were considered to have a nondisabling hemispheric stroke if (1) symptoms of hemispheric ischemia persisted longer than 24 hr and (2) the resulting deficit caused no major impairment in their everyday activities. All patients were examined by a neurologist prior to carotid angiography and contrast CT scan. Hemorrhage seen on the initial CT scan eliminated the patient from the study. If the CT scan with contrast injection was negative, patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging. CEA was performed under general anesthesia with intraluminal shunting. All patients had a postoperative duplex scan and yearly follow-up by a neurologist and a surgeon, with a duplex scan of the carotid arteries. Mean follow-up was 53 months. Our study shows that CEA can be performed relatively safely within 15 days following an acute nondisabling stroke. The arbitrary 6-week delay for CEA may unnecessarily expose patients with high-grade stenosis to a recurrent stroke, which could be prevented by earlier surgery. PMID:10629271

  8. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  9. Prospective Coronary Heart Disease Screening in Asymptomatic Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Using Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Results and Risk Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, Theodore; M’Kacher, Radhia; Koscielny, Serge; Elfassy, Eric; Raoux, François; Carde, Patrice; Santos, Marcos Dos; Margainaud, Jean-Pierre; Sabatier, Laure; Paul, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the coronary artery status using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with combined modalities and mediastinal irradiation. Methods and Materials: All consecutive asymptomatic patients with Hodgkin lymphoma entered the study during follow-up, from August 2007 to May 2012. Coronary CT angiography was performed, and risk factors were recorded along with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measurements. Results: One hundred seventy-nine patients entered the 5-year study. The median follow-up was 11.6 years (range, 2.1-40.2 years), and the median interval between treatment and the CCTA was 9.5 years (range, 0.5-40 years). Coronary artery abnormalities were demonstrated in 46 patients (26%). Coronary CT angiography abnormalities were detected in nearly 15% of the patients within the first 5 years after treatment. A significant increase (34%) occurred 10 years after treatment (P=.05). Stenoses were mostly nonostial. Severe stenoses were observed in 12 (6.7%) of the patients, entailing surgery with either angioplasty with stent placement or bypass grafting in 10 of them (5.5%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age at treatment, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as radiation dose to the coronary artery origins, were prognostic factors. In the group of patients with LTL measurements, hypertension and LTL were the only independent risk factors. Conclusions: The findings suggest that CCTA can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk of acute coronary artery disease who might require either preventive or curative measures. Conventional risk factors and the radiation dose to coronary artery origins were independent prognostic factors. The prognostic value of LTL needs further investigation.

  10. Toxicology screen

    MedlinePlus

    Barbiturates - screen; Benzodiazepines - screen; Amphetamines - screen; Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test

  11. Pulmonary Complications following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Palnizky, Gili; Halachmi, Sarel; Barak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary complications may occur in the post-operative period and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Complication rates vary according to different procedures and different types of anesthesia and may be affected by the patient condition. The purpose of this study was to examine pulmonary complications following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to search for associations between the pre- and intra-operative factors and the risk of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPC). Patients and Methods This was a prospective observational study of 100 consecutive adult patients who underwent PCNL surgery. We collected data of the patient, surgery and anesthesia and analyzed it to find correlations with PPC. Results Eight (8%) patients had PPC following PCNL, 7 patients had pneumothorax and 1 had atelectasis and pleural effusion. The latter patient died at post-operative day 24 due to respiratory failure. It was found that patients who had PCNL on the right kidney were at lower risk for PPC. In addition it was found that younger patients had a higher incidence of PPC. Conclusions Based on this study the most common type of post-operative complication following PCNL is pulmonary, with pneumothorax being the main complication. PPC may result in patient mortality. The side of the operation and the patient's age might affect the risk of PPC. PMID:24917770

  12. [Psychic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary prospective study].

    PubMed

    Miguel Filho, E C; Pereira, R M; Busatto Filho, G; Shavitt, R G; Hirsch, R; de Sá, L C; de Arruda, P C

    1990-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of psychic symptoms in lupus patients, there are few systematic studies in this area. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the authors developed a prospective study to characterize and correlate psychopathological aspects with clinical and laboratory data concerning neural manifestations of the disease. Out of 23 patients studied, 12 showed psychic alterations, which were interpreted as primary manifestations of the disease. All of them presented organic mental syndromes (DSM-III-R) in which cognitive symptoms were the most prominent, followed by affective, catatonic and hallucinatory features. The neurologic findings (seizure, migraine and muscular atrophy), as well as the ophthalmologic alterations (hemorrhage and soft exudates) were frequent and concomitant with the psychic features. The laboratory findings were: LE cells 50%; anti-Sm: 16%; anti-U1 RNP: 50%; anti-Ro/SS-A: 50%; anti-nDNA: 58%; decreased CH50 or fractions (C3, C4): 67%; anti-P: 18%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 78%. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed: increased cellularity: 18%; elevated protein: 36%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 33%; immunocomplexes: 36%. In spite of the absence of an adequate control group and of the small number of patients, the multidisciplinary approach leads to a better characterization of the nervous system involvement in this disease. PMID:1965671

  13. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  14. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Hlady, W G; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition. Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was not significantly associated with seabather's eruption. PMID:9018290

  15. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  16. Irregular menses predicts ovarian cancer: Prospective evidence from the Child Health and Development Studies.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Piera M; Wang, Erica T; Cedars, Marcelle I; Chen, Lee-May; Cohn, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that irregular menstruation predicts lower risk for ovarian cancer, possibly due to less frequent ovulation. We conducted a 50-year prospective study of 15,528 mothers in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort recruited from the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan from 1959 to 1966. Irregular menstruation was classified via medical record and self-report at age 26. We identified 116 cases and 84 deaths due to ovarian cancer through 2011 via linkage to the California Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics. Contrary to expectation, women with irregular menstrual cycles had a higher risk of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality over the 50-year follow-up. Associations increased with age (p <0.05). We observed a 2-fold increased incidence and mortality by age 70 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 3.4) rising to a 3-fold increase by age 77 (95% CI = 1.5, 6.7 for incidence; 95% CI = 1.4, 5.9 for mortality). We also found a 3-fold higher risk of mortality for high-grade serous tumors (95% CI = 1.3, 7.6) that did not vary by age. This is the first prospective study to show an association between irregular menstruation and ovarian cancer-we unexpectedly found higher risk for women with irregular cycles. These women are easy to identify and many may have polycystic ovarian syndrome. Classifying high-risk phenotypes such as irregular menstruation creates opportunities to find novel early biomarkers, refine clinical screening protocols and potentially develop new risk reduction strategies. These efforts can lead to earlier detection and better survival for ovarian cancer. PMID:27082375

  17. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Phillips, Theodore L.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Purdy, James A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  18. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection Request... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture.... Affected Public: Private Sector, Farms. Type of Respondents: Licensed pesticide applicators and...

  19. Prospective study of coroner's autopsies in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aligbe, J U; Akhiwu, W O; Nwosu, S O

    2002-10-01

    A prospective study of 726 cases of coroner's autopsies carried out over a period of two years (1st January, 1996 - 31st December, 1997) was reviewed. The causes and circumstances of death are defined and classified into natural and unnatural deaths. Fifty cases (6.3%) were children while the remaining 676 cases (93.1%) were adults in a male to female ratio of 2.6 to 1. The most common indications for coroner's autopsies were sudden unnatural deaths (SUDs) accounting for 485 cases (66.8%) and also sudden unexpected natural deaths (SUNDs) (241 cases) accounting for 33.2%. In the first category, road traffic accidents accounted for 86.7% of cases with deaths involving motor vehicle drivers and their passengers (41.8%); pedestrians (37.1%); and motorcyclists and their passengers (18.6%). The commonest causes of death in all road traffic accidents were craniocerebral injuries and haemorrhagic shock. In the second category the most common causes of sudden unexpected natural death were cardiovascular diseases resulting from complications of hypertension (54.7%) occurring in apparently healthy individuals. Other causes of death were pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, typhoid fever and neoplastic diseases. This study showed that in Nigeria, with an increasing acquisition of dietary and life style habits of the developed western world, there is becoming a concomitant risk of deaths from road traffic accidents and sudden unexpected natural deaths from hypertensive cardiovascular disease. PMID:12487517

  20. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  1. Massage Therapy for Lyme Disease Symptoms: a Prospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Meghan J.; Moyer, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To study the effects of massage therapy (MT) on Lyme disease (LD) symptoms and affect. Methods A 21-year-old female college student previously diagnosed with LD was recruited for a prospective case study that incorporated alternating periods of treatment and nontreatment across 65 days. Her self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and impairment of concentration were assessed by means of a daily diary with corresponding visual analog scales. Immediate effects of MT on affect were assessed by completion of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales before and after each treatment session. Results LD symptoms decreased during treatment periods and increased during nontreatment periods. Positive affect was increased at every MT session. Conclusions MT is a promising treatment for the symptoms pain, fatigue, and impaired concentration associated with LD. In addition, MT reliably increased positive affect. Massage therapists should consider using light-to-medium pressure MT for treatment of persons who present with a similar pattern of LD symptoms, and further research with this population is warranted. PMID:23429967

  2. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  3. A prospective study of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Ramachandran; Nada, Ritambhra; Yadav, Ashok K; Kumar, Ashwani; Goyal, Ajay; Kumar, Vivek; Rathi, Manish; Kohli, H S; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, Vinay; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the clinicopathological spectrum of cFSGS and compared its clinical behavior to steroid and tacrolimus (TAC)-resistant noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients (>14 years) diagnosed with cFSGS were enrolled in the study. Staining for differentiated podocyte markers such as WT 1, PAX and KI67 were performed in all patients. The outcome and histological features of cFSGS was compared with a prospectively followed cohort of steroid and TAC-resistant noncollapsing FSGS. The study included 22 cFSGS patients and 19 cases of steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS. Complete remission, partial remission, steroid resistance, progression to ESRD and death were observed in 13.6%, 4.5%, 27.3%, 36.4% and 18.2% patients, respectively. Patients with cFSGS had higher serum creatinine and more advanced tubulointerstitial changes compared to resistant FSGS. Twenty-six percent of therapy resistant noncollapsing FSGS progressed to ESRD after two years of stopping TAC. However, there was no difference in progression to ESRD between cFSGS and therapy-resistant noncollapsing FSGS at the end of two years. Glomerular collapse in the setting of FSGS is poorly responsive to treatment and has a high rate of progression to ESRD. The long-term prognosis of cFSGS and steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS are similar. PMID:27266801

  4. Risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, I P; Peponis, V; Parikakis, E; Maniatea, A; Patsea, E; Mitropoulos, P

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) in patients undergoing phacoemulsification.MethodsParticipants in the study were 1274 consecutive patients, who underwent routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The following data were recorded and evaluated as possible risk factors: ophthalmological conditions, axial length of the eye, sociodemographic features, clinical data (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), medications being taken at the time of surgery, and duration of their intake. Cases were characterized intraoperatively as IFIS and non-IFIS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.ResultsIFIS was observed in 63/1274 eyes (4.9%, 95% CI: 3.9-6.7%). Current use of tamsulosin, alfuzosin, terazosin, benzodiazepines, quetiapine, and finasteride, as well as hypertension, were all independently associated with IFIS. Significant associations were noted for male sex, rivastigmine, and short axial length, which did not reach significance at the multivariate analysis. Duration of α-blockers intake was not found to be associated with IFIS.ConclusionApart from the well-established associations with α-blockers, this prospective study points to benzodiazepines, quetiapine, finasteride, and hypertension as potential risk factors for IFIS. Short axial length and rivastigmine were significantly associated with IFIS only at the univariate analysis. PMID:27367744

  5. Risk of Complications in Spine Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, José Marcus; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : Complications are the chief concern of patients and physicians when considering spine surgery. The authors seek to assess the incidence of complications in patients undergoing spine surgery and identify risk factors for their occurrence. Methods : Prospective study of patients undergoing spine surgery from 1 February 2013 to 1 February 2014. Epidemiological characteristics and complications during the surgical hospitalization were recorded and analyzed. Results : The sample comprised 95 patients (mean age, 59 years). Overall, 23% of patients were obese (BMI =30). The mean BMI was 25.9. Approximately 53% of patients had comorbidities. Complications occurred in 23% of cases; surgical site infections were the most common (9%). There were no significant differences between patients who did and did not develop complications in terms of age (60.6 vs 59.9 years, p = 0.71), sex (56% female vs 54% female, p = 0.59), BMI (26.6 vs 27.2, p = 0.40), or presence of comorbidities (52% vs 52.8%, p = 0.87). The risk of complications was higher among patients submitted to spine instrumentation than those submitted to non-instrumented surgery (33% vs 22%), p=0.8. Conclusion : Just over one-quarter of patients in the sample developed complications. In this study, age, BMI, comorbidities were not associated with increased risk of complications after spine surgery. The use of instrumentation increased the absolute risk of complications. PMID:25674185

  6. A prospective study on postoperative pain after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165

  7. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis. The Cystic Fibrosis Neonatal Screening Study Group.

    PubMed

    Farrell, P M; Mischler, E H

    1992-01-01

    Many questions remain regarding the efficacy, risks, and costs of CF neonatal screening. The major gap in knowledge that must be closed before CF neonatal screening can be recommended generally in the United States concerns the potential long-term medical benefits of initiating treatment in early infancy. It would be premature, in our opinion, to implement mass population screening of newborns for CF until the benefits and risks have been fully defined, and an adequate and logistically feasible testing system developed and/or highly effective therapy for CF lung disease becomes available. It is for this reason we designed a randomized, controlled investigation of CF neonatal screening and implemented this project in Wisconsin during 1985. The fact that 5 years of randomized screening and systematic evaluation of outcome measures have not yet revealed any pulmonary benefits underscores the importance of rigorous investigation to resolve the efficacy issue. In addition to the medical uncertainties, we believe that the ethical issues described herein need to be resolved; this concern pertains not only to the CF patient but also the heterozygote carrier. On the other hand, financial factors and uncertainty about the cost effectiveness of CF neonatal screening do not appear to be dominant issues according to our assessment of current data. Despite the reservations related to the benefit/risk relationship, we expect that the discovery of the CF gene should have a favorable impact on neonatal screening for the disease, as well as for management. PMID:1442316

  8. Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Clark, K W; Gierada, D S; Moore, S M; Maffitt, D R; Koppel, P; Phillips, S R; Prior, F W

    2007-03-01

    The CT Image Library (CTIL) of the Lung Screening Study (LSS) network of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) consists of up to three annual screens using CT imaging from each of 17,308 participants with a significant history of smoking but no evidence of cancer at trial enrollment (Fall 2002-Spring 2004). Screens performed at numerous medical centers associated with 10 LSS-NLST screening centers are deidentified of protected health information and delivered to the CTIL via DVD, external hard disk, or Internet/Virtual Private Network transmission. The collection will be completed in late 2006. The CTIL is of potential interest to clinical researchers and software developers of nodule detection algorithms. Its attractiveness lies in its very specific, well-defined patient population, scanned via a common CT protocol, and in its collection of evenly spaced serial screens. In this work, we describe the technical details of the CTIL collection process from screening center retrieval through library storage. PMID:16783598

  9. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge about Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a…

  10. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  11. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  12. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  13. Screening Prostate-specific Antigen Concentration and Prostate Cancer Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Yejin; Kimm, Heejin; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration from a screening test and prostate cancer mortality in an Asian population. METHODS We included 118,665 men in the Korean Heart Study, a large prospective cohort study of participants who voluntarily underwent private health examinations that included PSA-based prostate cancer screening. The baseline visit occurred between January 1994 and December 2004, and follow-up was through December 2011. Deaths from prostate cancer were ascertained from the underlying cause of death from a computerized search of death certificate data from the National Statistical Office in Korea. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between serum PSA and risk of prostate cancer death adjusting the baseline age, cigarette smoking status, and body mass index. RESULTS During 1,381,901 person-years of follow-up, 6036 men died of any cause, and of these, 56 men died of prostate cancer. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for prostate cancer death statistically significantly increased across PSA concentrations (P trend <.0001). The hazard ratio increased 7% per 1-ng/mL increase in PSA. The association between PSA concentration and death from prostate cancer was stronger in younger than in older men and in heavier than leaner men. CONCLUSION In conclusion, an increased screening PSA level is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death in Korean men. Our findings may have implications for the development of targeted PSA cutpoints for biopsy recommendation. PMID:25917733

  14. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. Results 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. Conclusion The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in lines as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia. PMID:26935612

  15. Proactive Approach to Lymphedema Risk Reduction: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R.; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A.; Cartwright, Francis; Qiu, Zeyuan; Goldberg, Judith D.; Kim, June; Scagliola, Joan; Kleinman, Robin; Haber, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in cancer treatments continue to reduce the incidence of lymphedema. Yet, many breast cancer survivors still face long-term post-operative challenges as a result of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program, a patient-centered education and behavioral program focusing on self-care strategies to enhance lymphedema risk reduction by promoting lymph flow and optimize body mass index. Methods A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with repeated-measures was used. The study outcomes included lymph volume changes by infra-red perometer and body mass index by a bioimpedance device at pre-surgery baseline, 2-4 weeks after surgery, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. A total of 140 patients were recruited and participated in The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program; 134 patients completed the study with 4% attrition rate. Results Fifty-eight percent patients had axillary node dissection and 42% had sentinel lymph node biopsy. The majority (97%) of patients maintained and improved their preoperative limb volume and body mass index at the study endpoint of 12 months following cancer surgery. Cumulatively, 2 patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy and 2 patients with the axillary lymph node dissection had measurable lymphedema (>10% limb volume change). At 12-month follow-up, among the 4 patients with measurable lymphedema, 2 patients' limb volume returned to pre-operative level without compression therapy but by maintaining The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow exercises to promote daily lymph flow. Conclusions This educational and behavioral program is effective to enhance lymphedema risk reduction. The study provided initial evidence for emerging change in lymphedema care from treatment-focus to proactive risk reduction. PMID:24809302

  16. Burn injuries in Zaria: a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kalayi, G D

    1994-05-01

    Fifty three patients admitted for burn care during a 12 month period from September 1987 to August 1988 were prospectively studied. There were 36 males (60%) and 21 females (40%) with ages ranging from 3 months to 60 years. Children aged 0-4 constituted 40% but 32 (60%) were younger than 16 years. Flame burns affected 26 (49%) patients, scalds in 22 (12%), electrical burns affected four patients and chemical burn was in one. Scald was the commonest injury among children aged 0-4 (70%). Flame, affected 33% of those aged 16 and above. Clothing fire was the commonest flame injury and it was a cause of very extensive injury (mean % BSA 45). Kerosene burn, gas and clothing burns caused the most extensive injury with a mean % BSA 46, 41 and 45 respectively. The commonest complication was burn wound sepsis most frequently by a gram-negative bacilli (65.63%) of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa were that commonest organisms. Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus were about same frequency. Duration of hospital stay ranged from 6 days to 300 days with a mean of 46.52 days. 8 patients absconded, two were transferred to a hospital near their home and 9 died, giving a mortality rate of 17%. Since burn injuries are largely preventable, it is important to define clearly the social, cultural and economic factors which contribute to burn causation in order to combat them effectively. PMID:7925065

  17. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Williams, David R.; Munro, Heather M.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52 965 non-Hispanic Black and 23 592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

  19. Aetiopathology of maxillary swelling--a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Deb; Crank, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A wide variety of lesions and not necessarily a malignant tumour can cause maxillary swelling. Non-specificity of clinical and radiological features of these maxillary lesions makes their diagnosis difficult. Review of literature adds a little regarding the aetiopathological distribution of the various lesions causing maxillary swelling. We present our finding regarding the relative distribution of various conditions causing maxillary swelling. The awareness of the spectrum of pathology related to maxillary swelling is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment. Forty-eight patients who presented with a swelling of the maxilla to our hospital between May 1998 and April 2001 were prospectively studied regarding the clinical presentations, radiological features and histological findings. Maxillary swelling was found to be caused by malignant tumours in 54.2%, benign neoplasms in 22.9% and non-neoplastic lesions in 22.9%. Overall squamous cell carcinoma (22.9%) was the commonest lesion, tumour of vascular origin was the commonest benign neoplasm and odontogenic cyst was the commonest among the non-neoplastic lesions. PMID:17611767

  20. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gotler, M.; Bar-Gil, B.; Ashkenazi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP) subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT) in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (n = 274) who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp.) than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp.) or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.). No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated) and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth. PMID:22505897

  1. Metabolic Bone Disease in Viral Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goubraim, Rabia; Kabbaj, Nawal; Salihoun, Mouna; Chaoui, Zakia; Nya, M'Hamed; Amrani, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Metabolic Bone disorders are well-recognized extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. The aim was to report their prevalence and the associated factors to their development in patients with viral cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. All consecutive patients with viral cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, liver function, and phosphocalcic tests were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Forty-six cirrhotic patients were included with hepatitis C (87%) and hepatitis B (13%). The Child-Pugh score was grade A in 87% of cases and grade B in 13%. Thirty-seven patients had decreased bone mineral density with osteopenia in 24 patients and osteoporosis in 13 patients. Decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found in 95.6% of cases. Bone disorders were significantly more frequent in old patients with low body mass index, long duration of liver disease, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. None of these factors was an independent factor associated with bone disorders. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high prevalence of metabolic bone disorders among viral cirrhotic patients. Consequently, bone mineral density assessment should be performed systematically in all cirrhotic patients.

  2. Endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy: a long-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, M E; Kaban, L B; Troulis, M J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy (EVRO) with rigid fixation for the treatment of mandibular prognathism or asymmetry. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, adequate clinical and radiographic documentation, and minimum postoperative follow-up of 3 years. Exclusion criteria were refusal to consent, rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, and smoking. Demographic data, pre-operative (T0), immediate postoperative (T1), and latest follow-up (T2) clinical examinations and cephalometric analysis, procedure data, complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were documented. Ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included mandibular hyperplasia (n = 5), stable condylar hyperplasia (n = 4), and mandibular asymmetry secondary to condylar resorption (n = 1). In total, 17 EVROs were performed. The mean operative time was 33 min per side. Mean mandibular setback was 4.7 mm. Mean LOS was 1.9 days. Latest follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Skeletal stability was confirmed in nine patients. One patient exhibited recurrence of mandibular prognathism at 5 years due to late growth. No VII nerve deficits were encountered. Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia was noted in four patients, which resolved postoperatively. EVRO was fast and resulted in minimal blood loss, quick recovery, and skeletal stability. PMID:24246948

  3. Risk Profiles for Aortic Dissection and Ruptured or Surgically Treated Aneurysms: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Landenhed, Maya; Engström, Gunnar; Gottsäter, Anders; Caulfield, Michael P.; Hedblad, Bo; Newton‐Cheh, Christopher; Melander, Olle; Smith, J. Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Background Community screening to guide preventive interventions for acute aortic disease has been recommended in high‐risk individuals. We sought to prospectively assess risk factors in the general population for aortic dissection (AD) and severe aneurysmal disease in the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Methods and Results We studied the incidence of AD and ruptured or surgically treated aneurysms in the abdominal (AAA) or thoracic aorta (TAA) in 30 412 individuals without diagnosis of aortic disease at baseline from a contemporary, prospective cohort of middle‐aged individuals, the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. During up to 20 years of follow‐up (median 16 years), the incidence rate per 100 000 patient‐years at risk was 15 (95% CI 11.7 to 18.9) for AD, 27 (95% CI 22.5 to 32.1) for AAA, and 9 (95% CI 6.8 to 12.6) for TAA. The acute and in‐hospital mortality was 39% for AD, 34% for ruptured AAA, and 41% for ruptured TAA. Hypertension was present in 86% of individuals who subsequently developed AD, was strongly associated with incident AD (hazard ratio [HR] 2.64, 95% CI 1.33 to 5.25), and conferred a population‐attributable risk of 54%. Hypertension was also a risk factor for AAA with a smaller effect. Smoking (HR 5.07, 95% CI 3.52 to 7.29) and high apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.73 to 3.54) were strongly associated with AAA and conferred a population‐attributable risk of 47% and 25%, respectively. Smoking was also a risk factor for AD and TAA with smaller effects. Conclusions This large prospective study identified distinct risk factor profiles for different aortic diseases in the general population. Hypertension accounted for more than half of the population risk for AD, and smoking for half of the population risk of AAA. PMID:25609416

  4. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad EJ; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis. PMID:24753832

  5. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  6. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units. PMID:23764684

  7. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  8. Intraclass Correlation Estimates for Cancer Screening Outcomes: Estimates and Applications in the Design of Group-Randomized Cancer Screening Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murray, David M.; Pennell, Michael L.; Rhoda, Dale; Paskett, Electra D.; Champion, Victoria L.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Dietrich, Allen; Dignan, Mark B.; Farmer, Melissa; Fenton, Joshua J.; Flocke, Susan; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Mitchell, Michael; Monahan, Patrick; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Slone, Stacey L.; Stange, Kurt; Stewart, Susan L.; Ohman Strickland, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening has become one of our best tools for early detection and prevention of cancer. The group-randomized trial is the most rigorous experimental design for evaluating multilevel interventions. However, identifying the proper sample size for a group-randomized trial requires reliable estimates of intraclass correlation (ICC) for screening outcomes, which are not available to researchers. We present crude and adjusted ICC estimates for cancer screening outcomes for various levels of aggregation (physician, clinic, and county) and provide an example of how these ICC estimates may be used in the design of a future trial. Methods Investigators working in the area of cancer screening were contacted and asked to provide crude and adjusted ICC estimates using the analysis of variance method estimator. Results Of the 29 investigators identified, estimates were obtained from 10 investigators who had relevant data. ICC estimates were calculated from 13 different studies, with more than half of the studies collecting information on colorectal screening. In the majority of cases, ICC estimates could be adjusted for age, education, and other demographic characteristics, leading to a reduction in the ICC. ICC estimates varied considerably by cancer site and level of aggregation of the groups. Conclusions Previously, only two articles had published ICCs for cancer screening outcomes. We have complied more than 130 crude and adjusted ICC estimates covering breast, cervical, colon, and prostate screening and have detailed them by level of aggregation, screening measure, and study characteristics. We have also demonstrated their use in planning a future trial and the need for the evaluation of the proposed interval estimator for binary outcomes under conditions typically seen in GRTs. PMID:20386058

  9. Repeated Nipple Fluid Aspiration: Compliance and Feasibility Results from a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, J. S.; Moelans, C. B.; Elias, S. G.; Hennink, A.; Verolme, B.; Suijkerbuijk, K. P. M.; Jager, A.; Seynaeve, C.; Bos, P.; Witkamp, A. J.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van Diest, P. J.; van der Wall, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite intensive surveillance, a high rate of interval malignancies is still seen in women at increased breast cancer risk. Therefore, novel screening modalities aiming at early detection remain needed. The intraductal approach offers the possibility to directly sample fluid containing cells, DNA and proteins from the mammary ductal system where, in the majority of cases, breast cancer originates. Fluid from the breast can non-invasively be obtained by oxytocin-assisted vacuum aspiration, called nipple fluid aspiration (NFA). The goal of this feasibility study was to evaluate the potential of repeated NFA, which is a critical and essential step to evaluate its possible value as a breast cancer screening method. Methods In this multicenter, prospective study, we annually collected nipple fluid for up to 5 consecutive years from women at increased breast cancer risk, and performed a questionnaire-based survey regarding discomfort of the aspiration. Endpoints of the current interim analyses were the feasibility and results of 994 NFA procedures in 451 women with total follow-up of 560 person years of observation. Results In this large group of women at increased risk of breast cancer, repetitive NFA appeared to be feasible and safe. In 66.4% of aspirated breasts, nipple fluid was successfully obtained. Independent predictive factors for successful NFA were premenopausal status, spontaneous nipple discharge, smaller breast size, bilateral oophorectomy and previous use of hormone replacement therapy or anti-hormonal treatment. The procedure was well tolerated with low discomfort. Drop-out rate was 20%, which was mainly due to repeated unsuccessful aspiration attempts. Only 1.6% of women prematurely declined further participation because of side effects. Conclusions Repeated NFA in women at increased breast cancer risk is feasible and safe. Therefore, NFA is a promising method to non-invasively obtain a valuable source of potential breast cancer specific

  10. Usefulness of routine preoperative testing in a developing country: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Julien; Cungi, Pierre-Julien; Savoie, Pierre-Henry; Bonnet, Stéphane; Kaiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The assessment of anesthetic risks is an essential component of preoperative evaluation. In developing world, preanesthesia evaluation may be challenging because patient's medical history and records are scare, and language barrier limits physical examination. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine preoperative testing in a low-resources setting. Methods Prospective observational study performed in a French forward surgical unit in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 201 patients who were scheduled for non urgent surgery were screened with routine laboratory exams during preoperative evaluation. Changes in surgery were assessed (delayed or scheduled). Results Abnormal hemoglobin findings were reported in 35% of patients, abnormal WBC count in 11,1% of patients, abnormal platelets in 15,3% of patients. Positive HIV results were found in 8,3% of cases. Routine tests represented 43,6% of changes causes. Conclusion Our study showed that in a developing country, routine preoperative tests showed abnormal results up to 35% of cases, and represented 43,5% of delayed surgery causes. The rate of tests leading to management changes varied widely, from 0% to 8,3%. These results suggested that selected tests would be useful to diagnose diseases that required treatment before non urgent surgery. However, larger studies are needeed to evaluate the cost/benefit ratio and the clinical impact of such a strategy. PMID:26516395

  11. Prospective evaluation of serum sarcosine and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Hsing, Ann W.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling has identified, sarcosine, a derivative of the amino acid glycine, as an important metabolite involved in the etiology or natural history of prostate cancer. We examined the association between serum sarcosine levels and risk of prostate cancer in 1122 cases (813 non-aggressive and 309 aggressive) and 1112 controls in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Sarcosine was quantified using high-throughput liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. A significantly increased risk of prostate cancer was observed with increasing levels of sarcosine (odds ratio [OR] for the highest quartile of exposure [Q4] versus the lowest quartile [Q1] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.65; P-trend 0.03). When stratified by disease aggressiveness, we observed a stronger association for non-aggressive cases (OR for Q4 versus Q1 = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.88; P-trend 0.006) but no association for aggressive prostate cancer (OR for Q4 versus Q1 = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.47; P-trend 0.89). Although not statistically significant, temporal analyses showed a stronger association between sarcosine and prostate cancer for serum collected closer to diagnosis, suggesting that sarcosine may be an early biomarker of disease. Interestingly, the association between sarcosine and prostate cancer risk was stronger among men with diabetes (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.04, 6.84) compared with those without reported diabetes (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.95–1.59, P-interaction = 0.01). This study found that elevated levels of serum sarcosine are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk and evidence to suggest that sarcosine may be an early biomarker for this disease. PMID:23698636

  12. Association studies including genotype by environment interactions: prospects and limits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Association mapping studies offer great promise to identify polymorphisms associated with phenotypes and for understanding the genetic basis of quantitative trait variation. To date, almost all association mapping studies based on structured plant populations examined the main effects of genetic factors on the trait but did not deal with interactions between genetic factors and environment. In this paper, we propose a methodological prospect of mixed linear models to analyze genotype by environment interaction effects using association mapping designs. First, we simulated datasets to assess the power of linear mixed models to detect interaction effects. This simulation was based on two association panels composed of 90 inbreds (pearl millet) and 277 inbreds (maize). Results Based on the simulation approach, we reported the impact of effect size, environmental variation, allele frequency, trait heritability, and sample size on the power to detect the main effects of genetic loci and diverse effect of interactions implying these loci. Interaction effects specified in the model included SNP by environment interaction, ancestry by environment interaction, SNP by ancestry interaction and three way interactions. The method was finally used on real datasets from field experiments conducted on the two considered panels. We showed two types of interactions effects contributing to genotype by environment interactions in maize: SNP by environment interaction and ancestry by environment interaction. This last interaction suggests differential response at the population level in function of the environment. Conclusions Our results suggested the suitability of mixed models for the detection of diverse interaction effects. The need of samples larger than that commonly used in current plant association studies is strongly emphasized to ensure rigorous model selection and powerful interaction assessment. The use of ancestry interaction component brought valuable

  13. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. The Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; And Others

    This publication is the first interim report from the Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity (Prospects), and describes students' characteristics and the schools they attend. Prospects is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of Chapter 1 program participation by following for 5 years large…

  14. An Exploratory Study on the Perspectives of Prospective Computer Teachers following Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Selcuk; Celik, Suat

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates perceptions of 29 prospective teachers about a course based on Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The course, "Authoring Languages in PC Environment (B-320)" lasted in 14 weeks in fall semester of 2004-2005. In this course each prospective teacher carried out a project that requires designing and developing courseware…

  15. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  16. [Soccer injuries. A prospective epidemiological and socioeconomic study].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K H; Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J; Helleland, H E; Terkelsen, C J

    1993-11-01

    In one year 715 soccer injuries were registered and treated in the casualty ward of Randers City Hospital. We conducted a prospective study of these patients, using a questionnaire in order to determine the most common locations, types, mechanisms and treatments of injury. Financial costs to society and the individual were also examined. Finally, we compared the most common types of injury definition in sports medicine. According to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, A.I.S., 44% of the injuries were classified as minor, 46% as moderate injury and 9% as severe. Fractures accounted for 17% of all injuries. Sprains and contusions were the most frequent injuries, accounting for 46% and 25% respectively. Most injuries (63%) were treated in the casualty ward, whilst 20% were treated as outpatients. 7% were admitted to the hospital immediately, and a further 2% were later admitted from the outpatient clinic. A total of 88% of those hospitalized were treated as inpatients for 1-7 days, and 12% for more than two weeks. 31% of all the soccer players seen in the casualty ward were absent from work, and 12% were absent from work for more than three weeks. 8% of the injured soccer players suffered loss of income. 40% had financial losses between $0-250, 40% between $250-750, seven per cent between $750-1,250, and 14% more than $1,250. From the data presented in this study, we conclude that the injury rate among soccer players increases with age, and the severity of the injuries is greatest in the oldest age groups. Soccer injuries constitute the major part of sports injuries seen in the casualty ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8256352

  17. Pain assessment of the intratympanic injections: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Sarah; Saliba, Issam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the pain level of three methods of intratympanic (IT) injections using prospective, randomized clinical study in a tertiary care center. 39 patients with Ménière's disease and 30 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss are included. Excluded were patients treated for a chronic pain or those who took any pain killer for the last 24 h. Each patient received one IT injection a week, for three consecutive weeks. Three methods of IT injections were compared, with the application of EMLA cream on the tympanic membrane filling the external auditory canal 60 min before the procedure, with subcutaneous injection of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the external auditory canal, and finally with an IT injection without any previous anesthesia. The pain intensity was immediately measured at 5 min, and then 45 min after the procedure, each time using four pain rating scales (visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale and categorical rating scale). No difference in pain intensity between the three methods of IT injections was detected by the visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale (p > 0.05). 45.8% of patients preferred the IT injection without previous anesthesia. However, methylprednisolone has been associated with pain intensity greater than that of gentamicin 45 min after the injection (p < 0.05). The IT injection performed without any previous anesthesia is an interesting option since it has not been shown to be more painful than the other methods of injections, and spares the patient from disadvantages associated with the anesthesia. PMID:22203120

  18. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-01-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  19. Gender effect on clinical features of achalasia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikaeli, Javad; Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2006-01-01

    Background Achalasia is a well-characterized esophageal motor disorder but the rarity of the disease limits performing large studies on its demographic and clinical features. Methods Prospectively, 213 achalasia patients (110 men and 103 women) were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis established by clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic as well as manometry criteria. All patients underwent a pre-designed clinical evaluation before and within 6 months after the treatment. Results Solid dysphagia was the most common clinical symptom in men and women. Chest pain was the only symptom which was significantly different between two groups and was more complained by women than men (70.9% vs. 54.5% P value= 0.03). Although the occurrence of chest pain significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (P < 0.001), it was still higher among women (32% vs. 20.9% P value= 0.04). In both sexes, chest pain did not relate to the symptom duration, LES pressure and type of treatment patients received. Also no significant relation was found between chest pain and other symptoms expressed by men and women before and after treatment. Chest pain was less frequently reported by patients over 56 yrs of age in comparison to those less than 56 yrs (p < 0.05). Conclusion It seems that chest pain is the distinct symptom of achalasia which is affected by sex as well as age and does not relate to the duration of illness, LESP and the type of treatment achalasia patients receive. PMID:16579859

  20. Liquid versus gel handrub formulation: a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ousmane; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Lübbe, Jann; Griffiths, William; Pittet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is one of the cornerstones of the prevention of health care-associated infection, but health care worker (HCW) compliance with good practices remains low. Alcohol-based handrub is the new standard for hand hygiene action worldwide and usually requires a system change for its successful introduction in routine care. Product acceptability by HCWs is a crucial step in this process. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study to compare the impact on HCW compliance of a liquid (study phase I) versus a gel (phase II) handrub formulation of the same product during daily patient care. All staff (102 HCWs) of the medical intensive care unit participated. Compliance with hand hygiene was monitored by a single observer. Skin tolerance and product acceptability were assessed using subjective and objective scoring systems, self-report questionnaires, and biometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictors and compliance with the handrub formulation as the main explanatory variable and to adjust for potential risk factors. Results Overall compliance (phases I and II) with hand hygiene practices among nurses, physicians, nursing assistants, and other HCWs was 39.1%, 27.1%, 31.1%, and 13.9%, respectively (p = 0.027). Easy access to handrub improved compliance (35.3% versus 50.6%, p = 0.035). Nurse status, working on morning shifts, use of the gel formulation, and availability of the alcohol-based handrub in the HCW's pocket were independently associated with higher compliance. Immediate accessibility was the strongest predictor. Based on self-assessment, observer assessment, and the measurement of epidermal water content, the gel performed significantly better than the liquid formulation. Conclusion Facilitated access to an alcohol-based gel formulation leads to improved compliance with hand hygiene and better skin condition in HCWs. PMID:17477858

  1. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-08-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  2. A Prospective Cohort Study of Mineral Metabolism After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Myles; Weir, Matthew R.; Kopyt, Nelson; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Von Visger, Jon; Deng, Hongjie; Yue, Susan; Vincenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation corrects or improves many complications of chronic kidney disease, but its impact on disordered mineral metabolism is incompletely understood. Methods We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 246 kidney transplant recipients in the United States to investigate the evolution of mineral metabolism from pretransplant through the first year after transplantation. Participants were enrolled into 2 strata defined by their pretransplant levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), low PTH (>65 to ≤300 pg/mL; n = 112), and high PTH (>300 pg/mL; n = 134) and underwent repeated, longitudinal testing for mineral metabolites. Results The prevalence of posttransplant, persistent hyperparathyroidism (PTH >65 pg/mL) was 89.5%, 86.8%, 83.1%, and 86.2%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively, among participants who remained untreated with cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, or parathyroidectomy. The results did not differ across the low and high PTH strata, and rates of persistent hyperparathyroidism remained higher than 40% when defined using a higher PTH threshold greater than 130 pg/mL. Rates of hypercalcemia peaked at 48% at week 8 in the high PTH stratum and then steadily decreased through month 12. Rates of hypophosphatemia (<2.5 mg/dL) peaked at week 2 and then progressively decreased through month 12. Levels of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 decreased rapidly during the first 3 months after transplantation in both PTH strata and remained less than 40 pg/mL thereafter. Conclusions Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation. Further studies should determine if persistent hyperparathyroidism or its treatment influences long-term posttransplantation clinical outcomes. PMID:26177089

  3. Clinical orofacial characteristics associated with risk of first-onset TMD: the OPPERA prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ohrbach, Richard; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B.; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon M.; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ron; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad; Slade, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies have documented clinical manifestations of chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD), whereas clinical predictors of TMD development are largely unknown. We evaluated 41 clinical orofacial characteristics thought to predict first-onset TMD in a prospective cohort study of U.S. adults aged 18-44 years. During the median 2.8-year follow-up period, 2,737 people completed quarterly screening questionnaires. Those reporting symptoms were examined and 260 people were identified with first-onset TMD. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models quantified associations between baseline clinical orofacial measures and TMD incidence. Significant predictors from baseline self-report instruments included oral parafunctions, prior facial pain and its life-impact, TMJ noises and jaw locking, and non-specific orofacial symptoms. Significant predictors from the baseline clinical examination were pain on jaw opening and pain from palpation of masticatory, neck, and body muscles. Examiner assessments of TMJ noise and tooth wear facets did not predict incidence. In multivariate analysis, non-specific orofacial symptoms, pain from jaw opening and oral parafunctions predicted TMD incidence. The results indicate that only a few orofacial examination findings influenced TMD incidence, and only to a modest degree. More pronounced influences were found for self-reported symptoms, particularly those that appeared to reflect alterations to systems beyond the masticatory tissues. PMID:24275222

  4. Performance evaluation of a new rapid urine test for chlamydia in men: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nadala, Elpidio-Cesar; Goh, Beng T; Magbanua, Jose-Paolo; Barber, Penelope; Swain, Alison; Alexander, Sarah; Laitila, Vivian; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Ison, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a rapid test for chlamydia with first void male urine samples as a potential tool for diagnosis and screening of chlamydial infection in men. Design Evaluation of test performance in prospective cohort study. Settings A young people’s sexual health centre (site 1) and a genitourinary medicine clinic (site 2) in the United Kingdom. Participants 1211 men aged 16-73 attending either of the two sites. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test versus polymerase chain reaction assay. Relation between the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test and organism load. Results Detection rates for Chlamydia trachomatis infection with polymerase chain reaction were 4.4% (20/454) at site 1 and 11.9% (90/757) at site 2. Compared with polymerase chain reaction assay, the resolved sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test was 82.6% (90/109), 98.5% (1085/1102), 84.1% (90/107), and 98.3% (1085/1104), respectively. The organism load in first void urine samples that were positive for chlamydia ranged from 7.28×102 to 6.93×106 plasmids/ml and correlated significantly with the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (r=0.7897, P<0.001). Conclusions The performance of the new Chlamydia Rapid Test with first void male urine samples indicates that it would be an effective diagnostic tool for chlamydial infection in men. The availability of test results within an hour allows for immediate treatment and contact tracing, potentially reducing the risks of persistent infection and onward transmission. The test could also provide a simple and reliable alternative to nucleic acid amplification assays for testing of male urine in chlamydial screening programmes in high prevalence settings. PMID:19638650

  5. Surprise Questions for Survival Prediction in Patients With Advanced Cancer: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Inoue, Satoshi; Ikenaga, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Sekine, Ryuichi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Hirohashi, Takeshi; Tajima, Tsukasa; Tatara, Ryohei; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Otani, Hiroyuki; Takigawa, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Nagaoka, Hiroka; Mori, Masanori; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shimizu, Mie; Sasara, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Predicting the short-term survival in cancer patients is an important issue for patients, family, and oncologists. Although the prognostic accuracy of the surprise question has value in 1-year mortality for cancer patients, the prognostic value for short-term survival has not been formally assessed. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of the surprise question for 7-day and 30-day survival in patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods. The present multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted in Japan from September 2012 through April 2014, involving 16 palliative care units, 19 hospital-based palliative care teams, and 23 home-based palliative care services. Results. We recruited 2,425 patients and included 2,361 for analysis: 912 from hospital-based palliative care teams, 895 from hospital palliative care units, and 554 from home-based palliative care services. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the 7-day survival surprise question were 84.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.7%–88.0%), 68.0% (95% CI, 67.3%–68.5%), 30.3% (95% CI, 28.9%–31.5%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 95.5%–97.2%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the 30-day surprise question were 95.6% (95% CI, 94.4%–96.6%), 37.0% (95% CI, 35.9%–37.9%), 57.6% (95% CI, 56.8%–58.2%), and 90.4% (95% CI, 87.7%–92.6%), respectively. Conclusion. Surprise questions are useful for screening patients for short survival. However, the high false-positive rates do not allow clinicians to provide definitive prognosis prediction. Implications for Practice: The findings of this study indicate that clinicians can screen patients for 7- or 30-day survival using surprise questions with 90% or more sensitivity. Clinicians cannot provide accurate prognosis estimation, and all patients will not always die within the defined periods. The

  6. Evaluation and outcome of antenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gökaslan, Filiz; Yalçınkaya, Fatoş; Fitöz, Suat; Özçakar, Z Birsin

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN), defined as dilatation of renal pelvis and/or calyces, is the most frequently detected antenatal abnormality. However, postnatal management of AHN is controversial. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes of infants with AHN and to contribute to the definition of the postnatal evaluation of these patients. One hundred and thirty-six infants with AHN were prospectively followed up to 18 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of sonographic hydronephrosis (HN) on days 5-7: group I (n = 87, 64%) included patients who had grades 1 and 2 (64%) and group II (n = 49, 36%) included patients who had grade 3 and above HN. The grade of HN was found to be correlated with the increased risk of urologic pathologies. Frequency of vesicoureteral reflux was found to be significantly lower in patients with mild HN (6%) as compared to patients with severe AHN (29%) (p = 0.005). In addition, the risk of urinary tract infection increases with increasing grades of HN (10% vs. 29%, p = 0.006). The frequency of spontaneous resolution in patients with mild AHN (64%) was also significantly higher than in patients with severe HN (29%) (p < 0.001). The degree of AHN can be used for making decision about further diagnostic imaging and treatment. Our results strongly suggest that low-grade HN is a relatively self-limited condition and needs minimal investigation. In contrast, the outcome of more severe degrees of AHN needs clarification. PMID:22506510

  7. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  8. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the same participants underwent a 24-h Ecological Momentary Assessment characterized by ambulatory ECG recording and electronic diaries. First, we examined if the likelihood of being a “mind wanderer” was associated with specific personality dispositions. Then, we tested if the occurrence of episodes of MW in the lab would be correlated with frequency of MW in daily life. Finally, multiple regression models were used to test if MW longitudinally acted as a risk factor for health, accounting for the effects of biobehavioral variables. Among dispositional traits, the frequency of MW episodes in daily life was inversely associated with the capacity of being mindful (i.e., aware of the present moment and non-judging). There was a positive correlation between frequency of MW in the lab and in daily life, suggesting that it is a stable disposition of the individual. When differentiated from perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination and worry), MW did not predict the presence of health risk factors 1 year later, however, a higher occurrence of episodes of MW was associated with short-term adverse consequences, such as increased 24-h heart rate (HR) on the same day and difficulty falling asleep the subsequent night. Present findings suggest that MW may be associated with short term “side effects” but argue against a long term dysfunctional view of this cognitive process. PMID:23966964

  9. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    prostate cancer and achieve a high disease-free survival. Our prospective study was aimed to analyze our own results cryoablation of the prostate gland. PMID:25799731

  10. Allergy to complex platinum salts: A historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Niezborala, M; Garnier, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of allergy to complex platinum salts in a platinum refinery. METHODS: A historical prospective cohort study was carried out on 77 workers (67 men) who started work between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 1991 and who were not atopic on skin prick tests to three common allergens at the time of recruitment. Skin prick tests with complex platinum salts were carried out and diagnosis of allergy to complex platinum salts made by the company's doctor. Skin tests and medical examinations were carried out routinely every six months. Follow up was until 30 September 1992 or until leaving refinery work. RESULTS: 18 workers developed a positive result on skin tests and 23 developed symptoms, including all 18 subjects with positive skin tests; the probability of surviving (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) for 72 months after joining the company, with negative skin test results was 0.67 (0.51-0.79) or with no symptoms was 0.63 (0.49-0.75). The incidence of positive skin tests and symptoms was highest during the first two years of work. Symptoms occurred more frequently in September and October than during the other months of the year. The exclusion of atopic subjects did not seem to have resulted in a lower incidence of sensitisation. Smoking was a significant predictive factor for both positive skin tests (estimated relative risk 5.53) and symptoms (4.70). CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that smoking is and that atopy may not be a high risk factor for the development of allergy to complex platinum salts. The high incidence of sensitisation and the available data on the clinical course of sensitised workers show that sensitised workers must be promptly and completely removed from exposure. PMID:8664963

  11. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  12. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Without Prophylactic Antibiotics: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nilay; Nandy, Mintu Mohan; Majhi, Jaganmay; Kuiri, Shibshankar; Kumar Ghosh, Pranab; Ghosh, Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the new gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in elective surgery by the majority of surgeons, and their role in biliary tract surgery has been well established for a subpopulation of high-risk patients. This consensus has been derived from multiple studies involving biliary tract surgery before and in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But the use of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially in the low-risk group is now controversial and varied among the surgeons all over the world. To study the role of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in different risk groups of patients, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Surgery of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients with symptomatic gallstones who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy during this period are included in this study. One hundred and two patients with symptomatic gallstones were operated on by laparoscopic technique without receiving preoperative antibiotics and studied over a period of 1.5 years. Ages ranged from 11 to 70 years (mean age of 33 years). There were 14 males (13.72 % of the patients) and 88 females (86.27 % of the patients). There was no wound infection (class I) in 99 patients, and class II type of wound infection, i.e., surgical site infection, occurred in three patients (i.e., 2.94 %) out of a total of 102 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity; Staphylococcus aureus was found in two patients and Streptococcus viridans in one patient. In all three patients, infection occurred at the umbilical port sites, detected on the 3rd and 4th postoperative days. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in low-risk patients with symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infection

  13. Comprehensive screening study of pesticide degradation via oxidation and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Evelyn; Shi, Honglan; Wang, Tongwen; Ma, Yinfa; Fulmer, Alice; Adams, Craig

    2012-01-11

    This comprehensive study focused on the reactivity of a set of 62 pesticides via oxidization by free chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and permanganate; photodegradation with UV(254); and hydrolysis at pH 2, 7, and 12. Samples were analyzed using direct injection liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection or gas chromatography-electron capture detection after liquid-liquid extraction. Many pesticides were reactive via hydrolysis and/or chlorination and ozonation mechanisms under typical drinking water treatment conditions, with less reactivity exhibited on average for chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, and UV(254). The pyrazole and organophosphorous pesticides were most reactive in general, whereas carbamates and others were less reactive. The screening study provides guidance for the pesticide/oxidation systems that are most likely to lead to degradates in water treatment and the environment. PMID:22141915

  14. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENTERIC DISEASE TRANSMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH SPRINKLER IRRIGATION WITH WASTEWATER: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report deals with a prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study, in which the quality of data could be optimally controlled on the possible association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in agricultural settlements in Israel. The study r...

  15. Prospects and limits of the flow cytometric seed screen – insights from Potentilla sensu lato (Potentilleae, Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Dobeš, Christoph; Lückl, Andrea; Hülber, Karl; Paule, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    The flow cytometric seed screen allows for identification of reproductive modes of seed formation and inference of the ploidy of contributing gametes. However, the lack of a mathematical formalization to infer male/female genomic contributions, and the prerequisite of a binucleate female contribution to the endosperm limits its applicability. We evaluated this assumption combining a DNA-based progeny survey with a comparison of the cytology of reproductive pathways co-occurring within single individuals representing 14 Potentilleae species from six phylogenetic lineages. A numerical framework valid for sexual and pseudogamous taxa was developed, enabling quantification of female and male genomes contributing to embryo and endosperm independent of gametophyte origins, numbers of sperm involved and ploidy of parents. The inference strongly depended on accurate peak index estimation. The endosperm of Potentilleae species received a binucleate female contribution in five evolutionary lineages whereas endosperm formation remained uncertain in the Tormentillae. A modified flow cytometric seed screen protocol was developed to cope with low endosperm contents. Evolutionary conservation of a binucleate female contribution to the endosperm suggested wide applicability of flow cytometric seed screen – at least in the Potentilleae. However, alternative progeny surveys and precise embryo/endosperm ploidy estimates are required for a comprehensive understanding of the cytology of seed formation. PMID:23425259

  16. Prospective evaluation of 64 serum autoantibodies as biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer in a true screening setting

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongda; Werner, Simone; Butt, Julia; Zörnig, Inka; Knebel, Phillip; Michel, Angelika; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Novel blood-based screening tests are strongly desirable for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to identify and evaluate autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens as biomarkers for early detection of CRC. 380 clinically identified CRC patients and samples of participants with selected findings from a cohort of screening colonoscopy participants in 2005–2013 (N=6826) were included in this analysis. Sixty-four serum autoantibody markers were measured by multiplex bead-based serological assays. A two-step approach with selection of biomarkers in a training set, and validation of findings in a validation set, the latter exclusively including participants from the screening setting, was applied. Anti-MAGEA4 exhibited the highest sensitivity for detecting early stage CRC and advanced adenoma. Multi-marker combinations substantially increased sensitivity at the price of a moderate loss of specificity. Anti-TP53, anti-IMPDH2, anti-MDM2 and anti-MAGEA4 were consistently included in the best-performing 4-, 5-, and 6-marker combinations. This four-marker panel yielded a sensitivity of 26% (95% CI, 13–45%) for early stage CRC at a specificity of 90% (95% CI, 83–94%) in the validation set. Notably, it also detected 20% (95% CI, 13–29%) of advanced adenomas. Taken together, the identified biomarkers could contribute to the development of a useful multi-marker blood-based test for CRC early detection. PMID:26909861

  17. Prospective evaluation of 64 serum autoantibodies as biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer in a true screening setting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongda; Werner, Simone; Butt, Julia; Zörnig, Inka; Knebel, Phillip; Michel, Angelika; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Jäger, Dirk; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-03-29

    Novel blood-based screening tests are strongly desirable for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to identify and evaluate autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens as biomarkers for early detection of CRC. 380 clinically identified CRC patients and samples of participants with selected findings from a cohort of screening colonoscopy participants in 2005-2013 (N=6826) were included in this analysis. Sixty-four serum autoantibody markers were measured by multiplex bead-based serological assays. A two-step approach with selection of biomarkers in a training set, and validation of findings in a validation set, the latter exclusively including participants from the screening setting, was applied. Anti-MAGEA4 exhibited the highest sensitivity for detecting early stage CRC and advanced adenoma. Multi-marker combinations substantially increased sensitivity at the price of a moderate loss of specificity. Anti-TP53, anti-IMPDH2, anti-MDM2 and anti-MAGEA4 were consistently included in the best-performing 4-, 5-, and 6-marker combinations. This four-marker panel yielded a sensitivity of 26% (95% CI, 13-45%) for early stage CRC at a specificity of 90% (95% CI, 83-94%) in the validation set. Notably, it also detected 20% (95% CI, 13-29%) of advanced adenomas. Taken together, the identified biomarkers could contribute to the development of a useful multi-marker blood-based test for CRC early detection. PMID:26909861

  18. Pregabalin for Refractory Radicular Leg Pain due to Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Preliminary Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamashita, Masaomi; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inoue, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Tomoko; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ito, Toshinori; Kubota, Go; Suzuki, Munetaka; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Hanaoka, Eiji; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Shimbo, Jun; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of pregabalin (PGB) for neuropathic leg pain in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients with disturbed activities of daily living (ADL)/quality of life (QOL) in a prospective observational study. Subjects were a total of 104 LSS patients with neuropathic pain (NeP) in leg and neurological intermittent claudication (IMC) refractory to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for at least a month. NeP was identified using screening tool, Pain DETECT questionnaire. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores and responses to the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) were assessed before and 6 weeks after PGB treatment initiation. Changes in IMC distance and adverse events were also recorded. PGB significantly improved their VAS scores for pain and sleep quality (P < 0.001). With respect to JOABPEQ, significant improvements were observed with regard to the following dimensions: pain-related disorders (P < 0.01), lumbar spine dysfunction (P = 0.031), gait disturbance (P = 0.028), and psychological disorders (P = 0.014). The IMC distance showed an improvement tendency after PGB treatment, albeit with no significance (P = 0.063). Minor adverse events such as dizziness were observed. PGB can be effective for neuropathic leg pain refractory to NSAIDs in LSS patients, resulting in not only pain control but also improving lower back pain-related ADL/QOL scores. PMID:27445615

  19. Radiation-induced tumors of the head and neck following childhood irradiation. Prospective studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.B.; Shore-Freedman, E.; Ryo, U.Y.; Bekerman, C.; Favus, M.; Pinsky, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nodules were found in 1108 subjects who received childhood radiation for benign conditions of the cervical area at our institution. This is 37.5% of 2958 subjects, out of a total of 5379, for whom there is follow-up information. Of the 848 subjects who have had thyroidectomies, 297 (35.0%) had thyroid cancer. In addition to thyroid tumors, salivary, neural, and probably parathyroid tumors also occurred as a late consequence of childhood radiation. Prospective studies of the subjects indicate that thyroid nodules are continuing to occur at a constant rate. The measurement of serum thyroglobulin is helpful in identifying individuals for whom the risk of developing a nodule is increased. Follow-up of patients with nonsurgically-treated nodules indicates that some of their nodules are progressive. At the present time there is no indication that radiation-induced cancers behave differently than ones in other settings. However, some of their characteristics, especially their multicentricity and occurrence in younger individuals, indicate that continued follow-up is necessary. On the basis of the data generated by the follow-up program at our institution and programs elsewhere, recommendations for screening, treatment, and follow-up are made. The recommendations stress the importance of estimating risk based on radiation dose, previous tumors, and serum thyroglobulin, in arriving at clinical decisions for these subjects.

  20. A historical prospective cohort study of carotid artery stenosis after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Foote, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Mark P.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Ballman, Karla V.; Collie, A. Craig; Miller, Robert C.; Flemming, Kelly D.; Hallett, John W.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To determine carotid artery stenosis incidence after radiotherapy for head-and-neck neoplasms. Methods and Materials: This historical prospective cohort study comprised 44 head-and-neck cancer survivors who received unilateral neck radiotherapy between 1974 and 1999. They underwent bilateral carotid duplex ultrasonography to detect carotid artery stenosis. Results: The incidence of significant carotid stenosis (8 of 44 [18%]) in the irradiated neck was higher than that in the contralateral unirradiated neck (3 of 44 [7%]), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.13). The rate of significant carotid stenosis events increased as the time after radiotherapy increased. The risk of ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis was higher in patients who had undergone a neck dissection vs. those who had not. Patients with significant ipsilateral stenosis also tended to be older than those without significant stenosis. No other patient or treatment variables correlated with risk of carotid artery stenosis. Conclusions: For long-term survivors after neck dissection and irradiation, especially those who are symptomatic, ultrasonographic carotid artery screening should be considered.

  1. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  2. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  3. Catalyst Screening and Kinetic Studies Using Microchannel Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chunshe; Palo, Daniel R.; Tonkovich, Annalee Y.; Wang, Yong

    2007-07-15

    A multi-parallel microchannel reactor system is described, as related to catalyst screening and discovery for heat-intensive heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Example systems are detailed, in which the rapid heat transfer of the screening device is utilized to maintain isothermal operation in multiple channels for catalyst screening as well as kinetic investigations. The advantages of the system and pertinent results are discussed, specifically for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol oxidation to formaldehyde, and methanol steam reforming.

  4. Cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in the UK, US and Canada: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bierman, Arlene S

    2016-03-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants settled in the United Kingdom (UK) and North America [United States (US) and Canada] have low screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Incidence rates of these cancers increase among SA immigrants after migration, becoming similar to rates in non-Asian native populations. However, there are disparities in cancer screening, with low cancer screening uptake in this population. We conducted a scoping study using Arksey & O'Malley's framework to examine cancer screening literature on SA immigrants residing in the UK, US and Canada. Eight electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for English language studies and reports. Of 1465 identified references, 70 studies from 1994 to November 2014 were included: 63% on breast or cervical cancer screening or both; 10% examined colorectal cancer screening only; 16% explored health promotion/service provision; 8% studied breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; and 3% examined breast and colorectal cancer screening. A thematic analysis uncovered four dominant themes: (i) beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening included centrality of family, holistic healthcare, fatalism, screening as unnecessary and emotion-laden perceptions; (ii) lack of knowledge of cancer and screening related to not having heard about cancer and its causes, or lack of awareness of screening, its rationale and/or how to access services; (iii) barriers to access including individual and structural barriers; and (iv) gender differences in screening uptake and their associated factors. Findings offer insights that can be used to develop culturally sensitive interventions to minimise barriers and increase cancer screening uptake in these communities, while recognising the diversity within the SA culture. Further research is required to address the gap in colorectal cancer screening literature to more fully understand SA immigrants' perspectives, as well as research to

  5. A prospective study of faecal bile acids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; Hill, M J; Thompson, M H; Owen, R W; Williams, R E; Meade, T W; Wilkes, H; Griffin, M

    2000-10-01

    A prospective study of 7079 people aged 45-74 recruited through general practices in South Wales, Herefordshire and Edinburgh, Scotland was undertaken to test the hypothesis that faecal bile acids are implicated in the causation of large bowel cancer. The population was recruited between 1974 and 1980 and the response rate for stool collection was 67%. Bile acid analyses were performed on those cases that presented by 1990. It was decided in advance to examine the hypothesis separately for left- and right-sided bowel cancer because of known epidemiological differences between the two sites and to exclude the cases presenting within 2 years of the stool sample from the analyses because the cancer could have been present at recruitment and might have possibly affected faecal bile acid concentrations. Each case (n = 51 left-sided and 8 right-sided) was matched with three controls by age (within 5 years), sex, place of residence and time of providing the stool sample (within 3 months). Statistical analyses using conditional logistic regression showed no significant differences between the left-sided cases and controls for any of the concentrations of individual bile acids, total bile acid concentrations, faecal neutral steroids, percentage bacterial conversion and the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid concentrations. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.021) association of the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid (5/8 samples) in the right-sided cases compared with the controls (3/23), odds ratio 6.26 (95% confidence interval 1.19, 32.84). A high proportion of primary bile acids has also been found in other studies of patients with a genetic predisposition to proximal bowel cancer, however this pattern may also occur in low risk groups, such as Indian vegetarians, suggesting that they may predispose to right-sided bowel cancer only in the presence of other, as yet unknown factors. If bile acids are involved in the causation of large bowel cancer, they

  6. Serum erythropoietin and outcome after ischaemic stroke: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, N David; Stanne, Tara M; Jood, Katarina; Schiöler, Linus; Blomstrand, Christian; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Isgaard, Jörgen; Jern, Christina; Svensson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Erythropoietin (EPO), which is inversely associated with blood haemoglobin (Hb), exerts neuroprotective effects in experimental ischaemic stroke (IS). However, clinical treatment trials have so far been negative. Here, in patients with IS, we analysed whether serum EPO is associated with (1) initial stroke severity, (2) recovery and (3) functional outcome. Design Prospective. Controls available at baseline. Setting A Swedish hospital-initiated study with outpatient follow-up after 3 months. Participants Patients (n=600; 64% males, mean age 56 years, controls n=600) were included from the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on IS (SAHLSIS). Primary and secondary outcome measures In addition to EPO and Hb, initial stroke severity was assessed by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) and compared with SSS after 3 months (follow-up) as a measure of recovery. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at follow-up. Serum EPO and SSS were divided into quintiles in the multivariate regression analyses. Results Serum EPO was 21% and 31% higher than in controls at the acute phase of IS and follow-up, respectively. In patients, acute serum EPO was 19.5% higher in severe versus mild IS. The highest acute EPO quintile adjusted for sex, age and Hb was associated with worse stroke severity quintile (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.87), better stroke recovery quintile (OR 1.93, CI 1.09 to 3.41) and unfavourable mRS 3–6 (OR 2.59, CI 1.15 to 5.80). However, the fourth quintile of EPO increase (from acute to follow-up) was associated with favourable mRS 0–2 (OR 3.42, CI 1.46 to 8.03). Only the last association withstood full adjustment. Conclusions The crude associations between EPO and worse stroke severity and outcome lost significance after multivariate modelling. However, in patients in whom EPO increased, the association with favourable outcome remained after adjustment for multiple covariates. PMID:26916692

  7. Computer Simulation Study of Graphene Oxide Supercapacitors: Charge Screening Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Won; DeYoung, Andrew D; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J; Jung, YounJoon

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide supercapacitors in the parallel plate configuration are studied via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The full range of electrode oxidation from 0 to 100% is examined by oxidizing the graphene surface with hydroxyl groups. Two different electrolytes, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI(+)BF4(-)) as an ionic liquid and its 1.3 M solution in acetonitrile as an organic electrolyte, are considered. While the area-specific capacitance tends to decrease with increasing electrode oxidation for both electrolytes, its details show interesting differences between the organic electrolyte and ionic liquid, including the extent of decrease. For detailed insight into these differences, the screening mechanisms of electrode charges by electrolytes and their variations with electrode oxidation are analyzed with special attention paid to the aspects shared by and the contrasts between the organic electrolyte and ionic liquid. PMID:26966918

  8. Morbidity of harvesting of retromolar bone grafts: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Radespiel-Tröger, Martin; Wiltfang, Jörg; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Winkler, Gerhard; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2002-10-01

    20 retromolar bone grafts were harvested in outpatients for augmentation of the implant site from January to June 2000 (10 female, 10 male, 40.9 +/- 12.8 years, minimum 17 years, maximum 66 years). The aim of the study was to assess typical complications of this procedure in a prospective manner. For the determination of the superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve, an objective method was used. The bone grafts were harvested for single tooth reconstruction. In 14 cases a ridge augmentation and in 6 cases an endoscopically controlled crestal sinus floor elevation was performed. Preoperatively, the height of bone above the cranial aspect of the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was assessed radiologically with known markers. The maximum mouth opening was determined. The superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve was assessed with the Pointed-Blunt Test, the Two-Point-Discrimination Test and the objective method of the 'Pain and Thermal Sensitivity' Test (PATH Test). Moreover, the pulp sensitivity of the teeth of the donor site was determined by cold vitality testing. All tests were repeated 1 week postoperatively. Intraoperatively, the width of the retromolar region was measured with a caliper. The patients rated the operative strain on a visual analogue scale. The height of bone above the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was 11.0 +/- 2.2 mm. The width of the retromolar area was 14.2 +/- 1.9 mm. Postoperatively, the maximal mouth opening changed significantly (40.8 +/- 3.5 mm preoperatively, 38.9 +/- 3.7 mm postoperatively, P = 0.006). However, the reduction was not relevant clinically. A direct injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve did not occur. A sensitivity impairment could not be detected for either of the nerves by the different test methods 1 week postoperatively. The operative strain related to the donor site was significantly less than the strain

  9. Mortality of gasworkers—final report of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Vessey, M. P.; Beasley, R. W. R.; Buckley, A. R.; Fear, E. C.; Fisher, R. E. W.; Gammon, E. J.; Gunn, W.; Hughes, G. O.; Lee, K.; Norman-Smith, Beatrice

    1972-01-01

    Doll, R., Vessey, M. P., Beasley, R. W. R., Buckley, A. R., Fear, E. C., Fisher, R. E. W., Gammon, E. J., Gunn, W., Hughes, G. O., Lee, K., and Norman-Smith, Beatrice (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 394-406. Mortality of gasworkers—final report of a prospective study. The mortality experience of selected groups of gasworkers employed by four area Gas Boards and observed over a period of eight years was described by us in a report in 1965. The present paper adds a further four years' data to those previously collected for men having regular exposure in coal carbonizing plants and for men having exposure only to by-products of the gas-making process. To these we have added data relating to men employed by four additional area Gas Boards who have been observed over periods of seven to eight years. The new data provide confirmation that exposure to the products of coal carbonization can give rise to cancer of the lung and leave little doubt that the risk of bladder cancer is also increased. Two additional deaths from scrotal cancer have been observed; there is evidently still a need for vigilance if this disease is to be treated at a stage early enough to prevent death. With respect to all these cancers, work as a topman appears to be particularly hazardous. The additional data included in the present report fail to settle the question whether the risk of lung cancer is especially associated with the conditions of work in one particular type of retort house; if there are any differences, however, they are likely to be small. In our original report, a highly significant association between death from bronchitis and exposure to the coal carbonizing process was described. The more recent data for the four original Gas Boards offer only limited support to the view that bronchitis is a specific occupational hazard of gasworkers, and the data for the four additional Gas Boards provide no further support whatsoever. The explanation for these discrepancies is obscure, but

  10. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  11. Anosognosia for hemiplegia: a clinical-anatomical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vocat, Roland; Staub, Fabienne; Stroppini, Tiziano; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia is a common and striking disorder following stroke. Because it is typically transient and variable, it remains poorly understood and has rarely been investigated at different times in a systematic manner. Our study evaluated a prospective cohort of 58 patients with right-hemisphere stroke and significant motor deficit of the left hemibody, who were examined using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at 3 days (hyperacute), 1 week (subacute) and 6 months (chronic) after stroke onset. Anosognosia for hemiplegia was frequent in the hyperacute phase (32%), but reduced by almost half 1 week later (18%) and only rarely seen at 6 months (5%). Anosognosia for hemiplegia was correlated with the severity of several other deficits, most notably losses in proprioception, extrapersonal spatial neglect and disorientation. While multiple regression analyses highlighted proprioceptive loss as the most determinant factor for the hyperacute period, and visuospatial neglect and disorientation as more determinant for the subacute phase, patients with both proprioceptive loss and neglect had significantly higher incidence of anosognosia for hemiplegia than those with only one deficit or no deficits (although a few double dissociations were observed). Personal neglect and frontal lobe tests showed no significant relation with anosognosia for hemiplegia, nor did psychological traits such as optimism and mood. Moreover, anosognosia for neglect and prediction of performance in non-motor tasks were unrelated to anosognosia for hemiplegia, suggesting distinct monitoring mechanisms for each of these domains. Finally, by using a voxel-based statistical mapping method to identify lesions associated with a greater severity of anosognosia, we found that damage to the insula (particularly its anterior part) and adjacent subcortical structures was determinant for anosognosia for hemiplegia in the hyperacute period, while additional lesions in the premotor cortex

  12. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge About Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers’ knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a vignette, semistructured interviews, and lesson plans. Analysis showed that concrete objects, computer animations, and expository teaching were the preferred teaching techniques by prospective teachers. Several issues, such as general pedagogical knowledge, subject matter knowledge, and knowledge about students’ difficulties, were found to be the main factors for choosing a teaching strategy to make an introduction to particles.

  13. Bulbar dysfunction in normal pressure hydrocephalus: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Ekawut; Srirabheebhat, Prajak; Manochiopinig, Sriwimon; Witthiwej, Theerapol; Benjamin, Itsara

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is clinically characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence, as well as enlargement of the ventricles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous publications regarding the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and NPH. The primary objective of this study was to compare preoperative and postoperative prevalence of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. Secondary objectives included assessing the results of surgery for swallowing, speech, gait, cognition, and urination, and evaluating the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and triad symptoms. METHODS Fifty-three patients with NPH who underwent shunt placement surgery at Siriraj Hospital were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for gait, cognition, urination, swallowing, and speech before and 6 months after shunt placement. Triad symptoms were assessed using standard methods. Bulbar dysfunctions were assessed using the Swallowing Problem Questionnaire, Thai Articulation Test, Resonation Screening Test (RST), and Thai Nasality Test. The Thai Speech Assessment Program and nasometer were used for objective speech measurement. RESULTS Preoperatively, 86% (43/50) of patients had swallowing problems and 75% (37/49) had speech problems, as measured by the RST. Postoperatively, there was significant improvement in swallowing (p < 0.001), speech problems by RST (p = 0.008), and voice volume (p = 0.009), but no significant change in the nasometer test. All triad symptoms were improved. There were significant correlations between swallowing impairment and gait disturbance (r = 0.358, p = 0.009), and RST and cognitive impairment (r = -0.502, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. The results showed that the prevalence of bulbar dysfunction is very high. The correlation between bulbar dysfunction and the classic NPH triad has been documented and published

  14. Vitamin B₁₂ status, cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Samman, Samir

    2012-12-14

    Poor vitamin B₁₂ status may lead to the development of cognitive decline and dementia but there is a large variation in the quality, design of and results reported from these investigations. We have undertaken a systematic review of the evidence for the association between vitamin B₁₂ status and cognitive decline in older adults. A database search of the literature to 2011 was undertaken, using keywords related to vitamin B₁₂ and cognition. All prospective cohort studies assessing the association of serum vitamin B₁₂ or biomarkers were included. Quality assessment and extraction of the data were undertaken by two researchers. The quality assessment tool assigns a positive, neutral or negative rating. Of 3772 published articles, thirty-five cohort studies (n 14 325 subjects) were identified and evaluated. No association between serum vitamin B₁₂ concentrations and cognitive decline or dementia was found. However, four studies that used newer biomarkers of vitamin B₁₂ status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin (holoTC)) showed associations between poor vitamin B₁₂ status and the increased risk of cognitive decline or dementia diagnosis. In general, the studies were of reasonable quality (twenty-one positive, ten neutral and four negative quality) but of short duration and inadequate subject numbers to determine whether an effect exists. Future studies should be of adequate duration (at least 6 years), recruit subjects from the seventh decade, choose markers of vitamin B₁₂ status with adequate specificity such as holoTC and/or methylmalonic acid and employ standardised neurocognitive assessment tools and not screening tests in order to ascertain any relationship between vitamin B₁₂ status and cognitive decline. PMID:23084026

  15. TRANSMISSION OF ENTERIC DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER IRRIGATION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a prospective epidemiological study of possible enteric disease transmission by aerosolized pathogens from sprinkler irrigation of partially treated wastewater in 20 kibbutzim (colllective agricultural settlements) in Isreal between March 1981 and February 1982. Medi...

  16. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  17. Understanding the role of embarrassment in gynaecological screening: a qualitative study from the ASPIRE cervical cancer screening project in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Flora F; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Steinberg, Malcolm; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define embarrassment and develop an understanding of the role of embarrassment in relation to cervical cancer screening and self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in Uganda. Design Cross-sectional, qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one interviews and focus groups. Participants 6 key-informant health workers and 16 local women, purposively sampled. Key informant inclusion criteria: Ugandan members of the project team. Focus group inclusion criteria: woman age 30–69 years, Luganda or Swahili speaking, living or working in the target Ugandan community. Exclusion criteria: unwillingness to sign informed consent. Setting Primary and tertiary low-resource setting in Kampala, Uganda. Results In Luganda, embarrassment relating to cervical cancer is described in two forms. ‘Community embarrassment’ describes discomfort based on how a person may be perceived by others. ‘Personal embarrassment’ relates to shyness or discomfort with her own genitalia. Community embarrassment was described in themes relating to place of study recruitment, amount of privacy in dwellings, personal relationship with health workers, handling of the vaginal swab and misunderstanding of HPV self-collection as HIV testing. Themes of personal embarrassment related to lack of knowledge, age and novelty of the self-collection swab. Overall, embarrassment was a barrier to screening at the outset and diminished over time through education and knowledge. Fatalism regarding cervical cancer diagnosis, worry about results and stigma associated with a cervical cancer diagnosis were other psychosocial barriers described. Overcoming psychosocial barriers to screening can include peer-to-peer education, drama and media campaigns. Conclusions Embarrassment and other psychosocial barriers may play a large role at the onset of a screening programme, but over time as education and knowledge increase, and the social norms around screening evolve, its role diminishes

  18. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Accordingly, the NASA Lewis Research Center has conducted screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines to determine their potential impact on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed concepts was formulated by NASA and industry. These concepts were evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation, three target aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a military high performance fighter mission, a high speed civil transport mission, and a civil tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study were defined and described. The concept's potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts were also determined. Finally, the concepts were ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions.

  19. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Accordingly, the NASA Lewis Research Center has conducted screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines to determine their potential impact on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed concepts was formulated by NASA and industry. These concepts were evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation, three target aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a military high performance fighter mission, a high speed civil transport mission, and a civil tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study were defined and described. The concept's potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts were also determined. Finally, the concepts were ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions.

  20. Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ≥14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality

  1. Systematic Review and Meta-study Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Evaluating Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Kastner, Monika; Vuong, Vincent; Perrier, Laure; Daly, Corinne; Rabeneck, Linda; Straus, Sharon; Baxter, Nancy N

    2016-06-01

    Screening reduces the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of colorectal cancer, yet participation tends to be low. We undertook a systematic review and meta-study synthesis of qualitative studies to identify facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. We searched major bibliographic databases for records published in all languages from inception to February 2015. Included primary studies that elicited views and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening were appraised for relevance and quality. We used a two-stage synthesis to create an interpretation of colorectal cancer screening decisions grounded in primary studies; a thematic analysis to group themes and systematically compare studies and a meta-synthesis to generate an expanded theory of colorectal cancer screening participation. Ninety-four studies were included. The decision to participate in colorectal cancer screening depended on an individual's awareness of colorectal cancer screening. Awareness affected views of cancer, attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening modalities, and motivation for screening. Factors mediating awareness included public education to address misconceptions, primary care physician efforts to recommend screening, and the influence of friends and family. Specific barriers to participation in populations with lower participation rates included language barriers, logistical challenges to attending screening tests, and cultural beliefs. This study identifies key barriers, facilitators, and mediators to colorectal cancer screening participation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 907-17. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197277

  2. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Hino, Miki; Goto, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results. PMID:24705267

  3. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  4. Optical Simulations and Studies with the PROSPECT-20 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemen, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum) experiment at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will make a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium nuclear reactor while also probing for short-baseline oscillations as a signature of possible sterile-neutrinos. Two liquid scintillator detectors at distances of 7-10m and 16-20m from the reactor will identify inverse beta decay events initiated by reactor antineutrinos. The near detector will be divided into optically separated segments filled with lithium loaded liquid scintillator read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. Light guides will be employed to direct photons from the scintillator cells to the active PMT photo-cathodes. An optical simulation was built to optimize the performance of the detectors with respect to both light collection and detector uniformity and guide the design of the scintillator cells. We present experimental data and simulation results from the PROSPECT-20 prototype detector.

  5. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  6. Protein flexibility in virtual screening: the BACE-1 case study.

    PubMed

    Cosconati, Sandro; Marinelli, Luciana; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; La Pietra, Valeria; De Simone, Angela; Mancini, Francesca; Andrisano, Vincenza; Novellino, Ettore; Goodsell, David S; Olson, Arthur J

    2012-10-22

    Simulating protein flexibility is a major issue in the docking-based drug-design process for which a single methodological solution does not exist. In our search of new anti-Alzheimer ligands, we were faced with the challenge of including receptor plasticity in a virtual screening campaign aimed at finding new β-secretase inhibitors. To this aim, we incorporated protein flexibility in our simulations by using an ensemble of static X-ray enzyme structures to screen the National Cancer Institute database. A unified description of the protein motion was also generated by computing and combining a set of grid maps using an energy weighting scheme. Such a description was used in an energy-weighted virtual screening experiment on the same molecular database. Assessment of the enrichment factors from these two virtual screening approaches demonstrated comparable predictive powers, with the energy-weighted method being faster than the ensemble method. The in vitro evaluation demonstrated that out of the 32 tested ligands, 17 featured the predicted enzyme inhibiting property. Such an impressive success rate (53.1%) demonstrates the enhanced power of the two methodologies and suggests that energy-weighted virtual screening is a more than valid alternative to ensemble virtual screening given its reduced computational demands and comparable performance. PMID:23005250

  7. Outcome from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Cocaine Use: Preschool Development at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hou, Wei; Wobie, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child development. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study recruited 154 pregnant cocaine users who were matched on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and perinatal risk to 154 noncocaine users. Drug use status was determined by maternal history and urine screening. At 3 years of age, the child subjects were assessed by an evaluator blinded to maternal drug use history. During a home visit at age 3, caregiver, family, and home assessments were administered. Results Structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of the amount of prenatal cocaine exposure on the adjusted birth head circumference which in turn directly affected preschool development. Conclusions We could not demonstrate a direct effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on preschool development, a result that is consistent with that of earlier work and now extending findings to age 3. However, cocaine continued to exert an indirect effect on development through its direct effect on the head circumference at birth. PMID:15827349

  8. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  9. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  10. Access to the Superficial Femoral Artery in the Presence of a 'Hostile Groin': A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Adrian J.; Lotzof, Kevin; Howard, Adam

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Lower limb angioplasty is commonly performed via antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture, followed by selective superficial femoral artery (SFA) catheterization. Arterial access can be complicated by a 'hostile groin' (scarring, obesity, or previous failed CFA puncture). We prospectively investigated color duplex ultrasound (CDU)-guided SFA access for radiological interventions. Methods. Antegrade CDU-guided CFA and SFA puncture were compared in 30 patients requiring intervention for severe leg ischemia who had hostile groins. Demographics, screen time, radiation dose, intervention, and complications were prospectively recorded. Results. Treatment in 30 patients involved 44 angioplasties (40 transluminal, 4 subintimal) and 2 diagnostic angiograms. Fifteen of these patients had CDU-guided CFA punctures; in 8 of these patients CDU-guided CFA puncture 'failed' (i.e., there was failure to pass a guidewire or catheter into the CFA or SFA), necessitating immediate direct CDU-guided SFA puncture. Overall, the mean screen time and radiation dosage, via direct CDU-guided SFA puncture in 30 patients, was 4.8 min and 464 Gy cm{sup 2} respectively. With CDU-guided CFA puncture, mean screen time (10 min), radiation dose (2023 Gy cm{sup 2}), and complications (13%) were greater when compared with the SFA puncture results overall and in the same patients at subsequent similar procedures (2.7 min, 379 Gy cm{sup 2} (p < 0.05), no complications in this subgroup). Five complications occurred: 2 each at CFA and SFA entry sites, and 1 angioplasty embolus. Conclusions. The CDU-guided SFA puncture technique was both more effective than CDU-guided CFA access in patients with scarred groins, obesity, or failed CFA punctures and safer, with reduced screen times, radiation doses, and complications.

  11. ICU-Onset Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in China: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Cai, Lin; Yu, Rujia; Huang, Wenzhi; Zong, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence, clinical profiles and outcome of ICU-onset CDI in a 50-bed medical ICU at a university hospital in China. Stools were collected from patients who developed ICU-onset diarrhea and was screened for tcdA (toxin A gene) and tcdB (toxin B gene) by PCR. CDI cases were compared with the ICU-onset non-CDI diarrhea cases for demographics, comorbidities, potential risk factors, major laboratory findings and outcomes. Stool samples from CDI cases were subjected to C. difficile culture and C. difficile isolates were screened for tcdA, tcdB and the binary toxin genes (cdtA and cdtB) using multiplex PCR. Strain typing of toxigenic C. difficile isolates was performed using multilocus sequence typing. There were 1,277 patients in the ICU during the study period and 124 (9.7%) developed ICU-onset diarrhea, of which 31 patients had CDI. The incidence of ICU-onset CDI was 25.2 cases per 10,000 ICU days. ICU-onset CDI cases had similar features with ICU-onset non-CDI diarrhea cases including the use of proton pump inhibitors and antibacterial agents. The crude mortality rate of ICU-onset CDI was 22.6%, but the attributable mortality rate of ICU-onset CDI was only 3.2% here. Toxigenic C. difficile isolates were recovered from 28 out of the 31 patients with CDI. cdtA and cdtB were found in two strains. Seventeen STs including 11 new STs were identified. All of the 11 new STs were single-locus variants of known STs and the 17 STs identified here could be clustered into 3 clades. The incidence of ICU-onset CDI here is similar to those in Europe and North America, suggesting that CDI is likely to be a common problem in China. Toxigenic C. difficile here belonged to a variety of STs, which may represent a significant clonal expansion rather than the true clonal diversity. PMID:25372033

  12. Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort: Study design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Lowe, Jean R.; Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Stephen, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background While intervention is the leading factor in reducing long-term disabilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), early identification of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains challenging. Deficits in higher-order cognitive domains (e.g. executive function) might be more specific to FASD than global neurodevelopmental tests, yet these functions are not developed in very young children. Measures of early sensorimotor development may provide early indications of atypical brain development during the first two years of life. Methods This paper describes the novel methodology of the Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort study of 120 maternal-infant pairs with a goal to identify early indices of functional brain impairment associated with PAE. The cohort is established by recruiting women early in pregnancy and classifying them into one of three study groups: patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who consume alcohol during pregnancy (Group 1), patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who abstain from alcohol during pregnancy (Group 2), and healthy controls (Group 3). After the initial prenatal assessment (Visit 1), patients are followed to Visit 2 occurring at delivery, and two comprehensive assessments of children at six (Visit 3) and 20 months (Visit 4) of age. ENRICH recruitment started in November 2013 and 87 women were recruited during the first year. During Year 1, the biospecimen (maternal whole blood, serum, urine, dry blood spots of a newborn) collection rate was 100% at Visit 1, and 97.6% for those who completed Visit 2. Discussion The tiered screening approach, evaluation of confounders, neurocognitive and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) outcomes, and ethical considerations are discussed. PMID:26491726

  13. Prospective Study on the Incidence of Postoperative Venous Thromboembolism in Korean Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunyoung; Kang, Sung-Bum; Choi, Sang Il; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Duck-Woo; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Ihn, Myong Hoon; Kim, Jin Won; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Keun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is routinely recommended for Western cancer patients undergoing major surgery for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, it is uncertainwhetherroutine administration of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is necessary in all Asian surgical cancer patients. This prospective study was conducted to examine the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative VTE in Korean colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods This study comprised two cohorts, and none of patients received perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. In cohort A (n=400), patients were routinely screened for VTE using lower-extremity Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) on postoperative days 5-14. In cohort B (n=148), routine DUS was not performed, and imaging was only performed when there were symptoms or signs that were suspicious for VTE. The primary endpoint was the VTE incidence at 4 weeks postoperatively in cohort A. Results The postoperative incidence of VTE was 3.0% (n=12) in cohort A. Among the 12 patients, eight had distal calf vein thromboses and one had symptomatic thrombosis. Age ≥ 70 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.61), ≥ 2 comorbidities (OR, 13.42), and white blood cell counts of > 10,000/μL (OR, 17.43) were independent risk factors for postoperative VTE (p < 0.05). In cohort B, there was one case of VTE (0.7%). Conclusion The postoperative incidence of VTE, which included asymptomatic cases, was 3.0% in Korean CRC patients who did not receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Perioperative pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis should be administered to Asian CRC patients on a risk-stratified basis. PMID:26582397

  14. Histoid leprosy: a prospective diagnostic study in 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Srivastava, G

    1988-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a fascinating expression of multibacillary leprosy, the incidence of which was 3.6%. It was seen predominantly in males of the younger age group, who were on inadequate and irregular dosage of diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Papules, cutaneous and/or subcutaneous nodules and plaques appearing over apparently normal skin were its exquisite prospective clinical features. It was invariably supported by enormous, uniformly solid staining discrete bacilli from the lesions, in contrast to their virtual absence from the surrounding normal-appearing skin. Encapsulated tumorous mass, formed primarily by spindle-shaped histocytes, displayed either in intertwining, criss-cross or whorled fashion in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, were supplementary. The morphology of acid-fast bacilli was, however, similar to skin-slit smears. PMID:3224729

  15. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING TWO ANESTHETIC METHODS FOR SHOULDER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Prata Nascimento, Luis Gustavo; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Oliveira Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Strose, Eric; de Mello, Sérgio Cabral; Saletti, Deise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suprascapular nerve block in combination with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space, compared with interscalene block. Methods: Forty-five patients with small or medium-sized isolated supraspinatus tendon lesions who underwent arthroscopic repair were prospectively and comparatively evaluated through random assignation to three groups of 15, each with a different combination of anesthetic methods. The efficacy of postoperative analgesia was measured using the visual analogue scale for pain and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and opioid drug consumption. Inhalation anesthetic consumption during surgery was also compared between the groups. Results: The statistical analysis did not find any statistically significant differences among the groups regarding anesthetic consumption during surgery or postoperative analgesic efficacy during the first 48 hours. Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space is an excellent alternative to interscalene block, particularly in hospitals in which an electrical nerve stimulating device is unavailable. PMID:27022569

  16. Benzodiazepine use and risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline: prospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Dublin, Sascha; Yu, Onchee; Walker, Rod; Anderson, Melissa; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Crane, Paul K; Larson, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether higher cumulative use of benzodiazepines is associated with a higher risk of dementia or more rapid cognitive decline. Design Prospective population based cohort. Setting Integrated healthcare delivery system, Seattle, Washington. Participants 3434 participants aged ≥65 without dementia at study entry. There were two rounds of recruitment (1994-96 and 2000-03) followed by continuous enrollment beginning in 2004. Main outcomes measures The cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI) was administered every two years to screen for dementia and was used to examine cognitive trajectory. Incident dementia and Alzheimer’s disease were determined with standard diagnostic criteria. Benzodiazepine exposure was defined from computerized pharmacy data and consisted of the total standardized daily doses (TSDDs) dispensed over a 10 year period (a rolling window that moved forward in time during follow-up). The most recent year was excluded because of possible use for prodromal symptoms. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine time varying use of benzodiazepine and dementia risk. Analyses of cognitive trajectory used linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. Results Over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 797 participants (23.2%) developed dementia, of whom 637 developed Alzheimer’s disease. For dementia, the adjusted hazard ratios associated with cumulative benzodiazepine use compared with non-use were 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.51) for 1-30 TSDDs; 1.31 (1.00 to 1.71) for 31-120 TSDDs; and 1.07 (0.82 to 1.39) for ≥121 TSDDs. Results were similar for Alzheimer’s disease. Higher benzodiazepine use was not associated with more rapid cognitive decline. Conclusion The risk of dementia is slightly higher in people with minimal exposure to benzodiazepines but not with the highest level of exposure. These results do not support a causal association between benzodiazepine use and

  17. Posttraumatic stress in intensive care unit survivors – a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ratzer, Mette; Brink, Ole; Knudsen, Linda; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and to identify factors associated with PTSD in survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment following traumatic injury. Methods: Fifty-two patients who were admitted to an ICU through the emergency ward following traumatic injury were prospectively followed. Information on injury severity and ICU treatment were obtained through medical records. Demographic information and measures of acute stress symptoms, experienced social support, coping style, sense of coherence (SOC) and locus of control were assessed within one-month post-accident (T1). At the six months follow-up (T2), PTSD was assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Results: In the six months follow-up, 10 respondents (19.2%) had HTQ total scores reaching a level suggestive of PTSD (N = 52), and 11 respondents (21%) had symptom levels indicating subclinical PTSD. Female, five illness factors: coma time, mechanical ventilation, sedation, benzodiazepine, pain relieving medication, and four psychological factors: symptoms of acute stress (T1), fear of death and/or feeling completely helpless and powerless in relation to the accident and/or ICU (T1), SOC (T1) and more external locus of control (T1) correlated significantly with PTSD symptoms at T2. In the linear regression analysis, female, length of sedation, dissociation (T1), hypervigilance (T1), and external locus of control predicted 58% of the variation of PTSD. Conclusions: High levels of PTSD symptoms occurred in 19.2% of respondents in six months following traumatic injury requiring ICU admission. Screening for the variables gender, length of sedation, dissociation, hypervigilance, and locus of control after ICU admission following traumatic injuries may help to predict who will develop PTSD. PMID:25750824

  18. Molecular Screening Tools to Study Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Nora; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, more than 2000 genes are estimated to encode transcription factors (TFs), which clearly emphasizes the importance of transcriptional control. Although genomic approaches have generated large TF open reading frame (ORF) collections, only a limited number of these genes is functionally characterized, yet. This review evaluates strategies and methods to identify TF functions. In particular, we focus on two recently developed TF screening platforms, which make use of publically available GATEWAY®-compatible ORF collections. (1) The Arabidopsis thaliana TF ORF over-Expression (AtTORF-Ex) library provides pooled collections of transgenic lines over-expressing HA-tagged TF genes, which are suited for screening approaches to define TF functions in stress defense and development. (2) A high-throughput microtiter plate based protoplast trans activation (PTA) system has been established to screen for TFs which are regulating a given promoter:Luciferase construct in planta. PMID:22645547

  19. Combinatorial Consensus Scoring for Ligand-Based Virtual Fragment Screening: A Comparative Case Study for Serotonin 5-HT(3)A, Histamine H(1), and Histamine H(4) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Schultes, Sabine; Kooistra, Albert J; Vischer, Henry F; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Haaksma, Eric E J; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P; de Graaf, Chris

    2015-05-26

    In the current study we have evaluated the applicability of ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) methods for the identification of small fragment-like biologically active molecules using different similarity descriptors and different consensus scoring approaches. For this purpose, we have evaluated the performance of 14 chemical similarity descriptors in retrospective virtual screening studies to discriminate fragment-like ligands of three membrane-bound receptors from fragments that are experimentally determined to have no affinity for these proteins (true inactives). We used a complete fragment affinity data set of experimentally determined ligands and inactives for two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and the histamine H4 receptor (H4R), and one ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC), the serotonin receptor (5-HT3AR), to validate our retrospective virtual screening studies. We have exhaustively tested consensus scoring strategies that combine the results of multiple actives (group fusion) or combine different similarity descriptors (similarity fusion), and for the first time systematically evaluated different combinations of group fusion and similarity fusion approaches. Our studies show that for these three case study protein targets both consensus scoring approaches can increase virtual screening enrichments compared to single chemical similarity search methods. Our cheminformatics analyses recommend to use a combination of both group fusion and similarity fusion for prospective ligand-based virtual fragment screening. PMID:25815783

  20. A Pilot Prospective Study of Fetomaternal Hemorrhage Identified by Anemia in Asymptomatic Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Plafkin, Callie

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is a poorly understood condition in which fetal erythrocytes transfer to the maternal circulation via a faulty placental barrier. Little is known about the true incidence, epidemiology, or pathophysiology of FMH in the general pregnant population as existing studies are based on retrospective cohorts and manifest diagnosis and selection bias. Objective To evaluate the practicability of a prospective study of fetomaternal hemorrhage in the general population based on antepartum maternal blood testing and neonatal anemia. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Result Nineteen pregnant women were enrolled prior to the term delivery of twenty well infants. Five neonates were unexpectedly anemic on first postnatal testing. Antenatal maternal blood samples associated with 2 of 5 anemic newborns had positive Kleihauer-Betke testing while no newborn with a normal postnatal blood count had an associated abnormal Kleihauer-Betke test. Conclusion Clinically significant FMH may be more common than previously thought. Prospective epidemiological study of FMH is feasible. PMID:26765555

  1. Prospective Acid Reflux Study of Iran (PARSI): Methodology and study design

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Razjouyan, Hadi; Alimohamadi, Seyed Maysam; Mamarabadi, Mansoureh; Ghotbi, Mohamad-Hamed; Mostajabi, Pardis; Sohrabpour, Amir-Ali; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi, Behnoush; Mofid, Azadeh; Nouraie, Mehdi; Tofangchiha, Shahnaz; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common and chronic disorder but long term, prospective studies of the fate of patients seeking medical advice are scarce. This is especially prominent when looking at non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients. Methods We designed a prospective cohort to assess the long term outcome of GERD patients referring to gastroenterologists. Consecutive consenting patients, 15 years of age and older, presenting with symptoms suggestive of GERD referring to our outpatient clinics undergo a 30 minute interview. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed for them with protocol biopsies and blood samples are drawn. Patients are then treated according to a set protocol and followed regularly either in person or by telephone for at least 10 years. Discussion Our data show that such a study is feasible and follow-ups, which are the main concern, can be done in a fairly reliable way to collect data. The results of this study will help to clarify the course of various subgroups of GERD patients after coming to medical attention and their response to treatment considering different variables. In addition, the basic symptoms and biological database will fuel further molecular epidemiologic studies. PMID:18028533

  2. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  3. Teratogen risk counselling by internet: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, J-Y; Yang, J H; Chung, J H; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Kim, M Y; Cho, S I; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2005-07-01

    Although the internet may play a role in providing proper teratogen-risk counselling for pregnant women, the experience with this type of service has not been reported. We aimed to compare the pregnancy outcome of women counselled by the internet to women that received typically in-clinic teratogen risk counselling in the clinic. In a prospective cohort design, 1,011 patients were counselled in the clinic and 235 patients were counselled via the internet. Teratogen risk counselling was provided according with the information obtained from medical literature and specialised software. Information about pregnancy outcome (delivery, spontaneous abortion, or termination of pregnancy and major malformations) was obtained from 903 (89.3%) patients from the clinic group and 141 (60%) from the internet group. The amount of alcohol, cigarettes smoked, and millirads of X-ray were greater ( p < 0.05) in patients counselled by internet than in clinic. The rate of deliveries, ongoing pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and spontaneous abortions were similar between clinic and internet (chi2 = 1.32; p = 0.7). Of 498 babies born to mothers counselled in the clinic, major malformations were identified in 3.6%. Of 67 babies born to mothers counselled by internet, major malformations were present in 1.5% ( p = 0.6). Teratogen-risk counselling by internet and clinic seems to have a similar efficacy in pregnancy outcome. PMID:16183573

  4. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools. "A_Tempo" includes a…

  5. Depressive symptomatology, weight status and obesogenic risk among Australian adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Erin; Millar, Lynne; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Nichols, Melanie; Malakellis, Mary; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adolescence is a period of increased risk for mental health problems and development of associated lifestyle risk behaviours. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesogenic risk factors, weight status, and depressive symptomatology in a cohort of Australian adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The study used repeated measures data from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) It's Your Move project, an Australian community-based obesity prevention intervention. Intervention effect was non-significant therefore intervention and comparison groups were combined in this study. Participants Total sample was 634 secondary school students (female n=338, male n=296) with mean age 13 years (SD=0.6) at baseline (2012) and 15 years (SD=0.6) at follow-up (2014) recruited from 6 government secondary schools in the ACT. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Primary outcome was depressive symptomatology measured by Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were weight status, physical activity, screen time and diet related measures. Results Increased physical activity was associated to lower depressive symptomatology among males (OR=0.35, p<0.05). Sweet drink (OR=1.15, p<0.05) and takeaway consumption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptomatology among females at follow-up. Males who were classified as overweight or obese at baseline, and remained so over the study period, were at increased risk of depressive symptomatology at follow-up (b=1.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.92). Inactivity among males over the 2-year study period was predictive of higher depressive symptomatology scores at follow-up (b=2.55, 95% CI 0.78 to 4.32). For females, those who increased their consumption of takeaway foods during the study period were at increased risk for developing depressive symptomatology (b=1.82, 95% CI −0.05 to 3.71). Conclusions There are multiple, probably complex

  6. A Case of Learning to Teach Social Studies at the Prospect School Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Carol R.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, part of a larger study of the Prospect School Teacher Education Program, the author investigates the processes of descriptive inquiry by exploring a moment in their evolution and their effect on the learning of one teacher educator and his students ("interns") as they investigated the teaching of social studies. She also…

  7. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  8. Inpatient Treatment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry--A Prospective Study of Health Gain and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Jacobs, Brian; Beecham, Jennifer; Dunn, Graham; Kroll, Leo; Tobias, Catherine; Briskman, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation,…

  9. Investigating How and What Prospective Teachers Learn through Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

    2010-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] combines elements of Japanese lesson study and microteaching. A case study of MLS was conducted with 18 prospective teachers in an initial course on learning to teach. Various data sources (i.e., pre- and post-lesson plans, MLS lesson plans, videotaped lessons, transcripts of group discussions, observation field…

  10. Study of Thermodynamic Vent and Screen Baffle Integration for Orbital Storage and Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to determine the feasibility of integrating an internal thermodynamic vent system and a full wall-screen liner for the orbital storage and transfer of liquid hydrogen (LH2). Ten screens were selected from a comprehensive screen survey. The experimental study determined the screen bubble point, flow-through pressure loss, and pressure loss along rectangular channels lined with screen on one side, for the 10 screens using LH2 saturated at 34.5 N/cm2 (50 psia). The correlated experimental data were used in an analysis to determine the optimum system characteristics in terms of minimum weight for 6 tanks ranging from 141.6 m3 (5,000 ft3) to 1.416 m3 (50 ft3) for orbital storage times of 30 and 300 days.

  11. Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; And Others

    The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) was developed to provide an estimate at recruiting stations of prospects' Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores. The CAST was designed to replace the paper-and-pencil Enlistment Screening Test (EST). The initial validation study of CAST indicated that CAST predicts AFQT at least as accurately…

  12. Vitamin D status and incidence of tuberculosis infection conversion in contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arnedo-Pena, A; Juan-Cerdán, J V; Romeu-García, M A; García-Ferrer, D; Holguín-Gómez, R; Iborra-Millet, J; Pardo-Serrano, F

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between serum vitamin D (VitD) status and tuberculosis (TB) infection conversion (TBIC), measured by the tuberculin skin test (TST) and an interferon-gamma release assay, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, in the contacts of pulmonary TB patients in Castellon (Spain) in a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2012. Initially, the participants were negative to latent TB infection after a screening that included TST and QFT-GIT tests, and other examinations. A baseline determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. After 8-10 weeks, participants were screened for a second time to determine TB infection conversion (TBIC). Poisson regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Of the 247 participants in the cohort, 198 (80·2%) were screened twice and 18 (9·1%) were TBIC cases. The means of VitD concentration in the TBIC cases and the non-cases were 20·7±11·9 and 27·2±11·4 ng/ml (P = 0·028), respectively. Adjusted for high exposure and TB sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive index case, higher serum VitD concentration was associated with low incidence of TBIC (P trend = 0·005), and an increase of 1 ng/ml VitD concentration decreased the incidence of TBIC by 6% (relative risk 0·94, 95% confidence interval 0·90-0·99, P = 0·015). The results suggest that sufficient VitD level could be a protective factor of TBIC. PMID:25274036

  13. Psychological Barriers and Facilitators of Colorectal Cancer Screening: A French Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridou, Morgiane; Aguerre, Colette; Gimenes, Guillaume; Kubiszewski, Violaine; Le Gall, Armel; Potard, Catherine; Sorel, Olivier; Reveillere, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants. PMID:26973907

  14. The NEXT-1 (Next generation pErsonalized tX with mulTi-omics and preclinical model) trial: prospective molecular screening trial of metastatic solid cancer patients, a feasibility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Oh; Ahn, Tae Jin; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Sun, Jong-Mu; Ahn, Jin Seok; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Kim, Hee Cheol; Sohn, Tae Sung; Choi, Dong Il; Cho, Jong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Kwon, Wooil; Uhm, Sang Won; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Hong, Sung No; Kim, Duk Hwan; Jung, Sin Ho; Park, Woongyang; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a prospective genomic screening trial with high throughput sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) assay, and immunohistochemistry array in metastatic solid cancer patients. We used Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 and nCounter Copy Number Variation Assay (21 genes) to identify molecular targets for potential matched therapy. Metastatic solid tumor patients were prospectively consented for molecular profiling tests. The primary outcome for this trial was the feasibility of molecular tests and response rate (matched vs non-matched treatment). Between November 2013 and August 2014, a total of 428 metastatic solid tumor patients were enrolled on to this study. The mutational profiles were obtained for 407 (95.1%) patients. CNV 21-gene assays were successfully performed in 281 (65.7%) of 428 patients. Of the 407 patients with molecular profiling results, 342 (84.0%) patients had one or more aberrations detected. Of the 342 patients, 103 patients were matched to molecularly targeted agents in the context of clinical trials or clinical practice. The response rate was significantly higher in the genome-matched treated group for gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary/rare tumors (matched vs non-matched treatment, 42.6% vs 24.3%, P = .009) and lung cancer cohort (matched vs non-matched treatment, 61.2% vs 28.6% < P = .001) when compared with the non-matched group. In this trial, we demonstrate that genome-matched treatment based on molecular profiling result in better treatment outcome in terms of response rate. PMID:26396172

  15. A Prospective Study of the Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Determining Candidacy for Partial Breast Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Paige L.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Haq, Farah; Goldberg, Mira; Abe, Hiroyuki; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective data have demonstrated that breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may change a patient's eligibility for partial breast irradiation (PBI) by identifying multicentric, multifocal, or contralateral disease. The objective of the current study was to prospectively determine the frequency with which MRI identifies occult disease and to establish clinical factors associated with a higher likelihood of MRI prompting changes in PBI eligibility. Methods and Materials At The University of Chicago, women with breast cancer uniformly undergo MRI in addition to mammography and ultrasonography. From June 2009 through May 2011, all patients were screened prospectively in a multidisciplinary conference for PBI eligibility based on standard imaging, and the impact of MRI on PBI eligibility according to National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0413 entry criteria was recorded. Univariable analysis was performed using clinical characteristics in both the prospective cohort and in a separate cohort of retrospectively identified patients. Pooled analysis was used to derive a scoring index predictive of the risk that MRI would identify additional disease. Results A total of 521 patients were screened for PBI eligibility, and 124 (23.8%) patients were deemed eligible for PBI based on standard imaging. MRI findings changed PBI eligibility in 12.9% of patients. In the pooled univariable analysis, tumor size ≥2 cm on mammography or ultrasonography (P=.02), age <50 years (P=.01), invasive lobular histology (P=.01), and HER-2/neu amplification (P=.01) were associated with a higher likelihood of MRI changing PBI eligibility. A predictive score was generated by summing the number of significant risk factors. Patients with a score of 0, 1, 2, and 3 had changes to eligibility based on MRI findings in 2.8%, 13.2%, 38.1%, and 100%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions MRI identified additional disease in a

  16. A Prospective Study of the Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Determining Candidacy for Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Haq, Farah; Goldberg, Mira; Abe, Hiroyuki; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Retrospective data have demonstrated that breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may change a patient's eligibility for partial breast irradiation (PBI) by identifying multicentric, multifocal, or contralateral disease. The objective of the current study was to prospectively determine the frequency with which MRI identifies occult disease and to establish clinical factors associated with a higher likelihood of MRI prompting changes in PBI eligibility. Methods and Materials: At The University of Chicago, women with breast cancer uniformly undergo MRI in addition to mammography and ultrasonography. From June 2009 through May 2011, all patients were screened prospectively in a multidisciplinary conference for PBI eligibility based on standard imaging, and the impact of MRI on PBI eligibility according to National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0413 entry criteria was recorded. Univariable analysis was performed using clinical characteristics in both the prospective cohort and in a separate cohort of retrospectively identified patients. Pooled analysis was used to derive a scoring index predictive of the risk that MRI would identify additional disease. Results: A total of 521 patients were screened for PBI eligibility, and 124 (23.8%) patients were deemed eligible for PBI based on standard imaging. MRI findings changed PBI eligibility in 12.9% of patients. In the pooled univariable analysis, tumor size ≥2 cm on mammography or ultrasonography (P=.02), age <50 years (P=.01), invasive lobular histology (P=.01), and HER-2/neu amplification (P=.01) were associated with a higher likelihood of MRI changing PBI eligibility. A predictive score was generated by summing the number of significant risk factors. Patients with a score of 0, 1, 2, and 3 had changes to eligibility based on MRI findings in 2.8%, 13.2%, 38.1%, and 100%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: MRI identified additional disease in

  17. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  18. Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chow, Ka Ming; Lo, Sally W S; So, Winnie K W; Chan, Carmen W H

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening); psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening); and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation). The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area. PMID:27196920

  19. Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Doris Y. P.; Chow, Ka Ming; Lo, Sally W. S.; So, Winnie K. W.; Chan, Carmen W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening); psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening); and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation). The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area. PMID:27196920

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  1. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  2. Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Agyei, Seth B.; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2016-01-01

    During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control. PMID:26903908

  3. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  4. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  5. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  6. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  7. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  8. A 10-Year Prospective Study of Prodromal Patterns for Bipolar Disorder among Amish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Egeland, Janice A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Prospective study of well children at risk of bipolarity to identify the frequency and pattern of potentially prodromal symptoms/behaviors for bipolar disorder type I (BPI) disorder. Method: A total of 110 at-risk children with a BPI parent and 112 children with well parents were studied. Ten-year data collection used structured and…

  9. 77 FR 72871 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in... Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture, 0925-0406, Expiration Date 5/31/2013--REVISION...--Estimates Annualized Burden Hours Number of Average time Type of respondent Form Number of responses per...

  10. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  11. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  12. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  13. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  14. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  15. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  16. The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884

  17. Universal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: a progress report of a pilot study in the region of Grey Bruce, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Gareri, Joey; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of meconium analysis for fatty acid ethyl esters as a universal screening tool intended for the detection of newborns at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. This will be accomplished by assessing the rate of voluntary participation in a nonanonymous neonatal screening program and by determining the logistics of implementing the necessary follow-up and interventions as part of routine care. Additionally, this study will determine the predictive value of fatty acid ethyl ester-positive meconium with regard to neurodevelopmental delays. This is an ongoing prospective cohort study. Written informed consent is sought from all Grey Bruce women delivering at participating birthing sites. Collected meconium samples are tested for fatty acid ethyl esters by headspace-solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Children with positive results are followed up through an existing public health program involving regular home visits and assessments of developmental milestones by a public health nurse. These children and matched control subjects also undergo neurodevelopmental testing at 3 and 18 months of age by a clinical psychologist using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. If delays are detected, the child is referred to diagnostic services and appropriate intervention programs. This study has been granted ethics approval and enrollment began in November 2008 at St. Joseph's Health Care in London, Ontario. The first positive case has been identified and the follow-up is currently being conducted by the public health unit. The successful completing of this study will reveal the population's willingness to participate in a neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure and determine the costs, feasibility, and utility of implementing such programs in clinical practice. PMID:20445484

  18. Decisional stage distribution for colorectal cancer screening among diverse, low-income study participants

    PubMed Central

    Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening. Here, we characterize the PAPM decisional stage distribution among 470 low income, racially and ethnically diverse study participants at intake into a behavioral intervention study designed to increase CRC screening uptake. We staged participants for stool blood test (SBT) and colonoscopy separately and used the highest stage for the two tests as the ‘overall’ stage for CRC screening. For SBT, sex, language (English versus Spanish) and doctor recommendation were significantly related to PAPM stage for CRC screening. For colonoscopy, language, education level, doctor recommendation and self-efficacy were related to stage. For overall CRC screening stage, all the variables associated with either SBT or colonoscopy, with the exception of language were significant. This study suggests attending to these key variables in designing interventions to promote CRC screening, particularly with respect to medically underserved populations. PMID:25721254

  19. A Clinical Outcome-Based Prospective Study on Venous Thromboembolism After Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bolis, Giorgio; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Tonelli, Francesco; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Moia, Marco; Parazzini, Fabio; Rossi, Romina; Sonaglia, Francesco; Valarani, Bettina; Bianchini, Carlo; Gussoni, Gualberto

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Data: The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after cancer surgery is based on clinical trials on VTE prophylaxis that used venography to screen deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, the clinical relevance of asymptomatic venography-detected DVT is unclear, and the population of these clinical trials is not necessarily representative of the overall cancer surgery population. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of clinically overt VTE in a wide spectrum of consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cancer and to identify risk factors for VTE. Methods: @RISTOS was a prospective observational study in patients undergoing general, urologic, or gynecologic surgery. Patients were assessed for clinically overt VTE occurring up to 30 ± 5 days after surgery or more if the hospital stay was longer than 35 days. All outcome events were evaluated by an independent Adjudication Committee. Results: A total of 2373 patients were included in the study: 1238 (52%) undergoing general, 685 (29%) urologic, and 450 (19%) gynecologic surgery. In-hospital prophylaxis was given in 81.6% and postdischarge prophylaxis in 30.7% of the patients. Fifty patients (2.1%) were adjudicated as affected by clinically overt VTE (DVT, 0.42%; nonfatal pulmonary embolism, 0.88%; death 0.80%). The incidence of VTE was 2.83% in general surgery, 2.0% in gynecologic surgery, and 0.87% in urologic surgery. Forty percent of the events occurred later than 21 days from surgery. The overall death rate was 1.72%; in 46.3% of the cases, death was caused by VTE. In a multivariable analysis, 5 risk factors were identified: age above 60 years (2.63, 95% confidence interval, 1.21–5.71), previous VTE (5.98, 2.13–16.80), advanced cancer (2.68, 1.37–5.24), anesthesia lasting more than 2 hours (4.50, 1.06–19.04), and bed rest longer than 3 days (4.37, 2.45–7.78). Conclusions: VTE remains a common complication of cancer surgery, with a remarkable proportion

  20. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to

  1. Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

  2. UK pneumonectomy outcome study (UKPOS): a prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ellie S; Pearce, Adrian C; Cook, David; Davies, Paul; Bishay, Ehab; Bowler, Geoffrey MR; Gao, Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to assess the short term risks of pneumonectomy for lung cancer in contemporary practice a one year prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome was made. Current UK practice for pneumonectomy was observed to note patient and treatment factors associated with major complications. Methods A multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was performed. All 35 UK thoracic surgical centres were invited to submit data to the study. All adult patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between 1 January and 31 December 2005 were included. Patients undergoing pleuropneumonectomy, extended pneumonectomy, completion pneumonectomy following previous lobectomy and pneumonectomy for benign disease, were excluded from the study. The main outcome measure was suffering a major complication. Major complications were defined as: death within 30 days of surgery; treated cardiac arrhythmia or hypotension; unplanned intensive care admission; further surgery or inotrope usage. Results 312 pneumonectomies from 28 participating centres were entered. The major complication incidence was: 30-day mortality 5.4%; treated cardiac arrhythmia 19.9%; unplanned intensive care unit admission 9.3%; further surgery 4.8%; inotrope usage 3.5%. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ P3, pre-operative diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and epidural analgesia were collectively the strongest risk factors for major complications. Major complications prolonged median hospital stay by 2 days. Conclusion The 30 day mortality rate was less than 8%, in agreement with the British Thoracic Society guidelines. Pneumonectomy was associated with a high rate of major complications. Age, ASA physical status, DLCO and epidural analgesia appeared collectively most associated with major complications. PMID:19643006

  3. Long term cerebral and vascular complications after irradiation of the neck in head and neck cancer patients: a prospective cohort study: study rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful treatment options for cancer result in more young long-term survivors prone for long-term complications. Carotid artery vasculopathy is a potential long-term complication after radiotherapy of the neck, resulting in cerebrovascular events and probably deficits in cognitive and motor functioning. Better insight into the underlying pathofysiology of radiotherapy induced carotid artery vasculopathy is needed for prognostic purposes and to develop preventive strategies. Methods/Design The current study is a prospective cohort study on the long-term cerebral and vascular complications after radiotherapy of the neck, in 103 patients treated for head and neck cancer, included in our study database between 2002 and 2008. Baseline protocol (before radiotherapy) included screening for cerebrovascular risk factors and intima media thickness measurement of carotid arteries by ultrasonography. Follow-up assessment more than 5 years after radiotherapy included screening of cerebrovascular risk factors, cerebrovascular events, neurological examination with gait and balance tests, extensive neuropsychological examination, self-report questionnaires, ultrasonography of the carotid arteries with measurement of intima media thickness and elastography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and magnetic resonance angiography of the carotid arteries. Discussion The current study adds to the understanding of the causes and consequences of long-term cerebral and vascular changes after radiotherapy of the neck. These data will be helpful to develop a protocol for diagnostic and preventive strategies for long-term neurological complications in future head and neck cancer patients with anticipated radiotherapy treatment. PMID:24942263

  4. A focus group study of factors influencing African-American men's prostate cancer screening behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John; Emanuel, Angela; LaRose-Pierre, Margareth; Brown, James; Nash, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors perceived by African-American men as influencing their behavior relative to prostate cancer screening. A total of 49 African-American men, age 40 and above, participated in 10 focus group discussions in Florida. Data collection was between October 12, 2001 and March 9, 2002 in Tallahassee, Tampa, and Miami. Data analysis was conducted using a comprehensive ethnographical analysis, including the use of an ethnographical retrieval program, Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (QSR NUD*IST 4.0) software. Factors identified as influencing prostate cancer screening participation by African-American men were impediments to prostate cancer screening; positive outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; social influence; negative outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; resources or opportunities that facilitate prostate cancer screening; prostate cancer knowledge; perceived susceptibility to prostate cancer; perceived threat of prostate cancer; perceived severity of prostate cancer; positive health activities; illness experience; and prostate cancer screening intervention message concept, message source, and message channel. The results of this study may offer an excellent guide to designing effective, culturally sensitive, and relevant interventions, which would increase African-American men's participation in prostate cancer screening. PMID:15233488

  5. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32–0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was

  6. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  7. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  8. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  9. How Can Perceived Autonomy Support Influence Enrollment in Elective Physical Education? A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the influence of high students' perceived teacher autonomy support in mandatory physical education on their intention and actual enrollment in elective physical education. Participants included 545 ninth-grade students enrolled in three suburban high schools in a major midwestern metropolitan…

  10. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  11. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study was carried out in Israel in 1980/82 on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 29 kibbutzim. Analysis of morbidity data indicate that no significant excess of enteric disease episo...

  12. The "Prospects" Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    This paper examines results from the Prospects study--a research agenda that explored the federal Title I program's impact on the academic and socio-emotional development of disadvantaged children. The document focuses on the program's strengths and limitations, offering a brief review of educational research and highlighting what may or may not…

  13. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  14. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  15. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  16. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  17. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts: Examining Multiple Predictors across Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan; Carlson, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes data from a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk children to explore multiple predictors of high school dropouts across development. Results reveal association of early home environment, quality of early caregiving, socioeconomic status, IQ, behavior problems, academic achievement, peer relations, and parent involvement with dropping…

  18. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  19. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  20. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  1. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  2. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  3. How Can We Get the Information about Democracy? The Example of Social Studies Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the information about democracy, which social studies prospective teachers have, and interpretation of the information sources are aimed. The research was planned as a survey research methodology and the participants were determined with criterion sampling method. The data were collected through developed open-ended questions…

  4. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents' Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability,…

  5. Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2008-01-01

    A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

  6. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  7. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  8. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  9. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  10. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  11. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  12. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  13. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  14. Risk and Protective Factors Predictive of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Khoo, Siek Toon; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred twenty-eight Latina and African American girls from high-risk environments (e.g., poverty, family history of teen parenting, etc.) were studied from age 13 through age 19 to prospectively identify the protective factors that might guard against teenage pregnancy. Results indicated that involved and strict parenting during early…

  15. Cognitive Coping Strategies and Stress in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse…

  16. Implementation of a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy increases the neoplasia detection rate: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Luis Alberto; Cassella, Federico; Wonaga, Andrés; Arnao Dellamea, Gloria; Di Paola, Leandro; Ubeira Salim, Rodrigo; Fernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopists worldwide have been encouraged to report quality indicators in order to evaluate their performance. We aimed to determine whether a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy results in better rates of neoplasia detection. Patients and methods: This is a prospective study set in a private endoscopy center. From May 2009 to March 2010, we evaluated 1573 consecutive colonoscopies (group 1). After the implementation of a quality program, from February 2011 to January 2012, we prospectively evaluated 1583 colonoscopies (group 2). Our quality-enhancing intervention consisted of instructing both patients and endoscopists. We measured the cecal intubation rate and the neoplasia detection rate. Overall neoplasias, high-risk adenomas, carcinomas, right colon adenomas, and adenomas detected in screening studies were analyzed. Results: Cecal intubation was documented in 1384 cases from group 1 (88 %) and 1534 from group 2 (96.9 %) (P < 0.0001). The neoplasia detection rates in groups 1 and 2 were, respectively: neoplasias 288 (18.3 %) and 427 (27 %) (P < 0.0001), high-risk adenomas 76 (4.8 %) and 142 (9 %) (P < 0.0001), carcinomas 16 (1 %) and 21 (1.3 %) (P = 0.52), right colon adenomas 112 (7.1 %) and 154 (9.7 %) (P = 0.01), and adenomas 141 (16.5 %) and 233 (28 %) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Implementation of a quality program improves the neoplasia detection rate. Because of the small number of cancerous lesions found in both groups, we were unable to identify differences in the carcinoma detection rate. PMID:26793787

  17. Medical Students' Beliefs About Screening for Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Oluwatoni E; Beck, Kenneth H; Howard, Donna E

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have found that medical students who have received training on intimate partner violence (IPV) report greater comfort with screening for IPV and improved IPV interviewing skills than their counterparts. However, less is known about medical students' beliefs toward screening female patients for IPV and behavioral intention to screen. Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted with medical students to assess their beliefs, using the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory as theoretical frameworks for the interview questions. Most students felt that screening for IPV could help identify victims but could also potentially offend patients. Perceived barriers to screening included time and negative patient reactions, while perceived facilitators to screening included receiving IPV training and provision of IPV screening questionnaires while interviewing patients. Interviewees identified physicians as both supporters and nonsupporters of IPV screening. Behavioral intention scores ranged from 17 to 50 out of a possible 11 to 55. Findings from the study can help inform the IPV training needs of medical students. PMID:25663054

  18. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. Methods We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show “O”. Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. Results The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. Conclusion A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology. PMID:24920527

  19. Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

    2006-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

  20. CHLORINE DIOXIDE WATER DISINFECTION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared w...

  1. Antecedents of Aggression and Peer Victimization: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David

    As part of a longitudinal study of children's social development, this study explored preschool home environments of elementary school children who were persistently bullied and victimized by their peers. Subjects included approximately 200 children randomly sampled from predominantly lower and middle socioeconomic populations. One-fourth of the…

  2. A Case Study: Employment Prospects for Female Technology Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Dewayne L.

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a three-year study to determine the ratio of male and female graduates employed in industrial-related jobs after completing industrial technology programs at Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, show no significant difference in the employability rate. Several factors may limit the study validity. (MF)

  3. Prospects and pitfalls in whole genome association studies

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert W; Evans, David M; Cardon, Lon R

    2005-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of common genetic variation throughout the human genome are making it feasible to conduct whole genome studies of genotype–phenotype associations. Such studies have the potential to uncover novel contributors to common complex traits and thus lead to insights into the aetiology of multifactorial phenotypes. Despite this promise, it is important to recognize that the availability of genetic markers and the ability to assay them at realistic cost does not guarantee success of this approach. There are a number of practical issues that require close attention, some forms of allelic architecture are not readily amenable to the association approach with even the most rigorous design, and doubtless new hurdles will emerge as the studies begin. Here we discuss the promise and current challenges of the whole genome approach, and raise some issues to consider in interpreting the results of the first whole genome studies. PMID:16096108

  4. Detection rates of high-grade prostate cancer during subsequent screening visits. Results of the European Randomized Screening Study for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Ciatto, Stefano; Martikainen, Paula M; Hoedemaeker, Robert; Laurila, Marita; Pihl, Carl-Gustaph; Hugosson, Jonas; Neetens, Ingrid; Nelen, Vera; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Roobol, Monique J; Määtänen, Liisa; Santonja, Carlos; Moss, Sue; Schröder, Fritz H

    2006-05-15

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests has led to a stage and grade shift as compared to the pre-PSA era. Effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer should be manifested by a reduction in detection rate of aggressive cancers during subsequent screening. In 6 centers of the European Randomized Screening study for Prostate Cancer, a total of 58,710 men were tested for prostate cancer. Screening centers differed with regard to age-range, screening interval and biopsy indications. During the 2nd visit, the proportion of Gleason score 6 cancers increased from 62.5 to 75%, mainly at the expense of Gleason score 7 cancers. High-grade (Gleason score 8-10) cancer detection rates varied per screening center during the 1st visit from 5.1 to 41.1, and during the 2nd visit from 6.4 to 29.3/10,000 men. The overall detection rate of high-grade cancers showed a reduction during the 2nd visit from 26 to 12/10,000 men, an effect mainly attributable to the screening center with the highest cancer detection rate (i.e. 507/10,000 men). Variations in detection rates among screening centers related among others to biopsy compliance and age range. PMID:16353141

  5. Effects of Aversive Stimuli on Prospective Memory. An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Massimiliano; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Casile, Antonino; Braun, Christoph; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10) and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10) would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour. PMID:22022589

  6. Etiology of child mortality in Goroka, Papua New Guinea: a prospective two-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Trevor; Michael, Audrey; Mgone, Joyce; Frank, Dale; Wal, Tilda; Sehuko, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect accurate data on disease- and microbial-specific causes and avoidable factors in child deaths in a developing country. METHODS: A systematic prospective audit of deaths of children seen at Goroka Hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea was carried out. Over a 24-month period, we studied 353 consecutive deaths of children: 126 neonates, 186 children aged 1-59 months, and 41 children aged 5-12 years. FINDINGS: The most frequent age-specific clinical diagnoses were as follows: for neonates--very low birth weight, septicaemia, birth asphyxia and congenital syphilis; for children aged 1-59 months--pneumonia, septicaemia, marasmus and meningitis; and for children aged 5-12 years--malignancies and septicaemia. At least one microbial cause of death was identified for 179 (50.7%) children and two or more were identified for 37 (10.5%). Nine microbial pathogens accounted for 41% of all childhood deaths and 76% of all deaths that had any infective component. Potentially avoidable factors were identified for 177 (50%) of deaths. The most frequently occurring factors were as follows: no antenatal care in high-risk pregnancies (8.8% of all deaths), very delayed presentation (7.9%), vaccine-preventable diseases (7.9%), informal adoption or child abandonment leading to severe malnutrition (5.7%), and lack of screening for maternal syphilis (5.4%). Sepsis due to enteric Gram-negative bacilli occurred in 87 (24.6%). The strongest associations with death from Gram- negative sepsis were adoption/abandonment leading to severe malnutrition, village births, and prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in child mortality will depend on addressing the commonest causes of death, which include disease states, microbial pathogens, adverse social circumstances and health service failures. Systematic mortality audits in selected regions where child mortality is high may be useful for setting priorities, estimating the potential benefit of specific and non

  7. Labor Resource Use for Endoscopic Gastric Cancer Screening in Japanese Primary Care Settings: A Work Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Rei; Arai, Kohei; Kitada, Hirotsugu; Ogoshi, Kazuei; Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endoscopic gastric cancer is screened in primary care settings, but how much resources are required to deliver this service remains unknown. This study determines how much time and human resources are used for endoscopic gastric cancer and for each component of the procedure. Materials and Methods Upper endoscopic procedures were prospectively observed using a work sampling technique. This study analyzed data from patients who underwent upper endoscopic gastric cancer screening at primary care clinics that provide this service. The main outcome measurements were time intervals and total time intervals that considered the numbers of simultaneously engaged workers and were calculated as the product of time intervals and the number of workers, and the labor cost of individual components of each procedure. Results We observed 44 upper endoscopic procedures at four outpatient clinics. Pre-procedure (preparation and pre-medication), procedure (from intubation to extubation) and post-procedure (recovery and cleaning) accounted for 34.1%, 10.6% and 54.4% of the total time, respectively. Of the overall total time intervals (mean: 4453 person-seconds), 29.3%, 14.4% and 55.7% of the total time was devoted to pre-procedure, procedure and post-procedure, respectively. The post-procedure was the most time- and labor-consuming component from the viewpoints of both total time and labor cost. Conclusions Most of the time taken to complete endoscopic gastric cancer screening is consumed by preparation, pre-medication and post-procedures in which nurses play key roles. PMID:24523875

  8. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  9. Exploiting Defect Clustering to Screen Bare Die for Infant Mortality Failure: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, David R., II; Singh, Adit D.

    1999-01-01

    We present the first experimental results to establish that a binning strategy based on defect clustering can be used to screen bare die for early life failures. The data for this study comes from the SEMATECH test methods experiment.

  10. Long Term Outcome of Routine Image-enhanced Endoscopy in Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer: a Prospective Study of 145 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lo, Wu-Chia; Wen, Ming-Hsun; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Lin, Yu-Chin; Liao, Li-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous second primary tumors (SPTs), especially esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN), in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are not uncommon. Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) screening may identify SPTs while there is no evidence to support its benefit. We prospectively recruited an adult cohort with newly-diagnosed HNSCC for IEE screening of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract neoplasia. 145 HNSCC patients were recruited. 22 (15.2%) patients had synchronous UGI tract neoplasia, including 20 ESCNs and 2 gastric adenocarcinoma. At a median follow-up of 2.72 (±1.73) years, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 0.71. HNSCC patients with synchronous ESCN/UGI tract neoplasia had poorer prognosis than those without (multivariate analysis, hazard ratio [HR] 2.75/2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11~6.82/1.15~6.80, p = 0.03/0.02). HNSCC patients with advanced (stage III&IV) ESCN had worst survivals (p < 0.001). Among those with synchronous ESCNs, hypopharyngeal cancers were associated with poorer prognosis when compared with oral cancers (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.08~5.15, p = 0.03). IEE screening for UGI SPTs in HNSCC patients could be used for risk stratification and prognosis prediction. HNSCC patients with advanced ESCN had the worst prognosis. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the survival benefits from IEE screening. PMID:27387103

  11. Long Term Outcome of Routine Image-enhanced Endoscopy in Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer: a Prospective Study of 145 Patients.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lo, Wu-Chia; Wen, Ming-Hsun; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Lin, Yu-Chin; Liao, Li-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous second primary tumors (SPTs), especially esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN), in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are not uncommon. Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) screening may identify SPTs while there is no evidence to support its benefit. We prospectively recruited an adult cohort with newly-diagnosed HNSCC for IEE screening of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract neoplasia. 145 HNSCC patients were recruited. 22 (15.2%) patients had synchronous UGI tract neoplasia, including 20 ESCNs and 2 gastric adenocarcinoma. At a median follow-up of 2.72 (±1.73) years, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 0.71. HNSCC patients with synchronous ESCN/UGI tract neoplasia had poorer prognosis than those without (multivariate analysis, hazard ratio [HR] 2.75/2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11~6.82/1.15~6.80, p = 0.03/0.02). HNSCC patients with advanced (stage III&IV) ESCN had worst survivals (p < 0.001). Among those with synchronous ESCNs, hypopharyngeal cancers were associated with poorer prognosis when compared with oral cancers (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.08~5.15, p = 0.03). IEE screening for UGI SPTs in HNSCC patients could be used for risk stratification and prognosis prediction. HNSCC patients with advanced ESCN had the worst prognosis. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the survival benefits from IEE screening. PMID:27387103

  12. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  13. Does abortion increase women's risk for post-traumatic stress? Findings from a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M Antonia; Rowland, Brenly; McCulloch, Charles E; Foster, Diana G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess women's risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and of experiencing post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 4 years after seeking an abortion, and to assess whether symptoms are attributed to the pregnancy, abortion or birth, or other events in women's lives. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study which followed women from approximately 1 week after receiving or being denied an abortion (baseline), then every 6 months for 4 years (9 interview waves). Setting 30 abortion facilities located throughout the USA. Participants Among 956 women presenting for abortion care, some of whom received an abortion and some of whom were denied due to advanced gestational age; 863 women are included in the longitudinal analyses. Main outcome measures PTSS and PTSD risk were measured using the Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD). Index pregnancy-related PTSS was measured by coding the event(s) described by women as the cause of their symptoms. Analyses We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic mixed-effects regression analyses to assess whether PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS trajectories of women obtaining abortions differed from those who were denied one. Results At baseline, 39% of participants reported any PTSS and 16% reported three or more symptoms. Among women with symptoms 1-week post-abortion seeking (n=338), 30% said their symptoms were due to experiences of sexual, physical or emotional abuse or violence; 20% attributed their symptoms to non-violent relationship issues; and 19% said they were due to the index pregnancy. Baseline levels of PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS outcomes did not differ significantly between women who received and women who were denied an abortion. PTSS, PTSD risk and pregnancy-related PTSS declined over time for all study groups. Conclusions Women who received an abortion were at no higher risk of PTSD than women denied an abortion. PMID:26832431

  14. Prospects for HERMES-spin structure studies at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    HERMES (HERA Measurement of Spin), is a second generation experiment to study the spin structure of the nucleon by using polarized internal gas targets in the HERA 35-GeV electron storage ring. Scattered electrons and coincident hadrons will be detected in an open geometry spectrometer which will include particle identification. Measurements are planned for each of the inclusive structure functions, g{sub 1},(x), g{sub 2}(x), b{sub 1}(x) and A(x), as well as the study of semi-inclusive pion and kaon asymmetries. Targets of hydrogen, deuterium and {sup 3}He will be studied. The accuracy of data for the inclusive structure functions will equal or exceed that of current experiments. The semi-inclusive asymmetries will provide a unique and sensitive probe of the flavor dependence of quark helicity distributions and properties of the quark sea. Monte Carlo simulations of HERMES data for experiment asymmetries and polarized structure functions are discussed.

  15. Genomewide association studies: History, rationale and prospects for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We review the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method Literature review, power analysis, discussion of issues and description of planned studies. Results Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency > 5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000-1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (CNVs; deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing studies. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained so far, and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and rare CNVs. Many other studies are in progress. Conclusion GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare CNVs to psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely -- larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants (with smaller effects). The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (of 110 researchers from 54 institutions) is carrying out GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder. PMID

  16. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  17. 75 FR 72816 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets... Commission (the ``CFTC''), to conduct a study on the oversight of existing and prospective carbon markets to ensure an efficient, secure, and transparent carbon market, including oversight of spot markets...

  18. A Study on Prospective Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding the Implementation of Constructivist Approach (A Case of Konya)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ektem, Isil Sönmez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions and views about the implementation of the constructivist approach. The study was conducted on 528 prospective teachers in their 4th year at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty and Selcuk University Faculty of Science and Faculty of Letters in the…

  19. Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.

  20. The screening effects of the screened exchange hybrid functional in surface systems: A case study on the CO/Pt(111) problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Gillen, R.; Robertson, J.

    2016-06-01

    The screened exchange (sX) hybrid functional has been widely used in computational material science. Although it has widely been studied in bulk systems, less is known about its functional behavior in surface systems which are crucial to many technologies such as materials synthesis and nano-electronic devices. Assessing the screening dependent functional behaviors in the surface systems is therefore important for its application in such systems. In this work, we investigate the screening effects of the sX in CO adsorption on Pt(111) surface. The differences between the sX and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functionals, and the effects of screening parameters are studied. The screening has two effects: first, the HOMO-LUMO gap is screening dependent. This affects the site preference most significantly. In this work, atop adsorption of CO/Pt(111) is predicted by the hybrid functionals with screened exchange potential. The sX(1.44) gives the largest HOMO-LUMO gap for the isolated CO molecule. The adsorption energy difference between the atop and fcc site is also the largest by the sX(1.44) which is explained by the reduced metal d states to the CO 2π* state back-donation, with stronger effect for the fcc adsorption than for the atop adsorption; second, the adsorption energy is screening dependent. This can be seen by comparing the sX(2.38) and HSE06 which have different screening strengths. They show similar surface band structures for the CO adsorption but different adsorption energies, which is explained by the stronger CO 5σ state to the metal d states donation or the effectively screened Pauli repulsion. This work underlines the screening strength as a main difference between sX and HSE06, as well as an important hybrid functional parameter for surface calculation.

  1. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  2. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  3. The "New Social Studies"--Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    2009-01-01

    When he looks back to the 1960s, the author feels sentimental about the New Social Studies movement that began very strong and then suddenly disintegrated. At the time of the genesis of the movement, there was a group of professionals, representing both the social sciences and education, who felt they had a vision of what was needed to revitalize…

  4. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  5. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  6. Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

  7. Incidence of Sarcoma Histotypes and Molecular Subtypes in a Prospective Epidemiological Study with Central Pathology Review and Molecular Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ducimetière, Françoise; Lurkin, Antoine; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Decouvelaere, Anne-Valérie; Péoc'h, Michel; Istier, Luc; Chalabreysse, Philippe; Muller, Christine; Alberti, Laurent; Bringuier, Pierre-Paul; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Schott, Anne-Marie; Bergeron, Christophe; Cellier, Dominic; Blay, Jean-Yves; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The exact overall incidence of sarcoma and sarcoma subtypes is not known. The objective of the present population-based study was to determine this incidence in a European region (Rhone-Alpes) of six million inhabitants, based on a central pathological review of the cases. Methodology/Principal Findings From March 2005 to February 2007, pathology reports and tumor blocks were prospectively collected from the 158 pathologists of the Rhone-Alpes region. All diagnosed or suspected cases of sarcoma were collected, reviewed centrally, examined for molecular alterations and classified according to the 2002 World Health Organization classification. Of the 1287 patients screened during the study period, 748 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall crude and world age-standardized incidence rates were respectively 6.2 and 4.8 per 100,000/year. Incidence rates for soft tissue, visceral and bone sarcomas were respectively 3.6, 2.0 and 0.6 per 100,000. The most frequent histological subtypes were gastrointestinal stromal tumor (18%; 1.1/100,000), unclassified sarcoma (16%; 1/100,000), liposarcoma (15%; 0.9/100,000) and leiomyosarcoma (11%; 0.7/100,000). Conclusions/Significance The observed incidence of sarcomas was higher than expected. This study is the first detailed investigation of the crude incidence of histological and molecular subtypes of sarcomas. PMID:21826194

  8. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income. PMID:20408038

  9. Screening nonrandomized studies for medical systematic reviews: a comparative study of classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Bekhuis, Tanja; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether (1) machine learning classifiers can help identify nonrandomized studies eligible for full-text screening by systematic reviewers; (2) classifier performance varies with optimization; and (3) the number of citations to screen can be reduced. Methods We used an open-source, data-mining suite to process and classify biomedical citations that point to mostly nonrandomized studies from 2 systematic reviews. We built training and test sets for citation portions and compared classifier performance by considering the value of indexing, various feature sets, and optimization. We conducted our experiments in 2 phases. The design of phase I with no optimization was: 4 classifiers × 3 feature sets × 3 citation portions. Classifiers included k-nearest neighbor, naïve Bayes, complement naïve Bayes, and evolutionary support vector machine. Feature sets included bag of words, and 2- and 3-term n-grams. Citation portions included titles, titles and abstracts, and full citations with metadata. Phase II with optimization involved a subset of the classifiers, as well as features extracted from full citations, and full citations with overweighted titles. We optimized features and classifier parameters by manually setting information gain thresholds outside of a process for iterative grid optimization with 10-fold cross-validations. We independently tested models on data reserved for that purpose and statistically compared classifier performance on 2 types of feature sets. We estimated the number of citations needed to screen by reviewers during a second pass through a reduced set of citations. Results In phase I, the evolutionary support vector machine returned the best recall for bag of words extracted from full citations; the best classifier with respect to overall performance was k-nearest neighbor. No classifier attained good enough recall for this task without optimization. In phase II, we boosted performance with optimization for

  10. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  11. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, S; Schmalbruch, H; Rørth, M; Krarup, C

    2007-04-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses. At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers. The amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the fingers innervated by the median nerve and the dorsolateral side of the foot innervated by the sural nerve were 50-60% reduced, whereas no definite changes occurred at lower doses. The SNAP conduction velocities were reduced by 10-15% at cumulative doses of 400-700 mg/m2 consistent with loss of large myelinated fibres. SNAPs from primarily Pacinian corpuscles in digit 3 and the dorsolateral side of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin. PMID:17301082

  12. Studies of compact objects with Einstein - Review and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray images and spectra of a wide range of systems containing compact objects were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. Accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes were observed in binary systems in the Galaxy, and new constraints were derived for their formation, nature and evolution. Massive black holes were studied in active galactic nuclei, and X-ray spectra (and evolution) of AGN have led to a new model for the diffuse X-ray background.

  13. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  14. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  15. Rates of prenatal screening across health care regions in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hayeems, Robin Z.; Campitelli, Michael; Ma, Xiaomu; Huang, Tianhua; Walker, Mark; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Background It is recommended that all pregnant women be offered screening for Down syndrome and open neural tube defects, but emerging prenatal tests that are not publicly insured may compromise access. We evaluated screening rates for publicly insured screening tests across health care regions in the province of Ontario and determined whether maternal, provider or regional characteristics are associated with screening uptake. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving pregnant women in Ontario who were at or beyond 16 weeks’ gestation in 2007–2009. We ascertained prenatal screening rates using linked health administrative and prenatal screening datasets. We examined maternal, provider and regional characteristics associated with screening uptake. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated. Results Of the 264 737 women included in the study, 62.2% received prenatal screening; uptake varied considerably by region (range 27.8%–80.3%). A greater proportion of women initiated screening in the first rather than the second trimester (50.0% v. 12.2%). Factors associated with lower screening rates included living in a rural area versus an urban area (adjusted rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.66), receiving first-trimester care from a family physician or midwife versus an obstetrician (adjusted rate ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.90–0.92, and 0.40, 95% CI 0.38–0.43, respectively) and being in a lower income quintile (adjusted RR for lowest v. highest 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.96). Being an immigrant or a refugee was associated with higher screening rates. Interpretation There were significant maternal, provider and regional differences in the uptake of prenatal screening across the province. With discrepancies expected to increase with the emergence of noninvasive prenatal tests paid for out of pocket by many women, policy efforts to reduce barriers to prenatal screening and optimize its availability are warranted. PMID:26389102

  16. Exploratory Study of Breast Cancer Screening Practices of Urban Women: A Closer Look at Who Is and Is Not Getting Screened.

    PubMed

    Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    Several initiatives have been embarked upon over the past decade to encourage breast cancer screening and follow-up among women who reside in urban communities. With these efforts, data revealed that many women do not receive the recommended breast cancer screening. Studies have been published in scientific literature that explored barriers faced by women relative to breast cancer screening. But, only a few reports have been published of efforts initiated to define the limits of characteristics of women who have and women who have not been screened. This cross-sectional exploratory study was designed to examine the breast cancer screening practices of women 40-74 years of age and older who reside in a densely populated metropolitan community of S.E. Wisconsin, and to identify and compare the characteristics of women who report breast cancer screening and with characteristics of women who report no breast cancer screening. The organizing framework for this study was derived from the United States Department of Health and Human Services Determinants of Health Model. An investigator-designed instrument was used to assess the influence of age, family history of breast cancer insurance status, characteristics of residential neighborhood and local access to breast care on breast cancer screening. While the majority of the women surveyed reported breast cancer screening, less than half of the women reported screening that was consistent with recommended breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e. annual mammography and annual clinical breast examination). Deficits in breast cancer screening were noted most among women who were uninsured, with no knownfamily history of breast cancer, who resided in low income neighborhoods, inner-city neighborhoods and neighborhoods without facilities for primary breast care. The results of this study demonstrate the needfor clinicians, health care administrators and advocates committed to breast cancer detection and control within targeted

  17. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  18. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being. PMID:25204789

  19. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  20. Optical magnification devices in tonsillectomy: a prospective randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Schrötzlmair, F; Geerke, L; Kisser, U; Reichel, C; Vögele, S; Stelter, K

    2015-10-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedure in otorhinolaryngology. A plethora of approaches has been undertaken so far to limit postoperative pain, one of the major problems patients are concerned with. Thermal damages of the surrounding tissue caused by coagulation during surgery are discussed to correlate with postoperative pain. Therefore, we studied whether the use of magnification devices reduced coagulation procedures and consequently limited post-operative pain. Following an intraindividual design, we performed tonsillectomy on one side using a microscope or magnifying glasses whereas the opposite side was operated with unsupported vision. As verified by a visual analogue scale, our study shows that neither the use of a microscope, nor the use of magnifying glasses leads to less post-operative pain. Other parameters like post-operative bleeding, duration of surgery, and total applied energy by bipolar coagulation were also comparable in the different treatment groups. Taken together, magnification-supported tonsillectomy does not seem to be appropriate for limiting complications of tonsillectomy, especially not for reducing post-operative pain. PMID:25245863

  1. Airway reactivity in welders: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Beckett, W S; Pace, P E; Sferlazza, S J; Perlman, G D; Chen, A H; Xu, X P

    1996-12-01

    In a 3-year survey, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and methacholine reactivity were measured annually in welders (n = 51) and non-welder controls subjects (n = 54) to determine whether welding-related symptoms are associated with accelerated decline in lung function or changes in airway reactivity. In the cross-workshift study, maximal midexpiratory flow rate declined reversibly during a welding day, whereas 1-second forced expiratory volume and forced-vital capacity were unchanged. In the longitudinal study, the welders had significantly more reversible work-related symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and chest tightness than the non-welder shipyard control subjects. In this group of actively working welders, across-workshift changes in midflow and reversible symptoms were related to the welding occupation, but evidence for chronic irreversible effects on spirometry or airway reactivity was not seen over the 3 years of observation. The short period of observation was not optimal for detecting a chronic effect on lung function. Work practices and engineering controls may be successfully preventing irreversible respiratory effects, but not mild reversible effects, in this group of welders. PMID:8978514

  2. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth. PMID:26189446

  3. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  4. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered p ulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsar s will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar s, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for e lucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric partic le acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theo retical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all un identified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geming a-like pulsars.

  5. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2006-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  6. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum lipids: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Huma; Ismail, Rabia; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan; Alam, M Tanweer; Sarwar, Ghulam

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the effects of using hormonal contraceptives on serum lipoprotein levels. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and afterward at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. 1391 Pakistani females taking COCs, DMPA, or non hormonal (NH) contraceptives. The results were calculated by repeated measure ANOVA subsequent to tukey's post hoc test for the multiple comparisons. Statistical examination revealed that differences in lipid profile were significant (p <0.001) among all treated group in comparison with control. DMPA also caused significant rise in Castelli index-I and Castelli index-II as compared to COCs group and control group. This study demonstrated raise in total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as well as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Whereas, an obvious decrease was observed in high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the DMPA-treated group. We concluded that, this inductive study specifies atherogenic cardiovascular risk in women using DMPA on long term basis. PMID:27592475

  7. Implant-supported overdentures: a longitudinal prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bergendal, T; Engquist, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical function and long-term prognosis of overdentures retained by a small number of implants in the maxilla and mandible using one of two different attachment systems. Included in the study were all patients referred to specialty clinics in Jönköping and Linköping, Sweden, during the treatment period who needed an overdenture and could be provided with a minimum number of two bilaterally-placed implants. Excluded were patients with bone-grafted jaws, irradiated cancer patients, heavy bruxers, and patients who had lost a fixed prosthesis because of implant losses. The patients were randomly assigned to receive one retentive system, either a round 2-mm-diameter bar with clips or ball attachments (Nobel Biocare). Eighteen overdentures were placed in maxillae and 32 in mandibles, supported by a total of 115 Brånemark implants. Of the implants placed, 86.1% were continuously osseointegrated. The cumulative implant survival rates after 7 years of loading were 75.4% in the maxillae and 100% in the mandibles. There was no difference in implant survival rate between the attachment systems. Patients with implant losses were characterized by severely resorbed maxillary ridges and inferior bone quality, together with unfavorable loading circumstances such as short implants combined with long leverages. Complications and prosthetic adjustments were mostly resolved early and easily. PMID:9581412

  8. Multidisciplinary Team Contributions Within a Dedicated Outpatient Palliative Radiotherapy Clinic: A Prospective Descriptive Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pituskin, Edith; Fairchild, Alysa; Dutka, Jennifer; Gagnon, Lori; Driga, Amy; Tachynski, Patty; Borschneck, Jo-Ann; Ghosh, Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases may experience pain, fatigue, and decreased mobility. Multiple medications for analgesia are often required, each with attendant side effects. Although palliative-intent radiotherapy (RT) is effective in decreasing pain, additional supportive care interventions may be overlooked. Our objective was to describe the feasibility of multidisciplinary assessment of patients with symptomatic bone metastases attending a dedicated outpatient palliative RT clinic. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients referred for RT for painful bone metastases were screened for symptoms and needs relevant to their medications, nutritional intake, activities of daily living, and psychosocial and spiritual concerns from January 1 to December 31, 2007. Consultations by appropriate team members and resulting recommendations were collected prospectively. Patients who received RT were contacted by telephone 4 weeks later to assess symptom outcomes. Results: A total of 106 clinic visits by 82 individual patients occurred. As determined by screening form responses, the clinical Pharmacist, Occupational Therapist, Registered Dietician and Social Worker were consulted to provide assessments and recommendations within the time constraints presented by 1-day palliative RT delivery. In addition to pain relief, significant improvements in tiredness, depression, anxiety, drowsiness and overall well-being were reported at 4 weeks. Conclusions: Systematic screening of this population revealed previously unmet needs, addressed in the form of custom verbal and written recommendations. Multidisciplinary assessment is associated with a high number of recommendations and decreased symptom distress. Our findings lend strong support to the routine assessment by multiple supportive care professionals for patients with advanced cancer being considered for palliative RT.

  9. Prenatal Treatment for Serious Neurological Sequelae of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: An Observational Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Paul, Malgorzata; Prusa, Andrea; Buffolano, Wilma; Malm, Gunilla; Salt, Alison; Freeman, Katherine; Petersen, Eskild; Gilbert, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD) of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. Methods and Findings Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%). 23/293 (8%) fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07–0.71). This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2–15) after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9–75) at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21–2.95). The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%–38.1%). Conclusion The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20967235

  10. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  11. A prospective study of asthma in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Schachter, E N; Doyle, C A; Beck, G J

    1984-05-01

    Changes in symptoms and pulmonary function among asthmatic subjects in the general population remain poorly characterized. We studied 1,303 white residents aged seven years and older in Lebanon, Conn, a rural community largely unaffected by air pollution or major occupational exposures. These residents were examined in 1972 and again in 1978. There were 73 asthmatic subjects seen in 1972 who were followed. In addition, we identified 278 persons in 1972 who complained of wheezing who were also seen in 1978. Of the original asthmatic subjects, 50 (68 percent) were in remission; and from the original nonasthmatic population, 19 (1.4 percent) new asthmatic subjects were identified. Similarly, the condition of 215 (77 percent) of those who initially complained of wheeze had improved, whereas 56 (4.6 percent) of those initially studied either developed new wheeze or saw their wheezing worsen. When the groups of persons complaining of wheeze and the asthmatic subjects were analyzed for the presence of chronic bronchitis, we found a significant correlation between wheeze and chronic bronchitis in individuals aged 18 years and older (p less than 0.001) for both men and women, and a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between asthma and chronic bronchitis in women aged 18 years and older. Loss of pulmonary function over time measured in terms of the forced expiratory volume in one second and the forced expiratory flow at 50 percent of total lung capacity was consistently greater for asthmatic adults than for nonasthmatic adults. Furthermore, when individuals were studied by the severity and duration of their asthmatic symptoms, a trend of worse pulmonary function was seen in those individuals with chronic asthma. We conclude that remission rates among asthmatic subjects and persons with wheeze are high in individuals aged seven years and older, that chronic bronchitis is frequently associated with wheezing and a history of asthma in adults, and that significant

  12. Contribution of Quadriceps Weakness to Fragility Fracture: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hanh M; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-01-01

    The association between muscle weakness and fracture is not well understood. This study sought to examine the contribution of muscle strength at baseline and change in muscle strength to the observed risk of fragility fracture in older people. The study involved 595 men and 1066 women aged 60+ years (median 69 years) who had been followed for a median of 11 years (range, 4 to 22 years). Quadriceps isometric muscle strength (MS) measured at baseline and biennially was adjusted for height. Femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) was measured by DXA. Low-trauma fracture was ascertained from X-ray reports and interview. The relationship between baseline MS and serial MS and fracture assessed by time-invariant and time-variant Cox's regression models was expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During the follow-up period, 282 (26%) women and 89 (15%) men sustained a fragility fracture. From age 60 years, women lost 0.28 kg/m (1.6%) of MS per year, whereas men lost 0.39 kg/m (1.5%) of MS per year. In the time-variant model, using serial MS, each 1 SD (4.7 kg/m) lower MS was associated with a 27% increase in the risk of fracture in women (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.43); and 46% increase in men (HR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.75). After adjusting for FNBMD, age and prior fracture, history of fall and smoking, HR per SD of lower MS was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28) for women and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.64) for men. These data indicate that muscle weakness is an independent determinant of fracture risk in men, but not in women. This sex difference suggests that apart from mechanical load effect of muscle on bone, there are other muscle-bone interactions that need to be investigated in future studies. The accuracy of fracture risk prediction for men may be improved by incorporating muscle strength. PMID:26174768

  13. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  15. A prospective study of behavioral and emotional symptoms in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Otto, Yvonne; Fuchs, Sandra; Reibiger, Ina; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-03-01

    A substantial number of preschool children exhibit psychological symptoms that have an impact on their own and their families' lives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, stability and increase/decrease in emotional and behavioral symptoms and the resultant impairment at two assessment points at preschool age. The sample consisted of 1,034 children drawn from the general population with a mean age of 51 months at t1 and 72 months at t2. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire extended version (Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581-586, 1997; Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(5):791-799, 1999). At t1, 6.9 % of the preschoolers had a total difficulties and 6.8 % a total impact score within the abnormal range. At t2, these scores were 5.7 and 6.2 %, respectively. We found moderate stability of symptoms. From t1 to t2, emotional symptoms and prosocial behavior significantly increased, while hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and total difficulties decreased. The mean total impact score did not change. Boys showed higher levels of symptoms (except emotional symptoms) and impact, and lower prosocial behavior, than girls. Moreover, there was a significant time × gender interaction, with girls showing a larger decrease in hyperactivity/inattention and in total difficulties than boys. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total impact score at baseline, male gender, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems significantly contributed to the explained variance of the total impact score at follow-up. This is one of very few studies to examine the stability and change of psychological symptoms in a large community sample of preschoolers, assessed twice during preschool age. PMID:24972693

  16. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  17. PREDICTORS OF DIFFICULT AIRWAY MANAGEMENT IN THYROID SURGERY: A FIVE-YEAR OBSERVATIONAL SINGLE-CENTER PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Nevena; Sabljak, Vera; Stevanović, Ksenija; Milicić, Biljana; Marković, Dejan; Tošković, Anka; Stojanović, Marina; Živaljević, Vladan

    2016-03-01

    Difficult tracheal intubation (DI) is more common in thyroid than in other surgical branches due to thyromegaly. Proper preoperative airway evaluation is necessary in order to reduce the potential numerous complications. The study examined the incidence of DI in thyroid surgery and the influence of tracheal dislocation and other risk factors on DI. A prospective study was conducted on 2379 patients who underwent thyroidectomy at the Center for Endocrine Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from 2007 to 2012. Patients were divided into groups with (n = 162) and without DI (n = 2217). Besides tracheal dislocation, another 13 risk factors contained in 13 screening tests and three additional factors of gender, age and diagnosis were defined. The incidence of DI in our study was 6.81%. The presence of tracheal dislocation was statistically significant, but not an independent predictor of DI. The diagnosis, large circumference and small neck length, previous DI, recessive mandible, tooth characteristics and oral anomalies were the most significant and independent predictors of DI. Neck circumference and small neck length had highest sensitivity. Previous DI had highest specificity. Thyromegaly, if causing tracheal dislocation and/or stenosis, represents a significant DI predictor, not individually, but in combination with other factors. PMID:27276767

  18. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  19. The Impact of Radiation Therapy on the Risk of Lymphedema After Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Miller, Cynthia L.; Horick, Nora; Skolny, Melissa N.; Jammallo, Lauren S.; Sadek, Betro T.; Shenouda, Mina N.; O'Toole, Jean A.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Specht, Michelle C.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose/Objective: Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment can be an irreversible condition with a negative impact on quality of life. The goal of this study was to identify radiation therapy-related risk factors for lymphedema. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively performed arm volume measurements on 1476 breast cancer patients at our institution using a Perometer. Treating each breast individually, 1099 of 1501 patients (73%) received radiation therapy. Arm measurements were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Lymphedema was defined as ≥10% arm volume increase occurring >3 months postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate risk factors for lymphedema. Results: At a median follow-up time of 25.4 months (range, 3.4-82.6 months), the 2-year cumulative incidence of lymphedema was 6.8%. Cumulative incidence by radiation therapy type was as follows: 3.0% no radiation therapy, 3.1% breast or chest wall alone, 21.9% supraclavicular (SC), and 21.1% SC and posterior axillary boost (PAB). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for regional lymph node radiation (RLNR) (SC ± PAB) was 1.7 (P=.025) compared with breast/chest wall radiation alone. There was no difference in lymphedema risk between SC and SC + PAB (P=.96). Other independent risk factors included early postoperative swelling (P<.0001), higher body mass index (P<.0001), greater number of lymph nodes dissected (P=.018), and axillary lymph node dissection (P=.0001). Conclusions: In a large cohort of breast cancer patients prospectively screened for lymphedema, RLNR significantly increased the risk of lymphedema compared with breast/chest wall radiation alone. When considering use of RLNR, clinicians should weigh the potential benefit of RLNR for control of disease against the increased risk of lymphedema.

  20. Prospects of photon counting lidar for savanna ecosystem structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, D.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Discrete return and waveform lidar have demonstrated a capability to measure vegetation height and the associated structural attributes such as aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Since discrete return lidar (DRL) is mainly suitable for small scale studies and the only existing spaceborne lidar sensor (ICESat-GLAS) has been decommissioned, the current question is what the future holds in terms of large scale lidar remote sensing studies. The earliest planned future spaceborne lidar mission is ICESat-2, which will use a photon counting technique. To pre-validate the capability of this mission for studying three dimensional vegetation structure in savannas, we assessed the potential of the measurement approach to estimate canopy height in a typical savanna landscape. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard. MABEL fires laser pulses in the green (532 nm) and near infrared (1064 nm) bands at a nominal repetition rate of 10 kHz and records the travel time of individual photons that are reflected back to the sensor. The photons' time of arrival and the instrument's GPS positions and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) orientation are used to calculate the distance the light travelled and hence the elevation of the surface below. A few transects flown over the Tejon ranch conservancy in Kern County, California, USA were used for this work. For each transect we extracted the data from one near infrared channel that had the highest number of photons. We segmented each transect into 50 m, 25 m and 10 m long blocks and aggregated the photons in each block into a histogram based on their elevation values. We then used an expansion window algorithm to identify cut off points where the cumulative density of photons from the highest elevation resembles the canopy top and likewise where such cumulative density from the lowest elevation resembles mean ground elevation. These cut off

  1. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C IN DIABETIC PATIENTS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Nosheen; Nasir, Bushra; Abrar, Muhammad Asad; Kaukab, Iram; Nawaz, Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong evidence of the relationship between diabetes and hepatitis C however, there are certain gaps in the literature. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C in diabetic patients and risk factors associated with it, to evaluate the presence of possible relationship between hepatitis C and diabetes. Serological testing for anti HCV antibody was carried out on a sample of 100 diabetic patients visiting the diabetic clinic Nishtar Medical College and Hospital Multan. An anti HCV antibody test was carried out on HCV ELISA 3.0 (third generation) kit, locally purchased. Data about demographic information and history of risk factors for HCV was collected from diabetic patients using a structured questionnaire as an experimental tool, after taking informed consent. Data of about 100 non diabetic subjects (volunteer blood donors) was taken from the blood bank of that hospital. Prevalence rate of HCV infection among diabetic patients was recorded 19% and in the control group (non-diabetics) was 3%. Prevalence of HCV infection is higher in type 2 diabetic patients as compared to type 1 diabetic patients (84% vs. 16%). Diabetic patients between age group 46-55 years of age has high prevalence rates (47%) as compared to healthy individuals. Female diabetic patients have higher seropositivity (74%) as compared to male diabetic patients (26%). High prevalence of HCV infection has been reported among diabetic patients with duration of disease = 11 years (47%). Most of the patients were married (95%) and from urban locality (89%) and almost all were poor (99%). HCV positive diabetic patients have also history of blood transfusion (16%), hospital admissions (84%), major surgical procedure (63%), family history of hepatitis C (16%), razor sharing among males (16%) and comb sharing (79%). There was not any I/V drug addict (or history of I/V drug addiction), and tattooing, nose/ear piercing from contaminated needle and toothbrush

  2. Plasma Carotenoids and Tocopherols and Cognitive Function: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

    2008-01-01

    As a site of high metabolic activity, the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. We explored the association between plasma antioxidants and cognition. In 858 female participants of the Nurses’ Health Study, aged 70+ years, we measured plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in 1989–1990, and assessed cognitive function by telephone beginning in 1995–2001; assessments were repeated twice at two-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean cognitive performance at the initial assessment by quartile of antioxidants, and longitudinal models for analyzing cognitive decline over four years. Higher antioxidant levels were not associated with initial performance or decline. Mean difference in initial global composite score (averaging all 6 cognitive tests) for the top versus bottom quartile of total carotenoids was −0.05 standard units (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.19, 0.09), and 0.04 units for total tocopherols (95% CI −0.10, 0.18). Individual antioxidants were not associated with cognition. Overall, total plasma carotenoids or tocopherols were not related to cognition in women. PMID:17433501

  3. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Kovačič, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Petrović, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pål; Mjøen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Løes, Sigbjørn; Lekven, Njål; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

  4. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Borah, Papori; Basumatary, Lakshya J.; Das, Marami; Goswami, Munindra; Kayal, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing's disease or steroid myopathy); thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy); vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases), followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment. PMID:25221399

  5. Effect of Nasal Allergy Over Spirometric Parameters: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Poorey, Vijay Kumar; Soni, Smita; Thakur, Pooja; Gupta, Alok

    2016-03-01

    Nasal allergy is characterized by an IgE mediated inflammatory response of nasal mucosa to allergens and it has a close association with Asthma. Nasal allergy has been demonstrated to be a strong risk factor for the onset of asthma in adults. Spirometric parameters like Forced expiratory volume at timed interval of 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75 %) are impaired in patients with nasal allergy or allergic rhinitis. The FEF25-75 % has been evidenced to be a reliable marker of early bronchial impairment in nasal allergy. Nasal allergy may be considered as the first step of the progression of respiratory allergy towards asthma. It has been demonstrated that FEF25-75 % is useful in predicting the presence of airway hyper responsiveness.It may be a more sensitive indicator of chronic airway obstruction than FEV1 and is considered as a risk factor for the persistence of respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients. The impact of allergic rhinitis or nasal allergy on asthma (ARIA) guidelines, clearly underlined the role of allergic rhinitis as risk factor for asthma development. The possible presence of spirometric abnormalities in patient with allergic rhinitis has been well documented. So keeping this in mind, present study is undertaken to evaluate the impairment of spirometric parameters, like FEV1, FEF25-75 %, and forced vital capacity, in patients with nasal allergy and to predict the presence of airway hyper responsiveness. PMID:27066401

  6. Yoga therapy for breast cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2013-11-01

    We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention. PMID:24199978

  7. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols and cognitive function: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

    2008-09-01

    As a site of high metabolic activity, the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. We explored the association between plasma antioxidants and cognition. In 858 female participants of the Nurses' Health Study, aged 70+ years, we measured plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in 1989-1990, and assessed cognitive function by telephone beginning in 1995-2001; assessments were repeated twice at 2-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean cognitive performance at the initial assessment by quartile of antioxidants, and longitudinal models for analyzing cognitive decline over 4 years. Higher antioxidant levels were not associated with initial performance or decline. Mean difference in initial global composite score (averaging all six cognitive tests) for the top versus bottom quartile of total carotenoids was -0.05 standard units (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.19, 0.09), and 0.04 units for total tocopherols (95% CI -0.10, 0.18). Individual antioxidants were not associated with cognition. Overall, total plasma carotenoids or tocopherols were not related to cognition in women. PMID:17433501

  8. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. PMID:22306437

  9. An Australian mixed methods pilot study exploring students performing patient risk screening.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Simone J; Golder, Janet; Cant, Robyn P; Davidson, Zoe E

    2016-06-01

    Clinical placement shortages and rising costs have created demand to provide low-resource, high value student learning opportunities. Malnutrition screening provides a vehicle for achieving this. A mixed methods explanatory sequential intervention study investigated time costs, and students' perceptions of preparedness after performing routine patient screening tasks, as well as students' overall views on their feelings of confidence and preparedness when commencing their first clinical placements. Pre-clinical student dietitians commencing initial placements participated (n=58), with 16 of these forming a subgroup who performed malnutrition screening tasks while the others attended usual placement orientation. The time saved when students undertook screening tasks usually assigned to nurses was substantial. Questionnaires revealed that student perceived confidence increased in the screening group when compared with controls. Focus group themes included "anxiety and confidence," "learning in the clinical learning environment," "communication skill development," and "the pre-placement screening experience." Students performing routine patient-screening tasks prior to initial clinical placement has potential cost savings for healthcare organizations and was perceived to be valuable for learning. PMID:26685779

  10. Wealth and mortality at older ages: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of socioeconomic position for survival, total wealth, which is a measure of accumulation of assets over the life course, has been underinvestigated as a predictor of mortality. We investigated the association between total wealth and mortality at older ages. Methods We estimated Cox proportional hazards models using a sample of 10 305 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results 2401 deaths were observed over a mean follow-up of 9.4 years. Among participants aged 50–64 years, the fully adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.21 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.59) and 1.77 (1.35 to 2.33) for those in the intermediate and lowest wealth tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the highest wealth tertile. The respective HRs were 2.54 (1.27 to 5.09) and 3.73 (1.86 to 7.45) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.36 (0.76 to 2.42) and 2.53 (1.45 to 4.41) for other non-cancer mortality. Wealth was not associated with cancer mortality in the fully adjusted model. Similar but less strong associations were observed among participants aged ≥65 years. The use of repeated measurements of wealth and covariates brought about only minor changes, except for the association between wealth and cardiovascular mortality, which became less strong in the younger participants. Wealth explained the associations between paternal occupation at age 14 years, education, occupational class, and income and mortality. Conclusions There are persisting wealth inequalities in mortality at older ages, which only partially are explained by established risk factors. Wealth appears to be more strongly associated with mortality than other socioeconomic position measures. PMID:26511887

  11. Studies of charmed hadronic B decays with the early LHCb data and prospects for {gamma} measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, J.

    2010-12-22

    We present the first studies of decays of the type B{yields}DX, where D represents a charmed meson (D{sup 0}, D{sup (*)+}, or D{sub s}) from the LHCb experiment at CERN. Our studies use data accumulated during the 2010 run of the LHC. This work represents the first steps on a programme towards a precision measurement of the angle {gamma} of the CKM Unitarity Triangle. The prospects for this {gamma} measurement will be reviewed.

  12. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Victoria K; Makin, Mary Sue; Siegler, Aaron J; Ault, Kevin; Rochat, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable. Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi. Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service. Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi. PMID:21448296

  13. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  14. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33% less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95% CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841

  15. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  16. Cardiovascular screening to reduce the burden from cardiovascular disease: microsimulation study to quantify policy options

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kirk; Hickey, Graeme L; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Buchan, Iain; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the potential impact of universal screening for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (National Health Service Health Checks) on disease burden and socioeconomic inequalities in health in England, and to compare universal screening with alternative feasible strategies. Design Microsimulation study of a close-to-reality synthetic population. Five scenarios were considered: baseline scenario, assuming that current trends in risk factors will continue in the future; universal screening; screening concentrated only in the most deprived areas; structural population-wide intervention; and combination of population-wide intervention and concentrated screening. Setting Synthetic population with similar characteristics to the community dwelling population of England. Participants Synthetic people with traits informed by the health survey for England. Main outcome measure Cardiovascular disease cases and deaths prevented or postponed by 2030, stratified by fifths of socioeconomic status using the index of multiple deprivation. Results Compared with the baseline scenario, universal screening may prevent or postpone approximately 19 000 cases (interquartile range 11 000-28 000) and 3000 deaths (−1000-6000); concentrated screening 17 000 cases (9000-26 000) and 2000 deaths (−1000-5000); population-wide intervention 67 000 cases (57 000-77 000) and 8000 deaths (4000-11 000); and the combination of the population-wide intervention and concentrated screening 82 000 cases (73 000-93 000) and 9000 deaths (6000-13 000). The most equitable strategy would be the combination of the population-wide intervention and concentrated screening, followed by concentrated screening alone and the population-wide intervention. Universal screening had the least apparent impact on socioeconomic inequalities in health. Conclusions When primary prevention strategies for reducing cardiovascular disease burden and inequalities are

  17. Prospective cohort studies of dengue viral transmission and severity of disease.

    PubMed

    Endy, Timothy P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Mammen, Mammen P

    2010-01-01

    As the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) systematically spread throughout the tropical and subtropical regions globally, dengue is increasingly contributing to the overall morbidity and mortality sustained by populations and thereby challenging the health infrastructures of most endemic countries. DENV-human host-mosquito vector interactions are complex and cause in humans either asymptomatic or subclinical DENV infection, mild to severe dengue fever (DF), severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Over the past decade, we have seen an increase in research funding and public health efforts to offset the effects of this pandemic. Though multiple vaccine development efforts are underway, the need remains to further characterize the determinants of varying severities of clinical outcomes. Several long-term prospective studies on DENV transmission and dengue severity have sought to define the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease. Yet, more studies are required to quantify the disease burden on different populations, explore the impact of DENV serotype-specific transmission on host-responses and dengue severity and measure the economic impact of dengue on a population. In this section, we will review the critical past and recent findings of dengue prospective studies on our understanding of the disease and the potential role of future prospective cohort studies in advancing issues required for vaccine field evaluations. PMID:19802574

  18. Higher Cognitive Performance Is Prospectively Associated with Healthy Dietary Choices: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Davey, A.; Alkerwi, A.; Dore, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few studies have examined whether cognitive function predicts dietary intake. The majority of research has focused on how diet can influence cognitive performance or risk for cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between cognitive performance and dietary intake in participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. DESIGN A prospective study with neuropsychological testing at baseline and nutritional assessments measured a mean of 18 years later. SETTING Community-dwelling individuals residing in central New York state. PARTICIPANTS 333 participants free of dementia and stroke. MEASUREMENTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was assessed at baseline and dietary intake was measured using the Nutrition and Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Higher WAIS Scores at baseline were prospectively associated with higher intakes of vegetables, meats, nuts and legumes, and fish, but inversely associated with consumption of total grains and carbonated soft drinks. After adjustment for sample selection, socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity), and cardiovascular risk factors, the relations between higher cognitive performance and greater consumption of vegetables, meat, and fish, and lower consumption of grains remained significant. CONCLUSION These data suggest that cognition early in life may influence dietary choices later in life. PMID:26878011

  19. Quality of early care and childhood trauma: a prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lissa; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Holmes, Bjarne; Lyubchik, Amy; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-06-01

    Kihlstrom (2005) has recently called attention to the need for prospective longitudinal studies of dissociation. The present study assesses quality of early care and childhood trauma as predictors of dissociation in a sample of 56 low-income young adults followed from infancy to age 19. Dissociation was assessed with the Dissociative Experiences Scale; quality of early care was assessed by observer ratings of mother-infant interaction at home and in the laboratory; and childhood trauma was indexed by state-documented maltreatment, self-report, and interviewer ratings of participants' narratives. Regression analysis indicated that dissociation in young adulthood was significantly predicted by observed lack of parental responsiveness in infancy, while childhood verbal abuse was the only type of trauma that added to the prediction of dissociation. Implications are discussed in the context of previous prospective work also pointing to the important contribution of parental emotional unresponsiveness in the development of dissociation. PMID:19525736

  20. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A... Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type of Information... breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of sisters of women who have had breast cancer. The etiology...

  1. 77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: Under... Breast Cancer. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision. Need and Use of Information Collection... risk factors for the development of breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of sisters of women who...

  2. Reasons for non-participation in the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Declan T; Treanor, Charlene; McMullan, Colin; Owen, Tracy; Graham, Adele; Anderson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the reasons why some people do not participate in bowel cancer screening so that steps can be taken to improve informed decision-making. Design Qualitative study, using focus groups with thematic analysis of data to identify, analyse and report patterns. Transcripts were repeatedly read and inductively coded using a phenomenological perspective, and organised into key themes. Setting Belfast and Armagh, two areas of Northern Ireland with relatively low uptake of bowel cancer screening. Participants Ten women and 18 men in three single-gender focus groups (two male and one female), each with 9–10 participants. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling from the general public and were eligible for, but had not taken part in, the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Results Key themes identified were fear of cancer; the test procedure; social norms; past experience of cancer and screening; lack of knowledge or understanding about bowel cancer screening; and resulting behaviour towards the test. Fear about receiving bad news and reluctance to conduct the test themselves were reactions that participants seemed willing to overcome after taking part in open discussion about the test. Conclusions We identified barriers to participation in bowel cancer screening and used these insights to develop new materials to support delivery of the programme. Some of the issues raised have been identified in other UK settings, suggesting that knowledge about barriers, and strategies to improve uptake, may be generalisable. PMID:26353870

  3. Changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008: two cross sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in screen-based communication, leading to concerns about the negative health effects of screen-based activities in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to (1) analyze changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008, and (2) to analyze associations between the changes in screen time activity over time and sex, grade level and parental educational level. Methods Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM), 1488 6th and 7th grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire including a question about time spent on television viewing and personal computer use in 2001 and 1339 pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed by multilevel linear mixed models. Results The proportions of 6th and 7th grade pupils at the 27 schools that reported screen time activity outside school of 2 hours/day or more decreased from 55% to 45% (p<0.001) from 2001 to 2008 when adjusting for sex, grade level and parental education. The decrease was most evident in 6th graders (51% to 37%) and in children with highly educated parents (54% to 39%). Conclusion The present study shows that there has been a marked reduction in screen time activity outside school in this group of Norwegian 10–12 year olds from 2001 to 2008. PMID:23356930

  4. Screening Mammography & Breast Cancer Mortality: Meta-Analysis of Quasi-Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the benefit associated with screening has been debated. We present a meta-analysis of quasi-experimental studies on the effects of mammography screening. Methods We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase for articles published through January 31, 2013. Studies were included if they reported: 1) a population-wide breast cancer screening program using mammography with 5+ years of data post-implementation; 2) a comparison group with equal access to therapies; and 3) breast cancer mortality. Studies excluded were: RCTs, case-control, or simulation studies. We defined quasi-experimental as studies that compared either geographical, historical or birth cohorts with a screening program to an equivalent cohort without a screening program. Meta-analyses were conducted in Stata using the metan command, random effects. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for ages screened: under 50, 50 to 69 and over 70 and weighted by population and person-years. Results Among 4,903 published papers that were retrieved, 19 studies matched eligibility criteria. Birth cohort studies reported a significant benefit for women screened screened ages 50–69. Significant reductions in breast cancer mortality were observed in historical comparisons. For geographical comparisons, there was a significant 20% reduction in mortality for women Studies that tested the interaction of geographical and historical comparisons produced a pooled, significant 13–17% reduction in incident breast cancer mortality for women ages 50–69, but the effects in most individual studies were non-significant. All studies of women ages 70+ were non-significant. Conclusions Mammography screening may have modest effects on cancer mortality between the ages of 50 and 69 and non-significant effects for women older than age 70. Results are consistent with meta-analyses of RCTs. Effects on total mortality

  5. Breathing easy: a prospective study of optimism and pulmonary function in the normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Kubzansky, Laura D; Wright, Rosalind J; Cohen, Sheldon; Weiss, Scott; Rosner, Bernard; Sparrow, David

    2002-01-01

    Although there is good evidence that emotions are associated with chronic airways obstruction, evidence for the influence of psychological factors on the level and decline of pulmonary function is sparse. Optimism has been linked to enhanced well-being, whereas pessimism has been identified as a risk factor for poor physical health. This investigation examines prospectively the effects of optimism versus pessimism on pulmonary function. Data are from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, an ongoing cohort of older men. In 1986, 670 men completed the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory from which we derived the bipolar Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. During an average of 8 years of follow-up, an average of 3 pulmonary function exams were obtained. Men with a more optimistic explanatory style had significantly higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (both p < .01). Interactions between time and optimism suggested that rate of decline in FEV1 over time was slower in men with a more optimistic explanatory style relative to men who were more pessimistic. These data are the first to link optimism with higher levels of pulmonary function and slower rate of pulmonary function decline in older men, a protective effect that is independent of smoking. PMID:12434946

  6. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews

  7. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Stone, Katie L; Fabio, Anthony; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. PMID:26140867

  8. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Young people whose parents have depression have a greatly increased risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, but poor outcomes are not inevitable. Identification of the contributors to mental health resilience in young people at high familial risk is an internationally recognised priority. Our objectives were to identify protective factors that predict sustained good mental health in adolescents with a parent with depression and to test whether these contribute beyond what is explained by parent illness severity. Methods The Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study (EPAD) is a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Parents with recurrent major depressive disorder, co-parents, and offspring (aged 9–17 years at baseline) were assessed three times over 4 years in a community setting. Offspring outcomes were operationalised as absence of mental health disorder, subthreshold symptoms, or suicidality on all three study occasions (sustained good mental health); and better than expected mental health (mood and behavioural symptoms at follow-up lower than predicted given severity of parental depression). Family, social, cognitive, and health behaviour predictor variables were assessed using interview and questionnaire measures. Findings Between February and June, 2007, we screened 337 families at baseline, of which 331 were eligible. Of these, 262 completed the three assessments and were included in the data for sustained mental health. Adolescent mental health problems were common, but 53 (20%) of the 262 adolescents showed sustained good mental health. Index parent positive expressed emotion (odds ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·31–2·79]; p=0·001), co-parent support (1·90 [1·38–2·62]; p<0·0001), good-quality social relationships (2·07 [1·35–3·18]; p=0·001), self-efficacy (1·49 [1·05–2·11]; p=0·03), and frequent exercise (2·96 [1·26–6·92]; p=0·01) were associated with sustained good

  9. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT), a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT) is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline) who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation) live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self-administered monthly mailed

  10. Use of HLA-B*58:01 genotyping to prevent allopurinol induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Taiwan: national prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Tai-Ming; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Chen, Shih-Yang; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Chrong-Reen; Weng, Chia-Tse; Yu, Chia-Li; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Lai, Wen-Ter; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Yin, Guang-Dar; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Liou, Teh-Ling; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Der-Yuan; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Weng, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Chen-Hung; Liu, Ming-Fei; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lee, Jia-Jung; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Wu, Chen-Ching; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Luo, Shue-Fen; Yang, Ya-Hui; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Chou, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hung-Ting; Wang, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chun-Lin; Chang, Chia-Shuo; Lee, Ming-Ta Michael; Chen, Pei; Wong, Chih-Shung; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of prospective screening for the HLA-B*58:01 allele to identify Taiwanese individuals at risk of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) induced by allopurinol treatment. Design National prospective cohort study. Setting 15 medical centres in different regions of Taiwan, from July 2009 to August 2014. Participants 2926 people who had an indication for allopurinol treatment but had not taken allopurinol previously. Participants were excluded if they had undergone a bone marrow transplant, were not of Han Chinese descent, and had a history of allopurinol induced hypersensitivity. DNA purified from 2910 participants’ peripheral blood was used to assess the presence of HLA-B*58:01. Main outcome measures Incidence of allopurinol induced SCARs with and without screening. Results Participants who tested positive for HLA-B*58:01 (19.6%, n=571) were advised to avoid allopurinol, and were referred to an alternate drug treatment or advised to continue with their prestudy treatment. Participants who tested negative (80.4%, n=2339) were given allopurinol. Participants were interviewed once a week for two months to monitor symptoms. The historical incidence of allopurinol induced SCARs, estimated by the National Health Insurance research database of Taiwan, was used for comparison. Mild, transient rash without blisters developed in 97 (3%) participants during follow-up. None of the participants was admitted to hospital owing to adverse drug reactions. SCARs did not develop in any of the participants receiving allopurinol who screened negative for HLA-B*58:01. By contrast, seven cases of SCARs were expected, based on the estimated historical incidence of allopurinol induced SCARs nationwide (0.30% per year, 95% confidence interval 0.28% to 0.31%; P=0.0026; two side one sample binomial test). Conclusions Prospective screening of the HLA-B*58:01 allele, coupled with an alternative drug treatment for carriers, significantly decreased the incidence

  11. Breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in combination with digital mammography compared to digital mammography alone: a cohort study within the PROSPR consortium.

    PubMed

    Conant, Emily F; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Sprague, Brian L; Herschorn, Sally D; Weaver, Donald L; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Poplack, Steven P; Haas, Jennifer S; Armstrong, Katrina; Schnall, Mitchell D; Barlow, William E

    2016-02-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is emerging as the new standard of care for breast cancer screening based on improved cancer detection coupled with reductions in recall compared to screening with digital mammography (DM) alone. However, many prior studies lack follow-up data to assess false negatives examinations. The purpose of this study is to assess if DBT is associated with improved screening outcomes based on follow-up data from tumor registries or pathology. Retrospective analysis of prospective cohort data from three research centers performing DBT screening in the PROSPR consortium from 2011 to 2014 was performed. Recall and biopsy rates were assessed from 198,881 women age 40-74 years undergoing screening (142,883 DM and 55,998 DBT examinations). Cancer, cancer detection, and false negative rates and positive predictive values were assessed on examinations with one year of follow-up. Logistic regression was used to compare DBT to DM adjusting for research center, age, prior breast imaging, and breast density. There was a reduction in recall with DBT compared to DM (8.7 vs. 10.4 %, p < 0.0001), with adjusted OR = 0.68 (95 % CI = 0.65-0.71). DBT demonstrated a statistically significant increase in cancer detection over DM (5.9 vs. 4.4/1000 screened, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.12-1.88), an improvement in PPV1 (6.4 % for DBT vs. 4.1 % for DM, adjusted OR = 2.02, 95 % CI = 1.54-2.65), and no significant difference in false negative rates for DBT compared to DM (0.46 vs. 0.60/1000 screened, p = 0.347). Our data support implementation of DBT screening based on increased cancer detection, reduced recall, and no difference in false negative screening examinations. PMID:26931450

  12. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume I. Methodology, guidelines, and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Presented in this report are the results of the site locality identification study for the Hanford Site using a screening process. To enable evaluation of the entire Hanford Site, the screening process was applied to a somewhat larger area; i.e., the Pasco Basin. The study consisted of a series of screening steps that progressively focused on smaller areas which are within the Hanford Site and which had a higher potential for containing suitable repository sites for nuclear waste than the areas not included for further study. Five site localities, designated H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5 (Figure A), varying in size from approximately 10 to 50 square miles, were identified on the Hanford Site. It is anticipated that each site locality may contain one or more candidate sites suitable for a nuclear waste repository. The site locality identification study began with definition of objectives and the development of guidelines for screening. Three objectives were defined: (1) maximize public health and safety; (2) minimize adverse environmental and socioeconomic impacts; and (3) minimize system costs. The screening guidelines have numerical values that provided the basis for the successive reduction of the area under study and to focus on smaller areas that had a higher likelihood of containing suitable sites.

  13. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. Design A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. Participants A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Setting Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. Results The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Conclusions Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment

  14. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  15. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  16. Evaluating radiographers' diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading mammograms: what constitutes a quality study?

    SciTech Connect

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers as mammogram screen-readers and then to develop an adapted tool for determining the quality of screen-reading studies. A literature search was used to identify relevant studies and a quality evaluation tool constructed by combining the criteria for quality of Whiting, Rutjes, Dinnes et al. and Brealey and Westwood. This constructed tool was then applied to the studies and subsequently adapted specifically for use in evaluating quality in studies investigating diagnostic accuracy of screen-readers. Eleven studies were identified and the constructed tool applied to evaluate quality. This evaluation resulted in the identification of quality issues with the studies such as potential for bias, applicability of results, study conduct, reporting of the study and observer characteristics. An assessment of the applicability and relevance of the tool for this area of research resulted in adaptations to the criteria and the development of a tool specifically for evaluating diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading. This tool, with further refinement and rigorous validation can make a significant contribution to promoting well-designed studies in this important area of research and practice.

  17. A prospective study of the LMB regimen for diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in adults.

    PubMed

    Voog, E; Sebban, C; Biron, P; Philip, T; Blay, J Y

    2000-02-01

    Although the CHOP regimen remains a standard first line chemotherapy for diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) in adults, a majority of these patients will still experience disease progression after the completion of this treatment. The LMB protocol is an intensive chemotherapy regimen which yields high survival rates in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) in children, as well as in primary cerebral DLCL (PCL) of adults. Here, we report the long term results of this regimen in a prospective series of 22 adult patients with DLCL excluding PCL. Fifteen male and 7 female patients with a median age of 30 years (range: 20-55) were treated prospectively between 1988 and 1993. 16 (72%) patients had an age adjusted International Pronostic Index (IPI) > or = 1. The median duration of the treatment was 15 weeks (range 13-19). Nineteen of the 22 patients (87%) experienced an objective response (14 complete, and 5 partial responses) at the end of the protocol. The predominant toxicity was myelosuppression: 89% of the COPADEM courses were followed by grade IV neutropenia and 5% with grade IV infection. One patient died (4%) of treatment related toxicity. With a median follow-up of 94 months and a minimum follow-up of 65 months, 8-year overall and progression-free survival are 73% and 67% respectively. The 8 year overall survival were 100%, 78% and 42% in patients with an IPI 0, 1, and 2-3 respectively. This short intensive regimen yields promising long term survival rates in this monocentric prospective study and may deserve to be tested in a larger multicentric prospective study comparing it to the CHOP regimen. PMID:10784397

  18. On the use of prostate-specific antigen for screening of prostate cancer in European Randomised Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H; Blijenberg, Bert G; Roobol, Monique J; Lilja, Hans; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2010-11-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been the main drive for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa), including in population-based screening as in the European Randomised Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). The specificity of PSA to indicate men with biopsy detectable prostate cancer can be improved by adding information obtained by new biomarkers, such as PSA isoforms. This improvement is needed to increase the efficacy of the screening procedure for the population-based as well as the individual screening. Various PSA isoforms, kallikreins and molecular markers have been validated in various cohorts from ERSPC of men with and without PCa in order to design the optimal diagnostic procedure for screening asymptomatic men. So far, most promising results have been obtained from the analysis of free PSA, proPSA, nicked PSA and hK2. The use of free PSA in addition to total PSA reduces the number of negative sextant biopsies at a PSA cut-off level of 3 ng/ml at initial screening with 30%, at the cost of losing 10% of detectable cancers that are predominantly well differentiated on histology. Further addition of PSA isoforms and hK2 only improve ROC curves in selected samples by a maximum of 5%. Molecular markers like PCA3 and TMPRSS2 in urine do not appear to be useful but they have been assessed insufficiently so far. The level of PSA at initial screening is highly predictive for the chance of being diagnosed with PCa later on in life. The changes in PSA over time after initial screening (like PSA-velocity and PSA-doubling time) are statistically different between men with detectable cancers versus those without (PSA-doubling time 5.1 versus 6.1 years), but this does not contribute significantly to population-based screening overall. Changes in specificity need to be related to a cost efficacy evaluation in the final analysis of ERSPC. PMID:21047594

  19. [Justification for the study screening newborn hearing screening in terms of regionalization of perinatal care in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Shcherbyna, A V; Bychkov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Conducting research screening newborn hearing screening in terms of regional perinatal centers in Ukraine and further rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment is a key step in their integration into society. Universal newborn hearing screening should be mandatory, especially in perinatal centers, because it has significant medical, social and economic effects. It is also necessary to reorganize the existing regional offices surdologichesky and create on their bases and methodological Regional Medical Center hearing and speech problems, which will provide high-quality diagnosis, epidemiological data form, will hold the register of children diagnosed with hearing defects, organize them continuously active surveillance, hearing aids and effective rehabilitation, to ensure the quality of screening. Creating a distributed database for these patients, by far. Will achieve success in the integration of children with special needs in society. PMID:25286608

  20. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia in Valencia, Spain: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, J; Blanquer, R; Borrás, R; Nauffal, D; Morales, P; Menéndez, R; Subías, I; Herrero, L; Redón, J; Pascual, J

    1991-01-01

    A year long multicentre prospective study was carried out in the Valencia region of Spain, to determine the cause of community acquired pneumonia. The study was based on 510 of 833 patients with pneumonia. Of these, 462 were admitted to hospital, where 31 patients died. A cause was established in only 281 cases--208 of bacterial, 60 of viral, and 13 of mixed infection. The most common microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.5%), Legionella sp (14%), Influenza virus (8%), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (4%). There was a higher incidence of Legionella sp than in other studies. PMID:1908605

  1. Efficacy of a real time optoelectronic device (TruScreen™) in detecting cervical intraepithelial pathologies: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Özgü, Emre; Yıldız, Yunus; Özgü, Burçin Salman; Öz, Murat; Danışman, Nuri; Güngör, Tayfun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of TruScreen™ (an objective optoelectronic cervical screening device) in improving the sensitivity of cervical screening programs either alone or in combination with Papanicolaou (PAP) smear or human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA screening. Material and Methods Our study was performed in 285 patients with abnormal Pap test results. TruScreen™ and HPV screening methods were performed in all participants. Consistency and differences between the tests were compared with cervical biopsy results. Results TruScreen™ was found to be an approach method in the determination of cervical pathologies (ROC curve area underlined=0.606) and with an 89.5% negative predictive value. HPV screening remains a counterpart to TruScreen™ with a 0.620 area underlined in the ROC curve and an 83% negative predictive value. Conclusion As determined in our study, TruScreen™ with a sensitivity of 86.1% can be used as a screening test with instant and not professional dependent results for cervical cancer screening. Avoiding from subjectivity in interpretation of Pap smears and requirement for pathologists, TruScreen™ can be a used for cervical cancer screening especially in countries with a low socio-economic status. The combination of TruScreen™ and HPV screening was not able to demonstrate a significant rise of effectiveness in screening. PMID:25788849

  2. Prospective observational studies of the management and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hersi, Ahmad S.; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Zubaid, Mohammad; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2012-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major global public health problem. Observational studies are necessary to understand patient characteristics, management, and outcomes of this common arrhythmia. Accordingly, our objective was to describe the current status of published prospective observational studies of AF. Methods and results MEDLINE and EMBASE (to June 2012) and reference lists of eligible studies were searched for English-language prospective observational registries of AF (n ⩾ 100 and follow-up ⩾6 months). Two reviewers independently extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Eight prospective studies enrolled a total of 17,924 patients with AF (total 41,306 patient-years of exposure; follow-up 11 months to 9.9 years). The majority of subjects were enrolled in Europe (74%) or North America (21%), and 0.3% had rheumatic AF. The most consistently reported comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (range 5–18%), hypertension (39–68%), heart failure (5–58%), and prior stroke (4–17%). Three studies did not report all the variables necessary to calculate the currently recommended stroke risk assessment score, and no study reported all the variables required to calculate a recently validated bleeding risk score. The most consistently reported management features were oral anticoagulation (32–64%) and aspirin (28–61%) use. Calcium channel blockers were less frequently used than other rate controlling agents, and digoxin was most common in the single study from Africa (63%). Total mortality was reported in all studies, while data on stroke/systemic embolism, hospitalizations, and major hemorrhage rates were not always reported. Conclusions Current literature on real-world management of AF is relatively limited with inadequate data to allow detailed comparisons among reports. Data on rheumatic AF and from Africa and the developing world in general are sparse. PMID:24174832

  3. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  4. Designing prospective cohort studies for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicity during sensitive windows of human reproduction and development – the LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Wilcosky, Timothy C.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Schrader, Steven M.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2014-01-01

    Summary Buck Louis GM, Schisterman EF, Sweeney AM, Wilcosky TC, Gore-Langton RE, Lynch CD, Boyd Barr D, Schrader SM, Kim S, Chen Z, Sundaram R, on behalf of the LIFE Study. Designing prospective cohort studies for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicity during sensitive windows of human reproduction and development – the LIFE Study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2011; 25: 413–424. The relationship between the environment and human fecundity and fertility remains virtually unstudied from a couple-based perspective in which longitudinal exposure data and biospecimens are captured across sensitive windows. In response, we completed the LIFE Study with methodology that intended to empirically evaluate a priori purported methodological challenges: implementation of population-based sampling frameworks suitable for recruiting couples planning pregnancy;obtaining environmental data across sensitive windows of reproduction and development;home-based biospecimen collection; anddevelopment of a data management system for hierarchical exposome data. We used two sampling frameworks (i.e. fish/wildlife licence registry and a direct marketing database) for 16 targeted counties with presumed environmental exposures to persistent organochlorine chemicals to recruit 501 couples planning pregnancies for prospective longitudinal follow-up while trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. Enrolment rates varied from <1% of the targeted population (n = 424 423) to 42% of eligible couples who were successfully screened; 84% of the targeted population could not be reached, while 36% refused screening. Among enrolled couples, ~85% completed daily journals while trying; 82% of pregnant women completed daily early pregnancy journals, and 80% completed monthly pregnancy journals. All couples provided baseline blood/urine samples; 94% of men provided one or more semen samples and 98% of women provided one or more saliva samples. Women successfully used urinary fertility

  5. Does sexual victimization predict subsequent alcohol consumption? A prospective study among a community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; Hoffman, Joseph H

    2007-12-01

    Although rape and sexual victimization experiences have been hypothesized to contribute to subsequent heavy drinking and alcohol problems among women, little prospective evidence exists. The present prospective study examined whether sexual victimization contributes to subsequent heavy drinking among a community sample of women, 18-30 years of age (n=927). Using three waves of data, 12 months apart, we examined the impact of T1 sexual victimization on T2 heavy drinking, and of T2 sexual victimization on T3 heavy drinking. There were significant bivariate differences between sexually victimized and non-victimized women on heavy drinking both concurrently and prospectively. However, after controlling for prior heavy drinking and demographic variables, most differences disappeared. We also tested the hypothesis that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms would mediate the relationship between T2 sexual victimization and T3 heavy drinking. Although T2 sexual victimization predicted T2 PTSD symptoms, PTSD did not contribute to subsequent heavy drinking. Findings suggest that heavy drinking is relatively stable over time and that sexual victimization does not make a substantial independent contribution to heavy drinking among women in the general population. PMID:17597304

  6. No consensus on gestational diabetes mellitus screening regimes in Sweden: pregnancy outcomes in relation to different screening regimes 2011 to 2012, a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although associated adverse pregnancy outcomes, no international or Swedish consensus exists that identifies a cut-off value or what screening method to use for definition of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the following: i) guidelines for screening of GDM; ii) background and risk factors for GDM and selection to OGTT; and iii) pregnancy outcomes in relation to GDM, screening regimes and levels of OGTT 2 hour glucose values. Methods This cross-sectional and population-based study uses data from the Swedish Maternal Health Care Register (MHCR) (2011 and 2012) combined with guidelines for GDM screening (2011–2012) from each Maternal Health Care Area (MHCA) in Sweden. The sample consisted of 184,183 women: 88,140 in 2011 and 96,043 in 2012. Chi-square and two independent samples t-tests were used. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Four screening regimes of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (75 g of glucose) were used: A) universal screening with a 2-hour cut-off value of 10.0 mmol/L; B) selective screening with a 2-hour cut-off value of 8.9 mmol/L; C) selective screening with a 2-hour cut-off value of 10.0 mmol/L; and D) selective screening with a 2-hour cut-off value of 12.2 mmol/L. The highest prevalence of GDM (2.9%) was found with a 2-hour cut-off value of 8.9 mmol/L when selective screening was applied. Unemployment and low educational level were associated with an increased risk of GDM. The OR was 4.14 (CI 95%: 3.81-4.50) for GDM in obese women compared to women with BMI <30 kg/m2. Women with non-Nordic origin presented a more than doubled risk for GDM compared to women with Nordic origin (OR = 2.24; CI 95%: 2.06-2.43). Increasing OGTT values were associated with increasing risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions There was no consensus regarding screening regimes for GDM from 2011 through 2012 when four different regimes were applied in Sweden. Increasing

  7. Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath N.; Nayak, Shradda U.; Kadam, Avinash P.; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines. PMID:27011712

  8. The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (≥ 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data

  9. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Tobacco Use and Prostate Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Moreira, Daniel M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Context An association between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality was suggested in an earlier meta-analysis of 24 prospective studies in which dose–response associations and risks per unit of tobacco use were not examined. Objective We investigated the association between several measures of tobacco use and PCa mortality (primary outcome) and incidence (secondary outcome) including dose–response association. Evidence acquisition Relevant articles from prospective studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases (through January 21, 2014) and reference lists of relevant articles. Combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods. We also calculated population attributable risk (PAR) for smoking and PCa mortality. Evidence synthesis We included 51 articles in this meta-analysis (11 823 PCa deaths, 50 349 incident cases, and 4 082 606 cohort participants). Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (RR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18–1.31), with little evidence for heterogeneity and publication bias. The number of cigarettes smoked per day had a dose–response association with PCa mortality ( p = 0.02; RR for 20 cigarettes per day: 1.20). The PAR for cigarette smoking and PCa deaths in the United States and Europe were 6.7% and 9.5%, respectively, corresponding to >10 000 deaths/ year in these two regions. Current cigarette smoking was inversely associated with incident PCa (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85–0.96), with high heterogeneity in the results. However, in studies completed in 1995 or earlier (considered as completed before the prostate-specific antigen screening era), ever smoking showed a positive association with incident PCa (RR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00–1.12) with little heterogeneity. Conclusions Combined evidence from observational studies shows a modest but statistically significant association between cigarette

  10. The Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood: An Initial Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Major, Rebecca; Allegra, Laurie; Powers, Lisa; Schatschneider, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of two exploratory validation studies of a revised instrument: the "Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood" version (SRSS-EC). The SRSS-EC was modified to reflect characteristics of externalizing and internalizing behaviors manifested by preschool-age children. In Study 1, we explored the reliability of…

  11. STUDY OF SCREENING PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TUBB, J. M.; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO FORMULATE A SOUND, EFFECTIVE AND WORKABLE METHOD OF SCREENING CHILDREN FOR PLACEMENT IN SPECIAL CLASSES FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED. THE PROJECT WAS A PILOT STUDY OF APPROXIMATELY 5,000 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN GRADES 1 THROUGH 6 IN 2 REPRESENTATIVE COUNTIES. TEACHER AND PRINCIPAL REFERRALS WERE SECURED…

  12. INTERNATIONAL VALIDATION OF A NEUROBEHAVIORAL SCREENING BATTERY: THE IPCS/WHO COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A neurobehavioral screening battery consisting of a functional observational battery (FOB) and an automated measure of motor activity is the subject of an international collaborative study. Eight laboratories (four in Europe, four in the U.S.) are participating in this study, whi...

  13. Duodenal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): results of a 10 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Groves, C J; Saunders, B P; Spigelman, A D; Phillips, R K S

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duodenal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. An endoscopic surveillance programme was therefore initiated in 1988, the outcome of which is described in this paper. Methods: We report the 10 year follow up of 114 patients with FAP who were prospectively screened for the presence and severity of duodenal adenomas. Results: Six of 114 patients (median age 67 years) developed duodenal adenocarcinoma. Four of these were from 11 patients who originally had Spigelman stage IV disease (advanced duodenal polyposis), which gives a 36% risk within this group of developing cancer. One case of duodenal cancer arose from 41 patients who originally had stage III disease (2%) and one cancer arose from 44 patients with original stage II disease (2%). All six patients have died: five were inoperable and one had recurrence three years after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. There was no association between duodenal cancer and site of germline mutation of the APC gene. Conclusions: Surveillance for duodenal adenocarcinoma and subsequent early referral for curative surgery has not been effective. Selection of patients with advanced but benign (Spigelman stage IV) duodenal polyposis for prophylactic pancreaticoduodenectomy should therefore be considered and can now be justified on the basis of these results. More comprehensive endoscopic surveillance of high risk (stage III and IV) patients is needed in an attempt to avoid underestimating the severity of duodenal polyposis, and to evaluate the role of endoscopic therapy in preventing advanced disease. PMID:11950808

  14. Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

  15. Evidence for prospective associations among depression and obesity in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Faith, M S; Butryn, M; Wadden, T A; Fabricatore, A; Nguyen, A M; Heymsfield, S B

    2011-05-01

    Obesity may lead to depression or be one of its consequences. We reviewed population-based studies in order to, first, identify the most commonly used research methods, and, second, to evaluate the strength of evidence for prospective associations among obesity and depression. We examined 25 studies, of which 10 tested 'obesity-to-depression' pathways, and 15 tested 'depression-to-obesity' pathways. Descriptive statistics summarized the frequency with which various measurements, designs and data analytic strategies were used. We tallied the number of studies that reported any vs. no statistically significant associations, and report on effect sizes, identified moderating variables within reports, and sought common findings across studies. Results indicated considerable methodological heterogeneity in the literature. Depression was assessed by clinical interview in 44% of studies, weight and height were directly measured in 32%, and only 12% used both. In total, 80% of the studies reported significant obesity-to-depression associations, with odds ratios generally in the range of 1.0 to 2.0, while only 53% of the studies reported significant depression-to-obesity associations. Sex was a common moderating variable. Thus, there was good evidence that obesity is prospectively associated with increased depression, with less consistent evidence that depression leads to obesity. Recommendations for future research regarding study samples, measurement and data analysis are provided. PMID:21414128

  16. Prospective analysis of DNA damage and repair markers of lung cancer risk from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, Alice J; Jones, Irene M; Wei, Qingyi; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Stram, Douglas A; Gross, Myron D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Wang, Li-E; Gu, Jian; Thomas, Cynthia B; Reding, Douglas J; Hayes, Richard B; Caporaso, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Mutagen challenge and DNA repair assays have been used in case-control studies for nearly three decades to assess human cancer risk. The findings still engender controversy because blood was drawn after cancer diagnosis so the results may be biased, a type called 'reverse causation'. We therefore used Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines established from prospectively collected peripheral blood samples to evaluate lung cancer risk in relation to three DNA repair assays: alkaline Comet assay, host cell reactivation (HCR) assay with the mutagen benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and the bleomycin mutagen sensitivity assay. Cases (n = 117) were diagnosed with lung cancer between 0.3 and 6 years after blood collection and controls (n = 117) were frequency matched on calendar year and age at blood collection, gender and smoking history; all races were included. Case and control status was unknown to laboratory investigators. In unconditional logistic regression analyses, statistically significantly increased lung cancer odds ratios (OR(adjusted)) were observed for bleomycin mutagen sensitivity as quartiles of chromatid breaks/cell [relative to the lowest quartile, OR = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-2.5; OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-3.1; OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4, respectively, P(trend) = 0.04]. The magnitude of the association between the bleomycin assay and lung cancer risk was modest compared with those reported in previous lung cancer studies but was strengthened when we included only incident cases diagnosed more than a year after blood collection (P(trend) = 0.02), supporting the notion the assay may be a measure of cancer susceptibility. The Comet and HCR assays were unrelated to lung cancer risk. PMID:20929901

  17. Disseminating a cervical cancer screening program through primary physicians in Hong Kong: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organized screening programs are more effective and equitable than opportunistic screening, yet governments face challenges to implement evidence-based programs. The objective of this study was to identify reasons for low levels of adoption among primary care physicians of a government sponsored Cervical Screening Program (CSP). Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of primary care private and public primary care physicians in Hong Kong. Rogers’ theory of diffusion of innovation was used to understand the factors that influenced the physicians’ practice decisions. Results Our study found that Hong Kong physicians made the decision to encourage cervical screening and to participate in the CSP based primarily upon their clinical and business practice needs rather than upon the scientific evidence. The low rates of adoption of the CSP can be attributed to the physicians’ perceptions that the program’s complexity and incompatibility exceeded its relative advantages. Furthermore, women’s knowledge, attitudes and practices, identified as barriers by physicians, were also barriers to physicians adopting the CSP. Conclusions In both private and public health care systems, screening programs that rely on physicians must align program incentives with the physicians’ motivators or pursue additional demand creation policies to achieve objectives. PMID:24568606

  18. Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

  19. Web-based depression screening and psychiatric consultation for college students: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Aya; Larocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio; Kvedar, Joseph; Yeung, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

  20. Electroencephalographic source imaging: a prospective study of 152 operated epileptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Verena; Spinelli, Laurent; Lascano, Agustina M.; Wissmeier, Michael; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Vulliemoz, Serge; Pollo, Claudio; Schaller, Karl; Michel, Christoph M.

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalography is mandatory to determine the epilepsy syndrome. However, for the precise localization of the irritative zone in patients with focal epilepsy, costly and sometimes cumbersome imaging techniques are used. Recent small studies using electric source imaging suggest that electroencephalography itself could be used to localize the focus. However, a large prospective validation study is missing. This study presents a cohort of 152 operated patients where electric source imaging was applied as part of the pre-surgical work-up allowing a comparison with the results from other methods. Patients (n = 152) with >1 year postoperative follow-up were studied prospectively. The sensitivity and specificity of each imaging method was defined by comparing the localization of the source maximum with the resected zone and surgical outcome. Electric source imaging had a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 88% if the electroencephalogram was recorded with a large number of electrodes (128–256 channels) and the individual magnetic resonance image was used as head model. These values compared favourably with those of structural magnetic resonance imaging (76% sensitivity, 53% specificity), positron emission tomography (69% sensitivity, 44% specificity) and ictal/interictal single-photon emission-computed tomography (58% sensitivity, 47% specificity). The sensitivity and specificity of electric source imaging decreased to 57% and 59%, respectively, with low number of electrodes (<32 channels) and a template head model. This study demonstrated the validity and clinical utility of electric source imaging in a large prospective study. Given the low cost and high flexibility of electroencephalographic systems even with high channel counts, we conclude that electric source imaging is a highly valuable tool in pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation. PMID:21975586

  1. 50 Hz rotating superconducting magnet for screening studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.G.; Stoll, R.; Stovold, R.

    1981-09-01

    A superconducting rotor facility has been constructed to study the magnetic shielding of superconducting ac machines. The superconducting dipolar magnet 128 mm diam, 515 mm long, 40 kg weight, is capable of providing a field of 1.5 T at a radius of 100 mm with 525 amp energizing current. Novel features include helical vapor-cooled current leads, antirecirculation baffles in the vapor space, vapor dump valves and liquid nitrogen cooling.

  2. Balancing harms and benefits of service mammography screening programs: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of screening mammography is still under debate within the medical community. The aim of this study is to define a balance sheet of benefits (breast cancer mortality reduction) and harms (overdiagnosis) for mammography screening programs. Methods We compared breast cancer incidence and mortality in two cohorts of women, defined as 'attenders' or 'non-attenders' on the basis of the individual attitudes towards screening, who were invited to the first round of the Florentine screening program. The effects of screening exposure on breast cancer incidence and mortality were evaluated by fitting Poisson regression models adjusted for age at entry, marital status and deprivation index. We performed a sensitivity analysis excluding 34 women not responding to the invitation with a breast cancer diagnosis in the following six months. Results In total, we included 51,096 women aged 50 to 69 years invited at the first screening round (1991 to 1993) and followed-up for breast cancer incidence and mortality until 31 December 2007 and 31 December 2008, respectively The estimate of mortality reduction varies from 45% among 50 to 59 year-old women up to 51% among 60 to 69 year-old women. The estimate of overdiagnosis, according to the cumulative-incidence method, is an additional 10% of all breast cancer cases among 60 to 69 year-old women screened. Conclusions Comparing the breast cancer mortality and breast cancer incidence between attenders and non-attenders, we have determined that the overall cost to save one life corresponds to no more than one over-diagnosed tumor (from 0.6 to 1 depending on the selection criteria of the cohort), even if a residual self-selection bias cannot be excluded. PMID:22230345

  3. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  4. Predictors of grief in bereaved family caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Romero, Melissa M; Ott, Carol H; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to identify factors in 66 spouses and adult child caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease prior to the death that predicted higher levels of grief in bereavement. A hierarchical regression model was tested. Predeath grief, dysfunctional coping, depression, social support, and decreased positive states of mind explained 54.7% of the variance in postdeath grief. Factors that contributed significantly to postdeath grief included predeath grief and depression. Results from this study indicate that risk factors for postdeath grief can be predicted prior to the death. PMID:24666146

  5. A Prospective Questionnaire Study in 100 Healthy Sleepers: Non-Bothersome Forms of Recognizable Sleep Disorders Are Still Present

    PubMed Central

    Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Bode, Aleke; Ehrmann, Laura; Gabelia, David; Biermayr, Marlene; Walters, Arthur Scott; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite several polysomnographic normative studies and multiple surveys of sleep disorders in the general population, few data have been collected on healthy sleepers. We aimed to survey the characteristics of healthy sleep. Methods: We prospectively investigated the sleep history of 100 subjects of a representative population sample who reported undisturbed sleep and in whom relevant sleep disorders were ruled out by a two-step screening procedure. Approximately four subjects had to be contacted for identifying 1 eligible subject who participated. Results: The median reported time in bed was from 23:00 (21:30–02:00) to 07:00 (05:30–11:00). The total sleep duration was 7.3 h (5–10 h), varying from 7.5 h in the age group ≤ 30 years to 7 h in subjects aged 40–60 years and to 8 h in subjects > 60 years (p = 0.002). The median sleep efficiency was high (93.3%, range: 55.6% to 100%). Fifty-one subjects reported occasional snoring. Forty-five subjects reported sporadic non-bothersome sleep-related movement disorders (25 sleep-related leg cramps, 22 lifetime bruxism, 5 restless legs syndrome), and 36 had a history of sporadic non-bothersome parasomnias (27 nightmares, 12 sleepwalking, 1 sleep paralysis). Conclusion: In this population of healthy sleepers, snoring is the most common finding. Moreover, non-bothersome forms of recognizable sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias are surprisingly common. These findings may suggest that diagnostic criteria of sleep disorders should not only be based on the presence of symptoms but also account for a minimum frequency or discomfort. Citation: Frauscher B, Mitterling T, Bode A, Ehrmann L, Gabelia D, Biermayr M, Walters AS, Poewe W, Högl B. A prospective questionnaire study in 100 healthy sleepers: non-bothersome forms of recognizable sleep disorders are still present. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):623-629. PMID:24932141

  6. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  7. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  8. Education and Risk of Dementia: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Tan, Lan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Lin; Li, Jie-Qiong; Zhao, Qing-Fei; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-07-01

    Educational level has been regarded as one of the most widely accepted risk factors in the epidemiological studies for dementia, despite with discordant qualitative results. However, the dose-response relation between education and incident dementia was still unknown. To quantitatively evaluate the association between exposure level to high and low education and risk of dementia, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2014 and references of retrieved literatures. Specific prospective cohort studies, in which educational attainment was categorized into at least three levels, were included. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of included studies. Fifteen prospective cohort studies with 55655 for low education and eight prospective cohort studies with 20172 for high education were included. In the qualitative analysis, both low and high education showed a dose-response trend with risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the quantitative analysis, the dementia risk was reduced by 7 % for per year increase in education (RR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.92-0.94; p for overall trend = 0.000; p for nonlinearity = 0.0643). Nonetheless, we did not find statistically significant association between per year decrease in education and dementia (RR, 1.03; 95 % CI, 0.96-1.10; p for overall trend = 0.283; p for nonlinearity = 0.0041) or AD (RR, 1.03; 95 % CI, 0.97-1.10; p for overall trend = 0.357; p for nonlinearity = 0.0022). Both low and high education showed a trend of dose-response relation with risk of dementia and AD. The dementia risk was reduced by 7 % for per year increase in education. PMID:25983035

  9. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  10. Clinical and functional outcomes of the PCCP study: a multi-center prospective study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Antonini, G; Giancola, R; Berruti, D; Blanchietti, E; Pecchia, P; Francione, V; Greco, P; Russo, T C; Pietrogrande, L

    2013-04-01

    The standard surgical management of hip fractures is associated with tissue trauma and bleeding which are added to the fracture injury. The percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) is a minimally invasive device that has been demonstrated in previous studies to reduce postoperative complications and blood loss. This prospective, multi-center, observational study assessed clinical and functional outcomes with PCCP as treatment for trochanteric fractures. Patients with a stable or unstable proximal femoral fracture of type AO 31.A1 or 31.A2 were enrolled in eight hospitals in Italy. The primary outcome of interest was the recovery of the pre-fracture functional status at 1-year follow-up; secondary outcomes of interest included blood transfusions, surgical time, complications, and mortality. A total of 273 patients were enrolled. The ASA score was 3 or 4 in 72.5 % of patients. The mean surgical time was 44.1 min; the mean post-surgery blood transfusions was 0.9 units. At 1 year, 48 patients (17.6 %) died, 28 (10.2 %) were lost to follow-up, 4 patients (1.5 %) were excluded, hence 193 patients (70.3 %) were available for final evaluation. At the 1-year follow-up visit, 51.9 % of patients recovered or improved their pre-fracture modified Harris Hip Score, 49.1 % of patients improved or maintained their walking abilities, and 66.6 % of patients residing at home pre-surgery maintained their domicile. The overall mortality rate was 17.6 %. Major complications included two fracture collapses, one excessive sliding of the cephalic screw leading to a partial fracture collapse and one back-out of the diaphyseal screw. This study demonstrates that treatment of trochanteric fractures with PCCP gives good outcomes and significant advantages such as low blood loss, short surgical time, low risk of complications, and good functional recovery in the majority of the patients. PMID:23543403

  11. Risk factors for the onset and persistence of neck pain in undergraduate students: 1-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although neck pain is common in young adulthood, studies on predictive factors for its onset and persistence are scarce. It is therefore important to identify possible risk factors among young adults so as to prevent the development of neck pain later in life. Methods A prospective study was carried out in healthy undergraduate students. At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were used to collect data on biopsychosocial factors. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months thereafter, follow-up data were collected on the incidence of neck pain. Those who reported neck pain on ≥ 2 consecutive follow-ups were categorized as having persistent neck pain. Two regression models were built to analyze risk factors for the onset and persistence of neck pain. Results Among the recruited sample of 684 students, 46% reported the onset of neck pain between baseline and 1-year follow-up, of whom 33% reported persistent neck pain. The onset of neck pain was associated with computer screen position not being level with the eyes and mouse position being self-rated as suitable. Factors that predicted persistence of neck pain were position of the keyboard being too high, use of computer for entertainment < 70% of total computer usage time, and students being in the second year of their studies. Conclusion Neck pain is quite common among undergraduate students. This study found very few proposed risk factors that predicted onset and persistence of neck pain. The future health of undergraduate students deserves consideration. However, there is still much uncertainty about factors leading to neck pain and more research is needed on this topic. PMID:21756362

  12. Clinical impact of malnutrition on complication rate and length of stay in elective ENT patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kisser, U; Kufeldt, J; Adderson-Kisser, C; Becker, S; Baumeister, P; Reiter, M; Harréus, U; Thomas, M N; Rittler, P

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition is considered as an independent risk factor for morbidity, mortality and a prolonged hospital stay for in-hospital patients. While most available data on the impact of malnutrition on health-related and financial implications refer to gastroenterologic or abdominal surgery patients, little is known about the impact of malnutrition on Ear Nose Throat (ENT)/head and neck surgery patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of malnutrition on morbidity and length of hospital stay in an elective ENT/head and neck surgery patient cohort. The study was performed as a single-center, prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral centre. Nutritional risk at admission was assessed using the NRS-2002 screening tool. Multivariate regression models were used to determine independent risk factors for complications and a prolonged hospitalization. Three hundred fifty one participants were included in the study. A malignant disease was found in 62 participants (17.7 %). 62 patients (17.7 %) were at a moderate to severe risk of malnutrition. A bad general health condition and complications during hospital stay could be identified as independent risk factors for a prolonged hospitalization. Patients with a malignant tumor showed a more than fourfold higher risk of developing at least one complication. Malnutrition, however, was not statistically associated with a higher complication rate or a prolonged hospital stay. Our data suggests that malnutrition does not seem to play such an important role as a risk factor for complications and a prolonged hospital stay in ENT patients as it does in other disciplines like abdominal surgery or gastroenterology. PMID:26993656

  13. Do invitations for cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable informed choice? A cross-sectional study of invitations for publicly funded cervical screening

    PubMed Central

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Brodersen, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether invitations for publicly funded cervical screening provide sufficient information to enable an informed choice about participation. Design Cross-sectional study using a checklist of 23 information items on benefits and harms from cervical screening and the risks related to cervical cancer. Material Invitations to publicly funded cervical screening in 10 Scandinavian and English-speaking countries. Setting Ten Scandinavian and English speaking countries. Participants Sixteen screening units representing 10 Scandinavian and English speaking countries. Main outcome measures Number of information items presented in invitations for cervical screening. Results We contacted 21 coordinating units from 11 countries and 20 (95%) responded. Of these, four units did not issue invitations, but the remaining 16 coordinating units in 10 different countries supplied a sample. The invitations for cervical screening were generally information poor and contained a median of only four out of 23 information items possible (17%), ranging from 0 to 12 (0–52%). The most important harms of cancer screening, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, were typically downplayed or unmentioned. The same applied to other important harms, such as false-positive results and the psychological consequences from an abnormal test result. The majority of invitations took a paternalistic approach. While only two invitations (17%) included a pre-assigned appointment date, eight (70%) of the invitations contained strong appeals for participation. Conclusions Invitations to cervical cancer screening were information poor and biased in favour of participation. This means that informed choice is not possible, which is in conflict with modern requirements for personal involvement in medical decisions. PMID:27118696

  14. Of decrements and disorders: assessing impairments in neurodevelopment in prospective studies of environmental toxicant exposures.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life neurodevelopment is exquisitely sensitive to insult from environmental exposures. Identifying the effects of environmental toxicants on neurodevelopmental disorders is particularly important from a public health perspective because many of these exposures are modifiable and may be targeted for intervention. Studying these associations in prospective cohort studies that measure quantitative, dimensional traits related to neurodevelopmental disorders, using standardized instruments such as psychometric tests or rating scales, mitigates many of the challenges that arise when studying clinically diagnosed disorders. We consider validity and feasibility impacts resulting from this design approach, including: 1) enhanced prospective exposure assessment with high quality environmental measures during developmentally relevant windows; 2) reduced bias because studies of continuous outcomes do not recruit cases and controls and are therefore not vulnerable to control selection bias; 3) enhanced statistical power because traits are measured on all individuals in the cohort and power is not limited by the number of cases; 4) reduced outcome misclassification because measuring quantitative traits avoids lumping together individuals with very heterogeneous phenotypes into one category. We use autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as an example to illustrate the advantages of this approach. Investigating the determinants of neurodevelopmental disorders - particularly modifiable determinants such as environmental toxicant exposures - is of great public health importance, given the apparent substantial rise of disorders like ASD over the past few decades. The use of prospective designs measuring quantitative, dimensional traits offers a powerful opportunity to provide important clues to the etiology of these disorders and is likely to accelerate our understanding of the role of environmental toxicant exposures as risk factors. PMID:25609433

  15. Prospective study of dietary acrylamide and risk of colorectal cancer among women.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Lorelei A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable discourse about whether exposure to acrylamide in foods could increase the risk of human cancer. Acrylamide is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and animal studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of tumors in rats exposed to very high levels. Still, epidemiologic data of the effect of dietary acrylamide remain scant. We have undertaken the first prospective study of acrylamide in food and risk of colon and rectal cancers using prospective data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. The cohort comprised 61,467 women at baseline between 1987 and 1990. Through 2003, the cohort contributed 823,072 person-years, and 504 cases of colon and 237 of rectal cancer occurred. Mean intake of acrylamide through diet was 24.6 mug/day (Q25-70 = 18.7-29.9). Coffee (44%), fried potato products (16%), crisp bread (15%) and other breads (12%) were the greatest contributors. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no association between estimated acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer. Comparing extreme quintiles, the adjusted relative risks (95% CI; p for trend) were for colorectal cancer 0.9 (0.7-1.3; p = 0.80), colon cancer 0.9 (0.6-1.4; p = 0.83) and rectal cancer 1.0 (0.6-1.8; p = 0.77). Furthermore, intake of specific food items with elevated acrylamide (e.g., coffee, crisp bread and fried potato products) was not associated with cancer risk. In this large prospective study, we found no evidence that dietary intake of acrylamide is associated with cancers of the colon or rectum. Epidemiologic studies play an important role in assessing the possible health effects of acrylamide intake through food. PMID:16003738

  16. Development of Visual Field Screening Procedures: A Case Study of the Octopus Perimeter

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Andrew,; Myers, Jonathan S.; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We develop a methodology for designing perimetric screening procedures, using Octopus perimeters as a case study. Methods The process has three stages: analytically determining specificity and number of presentations required for different multisampling suprathreshold schemes at a single location of the visual field, ranking visual field locations by their positive predictive value (PPV) for glaucoma, and determining a pass/fail criteria for the test. For the case study the Octopus G-program visual field test pattern is used, and a dataset of 385 glaucoma and 86 normal patients. Results Using a 1-of-3 sampling strategy at a level equal to the 95 percentile of normal observers gave the most robust specificity under the influences of false-negative responses using an average of 1.5 presentations per location. The PPV analysis gave 19 locations that completely classified our glaucomatous data. A further 9 points were added to screen for nonglaucomatous loss. The final stage found that insisting that 3 locations are missed for the screening to fail gave a simulated specificity and sensitivity of approximately 95% for unreliable responders. Conclusions Our method gives a principled approach to choosing between the many parameters of a visual field screening procedure. We have developed a procedure for the Octopus that should terminate in less than 1 minute for normal observers with high specificity and sensitivity to glaucoma. Translational Relevance Visual field screening is used in community settings and eye care practice. This study provides a principled approach to the development of such screening procedures and details a new procedure. PMID:27190698

  17. A Single-Question Screen for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Multicenter Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Postuma, Ronald B.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Dauvilliers, Yves; Oertel, Wolfgang; Ju, Yo-El; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Pelletier, Amelie; Wolfson, Christina; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Miyamoto, Masayuki; De Cock, Valerie Cochen; Unger, Marcus M.; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Fantini, Maria Livia; Montplaisir, Jacques Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for PD and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response. Methods Four hundred and eighty-four sleep-clinic– based participants (242 idiopathic RBD patients and 242 controls) completed the screen during a multicenter case-control study. All participants underwent a polysomnogram to define gold-standard diagnosis according to standard criteria. Results We found a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 87.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were similar in healthy volunteers, compared to controls or patients, with other sleep diagnoses. Conclusions A single-question screen for RBD may reliably detect disease, with psychometric properties favorably comparable to those reported for longer questionnaires. PMID:22729987

  18. Prospective and clinical validation of ALK immunohistochemistry: results from the phase I/II study of alectinib for ALK-positive lung cancer (AF-001JP study)

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, K.; Togashi, Y.; Kamihara, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Inoue, A.; Katsuki, H.; Kiura, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Seto, T.; Maemondo, M.; Hida, T.; Harada, M.; Ohe, Y.; Nogami, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Nishio, M.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions need to be accurately and efficiently detected for ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) remains the reference test. Although increasing data are supporting that ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) is highly concordant with FISH, IHC screening needed to be clinically and prospectively validated. Patients and methods In the AF-001JP trial for alectinib, 436 patients were screened for ALK fusions through IHC (n = 384) confirmed with FISH (n = 181), multiplex RT-PCR (n = 68), or both (n = 16). IHC results were scored with iScore. Result ALK fusion was positive in 137 patients and negative in 250 patients. Since the presence of cancer cells in the samples for RT-PCR was not confirmed, ALK fusion negativity could not be ascertained in 49 patients. IHC interpreted with iScore showed a 99.4% (173/174) concordance with FISH. All 41 patients who had iScore 3 and were enrolled in phase II showed at least 30% tumor reduction with 92.7% overall response rate. Two IHC-positive patients with an atypical FISH pattern responded to ALK inhibitor therapy. The reduction rate was not correlated with IHC staining intensity. Conclusions Our study showed (i) that when sufficiently sensitive and appropriately interpreted, IHC can be a stand-alone diagnostic for ALK inhibitor therapies; (ii) that when atypical FISH patterns are accompanied by IHC positivity, the patients should be considered as candidates for ALK inhibitor therapies, and (iii) that the expression level of ALK fusion is not related to the level of response to ALK inhibitors and is thus not required for patient selection. Registration number JapicCTI-101264 (This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center). PMID:26487585

  19. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio; Welsch, Carsten P

    2010-10-01

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed. PMID:21034082

  20. Experimental study of the thermal and gasdynamic properties of insulation with perforated diffracting screens

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhal'chenko, R.S.; Getmanets, V.F.; Gorshkova, L.A.; Klipach, L.V.; Pershin, N.P.

    1984-06-01

    Presented here are the results of a study of the optical and gasdynamic characteristics of perforated diffraction screens made on the basis of nuclear filters and the thermal conductivity of vacuum-shield thermal insulations with diffraction screens. It is concluded that thanks to their combination of good optical and gasdynamic properties, perforated diffraction screens are the most promising type of shield for low-temperature and cryogenic technologies; and, the new type of vacuum-shield thermal insulation can be recommended for broad practical application in cryogenic systems, the most promising areas of application being those systems which require a maximum reduction in weight and heat flow through the thermal protection, which use vacuum-shield insulation packets of substantial thickness or which require maximum acceleration of the evacuation process. Coatings tested included aluminum, silver and copper.

  1. Mouse Models of Cancer: Sleeping Beauty Transposons for Insertional Mutagenesis Screens and Reverse Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tschida, Barbara R.; Largaespada, David A.; Keng, Vincent W.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic complexity and heterogeneity of cancer has posed a problem in designing rationally targeted therapies effective in a large proportion of human cancer. Genomic characterization of many cancer types has provided a staggering amount of data that needs to be interpreted to further our understanding of this disease. Forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty (SB) based insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for candidate cancer gene discovery that can aid in distinguishing driver from passenger mutations in human cancer. This system has been adapted for unbiased screens to identify drivers of multiple cancer types. These screens have already identified hundreds of candidate cancer-promoting mutations. These can be used to develop new mouse models for further study, which may prove useful for therapeutic testing. SB technology may also hold the key for rapid generation of reverse genetic mouse models of cancer, and has already been used to model glioblastoma and liver cancer. PMID:24468652