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Sample records for prostate specific nuclear

  1. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  3. Prediction of biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer specific death in men after radical retropublic prostatectomy: Use of pathology and computer-assisted quantitative nuclear grading information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Ahmed

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumour in man. Accordingly, it is expected that 1 in 6 men will experience prostate cancer during their lifetime. Over the past 20 years there have been tremendous advancements in both diagnostic as well as surgical approach to prostate cancer. This has led not only to earlier detection of the disease in its natural history, but also the availability of effective surgical management. Furthermore, the discovery of serum prostate specific antigen as a marker for prostate cancer along with greater acceptance of prostate cancer screening has resulted in an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men younger than 50 years of age. This is an age group that has traditionally been associated with a poor prognosis after radical prostatectomy. In addition, despite being able to effectively remove the whole of the gland with limited morbidity, approximately 25% of men after radical prostatectomy will experience biochemical recurrence with time. Moreover, the majority will progress to distant metastases and/or die from prostate cancer. We firstly investigated whether radical prostatectomy is a viable option for men younger than 50 years of age diagnosed with clinically localised prostate cancer. We also determined factors that predict disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. As many men demonstrate evidence of biochemical recurrence with some showing further progression after radical prostatectomy, we, therefore, investigated whether pathological variables as well as nuclear morphometry could be used to predict those that are at an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Our results demonstrated that 1) radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in younger men as it can provide excellent long-term disease-free survival; 2) We determined that there are a number of factors that are associated with an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy; 3) We have constructed a new

  4. Current Status of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Targeting in Nuclear Medicine: Clinical Translation of Chelator Containing Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands Into Diagnostics and Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Kopka, Klaus; Haberkorn, Uwe; Giesel, Frederik L

    2016-09-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed by approximately 90% of prostate carcinomas. The expression correlates with unfavorable prognostic factors, such as a high Gleason score, infiltrative growth, metastasis, and hormone-independence. The high specificity, especially in the undifferentiated stage, makes it an excellent target for diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, antibodies and small molecule inhibitors have been developed for imaging and therapy. In 2011 PSMA-11, a ligand that consists of the Glu-urea-motif and the chelator HBED-CC, which can be exclusively radiolabeled with (68)Ga for PET imaging, presented the clinical breakthrough for prostate cancer diagnostics. In two large diagnostic studies (n = 319 and n = 248) PET/CT with PSMA-11 successfully localized the recurrent tumor in approximately 90% of patients with biochemical relapse. Integrating PSMA-PET/CT into the planning phase of radiotherapy, the treatment concept is changed in 30%-50% of the patients. The combination of the Glu-urea-motif with DOTA, which can be labeled with several diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides, opened new avenues for therapeutic usage of the small-molecule PSMA ligands. In the beginning of 2016, there are four confirmative reports (n = 19, n = 24, n = 30, and n = 56) from four different centers reporting a PSA response in approximately 70% of patients treated with (177)Lu-labeled PSMA ligands. In conclusion, the data available up to now indicate a widespread use of PSMA ligands for diagnostic applications with respect to staging, detection of recurrence, or metastases in patients with rising tumor markers and for therapy in case of failure of guideline-compliant treatment. PMID:27553466

  5. Prostate-specific antigen-negative prostate cancer recurrence?

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Wirth, Manfred P

    2013-02-01

    We describe a patient with bone metastases occurring shortly after radical prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer. The medical history and immunohistochemical findings suggested prostate cancer recurrence to the skeleton. Undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels, however, raised doubts about this diagnosis. A whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was obtained and revealed a right-sided breast cancer as the primary site of metastatic spread. PMID:23374851

  6. African Americans' Perceptions of Prostate-Specific Antigen Prostate Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jaimie C.; Vines, Anissa I.; Carlisle, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a hotly debated recommendation against prostate-specific antigen testing for all men. The present research examines African Americans' beliefs about their susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) and the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing in the context of the…

  7. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test result cannot diagnose prostate cancer. Only a prostate biopsy can diagnose this cancer. Your provider will look ... infection Recent tests on your bladder (cystoscopy) or prostate (biopsy) Catheter tube recently placed into your bladder to ...

  8. Prostate specific antigen density for discriminating prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia in the gray zone of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Uno, H; Koide, T; Kuriyama, M; Ban, Y; Deguchi, T; Kawada, Y

    1999-07-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently the best blood marker for prostate cancer. However, low specificity for detection of prostate cancer, especially in the gray zone of PSA, is a problem. We evaluated the clinical significance of PSA density (PSAD) in gray zone PSA cases with conversion of serum PSA to a Stanford reference value. In a series of histologically confirmed 63 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 234 prostate cancer patients, 36 BPH patients and 25 prostate cancer patients had gray zone PSA levels. Serum PSA was measured with the Markit-F or Markit-M PA assay. All data were converted to Stanford reference values. We used transabdominal ultrasound to determine prostate volume. PSAD was determined as the serum PSA/prostate volume ratio. The mean PSA values for BPH and prostate cancer were 6.42 +/- 1.80 and 7.80 +/- 2.15 ng/ml (p = 0.0116), respectively, and prostate volume was 33.4 +/- 14.1 ml and 17.1 +/- 8.2 ml, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean PSAD for prostate cancer was 0.572 +/- 0.363 while that for BPH was 0.218 +/- 0.085 (p = 0.0001). Cut-off values with sensitivity > 90% were 0.218 for PSAD and 30 ml for prostate volume. At these cut-off values, specificity reached 56% for each marker. In discriminating prostate cancer from BPH in the gray zone of PSA, PSAD demonstrated better performance than PSA. PMID:10466060

  9. Nuclear Kaiso Indicates Aggressive Prostate Cancers and Promotes Migration and Invasiveness of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jacqueline; Wang, Honghe; Zhou, Jianjun; Hardy, Shana; Turner, Timothy; Austin, David; He, Qinghua; Wells, Alan; Grizzle, William E.; Yates, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Kaiso, a p120 catenin-binding protein, is expressed in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of cells; however, the biological consequences and clinical implications of a shift between these compartments have yet to be established. Herein, we report an enrichment of nuclear Kaiso expression in cells of primary and metastatic prostate tumors relative to the normal prostate epithelium. Nuclear expression of Kaiso correlates with Gleason score (P < 0.001) and tumor grade (P < 0.001). There is higher nuclear expression of Kaiso in primary tumor/normal matched samples and in primary tumors from African American men (P < 0.0001). We further found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor up-regulates Kaiso at the RNA and protein levels in prostate cancer cell lines, but more interestingly causes a shift of cytoplasmic Kaiso to the nucleus that is reversed by the EGF receptor–specific kinase inhibitor, PD153035. In both DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, Kaiso inhibition (short hairpin RNA-Kaiso) decreased cell migration and invasion even in the presence of EGF. Further, Kaiso directly binds to the E-cadherin promoter, and inhibition of Kaiso in PC-3 cells results in increased E-cadherin expression, as well as re-establishment of cell–cell contacts. In addition, Kaiso-depleted cells show more epithelial morphology and a reversal of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and fibronectin. Our findings establish a defined oncogenic role of Kaiso in promoting the progression of prostate cancer. PMID:22974583

  10. Nonprostatic sources of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, E P; Yu, H

    1997-05-01

    The name prostate-specific antigen has been given to a protein that now is known not to be prostate-specific; however, prostatic tissue does produces extremely high levels of PSA and secrets it into the seminal plasma. Seminal plasma contains about 1 million micrograms/L of PSA and is the richest source of PSA reported. The biologic fluid with the second highest PSA concentration, however, is nipple aspirate fluid from the female breast (up to about 5000 micrograms/L), and the third is milk from lactating women (up to 300 micrograms/L). Male serum PSA is usually less than 4 micrograms/L. In nonprostatic tissues, PSA exists mainly in its free molecular form, but PSA-ACT complex is also present in most of the fluids that contain PSA, such as breast secretions and amniotic fluid. The gene expression and protein production of PSA in nonprostatic tissues are under the regulation of steroid hormones via their receptors. Androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestins up-regulate the PSA gene expression, resulting in an increase of protein production. Estrogen by itself seems to have no effect on PSA regulation, but it can impair PSA production induced by androgen. It remains unknown whether PSA is enzymatically active and what is the physiologic role of PSA in nonprostatic tissues. It is speculated that PSA may be involved in the regulation of growth factors. Measuring PSA in breast cancer cytosol, breast-nipple aspirate fluid, and female serum may have potential clinical utilities, including breast cancer prognosis, breast cancer risk assessment, and evaluation of androgen excess. Further studies are needed to identify the exact function and regulation of PSA in nonprostatic tissues and to explore the clinical application of this protein. PMID:9126224

  11. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing gammaH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2mug/mL], Trinovin [10mug/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 mug/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10mug/mL) and Prostate Rx (6mug/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are some of the limitations and potential harms of the PSA test for prostate cancer screening? ... has been learned about both the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening, a number of organizations ...

  13. PROSTATE SPECIFIC MEMBRANE ANTIGEN-BASED IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of PC does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for PC specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in PC tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was 111In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab pendetide i.e. inability to bind to live PC cells. One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics including the identification of bone metastases in PC. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate timeframe for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for PC imaging with SPECT and PET. Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072 and MIP-1095, have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 in PC xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22658884

  14. The current state of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan; Hornberger, Brad

    2016-09-01

    Since prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was approved in 1994, the incidence of metastasis and mortality from prostate cancer have significantly decreased. However, PSA screening for prostate cancer has limitations and few large randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine the mortality benefit of PSA screening. Two studies that have been conducted are the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). These were the two main studies the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) used in its recommendation against prostate cancer screening in 2012. However, new evidence has demonstrated that the PLCO trial had significant limitations and the results of the ERSPC trial were more significant than previously thought. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of the USPSTF's recommendation, along with current guidelines for prostate cancer screening. PMID:27575906

  15. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  16. [Clinical significance of prostate specific antigen and gamma-seminoprotein ratio for diagnosing prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Akino, H; Suzuki, Y; Okada, K

    1998-08-01

    It has been reported that prostate specific antigen and gamma-seminoprotein ratio (PSA/gamma-Sm ratio) is an useful means for distinguishing benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer if serum PSA is measured by Eiken-PSA method. We studied the clinical significance of PSA/gamma-Sm ratio when using Markit-M-PSA method. PSA/gamma-Sm ratio had no superiority over PSA alone for detecting prostate cancer. The present results suggest that the clinical significance of PSA/gamma-Sm ratio can be varied by various PSA-assay kits. PMID:9750496

  17. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ingersoll, Matthew A.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases’ roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24747769

  18. Chronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure Does Not Promote Prostate Cancer in Prostate Specific PTEN Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Robert U.; Bannick, Nadine L.; Marin, Maximo J.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lynch, Charles F.; Henry, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are likely to interact with genetic determinants to influence prostate cancer progression. The Agricultural Health Study has identified an association between exposure to organophosphorous pesticides including chlorpyrifos, and increased prostate cancer risk in pesticide applicators with a first-degree family history of this disease. Exploration of this potential gene-environment interaction would benefit from the development of a suitable animal model. Utilizing a previously described mouse model that is genetically predisposed to prostate cancer through a prostate-specific heterozygous PTEN deletion, termed C57/Luc/Ptenp+/−, we used bioluminescence imaging and histopathological analyses to test whether chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos in a grain-based diet for 32 weeks was able to promote prostate cancer development. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos in the diet did not promote prostate cancer development in C57/Luc/Ptenp+/− mice despite achieving sufficient levels to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in plasma. We found no significant differences in numbers of murine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions or disease progression in chlorpyrifos versus control treated animals up to 32 weeks. The mechanistic basis of pesticide-induced prostate cancer may be complex and may involve other genetic variants, multiple genes, or nongenetic factors that might alter prostate cancer risk during pesticide exposure in agricultural workers. PMID:23758150

  19. Analysis of Urinary Prostate-Specific Antigen Glycoforms in Samples of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Chen, Chein-Hung; Yang, Wen-Horng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Glycans of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer were found to be different from that in benign disease. It is difficult to analyze heterogeneous PSA glycoforms in each individual specimen because of low protein abundance and the limitation of detection sensitivity. We developed a method for prostate cancer diagnosis based on PSA glycoforms. Specific glycoforms were screened in each clinical sample based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ion accumulation. To look for potential biomarkers, normalized abundance of each glycoform in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and in prostate cancer was evaluated. The PSA glycoform, Hex5HexNAc4NeuAc1dHex1, and monosialylated, sialylated, and unfucosylated glycoforms differed significantly between the prostate cancer and BPH samples. The detection sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (60%) for prostate cancer identification are higher than those of the serum PSA marker. As low as 100 amol PSA could be detected with the ion accumulation method which has not been reported before. The improved detection specificity can help reduce unnecessary examinations. PMID:27065039

  20. Identification and characterization of a prostate-specific androgen-independent protein-binding site in the probasin promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lillian H Y; Read, Jason T; Sorenson, Pernille; Nelson, Colleen C; Jia, William; Rennie, Paul S

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigated the combination of transcription factors and proteins binding to the proximal part of the prostate-specific probasin (PB) promoter. Using DNaseI in vitro footprinting, several protected regions were identified on the proximal PB promoter (nucleotides -286 to +28 relative to the transcription start site) when nuclear extracts from LNCaP, a human prostate cancer cell line, were used. Four of the protected areas were observed only when LNCaP nuclear extracts treated with synthetic androgen (10 nM R1881) were used. Two other regions, referred to as FPI and FPII, showed protection regardless of the presence or absence of androgen. When DNaseI footprinting was done using other prostate and non-prostate nuclear extracts, protection of the FPII region was only seen in prostate cell lines. These androgen-independent regions were further tested for tissue and binding specificity using the electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. Eight complexes formed with the FPI probe while four complexes were observed with the FPII probe on incubation with the tested nuclear extracts. Methylation protection assays reveal that prostate cancer cell lines yield slightly different protection patterns for some of the protein complexes formed with non-prostate-derived cell lines, suggesting the presence of prostate-enriched or -exclusive proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis of the protected nucleotides within FPII resulted in a significant reduction in expression from the PB promoter. Identification of proteins binding to the FPII region revealed the participation of nuclear factor I (NF-I) or a closely related protein, although other unknown proteins are also involved. Defining the DNA and protein components that dictate prostate-specific expression of the PB promoter in an androgen-independent manner would provide a strong basis for the design and development of a gene therapy for systemic treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:12540291

  1. Prostate-specific extracellular vesicles as a novel biomarker in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Hyun; Shin, Hyun Woo; Jung, Ae Ryang; Kwon, Oh Sung; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Park, Jaesung; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play an important role in cancer development and progression. We aimed to investigate the prognostic potential of prostate-specific EVs in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Plasma and prostate tissue were collected from patients who underwent surgery for PCa (n = 82) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, n = 28). To analyze the quantity of EVs in prostate, we performed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immuno-TEM with CD63 and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and immunofluorescence staining. After EV isolation from plasma, CD63 and PSMA concentration was measured using ELISA kits. PSMA-positive areas in prostate differed in patients with BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (2.4, 8.2, 17.5, 26.5%, p < 0.001). Plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration differed in patients with BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (21.9, 43.4, 49.2, 59.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001), and ROC curve analysis indicated that plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration differentiated PCa from BPH (AUC 0.943). Patients with lower plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration had greater prostate volume (50.2 vs. 33.4 cc, p < 0.001) and lower pathologic Gleason score (p = 0.025). During the median follow-up of 18 months, patients with lower plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration tended to have a lower risk of biochemical failure than those with higher levels of prostate-specific EVs (p = 0.085). PMID:27503267

  2. Prostate-specific extracellular vesicles as a novel biomarker in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Hyun; Shin, Hyun Woo; Jung, Ae Ryang; Kwon, Oh Sung; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Park, Jaesung; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play an important role in cancer development and progression. We aimed to investigate the prognostic potential of prostate-specific EVs in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Plasma and prostate tissue were collected from patients who underwent surgery for PCa (n = 82) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, n = 28). To analyze the quantity of EVs in prostate, we performed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immuno-TEM with CD63 and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and immunofluorescence staining. After EV isolation from plasma, CD63 and PSMA concentration was measured using ELISA kits. PSMA-positive areas in prostate differed in patients with BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (2.4, 8.2, 17.5, 26.5%, p < 0.001). Plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration differed in patients with BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (21.9, 43.4, 49.2, 59.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001), and ROC curve analysis indicated that plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration differentiated PCa from BPH (AUC 0.943). Patients with lower plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration had greater prostate volume (50.2 vs. 33.4 cc, p < 0.001) and lower pathologic Gleason score (p = 0.025). During the median follow-up of 18 months, patients with lower plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration tended to have a lower risk of biochemical failure than those with higher levels of prostate-specific EVs (p = 0.085). PMID:27503267

  3. Nuclear morphometry, nucleomics and prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Veltri, Robert W; Christudass, Christhunesa S; Isharwal, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) results from a multistep process. This process includes initiation, which occurs through various aging events and multiple insults (such as chronic infection, inflammation and genetic instability through reactive oxygen species causing DNA double-strand breaks), followed by a multistep process of progression. These steps include several genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as alterations to the chromatin structure, which occur in response to the carcinogenic stress-related events that sustain proliferative signaling. Events such as evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis are readily observed. In addition, in conjunction with these critical drivers of carcinogenesis, other factors related to the etiopathogenesis of PCa, involving energy metabolism and evasion of the immune surveillance system, appear to be involved. In addition, when cancer spread and metastasis occur, the ‘tumor microenvironment' in the bone of PCa patients may provide a way to sustain dormancy or senescence and eventually establish a ‘seed and soil' site where PCa proliferation and growth may occur over time. When PCa is initiated and progression ensues, significant alterations in nuclear size, shape and heterochromatin (DNA transcription) organization are found, and key nuclear transcriptional and structural proteins, as well as multiple nuclear bodies can lead to precancerous and malignant changes. These series of cellular and tissue-related malignancy-associated events can be quantified to assess disease progression and management. PMID:22504875

  4. Spontaneous circadian fluctuations of prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase serum activities in patients with prostatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Mannini, D; Maver, P; Aiello, E; Corrado, G; Vecchi, F; Bellanova, B; Marengo, M

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous circadian variations of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), determined simultaneously by radioimmunoassay (RIA), were investigated by multiple sampling, over a 24-hour period, in 32 patients with prostatic cancer. In 29/32 patients (91%), the coefficient of variation of 24-hour values, for either marker, was greater than that of the RIA method at the same range of values; stage D patients showed the greatest spontaneous variability. Fluctuations around the mean of 24-hour values ranged from -65% to +85% for PAP, from -72% to +190% for PSA, occurring random and independently for each marker. Variability was about 20% greater for PSA than for PAP. The existence of spontaneous fluctuations should be considered in multiple marker evaluation of prostatic cancer patients. PMID:2449758

  5. Medications and surgical interventions for benign prostatic hyperplasia are potential confounders of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Modi, Parth; Helfand, Brian T; McVary, Kevin T

    2010-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used marker for prostate cancer (CaP) screening and monitoring benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. However, lack of an established abnormal threshold and the presence of other benign processes confound the interpretation of PSA levels. Many factors besides inflammation, trauma, and instrumentation can influence PSA levels; specifically, BPH and its associated medical and surgical therapies frequently complicate the interpretation of this serum blood test. For example, the commonly used 5 alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) medications directly affect PSA levels by decreasing prostate volume. The amount of time and potentially even the 5ARI formulary a patient is administered has been implicated to directly impact the degree of reduction in PSA (a proxy for prostate volume). In addition, each of the currently available surgical procedures for BPH appears to remove varying amounts of prostatic adenoma. This directly confounds CaP screening because each procedure is associated with a relatively specific postoperative nadir PSA level, and PSA kinetics are not well described in the literature. Taken together, it is important for clinicians to comprehend that BPH and its associated medical and surgical interventions should directly influence their interpretation of PSA and PSA velocity when screening for CaP or following BPH progression. PMID:20467844

  6. Screening Prostate-specific Antigen Concentration and Prostate Cancer Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Yejin; Kimm, Heejin; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration from a screening test and prostate cancer mortality in an Asian population. METHODS We included 118,665 men in the Korean Heart Study, a large prospective cohort study of participants who voluntarily underwent private health examinations that included PSA-based prostate cancer screening. The baseline visit occurred between January 1994 and December 2004, and follow-up was through December 2011. Deaths from prostate cancer were ascertained from the underlying cause of death from a computerized search of death certificate data from the National Statistical Office in Korea. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between serum PSA and risk of prostate cancer death adjusting the baseline age, cigarette smoking status, and body mass index. RESULTS During 1,381,901 person-years of follow-up, 6036 men died of any cause, and of these, 56 men died of prostate cancer. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for prostate cancer death statistically significantly increased across PSA concentrations (P trend <.0001). The hazard ratio increased 7% per 1-ng/mL increase in PSA. The association between PSA concentration and death from prostate cancer was stronger in younger than in older men and in heavier than leaner men. CONCLUSION In conclusion, an increased screening PSA level is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death in Korean men. Our findings may have implications for the development of targeted PSA cutpoints for biopsy recommendation. PMID:25917733

  7. Prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections as measured by prostate-specific antigen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, S; Nevin, R L; Pakpahan, R; Elliott, D J; Cole, S R; De Marzo, A M; Gaydos, C A; Isaacs, W B; Nelson, W G; Sokoll, L J; Zenilman, J M; Cersovsky, S B; Platz, E A

    2011-01-01

    Background: We investigated prostate involvement during sexually transmitted infections by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate infection, inflammation, and/or cell damage in young, male US military members. Methods: We measured PSA before and during infection for 299 chlamydia, 112 gonorrhoea, and 59 non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) cases, and 256 controls. Results: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea, but not NCNGU, cases were more likely to have a large rise (⩾40%) in PSA than controls (33.6%, 19.1%, and 8.2% vs 8.8%, P<0.0001, 0.021, and 0.92, respectively). Conclusion: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea may infect the prostate of some infected men. PMID:21792196

  8. [Diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer patients using prostate specific antigen (PSA)].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, M; Uno, H; Ueno, K; Yamamoto, N; Takahashi, Y; Shinoda, I; Ban, Y; Kawada, Y

    1997-06-01

    An international standard of prostate specific antigen (PSA) assays was constructed and prognosis of the patients with prostate cancers showing gray zone PSA was studied. For lower levels of serum PSA (< 50 ng/ml), the conversion formula to that of Tandem-R PSA from other assays was presented. Furthermore, based on the standards of Stanford Reference and Markit-MPA, conversion rates to this international standard from the conventional PSA assays were also obtained. Patients' cancer-specific survival was found to be significantly better in the gray zone group. Further studies to obtain higher specificity such as using free or complex rate in total PSA is necessary. PMID:9250498

  9. Prostate-specific membrane antigen protein expression in tumor tissue and risk of lethal prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Finn, Stephen P.; Flavin, Richard; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Lis, Rosina; Hendrickson, Whitney K.; Clinton, Steven K.; Sesso, Howard D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in tumor tissue and serum has been linked to increased risk of biochemical recurrence in surgically treated prostate cancer patients, but no studies have assessed its association with disease-specific mortality. Methods We examined whether high PSMA protein expression in prostate tumor tissue was associated with lethal disease, and with tumor biomarkers of progression, among participants of two US-based cohorts (n=902, diagnosed 1983–2004). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lethal prostate cancer, defined as disease-specific death or development of distant metastases (n=95). Partial Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to correlate PSMA with tumor biomarkers. Results During an average 13 years of follow-up, higher PSMA expression at prostatectomy was significantly associated with lethal prostate cancer (age-adjusted HRQuartile(Q)4vs.Q1=2.42; p-trend<0.01). This association was attenuated and non-significant (multivariable-adjusted HRQ4vs.Q1=1.01; p-trend=0.52) after further adjusting for Gleason score and PSA at diagnosis. High PSMA expression was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with higher Gleason score and PSA at diagnosis, increased tumor angiogenesis, lower vitamin D receptor and androgen receptor expression, and absence of ERG expression. Conclusions High tumor PSMA expression was not an independent predictor of lethal prostate cancer in the current study. PSMA expression likely captures, in part, malignant features of Gleason grade and tumor angiogenesis. Impact PSMA is not a strong candidate biomarker for predicting prostate cancer-specific mortality in surgically treated patients. PMID:24130224

  10. KDM5C is overexpressed in prostate cancer and is a prognostic marker for prostate-specific antigen-relapse following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Stein, Johannes; Majores, Michael; Rohde, Magdalena; Lim, Soyoung; Schneider, Simon; Krappe, Eliana; Ellinger, Jörg; Dietel, Manfred; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Perner, Sven; Kristiansen, Glen; Kirfel, Jutta

    2014-09-01

    Currently, few prognostic factors are available to predict the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer and no curative options are available. Epigenetic gene regulation has been shown to trigger prostate cancer metastasis and androgen independence. Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are epigenetic enzymes that can remove both repressive and activating histone marks. KDM5 family members are capable of removing the histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation-activating mark, rendering them potential players in the down-regulation of tumor suppressors and suggesting that their activity could repress oncogenes. Here, we systematically investigated KDM5C expression patterns in two independent radical prostatectomy cohorts (822 prostate tumors in total) by immunohistochemistry. Positive nuclear KDM5C staining was significantly associated with a reduced prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival. Our study confirmed that nuclear KDM5C expression is an independent prognostic parameter. Most strikingly, the prognostic value of nuclear KDM5C expression for progression-free survival was exclusively pronounced for the Gleason group 7. In addition, KDM5C knockdown resulted in growth retardation of prostate cancer cells in vitro and induced regulation of several proliferation-associated genes. Our data indicate that KDM5C is functionally involved in proliferation control of prostate cancer cells and might represent a novel attractive therapy target. Moreover, overexpression of KDM5C is an independent new predictive marker for therapy failure as determined by biochemical recurrence in patients after prostatectomy. PMID:25016185

  11. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 < 30, 30 < 35 and ≥35 kg/m(2) , respectively, compared to the reference (18.5 < 25 kg/m(2) ). No statistically significant associations were seen between BMI and prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. PMID:26914149

  12. Prostate specific antigen in the diagnosis and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. III. Radiation treated patients

    SciTech Connect

    Stamey, T.A.; Kabalin, J.N.; Ferrari, M.

    1989-05-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen was determined (Yang polyclonal radioimmunoassay) in 183 men after radiation therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A total of 163 men had received 7,000 rad external beam radiotherapy and 20 had been implanted with iodine-125 seeds. Only 11 per cent of these 183 patients had undetectable prostate specific antigen levels at a mean interval of 5 years since completion of radiotherapy. Prostate specific antigen levels after radiotherapy were directly related to initial clinical stage and Gleason score before treatment. Multiple prostate specific antigen determinations were performed with time in 124 of 183 patients. During year 1 after radiotherapy prostate specific antigen levels were decreasing in 82 per cent of the patients but only 8 per cent continued to decrease beyond year 1. Of 80 patients observed greater than 1 year after completion of radiotherapy 51 per cent had increasing values and 41 per cent had stable values. Increasing prostate specific antigen values after radiotherapy were correlated with progression to metastastic disease and residual cancer on prostate biopsy. Total serum acid phosphatase levels were poorly related to prostate specific antigen levels, were less effective in discriminating patients with metastatic disease and provided no additional information beyond that provided by prostate specific antigen.

  13. Theranostic Agents for Photodynamic Therapy of Prostate Cancer by Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinning; Tsui, Brian; Ramamurthy, Gopolakrishnan; Zhang, Ping; Meyers, Joseph; Kenney, Malcolm E; Kiechle, Jonathan; Ponsky, Lee; Basilion, James P

    2016-08-01

    Prostatectomy has been the mainstay treatment for men with localized prostate cancer. Surgery, however, often can result in major side effects, which are caused from damage and removal of nerves and muscles surrounding the prostate. A technology that can help surgeons more precisely identify and remove prostate cancer resulting in a more complete prostatectomy is needed. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type II membrane antigen highly expressed in prostate cancer, has been an attractive target for imaging and therapy. The objective of this study is to develop low molecular weight PSMA-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents, which would provide image guidance for prostate tumor resection and allow for subsequent PDT to eliminate unresectable or remaining cancer cells. On the basis of our highly negatively charged, urea-based PSMA ligand PSMA-1, we synthesized two PSMA-targeting PDT conjugates named PSMA-1-Pc413 and PSMA-1-IR700. In in vitro cellular uptake experiments and in vivo animal imaging experiments, the two conjugates demonstrated selective and specific uptake in PSMA-positive PC3pip cells/tumors, but not in PSMA-negative PC3flu cells/tumors. Further in vivo photodynamic treatment proved that the two PSMA-1-PDT conjugates can effectively inhibit PC3pip tumor progression. The two PSMA-1-PDT conjugates reported here may have the potential to aid in the detection and resection of prostate cancers. It may also allow for the identification of unresectable cancer tissue and PDT ablation of such tissue after surgical resection with potentially less damage to surrounding tissues. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1834-44. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27297866

  14. The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a previous meta-analysis reported no association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer risk, a number of studies suggest that MetS may be associated with the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancer. However, these results have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the nature of this association. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and bibliographies of retrieved studies up to January 2013 using the keywords “metabolic syndrome” and “prostate cancer”. We assessed relative risks (RRs) of the prostate cancer, several parameters of prostate cancer aggressiveness and progression associated with MetS using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results The literature search produced 547 hits from which 19 papers were extracted for the meta-analysis. In cancer-free population with and without MetS, the combined adjusted RR (95% CI) of prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality in longitudinal cohort studies is 0.96 (0.85 ~ 1.09) and 1.12 (1.02 ~ 1.23) respectively. In the prostate cancer patients with and without MetS, the combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of high grade Gleason prostate cancer is 1.44 (1.20 ~ 1.72), the OR of advanced prostate cancer is 1.37 (1.12 ~ 1.68) and the OR of biochemical recurrence is 2.06 (1.43 ~ 2.96). Conclusions The overall analyses revealed no association between MetS and prostate cancer risk, although men with MetS appear more likely to have high-grade prostate cancer and more advanced disease, were at greater risk of progression after radical prostatectomy and were more likely to suffer prostate cancer-specific death. Further primary studies with adjustment for appropriate confounders and larger, prospective, multicenter investigations are required. PMID:23406686

  15. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Induces Rapid Cytoskeletal Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an established enzyme-biomarker for prostate cancer, has attracted considerable attention as a target for imaging and therapeutic applications. We aimed to determine the effects of PSMA-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) on cytoskeletal networks in prostate cancer cells. PSMA-targeted PDT resulted in rapid disruption of microtubules (α-/β-tubulin), microfilaments (actin), and intermediate filaments (cytokeratin 8/18) in the cytoplasm of LNCaP cells. The collapse of cytoplasmic microtubules and the later nuclear translocation of α-/β-tubulin were the most dramatic alternation. It is likely that these early changes of cytoskeletal networks are partly involved in the initiation of cell death. PMID:20452720

  16. Prostate specific antigen levels after definitive irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, P.F.; Schlossberg, S.M.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Wright, G.L.; Brassil, D.N. )

    1991-05-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined in 78 patients judged clinically to be free of disease at intervals of 36 or more months (range 38 to 186 months, median 87 months) after completion of irradiation therapy by 125-iodine implantation or external beam radiation. Of this select group of patients 38% had undetectable serum PSA levels (0.5 ng./ml. or less) and 38% had PSA levels that were within normal limits (4.0 ng./ml. or less). All stages and grades were represented. Undetectable PSA levels were only rarely found (3%) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate before treatment. In 24 of these 78 patients a negative biopsy of the irradiated prostate had been obtained 18 to 42 months after treatment. When the PSA level was drawn, which ranged from 7 to 16 years after treatment, an equal percentage of these biopsied patients had either an undetectable, normal or elevated level. Irradiation is able to decrease PSA to undetectable levels in some patients with prostatic carcinoma. Whether this reflects suppression of marker production alone or, more importantly, ablation of prostate cancer producing that marker remains to be determined.

  17. Prostate-specific antigen testing accuracy in community practice

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard M; Gilliland, Frank D; Adams-Cameron, Meg; Hunt, William C; Key, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    Background Most data on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing come from urologic cohorts comprised of volunteers for screening programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PSA testing for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. Methods PSA testing results were compared with a reference standard of prostate biopsy. Subjects were 2,620 men 40 years and older undergoing (PSA) testing and biopsy from 1/1/95 through 12/31/98 in the Albuquerque, New Mexico metropolitan area. Diagnostic measures included the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Results Cancer was detected in 930 subjects (35%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 and the PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 33%. The likelihood ratio for a positive test (LR+) was 1.28 and 0.42 for a negative test (LR-). PSA testing was most sensitive (90%) but least specific (27%) in older men. Age-specific reference ranges improved specificity in older men (49%) but decreased sensitivity (70%), with an LR+ of 1.38. Lowering the PSA cutpoint to 2 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 20%, and an LR+ of 1.19. Conclusions PSA testing had fair discriminating power for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. The PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml was sensitive but relatively non-specific and associated likelihood ratios only moderately revised probabilities for cancer. Using age-specific reference ranges and a PSA cutpoint below 4 ng/ml improved test specificity and sensitivity, respectively, but did not improve the overall accuracy of PSA testing. PMID:12398793

  18. Prostate Specific Antigen Bounce Is Related to Overall Survival in Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnen, Karel A.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Battermann, Jan J.; Roermund, Joep G.H. van; Frank, Steven J.; Vulpen, Marco van

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounce and disease outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 975 patients treated with {sup 125}I implantation monotherapy between 1992 and 2006. All patients had tumor Stage {<=}2c, Gleason score {<=}7 prostate cancer, a minimum follow-up of 2 years with at least four PSA measurements, and no biochemical failure in the first 2 years. Median follow-up was 6 years. Bounce was defined as a PSA elevation of +0.2 ng/mL with subsequent decrease to previous nadir. We used the Phoenix +2 ng/mL definition for biochemical failure. Additional endpoints were disease-specific and overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results: Bounce occurred in 32% of patients, with a median time to bounce of 1.6 years. More than 90% of bounces took place in the first 3 years after treatment and had disappeared within 2 years of onset. Ten-year freedom from biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates were, respectively, 90%, 99%, and 88% for the bounce group and 70%, 93%, and 82% for the no-bounce group. Only 1 patient (0.3%) died of prostate cancer in the bounce group, compared with 40 patients (6.1%) in the no-bounce group. Adjusted for confounding, a 70% biochemical failure risk reduction was observed for patients experiencing a bounce (hazard ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.48). Conclusions: A PSA bounce after prostate brachytherapy is strongly related to better outcome in terms of biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival.

  19. The socioeconomic implications of prostate-specific antigen screening.

    PubMed

    Benoit, R M; Naslund, M J

    1997-05-01

    Widespread PSA screening will increase overall health care costs. This increase will not result from the detection of clinically insignificant prostate cancer, but rather from the stage migration caused by prostate cancer screening. This stage migration will result in a larger percentage of men with prostate cancer undergoing early treatment options, which are more expensive than treatment of late disease. More importantly, early detection of prostate cancer will lead to treatment several years earlier than would have occurred otherwise. Because treatment then will be paid for in current rather than future dollars, the opportunity costs of money will make treatment costs resulting from PSA screening greater than treatment costs resulting from traditional detection. The critical question is what benefits will be obtained by the expenditure of these additional health care dollars. If early treatment of clinically localized cancer has little or no effect on cause-specific survival, the additional health care costs will have been spent only to limit eventual treatment of local symptoms in the screened men. If early treatment of prostate cancer can increase survival, the added expense is more worthwhile. Because there are not adequate data available to address this issue, several approaches have been used to develop models to estimate cost-effectiveness. Decision analysis models have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening and treatment and have found little or no benefit. The current review has demonstrated how assumptions used in the models can influence the results. Benoit et al also have constructed a model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer, but in this study only concrete parameters such as cost, published complication rates, and survival data were used. This quantitative analysis demonstrated that prostate cancer screening is an effective and cost-effective health care intervention compared with currently

  20. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. PMID:27496408

  1. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Tokudome, Shinkan; Ando, Ryosuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (∼30%). There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1) adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2) improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3) fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1) examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers in biopsy specimens; 2) independent quantification of Gleason grading; 3) developing ethnicity-specific staging nomograms based on tumor stage, PSA value, and Gleason score; 4) delineation of the natural history; 5) revisiting the significance of the androgen/testosterone hypothesis; and 6) devoting special attention to individuals with a certain genetic predisposition. Finally

  2. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Shinkan; Ando, Ryosuke; Koda, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (∼30%). There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1) adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2) improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3) fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1) examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers in biopsy specimens; 2) independent quantification of Gleason grading; 3) developing ethnicity-specific staging nomograms based on tumor stage, PSA value, and Gleason score; 4) delineation of the natural history; 5) revisiting the significance of the androgen/testosterone hypothesis; and 6) devoting special attention to individuals with a certain genetic predisposition. Finally

  3. [Comparison of 3 assay kits of prostate specific antigen in serum of prostatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, S; Akakura, K; Shimazaki, J

    1988-12-01

    The serum prostate specific antigen (PA) of the patients with prostatic cancer were determined with 3 assay kits, the Diagnostic Products Cooperation (DPC) kit, the Eiken kit and the Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. (MARKIT F) kit. The first 2 assay kits involve radioimmunoassay and the latter EIA. For comparison, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) were determined using an Eiken kit and Chugai kit. Efficiency of the DPC kit, Eiken kit and the MARKIT F kit for untreated prostatic cancer was 26, 25 and 36%, respectively. The PA level measured using the Eiken kit and the MARKIT F kit both well correlated to the PAP level, but with the DPC kit correlation was slightly low. The PA level measured using the 3 different kits correlated poorly with the gamma-Sm level. The PA values obtained with 3 different assays from patients with prostatic cancer were highly correlated, but showed great differences in the values measured. When the standards used in the DPC kit were analyzed by the Eiken kit, the DPC standards as measured by the Eiken kit had only about half of their assigned values. The same standards were analyzed by the MARKIT F kit, the standards yielded measured values about one third of their assigned values. When the standards used in the MARKIT F kit were analyzed by the Eiken kit, the MARKIT F standards yielded measured values about 2.5 fold of their assigned values. The differences between the values obtained with the 3 assay kits presented a serious problem in clinical use of PA. Standardization of these assay kits will be awaited. PMID:2467543

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Charles C.; Haas, Jonathan A.; Katz, Aaron E.; Witten, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after brachytherapy has been well-documented. This phenomenon has also been identified in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). While the parameters that predict PSA bounce have been extensively studied in prostate brachytherapy patients, this study is the first to analyze the clinical and pathologic predictors of PSA bounce in prostate SBRT patients. Materials and Methods: Our institution has maintained a prospective database of patients undergoing SBRT for prostate cancer since 2006. Our study population includes patients between May 2006 and November 2011 who have at least 18 months of follow-up. All patients were treated using the CyberKnife treatment system. The prescription dose was 35–36.25 Gy in five fractions. Results: One hundred twenty patients were included in our study. Median PSA follow-up was 24 months (range 18–78 months). Thirty-four (28%) patients had a PSA bounce. The median time to PSA bounce was 9 months, and the median bounce size was 0.50 ng/mL. On univariate analysis, only younger age (p = 0.011) was shown to be associated with an increased incidence of PSA bounce. Other patient factors, including race, prostate size, prior treatment by hormones, and family history of prostate cancer, did not predict PSA bounces. None of the tumor characteristics studied, including Gleason score, pre-treatment PSA, T-stage, or risk classification by NCCN guidelines, were associated with increased incidence of PSA bounces. Younger age was the only statistically significant predictor of PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (OR = 0.937, p = 0.009). Conclusion: PSA bounce, which has been reported after prostate brachytherapy, is also seen in a significant percentage of patients after CyberKnife SBRT. Close observation rather than biopsy can be considered for these patients. Younger age was the only factor that predicted PSA bounce. PMID:24478988

  5. Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Provides More Precise Data on Benign Prostate Volume Than Total Prostate-Specific Antigen in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Methods From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV. Results Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement. Conclusion Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients. PMID:23869271

  6. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  7. Impact of Treatment With Statins on Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Tae Ju; Bae, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Joo, Kwan Joong; Kwon, Chil Hun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the impact on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) of statin medication for 1 year in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 791 patients in whom BPH was diagnosed. For analysis, the patients were divided into four groups according to their medications: group A, α-blocker; group B, α-blocker+statin; group C, α-blocker+dutasteride; group D, α-blockers+statin+dutasteride. To investigate changes in serum PSA, PV, and total cholesterol, we analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment and after 1 year of medication. Results After 1 year, group A showed a 1.3% increase in PSA and a 1.0% increase in PV. Group B showed a 4.3% decrease in PSA and a 1.8% decrease in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups A and B was statistically significant (p<0.001). Group C showed a 49.1% reduction in PSA and a 22.9% reduction in PV. Group D showed a 51.6% reduction in PSA and a 24.5% reduction in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups C and D was not statistically significant (p=0.762). By use of a multivariate logistic regression model, we found that the probability of PV reduction after 1 year was more than 14.8 times in statin users than in statin nonusers (95% confidence interval, 5.8% to 37.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions Statin administration reduced PSA and PV in BPH patients. This finding may imply the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and prevention of cardiovascular disease and chemoprevention of prostate cancer with statin treatment. PMID:24255756

  8. Predictors of mortality after prostate-specific antigen failure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. . E-mail: adamico@lroc.harvard.edu; Kantoff, Phillip; Loffredo, Marian; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Loffredo, Brittany; Chen Minghui

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: We identified factors associated with the length of survival after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 81 of 206 men enrolled on a randomized trial evaluating external-beam radiation therapy (RT) with or without androgen suppression therapy (AST) and who experienced PSA failure. Salvage AST was administered at a PSA level of {approx}10 ng/mL as per protocol. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with length of survival after PSA failure. Results: A PSA DT (doubling time) <6 months (p = 0.04) and age at the time of PSA failure (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with length of survival. By 5 years, 35% and 65% of all-cause mortality was from prostate cancer in men whose age at PSA failure was 75 or higher vs. <75, respectively. Across all ages, 0%, 4%, as compared with 63% of men, were estimated to die of prostate cancer within 5 years after PSA failure if their PSA DT was >12, 6-12, or <6 months, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced age and a PSA DT <6 months at the time of PSA failure are associated with a significantly shorter survival.

  9. The routine use of prostate-specific antigen for early detection of cancer prostate in India: Is it justified?

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer is a widely debated issue. The average Indian urologist is faced with the dilemma of whether PSA testing should be routinely offered to men over 50 years of age. The Urological Society of India is yet to issue any guidelines on PSA testing. This article attempts to explore scientific evidence dealing with this controversial subject. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed using the words ‘PSA screening’, ‘prostate cancer statistics’, and ‘PSA screening guidelines’. The relevant articles were then analysed for evidence regarding the utility of PSA screening. Results: Prostate cancer does not qualify to be categorized as a major health problem in India. The natural history of screen-detected cancer is not known. Prostate-specific antigen testing for early detection of prostate cancer has questionable benefits and has a potential to cause harm to asymptomatic individuals. There is no consensus amongst learned medical societies as to what should be the best approach for PSA testing. Most organizations caution against widespread PSA screening and emphasize on informed consent and patient counseling with regard to PSA testing. Randomized prospective trials are ongoing to assess to the true impact of screening on prostate cancer mortality. Conclusions: There is no scientific rationale to advocate routine use of PSA for early detection of prostate cancer in Indian males. Results of randomized screening trials are awaited to clarify on this issue. PMID:19672341

  10. Body Mass Index and Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure Following Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Efstathiou, Jason A. Skowronski, Rafi Y.; Coen, John J.; Grocela, Joseph A.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure after radical prostatectomy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). We investigated whether BMI is associated with PSA failure in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analyses were conducted on 374 patients undergoing brachytherapy for stage T1c-T2cNXM0 prostate cancer from 1996-2001. Forty-nine patients (13%) received supplemental EBRT and 131 (35%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Height and weight data were available for 353 (94%). Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and PSA failure (nadir + 2 ng/ml definition). Covariates included age, race, preimplantation PSA, Gleason score, T category, percent of prescription dose to 90% of the prostate, use of supplemental EBRT, and ADT. Results: Median age, PSA, and BMI were 66 years (range, 42-80 years), 5.7 ng/ml (range, 0.4-22.6 ng/ml), and 27.1 kg/m{sup 2} (range, 18.2-53.6 kg/m{sup 2}), respectively. After a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 3.0-10.2 years), there were 76 PSA recurrences. The BMI was not associated with PSA failure. Six-year PSA failure rates were 30.2% for men with BMI less than 25 kg/m{sup 2}, 19.5% for BMI of 25 or greater to less than 30 kg/m{sup 2}, and 14.4% for BMI of 30 kg/m{sup 2} or greater (p = 0.19). Results were similar when BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using alternative definitions of PSA failure, and excluding patients treated with EBRT and/or ADT. In multivariate analyses, only baseline PSA was significantly associated with shorter time to PSA failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.20; p 0.0006). Conclusions: Unlike after surgery or EBRT, BMI is not associated with PSA failure in men treated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer. This raises the possibility that brachytherapy may be a preferred treatment

  11. Development of glycan specific lectin based immunoassay for detection of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Bhanushali, Paresh B; Badgujar, Shamkant B; Tripathi, Mukesh M; Gupta, Sanjeev; Murthy, Vedang; Krishnasastry, Musti V; Puri, Chander P

    2016-05-01

    We describe an analytical approach for the detection and verification of glycosylation patterns of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a key biomarker currently used for understanding the onset and prognosis of prostate cancer. PSA has been purified from the human seminal plasma and total PSA from prostate cancer sera. PSA is a monomeric glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass 28040.467Da, which exhibits a characteristic protease activity against casein and gelatin. Its optimal protease activity is centered on neutral pH. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis of the purified PSA has yielded peptides that partially match with known database sequences (Uniprot ID P07288). Tryptic digestion profile of isolated PSA, infer the exclusive nature of PSA and may be additive molecule in the dictionary of seminal proteins. Surface plasmon resonance and lectin immunoassay revealed direct interaction between a newly developed anti-PSA monoclonal antibody (C4E6) and PSA. A lectin based immunoassay is reported here which was achieved with the C4E6 anti-PSA antibody and biotinylated plant lectins. This investigation provides an alternative method to isolate and quantify PSA with altered glycosylation which might be seen in the prostate cancer and developing a lectin based immunoassay to detect PSA in serum of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26840176

  12. Auger Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Ana P.; Hobbs, Robert; Sgouros, George; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Shen, Colette J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Auger electron emitters such as 125I have a high linear energy transfer and short range of emission (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. We used a highly specific small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to deliver 125I to prostate cancer cells. Methods The PSMA-targeting Auger emitter 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-125I-iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid (125I-DCIBzL) was synthesized. DNA damage (via phosphorylated H2A histone family member X staining) and clonogenic survival were tested in PSMA-positive (PSMA+) PC3 PIP and PSMA-negative (PSMA−) PC3 flu human prostate cancer cells after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL. Subcellular drug distribution was assessed with confocal microscopy using a related fluorescent PSMA-targeting compound YC-36. In vivo antitumor efficacy was tested in nude mice bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP or PSMA− PC3 flu flank xenografts. Animals were administered (intravenously) 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-DCIBzL, 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-NaI, an equivalent amount of nonradiolabeled DCIBzL, or saline. Results After treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, PSMA+ PC3 PIP cells exhibited increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival when compared with PSMA− PC3 flu cells. Confocal microscopy of YC-36 showed drug distribution in the perinuclear area and plasma membrane. Animals bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors had significant tumor growth delay after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, with only 1 mouse reaching 5 times the initial tumor volume by 60 d after treatment, compared with a median time to 5 times volume of less than 15 d for PSMA− PC3 flu tumors and all other treatment groups (P = 0.002 by log-rank test). Conclusion PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy with the Auger emitter 125I-DCIBzL yielded highly specific antitumor efficacy in vivo, suggesting promise for treatment of prostate cancer micrometastases. PMID:26182968

  13. Prostate-specific RNA aptamer: promising nucleic acid antibody-like cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Karina; Neves, Adriana F.; Rocha, Rafael M.; Faria, Paulo R.; Alves, Patrícia T.; Souza, Aline G.; Fujimura, Patrícia T.; Santos, Fabiana A. A.; Araújo, Thaise G.; Ward, Laura S.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2015-01-01

    We described the selection of a novel nucleic acid antibody-like prostate cancer (PCa) that specifically binds to the single-stranded DNA molecule from a 277-nt fragment that may have been partially paired and bound to the PCA3 RNA conformational structure. PCA3-277 aptamer ligands were obtained, and the best binding molecule, named CG3, was synthesized for validation. Aiming to prove its diagnostic utility, we used an apta-qPCR assay with CG3-aptamer conjugated to magnetic beads to capture PCA3 transcripts, which were amplified 97-fold and 7-fold higher than conventional qPCR in blood and tissue, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of 161 prostate biopsies arranged in a TMA and marked with biotin-labeled CG3-aptamer showed moderate staining in both cytoplasm and nucleus of PCa samples; in contrast, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples presented strong nuclear staining (78% of the cases). No staining was observed in stromal cells. In addition, using an apta-qPCR, we demonstrated that CG3-aptamer specifically recognizes the conformational PCA3-277 molecule and at least three other transcript variants, indicating that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is processed after transcription. We suggest that CG3-aptamer may be a useful PCa diagnostic tool. In addition, this molecule may be used in drug design and drug delivery for PCa therapy. PMID:26174796

  14. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa. PMID:27256190

  15. Prospective investigation of change in the prostate-specific antigens after various urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Chol; Shin, Yu Seob; Zhang, Li Tao; Kim, Dal Sik; Kim, Sung Zoo; Park, Nam Cheol; Ahn, Tai Young; Kim, Je Jong; Lee, Sung Won; So, Insuk; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various urologic procedures in prostatic area on serum free and total PSA levels. Subjects and methods A series of 62 patients (8 after digital rectal examination [DRE], 12 after transrectal ultrasonography [TRUS], 11 after rigid cystoscopy, 13 after prostatic massage, 8 after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, and 10 after transurethral resection of prostate [TURP]) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were taken from each patient before procedure and at 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after procedures. Results Prostate massage, rigid cystoscopy, TURP, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy caused statistically significant rise in total and free PSA levels in the serum. There was no significant increase in total and free PSA levels in the serum after DRE and TRUS. The mean differences were greater for free PSA level in the serum for TURP, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, prostate massage, and rigid cystoscopy. Conclusion Total and free PSA levels in the serum are altered by prostate massage, rigid cystoscopy, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, and TURP. The PSA rises were related to the stimulation strength of the procedures. The total and free PSA levels were increased significantly from 10 minutes after procedures, except DRE and TRUS, and were increased to maximal level at 60 minutes after procedures. PMID:26251583

  16. Multiplexed BioCD for prostate specific antigen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Ming; Nolte, David D.

    2008-02-01

    Specific protein concentrations in human body fluid can serve as diagnostic markers for some diseases, and a quantitative and high-throughput technique for multiplexed protein detection would speed up diagnosis and facilitate medical research. For this purpose, our group developed the BioCD, a spinning-disc interferometric biosensor on which antibody is immobilized. The detection system adopts a common-path scheme making it ultra stable. The scaling mass sensitivity is below 10 pg/mm for protein surface density. A 25000-spot antibody BioCD was fabricated to measure the concentration of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein indicating prostate cancer if its level is high. Statistical analysis of our immunoassay results projects that the detection limit of PSA would reach 20 pg/ml in a 2 mg/ml background solution. For future prospects, a multiplexed BioCD can be produced for simultaneous diagnosis of diverse diseases. For instance, 100 markers above 200 pg/ml could be measured on a single disc given that the detection limit is inversely proportional to square root of the number of spots.

  17. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential. PMID:25557753

  18. Prostate-specific expression of Bax delivered by an adenoviral vector induces apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lowe, S L; Rubinchik, S; Honda, T; McDonnell, T J; Dong, J Y; Norris, J S

    2001-09-01

    In prostate carcinoma, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 has been found to be associated with resistance to therapies including radiation and androgen ablation. Restoring the balance of Bcl-2 family members may result in the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells previously resistant to treatment. To accomplish this, a strategy involving overexpression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was executed. The use of cytotoxic genes such as Bax require selective expression of the gene. In this study, we examined the ability of selective expression of Bax protein directed by a prostate-specific promoter to induce apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma. A second-generation adenoviral vector was constructed with the modified prostate-specific probasin promoter, ARR2PB, directing expression of an HA-tagged Bax gene and a green fluorescent protein reporter translated from an internal ribosome entry site (ARR2PB.Bax.GFP). ARR2PB promoter activity is tightly regulated and highly prostate specific and is responsive to androgens and glucocorticoids. The prostate-specific promoter-Bax-GFP transgene cassette was inserted into a cloning site near the right inverted terminal repeat of the adenoviral vector to retain specificity of the promoter. LNCaP cells infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP showed high levels of Bax expression 48 h after infection resulting in an 85% reduction in cell viability. Importantly, LNCaP cells stably transfected to overexpress Bcl-2 showed similar patterns of cell death when infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP, an 82% reduction in cell viability seen 48 h after infection. Apoptosis was confirmed by measuring caspase activation and using the TUNEL assay. Tissue specificity was evaluated using A549 cells (lung adenocarcinoma), SK-Hep-1 (liver cancer) cells, and Hela (cervical cancer) cells which did not show detectable expression of virally delivered Bax protein or any increase in cell death. Systemic administration of Ad/ARR2PB. Bax.GFP in nude

  19. Prostate-specific antigen as a marker of disease activity in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Partin, Alan W; Hanks, Gerald E; Klein, Eric A; Moul, Judd W; Nelson, William G; Scher, Howard I

    2002-09-01

    Despite the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on the detection and management of prostate cancer, controversy about its usefulness as a marker of disease activity continues. This review, based on a recent roundtable discussion, examines whether PSA measurements can be used rationally in several clinical settings. Following radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy, prediction of survival by PSA level is most reliable in high-risk patients. PSA doubling time after radiation therapy is the strongest predictor of biochemical failure. PSA measurements have been associated with inconsistent results following hormonal treatment; reduced PSA levels may result from antiandrogen treatment, which decreases expression of the PSA gene, and therefore, the level of PSA production. In the setting of primary and secondary cancer prevention, PSA is important in risk stratification when selecting patients for studies. Part 2 of this two-part article, which began in the August issue, discusses the role of PSA in hormonal and drug therapies and in primary and secondary chemoprevention. PMID:12380948

  20. PET Imaging in Prostate Cancer: Focus on Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with emerging radiopharmaceuticals promises accurate staging of primary disease, restaging of recurrent disease, detection of metastatic lesions and, ultimately, for predicting the aggressiveness of disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-characterized imaging biomarker of PCa. Because PSMA levels are directly related to androgen independence, metastasis and progression, PSMA could prove an important target for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for PET. Preclinical data for new PSMA-based radiotracers are discussed and include new 89Zr- and 64Cu-labeled anti-PSMA antibodies and antibody fragments, 64Cu-labeled aptamers, and 11C-, 18F-, 68Ga-, 64Cu-, and 86Y-labeled low molecular weight inhibitors of PSMA. Several of these agents, namely 68Ga-HBED-CC conjugate 15, 18F-DCFBC 8, and BAY1075553 are particularly promising, each having detected sites of PCa in initial clinical studies. These early clinical results suggest that PET/CT using PSMA-targeted agents, especially with compounds of low molecular weight, will make valuable contributions to the management of PCa. PMID:23590171

  1. Splenunculus Masquerading as Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-positive Lymph Node Metastasis in a Patient With Prostate-specific Antigen Relapse After Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Zöphel, Klaus; Hölscher, Tobias; Laniado, Michael; Wirth, Manfred P

    2016-08-01

    A 45-year-old patient presented with prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy. Diagnostic workup revealed a (68)Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted ligand tracer uptaking nodule that was initially interpreted as lymph node metastasis but eventually identified as a splenunculus by scintigraphy with (99m)Tc pertechnetate-labeled heat-altered erythrocytes. Awareness of this constellation may spare unnecessary diagnostic procedures and inappropriate treatment. PMID:27125881

  2. Optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations predict better quality of life after robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Perez, Martin A; Oh, Sindy; Crocitto, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relations among generalized positive expectations (optimism), prostate-cancer specific expectations, and prostate cancer-related quality of life in a prospective sample of 83 men who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Optimism was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer-specific expectations, β = .36, p < .001. In addition, optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations were independent prospective predictors of better scores on the following prostate cancer-related quality of life scales: Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence; Masculine Self-Esteem (specific expectations only), Health Worry, Cancer Control, and Informed Decision Making (βs > .21, ps < .05). When considered simultaneously, both optimism and specific expectations contributed uniquely to better Health Worry and Cancer Control scores, optimism was a unique predictor of better Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence scores, and specific expectations uniquely predicted higher scores on Informed Decision Making. Although optimism and prostate-cancer specific expectations are related, they contribute uniquely to several prostate cancer-related quality of life outcomes following RALP and may be important targets for quality of life research with this population. PMID:22051931

  3. Distinguishing prostate-specific antigen bounces from biochemical failure after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Cian; Ghosh, Sunita; Sloboda, Ron; Martell, Kevin; Lan, Lanna; Pervez, Nadeem; Pedersen, John; Yee, Don; Murtha, Albert; Amanie, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize benign prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces of at least 2.0 ng/mL and biochemical failure as defined by the Phoenix definition after prostate brachytherapy at our institution, and to investigate distinguishing features between three outcome groups: patients experiencing a benign PSA bounce, biochemical failure, or neither. Material and methods Five hundred and thirty consecutive men treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy with follow-up of at least 3 years were divided into outcome groups experiencing bounce, failure, or neither. A benign bounce was defined as a rise of at least 2.0 ng/mL over the pre-rise nadir followed by a decline to 0.5 ng/mL or below, without intervention. Patient and tumor characteristics, treatment variables, and PSA kinetics were analyzed between groups. Results Thirty-two (6.0%) men experienced benign bounces and 47 (8.9%) men experienced failure. Men experiencing a bounce were younger (p = 0.01), had a higher 6-month PSA level (p = 0.03), and took longer to reach a final nadir (p < 0.01). Compared to the failure group, men with bounce had a lower pre-treatment PSA level (p = 0.01) and experienced a rise of at least 2.0 ng/mL that occurred sooner after the implant (p < 0.01) with a faster PSA doubling time (p = 0.01). Only time to PSA rise independently differentiated between bounce and failure (p < 0.01), with a benign bounce not being seen after 36 months post-treatment. Prostate-specific antigen levels during a bounce reached levels as high as 12.6 ng/mL in this cohort, and in some cases took over 5 years to decline to below 0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions Although there is substantial overlap between the features of benign PSA bounces and failure, physicians may find it useful to evaluate the timing, absolute PSA level, initial response to treatment, and rate of rise when contemplating management for a PSA rise after low-dose-rate brachytherapy. PMID:25337125

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Niraj H.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Steinberg, Michael; Demanes, Jeffrey

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way.

  5. The prostate-specific membrane antigen: Lessons and current clinical implications from 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Ristau, Benjamin T.; O’Keefe, Denise S.; Bacich, Dean J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite a multitude of detection and treatment advances in the past two decades, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Technological evolution and expanding knowledge of tumor biomarkers have invigorated exploration in prostate cancer therapeutics. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was one of the first prostate cancer biomarkers successfully cloned. Since that time, it has been characterized as the prototypical cell-surface marker for prostate cancer and has been the subject of intense clinical inquiry. We review the relevant research in PSMA on the 20th anniversary of its cloning. Methods and materials A PubMed® search using the keywords “prostate-specific membrane antigen” or “glutamate carboxypeptidase II” provided 1019 results. An additional 3 abstracts were included from scientific meetings. Articles were vetted by title and abstract with emphasis placed on those with clinically relevant findings. Results Sixty articles were selected for inclusion. PSMA was discovered and cloned in 1993. Its structure and function were further delineated in the ensuing decade. Consensus sites of expression in normal physiology are prostate, kidney, nervous system, and small intestine. PSMA has been implicated in the neovasculature of several tumors including urothelial and renal cell carcinomas. In prostate cancer, expression of PSMA is directly related to Gleason grade. PSMA has been tested both in imaging and therapeutics in a number of prostate cancer clinical trials. Several recent approaches to target PSMA include use of small molecule inhibitors, PSMA-based immunotherapy, RNA aptamer conjugates, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy. Future study of PSMA in prostate cancer might focus on its intracellular functions and possible role in tumor neurogenesis. Conclusions Twenty years from its discovery, PSMA represents a viable biomarker and treatment target in prostate cancer. Research to

  6. Prostate-specific antigen-based population screening for prostate cancer: current status in Japan and future perspective in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, clinical trials on prostate cancer screening demonstrated a limited benefit for patient survival. In the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, the rate of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains very low compared with Western countries, and the benefits of population-based screening remain unclear. This review describes the current status of population screening and diagnosis for prostate cancer in Japan and discusses the efficacy of population screening for the Asian population. Since the 1990s, screening systems have been administered by each municipal government in Japan, and decreases in the prostate cancer mortality rate are expected in some regions where the exposure rate to PSA screening has increased markedly. A population-based screening cohort revealed that the proportion of metastatic disease in cancer detected by screening gradually decreased according to the increased exposure rate, and a decreasing trend in the proportion of cancer with high serum PSA levels after population screening was started. The prognosis of the prostate cancer detected by population screening was demonstrated to be more favorable than those diagnosed outside of the population screening. Recent results in screening cohorts demonstrated the efficacy of PSA. These recent evidences regarding population-based screening in Japan may contribute to establishing the optimal prostate cancer screening system in Asian individuals. PMID:25578935

  7. Risk of All-Cause and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy in Men With Small Prostate Size

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming H.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Moran, Brian J.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Ross, Rudi; Salenius, Sharon A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2011-04-01

    Background: Brachytherapy for prostate cancer can be technically challenging in men with small prostates ({<=}20 cc), but it is unknown whether their outcomes are different than those of men with larger prostates. Methods and Materials: We studied 6,416 men treated with brachytherapy in one of 21 community-based practices. Cox regression and Fine and Gray's regression were used to determine whether volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) or prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), respectively, after adjustment for other known prognostic factors. Results: 443 patients (6.9%) had a prostate volume {<=}20 cc. After a median follow-up of 2.91 years (interquartile range, 1.06-4.79), volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a significantly higher risk of ACM (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.65], p = 0.0085) with 3-year estimates of ACM for {<=}20 cc vs. >20 cc of 13.0% vs. 6.9% (p = 0.028). Only 23 men (0.36%) have died of prostate cancer, and no difference was seen in PCSM by volume (p = 0.4). Conclusion: Men with small prostates at the time of implant had a 33% higher risk of ACM, and the underlying cause of this remains uncertain. No increase in PCSM was observed in men with volume {<=}20cc, suggesting that a small prostate should not in itself be a contraindication for brachytherapy, but inasmuch as absolute rates of PCSM were small, further follow-up will be needed to confirm this finding.

  8. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 alpha (HNF-3{alpha}) negatively regulates androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Miok; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Keesook

    2008-03-07

    The androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancers. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain incompletely understood. In previous reports, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3{alpha} (HNF-3{alpha}) has been shown to be expressed in the epithelia of the prostate gland, and has been determined to regulate the transcription of prostate-specific genes. In this study, we report that HNF-3{alpha} functions as a novel corepressor of AR in prostatic cells. HNF-3{alpha} represses AR transactivation on target promoters containing the androgen response element (ARE) in a dose-dependent manner. HNF-3{alpha} interacts physically with AR, and negatively regulates AR transactivation via competition with AR coactivators, including GRIP1. Furthermore, HNF-3{alpha} overexpression reduces the androgen-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that HNF-3{alpha} is a novel corepressor of AR, and predict its effects on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.

  9. ELEVATED EXPRESSION OF CANCER-ASSOCIATED PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN IN HIGH-GRADE PROSTATIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Hickey, Robert J.; Malkas, Linda H.; Koch, Michael O.; Li, Lang; Zhang, Shaobo; Sandusky, George E.; Grignon, David J; Eble, John N.; Cheng, Liang

    2011-01-01

    Background Proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA replication and repair. The expression and potential utility of this marker in prostatic neoplasia is uncertain. With the development of this new caPCNA selective antibody, we explored the potential utility of this marker in prostate cancer. Methods Using a traditional primary Fab2′ rabbit anti-caPCNA antibody-HRP conjugated secondary anti-Fab2′ antibody format, the expression of the caPCNA was analyzed in prostate tissue from 89 radical prostatectomy specimens. The caPCNA expression was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics. Results The fraction of cells staining positively with caPCNA antibody in prostatic adenocarcinoma (mean, 23%) was significantly higher than that in benign prostatic epithelium (mean, 2%; p < 0.001) or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (mean, 6%; p < 0.05). Moreover, the intensity of caPCNA expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma (mean, 2.9) was significantly higher than that in benign prostatic tissue (mean, 0.7; p < 0.001) or high-grade PIN (mean, 2.0; p < 0.001). Benign prostatic epithelium showed only minimal or negative reactivity. There was significant correlation between the percentage of caPCNA expression and primary Gleason grade (p = 0.01), and with Gleason score (p = 0.02). Adenocarcinomas with positive vascular invasion had a significantly higher percentage of cells staining with caPCNA antibody (p < 0.0001) and a higher intensity of caPCNA expression (p = 0.04). Conclusions Our data indicate that increased expression of the cancer-associated isoform of PCNA is common in prostatic adenocarcinoma and its precursor and may be a useful biomarker. PMID:21031434

  10. Production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against prostate-specific antigen, a prostate cancer serum marker.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shu-Fen; Chen, Chien-Yuan

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to produce monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer serum marker. Hyperimmune ICR mice produced polyclonal antibodies (PoAbs) after injection with 0.5 mL of pristane, and were injected with NS-1 myeloma cells 2 weeks later. Hyperimmune Balb/c mice were used for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized four times and given a final boost, and their spleen cells were collected and fused with NS-1 myeloma cells under the presence of PEG 1500. The fused cells were then selected in the HAT-RPMIX medium. Anti-PSA antibody-secreting hybridoma cell lines with high titer were cloned by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then subcloned by limiting dilution in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) HT-RPMIX medium. Twelve murine hybridoma producing anti-PSA MAbs were obtained and designated C3m1G11, B3m1E5, C3m1E8, C3m1C5, C3m2F4, C3m1F8, C3m2B3, C3m2E6, B3m2B11, B3m2F2, C3m2C7, and C3m2D9. Isotypes of these MAbs were identified as IgG2a heavy chain and kappa light chain. Hitrap Protein A column was used for the purification of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The purity analysis of MAb was performed by capillary electrophoresis. PMID:15000852

  11. Infectious mononucleosis, other infections and prostate-specific antigen concentration as a marker of prostate involvement during infection.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Nevin, Remington L; Pakpahan, Ratna; Elliott, Debra J; Langston, Marvin E; De Marzo, Angelo M; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Isaacs, William B; Nelson, William G; Sokoll, Lori J; Walsh, Patrick C; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Cersovsky, Steven B; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus has been detected in prostate tissue, no associations have been observed with prostate cancer in the few studies conducted to date. One possible reason for these null findings may be use of cumulative exposure measures that do not inform the timing of infection, i.e., childhood versus adolescence/early adulthood when infection is more likely to manifest as infectious mononucleosis (IM). We sought to determine the influence of young adult-onset IM on the prostate by measuring prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate inflammation/damage among U.S. military members. We defined IM cases as men diagnosed with IM from 1998 to 2003 (n = 55) and controls as men without an IM diagnosis (n = 255). We selected two archived serum specimens for each participant, the first collected after diagnosis for cases and one randomly selected from 1998 to 2003 for controls (index), as well as the preceding specimen (preindex). PSA was measured in each specimen. To explore the specificity of our findings for prostate as opposed to systemic inflammation, we performed a post hoc comparison of other infectious disease cases without genitourinary involvement (n = 90) and controls (n = 220). We found that IM cases were more likely to have a large PSA rise than controls (≥ 20 ng/mL: 19.7% versus 8.8%, p = 0.027; ≥ 40% rise: 25.7% versus 9.4%, p = 0.0021), as were other infectious disease cases (25.7% versus 14.0%, p = 0.020; 27.7% versus 18.0%, p = 0.092). These findings suggest that, in addition to rising because of prostate infection, PSA may also rise because of systemic inflammation, which could have implications for PSA interpretation in older men. PMID:26678984

  12. Orphan nuclear receptors as drug targets for the treatment of prostate and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Roshan-Moniri, Mani; Hsing, Michael; Butler, Miriam S; Cherkasov, Artem; Rennie, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs), a family of 48 transcriptional factors, have been studied intensively for their roles in cancer development and progression. The presence of distinctive ligand binding sites capable of interacting with small molecules has made NRs attractive targets for developing cancer therapeutics. In particular, a number of drugs have been developed over the years to target human androgen- and estrogen receptors for the treatment of prostate cancer and breast cancer. In contrast, orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs), which in many cases lack known biological functions or ligands, are still largely under investigated. This review is a summary on ONRs that have been implicated in prostate and breast cancers, specifically retinoic acid-receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs), liver X receptors (LXRs), chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs), estrogen related receptors (ERRs), nerve growth factor 1B-like receptors, and ‘‘dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1’’ (DAX1). Discovery and development of small molecules that can bind at various functional sites on these ONRs will help determine their biological functions. In addition, these molecules have the potential to act as prototypes for future drug development. Ultimately, the therapeutic value of targeting the ONRs may go well beyond prostate and breast cancers. PMID:25455729

  13. Correlation of digital rectal examination, prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound in prostate carcinoma in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, R. I.; Sibley, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since there is general agreement that screening for prostate cancer should be carried out, at least for high-risk individuals, there should be little debate that African-American men should be screened. Current screening guidelines include the two most cost-effective methods of early detection, digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. The use of transrectal ultrasound and guided biopsy improves the yield. This article reports on the findings of 50 African-American patients with prostatic carcinoma diagnosed by sonographically guided biopsy in a single, community urology practice. Overall, prostate specific antigen was elevated in 94%, digital rectal examination was positive in 60%, and transrectal ultrasound was positive in 78%. A focal hypoechoic lesion was demonstrated in 58%. When the site of tumor, as specified in the pathology report, was correlated with the findings on digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound, both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound were positive in 45%. Transrectal ultrasound was positive when digital rectal examination was negative in 30%. Digital rectal examination was positive when ultrasound was not in 14%. Random biopsy revealed areas of carcinoma that were not detected by digital rectal examination nor ultrasound in 40%. We conclude that even though random biopsy significantly improves the detection of prostate carcinoma, sonographic guidance is beneficial to systematically biopsy the gland and to avoid omission of characteristic lesions during random samplings. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9170832

  14. An overview of prostate diseases and their characteristics specific to Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shu-Jie; Cui, Di; Jiang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the features of common prostate diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa) and chronic prostatitis (CP) that are specific to Asian men. Compared to the Westerners, Asians exhibit particular characteristics of prostate diseases. Through summarizing the epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnostics and therapeutics of these diseases, we find that Asians have a lower incidence of PCa than whites, but the incidences of BPH and CP are similar. Asian men with CP often suffer from fewer disease sites, but have a higher frequency of pain during urination rather than after sexual climax. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of PCa in both Asian and Western countries. Although the PSA level may be lower in Asians, the threshold used is based on whites. After reviewing the treatments available for these diseases, we did not find a fundamental difference between Asians and whites. Furthermore, the selection for the most appropriate treatment based on the individual needs of patients remains a challenge to urologists in Asia. After considering the traits of prostate diseases that are specific to Asian men, we hope to pave the way for the development of specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies targeted specifically to Asian men. PMID:22306914

  15. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  16. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  17. Metastatic superscan in prostate carcinoma on gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rajeev; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    We describe the imaging features of a metastatic superscan on gallium-68 Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[Ga-68(HBED-CC)], abbreviated as gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. 68Ga-PSMA is novel radiotracer undergoing evaluation for PET/CT imaging of prostate carcinoma. This patient had a superscan of metastases on conventional bone scintigraphy and was referred for 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to evaluate the feasibility of 177Lu-PSMA therapy. PMID:27095868

  18. Combining population and patient-specific characteristics for prostate segmentation on 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Tade, Funmilayo; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient. We compute the similarity between the two models to explore the influence of applicable population knowledge on the specific patient. By combining the patient-specific knowledge with the influence, we can capture the population and patient-specific characteristics to calculate the probability of a pixel belonging to the prostate. Finally, we smooth the prostate surface according to the prostate-density value of the pixels in the distance transform image. We conducted the leave-one-out validation experiments on a set of CT volumes from 15 patients. Manual segmentation results from a radiologist serve as the gold standard for the evaluation. Experimental results show that our method achieved an average DSC of 85.1% as compared to the manual segmentation gold standard. This method outperformed the population learning method and the patient-specific learning approach alone. The CT segmentation method can have various applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Nuclear Ep-ICD Expression Is a Predictor of Poor Prognosis in “Low Risk” Prostate Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Jasmeet; Srivastava, Gunjan; Matta, Ajay; MacMillan, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular markers for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) that would have poor prognosis are urgently needed for a more personalized treatment for patients. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule results in shedding of the extracellular domain (EpEx) and release of its intracellular domain (Ep-ICD) which triggers oncogenic signaling and might correlate to tumor aggressiveness. This study aimed to explore the potential of Ep-ICD and EpEx to identify PCa that have poor prognosis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of Ep-ICD and EpEx was carried out in normal prostate tissues (n = 100), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, n = 83), and prostate cancer (n = 249) using domain specific antibodies. The expression of Ep-ICD and EpEx was correlated with clinico- pathological parameters and disease free survival (DFS). Results Reduced expression of nuclear Ep-ICD and membrane EpEx was observed in PCa in comparison with BPH and normal prostate tissues (p = 0.006, p < 0.001 respectively). For patients who had PCa with Gleason Score less than 7, preserved nuclear Ep-ICD emerged as the most significant marker in multivariate analysis for prolonged DFS, where these patients did not have recurrence during follow up of up to 12 years (p = 0.001). Conclusion Reduced expression of nuclear Ep-ICD was associated with shorter disease free survival in patients with a Gleason Score less than 7 and may be useful in identifying patients likely to have aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. Furthermore, nuclear Ep-ICD can differentiate between normal and prostate cancer tissues for ambiguous cases. PMID:25695234

  20. Quantitative Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging of Androgen Receptor and Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostate Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, Agnieszka; Lippolis, Giuseppe; Helczynski, Leszek; Anand, Aseem; Peltola, Mari; Pettersson, Kim; Lilja, Hans; Bjartell, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are expressed in the prostate and are involved in prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to develop reliable protocols for reproducible quantification of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate tissue using time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) imaging techniques. AR and PSA were detected with TRF in tissue microarrays from 91 PCa patients. p63/ alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) staining on consecutive sections was used to categorize tissue areas as benign or cancerous. Automated image analysis was used to quantify staining intensity. AR intensity was significantly higher in AMACR+ and lower in AMACR- cancer areas as compared with benign epithelium. The PSA intensity was significantly lower in cancer areas, particularly in AMACR- glands. The AR/PSA ratio varied significantly in the AMACR+ tumor cells as compared with benign glands. There was a trend of more rapid disease progression in patients with higher AR/PSA ratios in the AMACR- areas. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing reproducible protocols for TRF imaging and automated image analysis to study the expression of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate. It also highlighted the differences in AR and PSA protein expression within AMACR- and AMACR+ cancer regions. PMID:27026295

  1. [Clinical significance of tumor markers in prostatic carcinoma--comparative study of prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen and gamma-seminoprotein].

    PubMed

    Yoshiki, T; Okada, K; Oishi, K; Yoshida, O

    1987-12-01

    We measured the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), gamma-Seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) and prostate specific antigen (PA) in the serum of 862 patients with various urologic diseases including 89 patients with prostatic cancer. We used a PAP radioimmunoassay kit, gamma-Sm enzyme immunoassay kit, Markit-F-PA enzyme immunoassay kit and PA test Wako enzyme immunoassay kit. Serum PA level in advanced prostatic carcinoma (stage C, D) tended to be higher than that in early stage cancer (stage A, B). The Wako kit gave a higher PA than the Markit-F in each stage. The sensitivity rate of Wako PA test was the highest (81%) of all kits. The specificity rate of PAP was the highest (83%), and the accuracy rate of Markit-F PA was the highest (79%). The positive rate in the combined assay of PAP, gamma-Sm and PA in prostatic cancer was higher than that in the single assay of each tumor marker. We regarded PAP, gamma-Sm and PA as clinically different tumor markers, because their serum level did not correlate definitely. No apparent correlation was found between histopathological grade and the level of each tumor marker. The level of PAP, gamma-Sm and PA in the reactivated patients was significantly higher than that of the well-controlled patients. In the reactivated patients, the positive rate of Markit-F PA was the highest (89%) of all the kits. PMID:2452559

  2. Septa design for a prostate specific PET camera

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Huber, Jennifer S.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Moses, William W.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-11-15

    The recent development of new prostate tracers has motivated us to build a low cost PET camera optimized to image the prostate. Coincidence imaging of positron emitters is achieved using a pair of external curved detector banks. The bottom bank is fixed below the patient bed, and the top bank moves upward for patient access and downward for maximum sensitivity. In this paper, we study the design of septa for the prostate camera using Monte Carlo simulations. The system performance is measured by the detectability of a prostate lesion. We have studied 17 septa configurations. The results show that the design of septa has a large impact on the lesion detection at a given activity concentration. Significant differences are also observed between the lesion detectability and the conventional noise equivalent count (NEC) performance, indicating that the NEC is not appropriate for the detection task.

  3. Use of a new hypersensitive assay for the detection of prostate specific antigen in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Onishi, H; Oishi, K; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1993-04-01

    We have developed a new hypersensitive enzyme immunoassay for prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on the (MARKIT-M PA) assay but employing a two-hour incubation of the primary monoclonal antibody. The analytical sensitivity has been determined at 0.2 ng/ml, calculated as the mean+three standard deviations of the zero calibrator. Serum PSA was measured at least one month after radical prostatectomy (nine patients) or cystoprostatectomy (six patients). Based on the PSA levels of these patients, the recommended PSA cut-off level indicative of residual disease after radical prostatectomy was 0.4 ng/ml. Increasing (> 0.4 ng/ml) PSA levels preceded recurrence by eight months in a patient who developed bone metastasis after radical prostatectomy. In two patients treated with endocrine therapy, increasing PSA levels also preceded clinical evidence of progression by between eight and nine months. The study suggests that the newly developed sensitive PSA assay allows for the identification of patients with disease progression and the early commencement of adjuvant treatment. PMID:7685834

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After Permanent Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy-An Australian Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zwahlen, Daniel R.; Smith, Ryan; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Matheson, Bronwyn; Royce, Peter; Millar, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 'bounces' after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy to review the relationship to biochemical control and correlate both clinical and dosimetric variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 194 hormone-naive patients with a follow-up of {>=}3 years. Four bounce definitions were applied: an increase of {>=}0.2 ng/mL (definition I), {>=}0.4 ng/mL (definition II), {>=}15% (definition III), and {>=}35% (definition IV) of a previous value with spontaneous return to the prebounce level or lower. Results: Using definition I, II, III, and IV, a bounce was detected in 50%, 34%, 11%, and 9% of patients, respectively. The median time to onset was 14-16 months, the duration was 12-21.5 months, and the magnitude of the increase was 0.5-2 ng/mL. A magnitude of >2 ng/mL, fulfilling the criteria for biochemical failure (BF) according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Phoenix definition, was detected in 11.3%, 16.9%, 47.6%, and 50% using definitions I, II, III, and IV, respectively; 11 patients (5.7%) had true BF. The PSA bounces occurred earlier than BF (p < 0.001). The prediction of BF remains controversial and is probably unrelated to biochemical control. The only statistically significant factor predictive of a PSA bounce was younger age (definitions I and II). Conclusion: PSA bounces are common after brachytherapy. All definitions resulted in a high number of false-positive calls for BF during the first 2 years. The definition of an increase of {>=}0.2 ng/mL should be preferred because of the lowest number of false-positive results for BF. Patients experiencing a PSA bounce during the first 2 years after brachytherapy should undergo surveillance every 3-6 months. Additional investigations are recommended for elevated postimplant PSA levels that have not corrected by 3 years of follow-up.

  5. Prostate-specific Antigen Density Variation Rate as a Potential Guideline Parameter for Second Prostate Cancer Detection Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gan-Sheng; Lyv, Jin-Xing; Li, Gang; Yan, Chun-Yin; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Ding, Xiang; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic value of current prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests is challenged by the poor detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) in repeat prostate biopsy. In this study, we proposed a novel PSA-related parameter named PSA density variation rate (PSADVR) and designed a clinical trial to evaluate its potential diagnostic value for detecting PCa on a second prostate biopsy. Methods: Data from 184 males who underwent second ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy 6 months after the first biopsy were included in the study. The subjects were divided into PCa and non-PCa groups according to the second biopsy pathological results. Prostate volume, PSA density (PSAD), free-total PSA ratio, and PSADVR were calculated according to corresponding formulas at the second biopsy. These parameters were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test between PCa and non-PCa groups, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate their predictability on PCa detection. Results: PCa was detected in 24 patients on the second biopsy. Mean values of PSA, PSAD, and PSADVR were greater in the PCa group than in the non-PCa group (8.39 μg/L vs. 7.16 μg/L, 0.20 vs. 0.16, 14.15% vs. −1.36%, respectively). PSADVR had the largest area under the curve, with 0.667 sensitivity and 0.824 specificity when the cutoff was 10%. The PCa detection rate was significantly greater in subjects with PSADVR >10% than PSADVR ≤10% (28.6% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.001). In addition, PSADVR was the only parameter in this study that showed a significant correlation with mid-to-high-risk PCa (r = 0.63, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that PSADVR improved the PCa detection rate on second biopsies, especially for mid-to-high-risk cancers requiring prompt treatment. PMID:27453228

  6. Age-specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among Apparently Healthy Nigerian Men Without Clinical Evidence of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, SO; Ajala, MO; Abolarinwa, AA; Omisanjo, OA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA among civil servants in Lagos, who underwent routine medical checkups. Criteria for inclusion were men who have no lower urinary tract symptoms, normal digital rectal examination and serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml. SPSS Statistic 21 was used for data evaluation and the mean, median, 95th percentile PSA levels were estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 4032 men met the criteria for inclusion in the evaluation. The mean age was 51.6 (range 40–70) years, and there was a strong correlation between serum PSA levels and age (r = 0.097, P < 0.001). PSA ranges of 0–2.5, >2.5–4.0, >4.0–10, and >10 ng/ml were found in 3218 (80%), 481 (12%), 284 (7%), and 52 (1%) men, respectively. The mean, median and the 95th percentile PSA for the overall group were 1.84, 1.33, and 5.2 ng/ml respectively. However the 95th percentile PSA levels for men aged 40–49, 50–59, and 60–70 years were 4.78, 5.47, and 8.93 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: The age-specific PSA levels among Nigerian men for each age group is higher than what was described for men in the Western world. These reference ranges of serum PSA should be considered for men aged ≥40 years in our environment. PMID:27013850

  7. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT in Splenic Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kobe, Carsten; Maintz, David; Fischer, Thomas; Drzezga, Alexander; Chang, De-Hua

    2015-11-01

    A 65-year-old man who had prostate cancer presented with slightly progressive prostate-specific antigen values. In this situation of biochemical relapse, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT has proven to be superior to choline PET. The Ga-PSMA PET/CT of our patient revealed PSMA-positive tissue in the spleen. Although the localization was not typical for metastases, metastasis could not be excluded because of the intense focal tracer uptake. A supplementary MRI was performed but also failed to rule out a malignant origin. Finally, biopsy confirmed benign disease in the spleen in the form of granulomatous disease. PMID:26018688

  8. Specific detection of prostate cancer cells in urine by multiplex immunofluorescence cytology.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazutoshi; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J; Konishi, Yuko; Isaacs, William B; Ali, Syed; De Marzo, Angelo; Meeker, Alan K

    2009-07-01

    Prostate cancer biomarkers are enriched in urine after prostatic manipulation, suggesting that whole cells might also be detectable for diagnosis. We tested multiplex staining of urinary sediments as a minimally invasive method to detect prostate cancer. Urine samples were collected from 35 men who had prostatic massage (attentive digital rectal examination) in a urology clinic and from 15 control men without urologic disease and without massage, for a total of 50 specimens (27 cancer-positive cases and 23 cancer-negative cases). LNCaP prostate cancer cells spiked into urine were used for initial marker optimization. Urine sediments were cytospun onto glass slides and stained. Multiplex urine cytology was compared with conventional urine cytology for cancer detection; anti-alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase antibody was used as a marker of prostate cancer cells, anti-Nkx3.1 as a marker of prostate epithelial cells, anti-nucleolin as a marker of nucleoli, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to highlight nuclei. Prostate cancer cells were successfully visualized by combined staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, and nucleolin. Of the 25 informative cases with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, 9 were diagnosed as suspicious or positive by multiplex immunofluorescence urine cytology, but only 4 were similarly judged by conventional cytology. All cases without cancer were read as negative by both methods. The multiplex cytology sensitivity for cancer detection in informative cases was 36% (9/25), and specificity was 100% (8/8). In conclusion, we have successfully achieved multiple staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, nucleolin, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to detect prostate cancer cells in urine. Further refinements in marker selection and technique may increase sensitivity and applicability for prostate cancer diagnosis. PMID:19368959

  9. Fluorescence of prostate-specific antigen as measured with a portable 1D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong C.; Jeong, Jin H.; Jeong, Dong S.; Kim, Young M.; Oh, Sang W.; Choi, Eui Y.; Kim, Jae H.; Nahm, Kie B.

    2005-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an androgen-dependent glycoprotein protease (M.W. 33 kDa) and a member of kallikrein super-family of serine protease, and has chymotrypsin-like enzymatic activity. It is synthesized by the prostate epithelial cells and found in the prostate gland and seminal plasma as a major protein. It is widely used as a clinical marker for diagnosis, screening, monitoring and prognosis of prostate cancer. In normal male adults, the concentration of PSA in the blood is below 4 ng/ml and this value increases in patients with the prostate cancer or the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) due to its leakage into the circulatory system. As such, systematic monitoring of the PSA level in the blood can provide critical information about the progress of the prostatic disease. We have developed a compact integral system that can quantitatively measure the concentration of total PSA in human blood. This system utilizes the fluorescence emitted from the dye molecules attached to PSA molecules after appropriate immunoassay-based processing. Developed for the purpose of providing an affordable means of fast point-of-care testing of the prostate cancer, this system proved to be able to detect the presence of the PSA at the level of 0.18 ng/ml in less than 12 minutes, with the actual measurement taking less than 2 minutes. The design concept for this system is presented together with the result for a few representative samples.

  10. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 (P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 (P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 (P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  11. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 ( P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 ( P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 ( P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Before and After Elimination of Factors That Can Confound the Prostate-Specific Antigen Level

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jessica J.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Loffredo, Marian; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity, like PSA level, can be confounded. In this study, we estimated the impact that confounding factors could have on correctly identifying a patient with a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 50 men with newly diagnosed PC comprised the study cohort. We calculated and compared the false-positive and false-negative PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y rates for all men and those with low-risk disease using two approaches to calculate PSA velocity. First, we used PSA values obtained within 18 months of diagnosis; second, we used values within 18 months of diagnosis, substituting the prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA that was obtained using the same assay and without confounders. Results: Using PSA levels pre-biopsy, 46% of all men had a PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y; whereas this value declined to 32% when substituting the last prebiopsy PSA for a repeat, nonconfounded PSA using the same assay and without confounders. The false-positive rate for PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y was 43% as compared with a false-negative rate of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y of 11% (p = 0.0008) in the overall cohort. These respective values in the low-risk subgroup were 60% and 16.7% (p = 0.09). Conclusion: This study provides evidence to explain the discordance in cancer-specific outcomes among groups investigating the prognostic significance of PSA velocity >2 ng/ml/y, and highlights the importance of patient education on potential confounders of the PSA test before obtaining PSA levels.

  13. [Value of prostate-specific antigen measurements with newly developed enzyme immunoassay (MARKIT-M PA)].

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Onishi, H; Oishi, K; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1992-10-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) were investigated with a newly developed enzyme immunoassay (MARKIT-M PA, Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Sensitivity of the assay system is 0.5 ng/ml and the detection range is 0.5-100 ng/ml. There was a high linear correlation (r = 0.987) between the assay and MARKIT-F PA, and values obtained with the assay were almost equal to those yielded by MARKIT-F PA assay. Using the BPH group as a negative control, the upper cut-off value in BPH patients was determined to be 3.6 ng/ml. Of the 48 patients with untreated prostate cancer, 77% was detectable by means of MARKIT-M PA assay. Using the BPH group as a negative control, specificity and efficiency were 93% and 86%, respectively. In another group of 27 BPH patients whose blood samples were taken immediately after digital prostatic examination, PSA was elevated in 15%. During follow-up of prostate cancer patients, PSA was elevated in 82% at the time of clinically detectable progression. In 15 patients whose disease was clinically well controlled, all levels of PSA were observed to be negative. These findings suggests that detection of serum PSA with this assay is of great use both in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer patients. PMID:1282772

  14. Many young men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screen-detected prostate cancers may be candidates for active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeri; Ebertowski, James; Janiga, Matthew; Arzola, Jorge; Gillespie, Gayle; Fountain, Michael; Soderdahl, Douglas; Canby-Hagino, Edith; Elsamanoudi, Sally; Gurski, Jennifer; Davis, John W.; Parker, Patricia A.; Boyd, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To identify a population of young men (aged < 55 years at diagnosis) with very-low-risk prostate cancer (stage cT1c, with prostate-specific antigen [PSA] density of < 0.15 ng/mL/g, Gleason score ≤ 6, and ≤ 2 positive biopsy cores with < 50% tumour involvement) that may be candidates for active surveillance (AS). Patients and methods We queried a Department of Defense tumor registry and hard-copy records for servicemen diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1987 to 2010. Statistical analyses were undertaken using Fisher's exact and chi-square testing. Results From 1987–1991 and 2007–2010, PSA screen-detected tumours diagnosed in men aged ≤ 55 years > 30-fold. Data for a subset of men (174) with PSA screen-detected cancer were evaluable for disease risk assessment. Of the 174 men with screen-detected disease, 81 (47%) had very-low-risk disease. Of that group, 96% (78/81) selected treatment and, of 57 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), the tumours of 49 (86%) carried favourable pathology (organ confined, < 10% gland involvement, Gleason ≤ 6). Conclusions Nearly half of young men with PSA screen-detected prostate cancer are AS candidates but the overwhelming majority seek treatment. Considering that many tumours show favourable pathology at RP, there is a possibility that these patients may benefit from AS management. PMID:23350937

  15. The Different Reduction Rate of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Dutasteride and Finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Hyeuk; Cho, Sung Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare and analyze the therapeutic effects and changes in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level with treatment with finasteride or dutasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for 1 year. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated patients who suffered from BPH for 1 year between January 2005 and December 2008. For treatment groups, we divided the patients into two groups: one was treated with alfuzosin and finasteride and the other was treated with alfuzosin and dutasteride. At the beginning of treatment, the patients underwent transrectal ultrasonography and measurement of urine flow rate, residual urine volume, PSA, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Patients with diseases affecting urinary function were excluded. We not only analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment, but also after 1 year of treatment. A total of 219 patients were able to be evaluated for 1 year. Results Both finasteride and dutasteride reduced PSA and prostate volume significantly. The comparison between groups showed a more significant reduction of PSA (p=0.020) and prostate volume (p=0.052) in the dutasteride group. Other parameters did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions 5-α Reductase inhibitors for BPH treatment reduced PSA and prostate volume significantly when the patients were treated for 1 year. Administration of dutasteride is considered to be more effective in reducing PSA and prostate volume. Therefore, dutasteride should not be considered equivalent to finasteride in the reduction rate of PSA. The intensity of dutasteride must be reevaluated in comparison with finasteride. PMID:21031091

  16. Effect of ejaculation on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Tarhan, Fatih; Demir, Kadir; Orçun, Asuman; Madenci, Ozlem Cakır

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose:To evaluate the effect of ejaculation on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in patients with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS). Materials and Methods Our study includes 98 men (62 study and 36 control). After three days of sexual abstinence, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of baseline PSA levels. Then the patients were told to ejaculate. One, 5, 24 and 72 hours after ejaculation, serum total (tPSA), free (fPSA) and complexed PSA (cPSA) levels were measured. Serum PSA sampling was performed at the same intervals in the control group without ejaculation. Results The mean age in study and control groups patients were 59.03±0.99 years, 61.14±1.30 years, respectively. In the study group, changes in tPSA and fPSA levels after ejaculation were found statistically significant while changes in cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were not significant (p=0.016, p=0.0003, p=0.176, and p=0.173, respectively). Baseline values showed significant differences with 1st and 5th hours. No significant changes in tPSA, fPSA, cPSA levels and f/tPSA values were found in control group (p=0.223, p=0.224, p=0.444, and p=0.718, respectively). The changes in the number of patients exceeding the cutoff values after ejaculation were not statistically significant for tPSA, cPSA, and f/tPSA ratio. Conclusions In this study, ejaculation increased tPSA and fPSA concentrations but it didn’t have a significant effect on serum cPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios. However, recent ejaculation may affect the biopsy indication at least near cut off PSA values. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of alterations in the concentration of PSA. PMID:27286109

  17. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng . E-mail: Dongfeng_pan@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10{sup 9} PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases.

  18. In Vitro Targeted Photodynamic Therapy with a Pyropheophorbide-a Conjugated Inhibitor of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Choi, Joseph K.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKROUND The lack of specific delivery of photosensitizers (PSs), represents a significant limitation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The biomarker prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has attracted considerable attention as a target for imaging and therapeutic applications for prostate cancer. Although recent efforts have been made to conjugate inhibitors of PSMA with imaging agents, there have been no reports on photosensitizer-conjugated PSMA inhibitors for targeted PDT of prostate cancer. The present study focuses on the use of a PSMA inhibitor-conjugate of pyropheophorbide-a (Ppa-conjugate 2) for targeted PDT to achieve apoptosis in PSMA+ LNCaP cells. METHODS Confocal laser scanning microscopy with a combination of nuclear staining and immunofluorescence methods were employed to monitor the specific imaging and PDT-mediated apoptotic effects on PSMA-positive LNCaP and PSMA-negative (PC-3) cells. RESULTS Our results demonstrated that PDT-mediated effects by Ppa-conjugate 2 were specific to LNCaP cells, but not PC-3 cells. Cell permeability was detected as early as 2 h by HOE33342/PI double-staining, becoming more intense by 4 h. Evidence for the apoptotic caspase cascade being activated was based on the appearance of PARP p85 fragment. TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation 16 h post-PDT, confirming apoptotic events. CONCLUSIONS Cell permeability by HOE33342/PI double-staining as well as PARP p85 fragment and TUNEL assays confirm cellular apoptosis in PSMA+ cells when treated with PS-inhibitor conjugate 2 and subsequently irradiated. It is expected that the PSMA targeting small-molecule of this conjugate can serve as a delivery vehicle for PDT and other therapeutic applications for prostate cancer. PMID:19142895

  19. Phosphoproteome Integration Reveals Patient-Specific Networks in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Drake, Justin M; Paull, Evan O; Graham, Nicholas A; Lee, John K; Smith, Bryan A; Titz, Bjoern; Stoyanova, Tanya; Faltermeier, Claire M; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Carlin, Daniel E; Fleming, Daniel Teo; Wong, Christopher K; Newton, Yulia; Sudha, Sud; Vashisht, Ajay A; Huang, Jiaoti; Wohlschlegel, James A; Graeber, Thomas G; Witte, Owen N; Stuart, Joshua M

    2016-08-11

    We used clinical tissue from lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients obtained at rapid autopsy to evaluate diverse genomic, transcriptomic, and phosphoproteomic datasets for pathway analysis. Using Tied Diffusion through Interacting Events (TieDIE), we integrated differentially expressed master transcriptional regulators, functionally mutated genes, and differentially activated kinases in CRPC tissues to synthesize a robust signaling network consisting of druggable kinase pathways. Using MSigDB hallmark gene sets, six major signaling pathways with phosphorylation of several key residues were significantly enriched in CRPC tumors after incorporation of phosphoproteomic data. Individual autopsy profiles developed using these hallmarks revealed clinically relevant pathway information potentially suitable for patient stratification and targeted therapies in late stage prostate cancer. Here, we describe phosphorylation-based cancer hallmarks using integrated personalized signatures (pCHIPS) that shed light on the diversity of activated signaling pathways in metastatic CRPC while providing an integrative, pathway-based reference for drug prioritization in individual patients. PMID:27499020

  20. Posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific survival: An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K. . E-mail: Richard.Valicenti@mail.tju.edu; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hanks, Gerald E.; Porter, Arthur; Brereton, Harmar; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Shipley, William U.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: We evaluated whether posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) was predictive of prostate cancer mortality by testing the Prentice requirements for a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: We analyzed posttreatment PSA measurements in a cohort of 1,514 men with localized prostate cancer (T2c-4 and PSA level <150 ng/mL), treated and monitored prospectively on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02. From June 1992 to April 1995, men were randomized to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and 65-70 Gy of radiation therapy (n = 761), or in combination with 24 months of adjuvant androgen deprivation (n = 753). Using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, we tested if PSADT was prognostic and independent of randomized treatment in this cohort. The endpoints were time to PSADT (assuming first-order kinetics for a minimum of 3 rising PSA measurements) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Results: After a median follow-up time of 5.9 years, randomized treatment was a significant predictor for CSS (p{sub Cox} = 0.002), PSADT <6 months (p{sub Cox} < 0.001), PSADT <9 months (p{sub Cox} < 0.001), and PSADT <12 months (p{sub Cox} < 0.001) but not for PSADT <3 (p{sub Cox} = 0.4). The significant posttreatment PSADTs were also significant predictors of CSS (p{sub Cox}< 0.001). After adjusting for T stage, Gleason score and PSA, all of Prentice's requirements were not met, indicating that the effect of PSADT on CSS was not independent of the randomized treatment. Conclusions: Prostatic specific antigen doubling time is significantly associated with CSS, but did not meet all of Prentice's requirements for a surrogate endpoint of CSS. Thus, the risk of dying of prostate cancer is not fully explained by PSADT.

  1. The utility of STAT6 and ALDH1 expression in the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor versus prostate-specific stromal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Guner, Gunes; Bishop, Justin A; Bezerra, Stephania M; Taheri, Diana; Zahavi, David J; Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria Angelica; Sharma, Rajni; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2016-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) diagnosis in prostate can be challenging on small biopsies. Prostatic stromal tumors of unknown malignant potential (STUMP) and SFT have overlapping features. NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions that were recently identified in various SFTs lead to nuclear translocalization of STAT6. Nuclear STAT6 immunostaining is now considered an adjunct for SFT diagnosis. We evaluated STAT6 and an emerging stemness marker, ALDH1, in the differential diagnosis of SFT versus prostatic stromal lesions. Sixteen STUMPs, 12 SFTs, and 4 prostatic stromal sarcomas (12 needle biopsies, 13 radical prostatectomies, 7 transurethral resections) were retrieved (1995-2015). Sections were stained with polyclonal STAT6 antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA; S20, 1:100) and monoclonal ALDH1 antibody (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA; clone 44, 1:250). In STAT6 cases, only unequivocal nuclear staining (with/without cytoplasmic staining) was considered positive. Cytoplasmic ALDH1 staining was counted positive. Ten of 11 evaluable SFTs demonstrated strong and diffuse nuclear STAT6 positivity; 4 of 16 STUMPs had nuclear staining that was weak (1/4) or focal (1/4). ALDH1 positivity was seen in 10 of 12 evaluable SFTs and 3 of 15 STUMPs. Prostatic stromal sarcomas were STAT6 negative (4/4); 2 of 4 were ALDH1 positive. The sensitivity and specificity for STAT6 for the diagnosis of SFT were 91% and 75%, respectively. Coexpression of STAT6 and ALDH1 yielded the same sensitivity but improved the specificity (100%) for the diagnosis of SFT. STAT6 is a useful marker in the differential diagnosis of SFT versus STUMP. Using STAT6 and ALDH1 together increases specificity. STUMPs can show STAT6 positivity, and when they do, it is likely to be weak or focal. PMID:27068523

  2. A prostate-specific antigen-dependent fusion polypeptide inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Yueyun; Wei, Hua; Li, Bin; Xiao, Fengjing; Yang, Jing; Yue, Qiaohong; Yang, Angang; Hao, Xiaoke

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptide APP8 is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrug that was designed to synergize the effects of the Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) peptide, K237 and the DG2 peptide. The aim of this study is to evaluate its biodistribution and anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo. In this study, APP8 and each component peptide were synthesized. The biodistribution was identified using con-focal microscopyin both PSA+ cell line and PSA- cell line in vitro. Then cell cycle, MTT and in-cell western blot were accessed to analyze the effect mechanisms. Finally, xenografts were used to confirm the anticancer effect in vivo. Here, it was shown that APP8 was hydrolyzed and BH3 was released into the nucleus, while K237 and DG2 were located predominantly in the cytoplasm, only in LNCaP cells (PSA+), but not PC3 cells (PSA-). K237 and DG2 could induce cell apoptosis through decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK-2 and Flk-1. APP8 also caused the death of LNCaP cells, and was predominantly dependent on BH3 in vitro. In addition, It was noted that as the tumor grew in vivo, APP8 could inhibit the tumor volume to 77.3%, mainly depending on K237 and DG2 via inhibition of the growth of vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggested that APP8 could promote prostate cancer cell death and stop prostate cancer growth via synergizing apoptosis induction of tumor cell and inhibition of the growth of vascular endothelial cells. It provides a novel candidate prodrug for specific therapy of prostate cancer. PMID:27293998

  3. On the use of prostate-specific antigen for screening of prostate cancer in European Randomised Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H; Blijenberg, Bert G; Roobol, Monique J; Lilja, Hans; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2010-11-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been the main drive for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa), including in population-based screening as in the European Randomised Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). The specificity of PSA to indicate men with biopsy detectable prostate cancer can be improved by adding information obtained by new biomarkers, such as PSA isoforms. This improvement is needed to increase the efficacy of the screening procedure for the population-based as well as the individual screening. Various PSA isoforms, kallikreins and molecular markers have been validated in various cohorts from ERSPC of men with and without PCa in order to design the optimal diagnostic procedure for screening asymptomatic men. So far, most promising results have been obtained from the analysis of free PSA, proPSA, nicked PSA and hK2. The use of free PSA in addition to total PSA reduces the number of negative sextant biopsies at a PSA cut-off level of 3 ng/ml at initial screening with 30%, at the cost of losing 10% of detectable cancers that are predominantly well differentiated on histology. Further addition of PSA isoforms and hK2 only improve ROC curves in selected samples by a maximum of 5%. Molecular markers like PCA3 and TMPRSS2 in urine do not appear to be useful but they have been assessed insufficiently so far. The level of PSA at initial screening is highly predictive for the chance of being diagnosed with PCa later on in life. The changes in PSA over time after initial screening (like PSA-velocity and PSA-doubling time) are statistically different between men with detectable cancers versus those without (PSA-doubling time 5.1 versus 6.1 years), but this does not contribute significantly to population-based screening overall. Changes in specificity need to be related to a cost efficacy evaluation in the final analysis of ERSPC. PMID:21047594

  4. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Ye; Li, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Qun; Wang, Jian-Long; Wan, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min; Li, Sa-Ying; Wan, Gang; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The European Society of Urogenital Radiology has built the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) for standardizing the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). This study evaluated the PI-RADS diagnosis method in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml. Methods: A total of 133 patients with PSA <20 ng/ml were prospectively recruited. T2-weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance images of the prostate were acquired before a 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy. Each patient's peripheral zone was divided into six regions on the images; each region corresponded to two of the 12 biopsy cores. T2WI, DWI, and T2WI + DWI scores were computed according to PI-RADS. The diagnostic accuracy of the PI-RADS score was evaluated using histopathology of prostate biopsies as the reference standard. Results: PCa was histologically diagnosed in 169 (21.2%) regions. Increased PI-RADS score correlated positively with increased cancer detection rate. The cancer detection rate for scores 1 to 5 was 2.8%, 15.0%, 34.6%, 52.6%, and 88.9%, respectively, using T2WI and 12.0%, 20.2%, 48.0%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively, using DWI. For T2WI + DWI, the cancer detection rate was 1.5% (score 2), 13.5% (scores 3–4), 41.3% (scores 5–6), 75.9% (scores 7–8), and 92.3% (scores 9–10). The area under the curve for cancer detection was 0.700 (T2WI), 0.735 (DWI) and 0.749 (T2WI + DWI). The sensitivity and specificity were 53.8% and 89.2%, respectively, when using scores 5–6 as the cutoff value for T2WI + DWI. Conclusions: The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml. The summed score of T2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa. However, the sensitivity should be further improved. PMID:27270538

  5. DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Mira; MacAulay, Calum; Hayes, Malcolm; Korbelik, Jagoda; Morris, W. James; Palcic, Branko

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a

  6. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans. PMID:27385897

  7. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans. PMID:27385897

  8. Association of Census Tract-Level Socioeconomic Status with Disparities in Prostate Cancer-Specific Survival

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Vincent L.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Campbell, Richard T.; Barrett, Richard E.; Warnecke, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Social determinants of prostate cancer survival and their relation to racial/ethnic disparities thereof are poorly understood. We analyzed whether census tract-level socioeconomic status (SES) at diagnosis is a prognostic factor in men with prostate cancer and helps explain racial/ethnic disparities in survival. Methods We used a retrospective cohort of 833 African-American and white, non-Hispanic men diagnosed with prostate cancer at four Chicago-area medical centers between 1986 and 1990. Tract-level concentrated disadvantage (CD), a multi-dimensional area-based measure of SES, was calculated for each case using 1990 U.S. census data. Its association with prostate cancer-specific survival was measured using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for case and tumor characteristics, treatment, and healthcare system (private sector vs. Veterans Administration [VA]). Results Tract-level CD associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.37, p < .0001). However, the association was observed in the private sector and not in the VA (per 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, HR = 1.33, p < .0001 and HR = 0.93, p = .46, respectively). The multivariate HR for African Americans before and after accounting for tract-level CD was 1.30 (p = .0036) and 0.96 (p = .82), respectively. Conclusion Census tract-level SES is a social determinant of prostate-specific mortality and helps account for racial/ethnic disparities in survival. An equal-access healthcare system may moderate this association. Impact This study identifies a potential pathway for minimizing disparities in prostate cancer control. The findings need confirmation in a population-based study. PMID:21784953

  9. The DNA Structure-Specific Endonuclease MUS81 Mediates DNA Sensor STING-Dependent Host Rejection of Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samantha S W; Zhang, Wendy Y L; Tan, Nikki Yi Jie; Khatoo, Muznah; Suter, Manuel A; Tripathi, Shubhita; Cheung, Florence S G; Lim, Weng Khong; Tan, Puay Hoon; Ngeow, Joanne; Gasser, Stephan

    2016-05-17

    Self-DNA is present in the cytosol of many cancer cells and can promote effective immune rejection of tumor cells, but the mechanisms leading to the presence of cytosolic DNA are unknown. Here, we report that the cleavage of genomic DNA by DNA structure-specific endonuclease MUS81 and PARP-dependent DNA repair pathways leads to the accumulation of cytosolic DNA in prostate cancer cells. The number of nuclear MUS81 foci and the amount of cytosolic dsDNA increased in tandem from hyperplasia to clinical stage II prostate cancers and decreased at stage III. Cytosolic DNA generated by MUS81 stimulated DNA sensor STING-dependent type I interferon (IFN) expression and promoted phagocytic and T cell responses, resulting in type I and II IFN-mediated rejection of prostate tumor cells via mechanisms that partly depended on macrophages. Our results demonstrate that the tumor suppressor MUS81 alerts the immune system to the presence of transformed host cells. PMID:27178469

  10. Label electrochemical immunosensor for prostate-specific antigen based on graphene and silver hybridized mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueyun; Han, Jian; Chen, Runhai; Ren, Xiang; Wei, Qin

    2015-01-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as the specificity of prostate cancer markers, has been widely used in prostate cancer diagnosis and screening. In this study, we fabricated an electrochemical immunosensor for PSA detection using the amino-functionalized graphene sheet-ferrocenecarboxaldehyde composite materials (NH2-GS@FCA) and silver hybridized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag@NH2-MCM48). Under optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor showed a wide linear range with PSA concentration (0.01-10.0ng·ml(-1)). Low detection limit (2pg·ml(-1)) proved the high sensitivity. In addition, the immunosensor possessed good stability and reproducibility. Moreover, the application to PSA analysis in serum samples yielded satisfactory results. PMID:25448622

  11. Awareness and use of the prostate-specific antigen test among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Louie E.; Uhler, Robert J.; Williams, Kymber N.

    2005-01-01

    Although African-American men have a greater burden of prostate cancer than whites and other racial and ethnic groups, few studies on the burden of prostate cancer have focused on African Americans specifically. We used a sample of African-American men (N = 736) who participated in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to explore their awareness of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Among African-American men aged > or = 45 with no history of prostate cancer, 63% had heard of the PSA test and 48% had been tested. Bivariate analyses showed significant associations between sociodemographic, family composition, health status and perceived risk with having heard of the PSA test and having been tested. The multivariate model showed significant associations between having heard of the PSA test and age, level of education, living in an MSA, and having private or military health insurance. For ever being tested, the multivariate model showed significant associations for age, private or military health insurance, being in fair or poor health, and having a family history of prostate cancer. Some of the correlates, such as age, increased levels of education and being married, were consistent with previous studies, but other correlates, such as metropolitan statistical area, health status and perceived risk, differed from previous studies. PMID:16080666

  12. Penetration of piperacillin-tazobactam into human prostate tissue and dosing considerations for prostatitis based on site-specific pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ikuo; Ikawa, Kazuro; Nakamura, Kogenta; Nishikawa, Genya; Kajikawa, Keishi; Yoshizawa, Takahiko; Watanabe, Masahito; Kato, Yoshiharu; Zennami, Kenji; Kanao, Kent; Tobiume, Motoi; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Mitsui, Kenji; Narushima, Masahiro; Morikawa, Norifumi; Sumitomo, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the penetration of PIPC-TAZ into human prostate, and to assess effectiveness of PIPC-TAZ against prostatitis by evaluating site-specific PK-PD. Patients with prostatic hypertrophy (n = 47) prophylactically received a 0.5 h infusion of PIPC-TAZ (8:1.2-0.25 g or 4-0.5 g) before transurethral resection of the prostate. PIPC-TAZ concentrations in plasma (0.5-5 h) and prostate tissue (0.5-1.5 h) were analyzed with a three-compartment PK model. The estimated model parameters were, then used to estimate the drug exposure time above the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacteria (T > MIC, the PD indicator for antibacterial effects) in prostate tissue for six PIPC-TAZ regimens (2.25 or 4.5 g; once, twice, three times or four times daily; 0.5 h infusions). Prostate tissue/plasma ratio of PIPC was about 36% both for the maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and the area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC). Against MIC distributions for isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Proteus species, regimens of 4.5 g twice daily and 2.25 g three times daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bacteriostatic target for PIPC (30% T > MIC) in prostate tissue; regimens of 4.5 g three times daily and 2.25 g four times daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bactericidal target for PIPC (50% T > MIC) in prostate tissue. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, none of the tested regimens achieved a >90% probability. PIPC-TAZ is appropriate for the treatment of prostatitis from the site-specific PK-PD perspective. PMID:26050020

  13. Autologous dendritic cells transfected with prostate-specific antigen RNA stimulate CTL responses against metastatic prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    Heiser, Axel; Coleman, Doris; Dannull, Jens; Yancey, Donna; Maurice, Margaret A.; Lallas, Costas D.; Dahm, Philipp; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Gilboa, Eli; Vieweg, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with mRNA encoding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are able to stimulate potent, T cell–mediated antitumor immune responses in vitro. A phase I trial was performed to evaluate this strategy for safety, feasibility, and efficacy to induce T cell responses against the self-protein PSA in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In 13 study subjects, escalating doses of PSA mRNA–transfected DCs were administered with no evidence of dose-limiting toxicity or adverse effects, including autoimmunity. Induction of PSA-specific T cell responses was consistently detected in all patients, suggesting in vivo bioactivity of the vaccine. Vaccination was further associated with a significant decrease in the log slope PSA in six of seven subjects; three patients that could be analyzed exhibited a transient molecular clearance of circulating tumor cells. The demonstration of vaccine safety, successful in vivo induction of PSA-specific immunity, and impact on surrogate clinical endpoints provides a scientific rationale for further clinical investigation of RNA-transfected DCs in the treatment of human cancer. PMID:11828001

  14. Impact of short course hormonal therapy on overall and cancer specific survival after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, David C. . E-mail: dbeyer@azoncology.com; McKeough, Timothy; Thomas, Theresa

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To review the impact of prior hormonal therapy on 10-year overall and prostate cancer specific survival after primary brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on the Arizona Oncology Services tumor registry for 2,378 consecutive permanent prostate brachytherapy cases from 1988 through 2001. Hormonal therapy was administered before the implant in 464 patients for downsizing of the prostate or at the discretion of the referring physician. All deceased patients with known clinical recurrence were considered to have died of prostate cancer, irrespective of the immediate cause of death. Risk groups were defined, with 1,135 favorable (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] < 10, Gleason < 7, Stage T1-T2a), 787 intermediate (single adverse feature), and 456 unfavorable (two or more adverse features) patients. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival curves were generated for both overall and cause-specific survival from the time of treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the impact of hormonal intervention in comparison with known risk factors of grade, PSA, and age. Results: With follow-up ranging up to 12.6 years and a median of 4.1 year, a total of 474 patients died, with 67 recorded as due to prostate cancer. Overall and cause-specific 10-year survival rates are 43% and 88%, respectively. Overall survival is 44% for the hormone naive patients, compared with 20% for the hormone-treated cohort (p = 0.02). The cancer-specific survival is 89% vs. 81% for the same groups (p = 0.133). Multivariate analysis confirms the significance of age > 70 years (p = 0.0013), Gleason score {>=} 7 (p = 0.0005), and prior hormone use (p = 0.0065) on overall survival. Conclusions: At 10 years, in prostate cancer patients receiving brachytherapy, overall survival is worse in men receiving neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, compared with hormone naive patients. This does not appear to be due to other known risk factors for survival (i.e., stage, grade

  15. Orphan nuclear receptor nurr1 as a potential novel marker for progression in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Jing; Zou, Ying; Huang, Guo-Liang; He, Zhi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that Nurr1, which belongs to a novel class of orphan nuclear receptors (the NR4A family), is important for carcinogenesis. Here we investigated expression of Nurr1 protein in benign and malignant human prostate tissues and association with clinicopathologic features using immunohistochemical techniques. Moreover, we also investigated the ability of Nurr1 to influence proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells using small interfering RNA silencing. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of Nurr1 protein was higher in prostate cancer tissues than in benign prostate tissue (P < 0.001), levels being positively correlated with tumor T classification (P = 0.003), N classification (P = 0.017), M classification (P = 0.011) and the Gleason score (P = 0.020) of prostate cancer patients. In vitro, silencing of endogenous Nurr1 attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that Nurr1 may be used as an indicator for prostate cancer progression and be useful for novel potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:23679312

  16. Extended use of Prostate Health Index and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen in Chinese men with prostate specific antigen 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Peter Ka-Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen-Chun; Lee, Wai-Man; Yee, Chi-Hang; Chan, Eddie Shu-Yin; Hou, See-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the extended use of Prostate Health Index (PHI) and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (%p2PSA) in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE). Materials and Methods All consecutive Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE who agreed for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 10-core prostate biopsy were recruited. Blood samples were taken immediately before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The performances of total PSA (tPSA), %free-to-total PSA (%fPSA), %p2PSA, and PHI were compared using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and decision curve analyses (DCA). Results From 2008 to 2015, 312 consecutive Chinese men were included. Among them, 53 out of 312 (17.0%) men were diagnosed to have prostate cancer on biopsy. The proportions of men with positive biopsies were 6.7% in PHI<35, 22.8% in PHI 35–55, and 54.5% in PHI>55 (chi-square test, p<0.001). The area under curves (AUC) of the base model including age, tPSA and status of initial/repeated biopsy was 0.64. Adding %p2PSA and PHI to the base model improved the AUC to 0.79 (p<0.001) and 0.78 (p<0.001), respectively, and provided net clinical benefit in DCA. The positive biopsy rates of Gleason 7 or above prostate cancers were 2.2% for PHI<35, 7.9% for PHI 35–55, and 36.4% for PHI>55 (chi-square test, p<0.001). By utilizing the PHI cutoff of 35 to men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE, 57.1% (178 of 312) biopsies could be avoided. Conclusions Both PHI and %p2PSA performed well in predicting prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. The use of PHI and %p2PSA should be extended to Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE.

  17. Photoaffinity labelling of nuclear steroid 5 alpha-reductase of rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Enderle-Schmitt, U; Seitz, J; Aumüller, G

    1989-09-01

    In order to get more information on the molecular structure of the rat prostatic 5 alpha-reductase (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid: NADP+ 4-ene-oxidoreductase, EC 1.3:1.22) a systematic photoaffinity labelling study has been performed. To irreversibly freeze the status quo of interaction, either testosterone, the physiological ligand, or diazo-MAPD (21-diazo-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione), a specific 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, was irradiated with isolated nuclei or with purified nuclear membranes or with solubilized nuclear membrane proteins and checked for optimal labelling conditions. The principal substances covalently labelled were phospholipids and at a minor ratio proteins. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and autoradiofluorography revealed two labelled polypeptides with molecular weights of 20 kDa and 26 kDa. The following evidence indicates that these polypeptides might be derived from the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase: both proteins are labelled only when specific ligands for 5 alpha-reductase are used; binding can be reduced by the addition of an excess of unlabelled ligand; enzyme activity is irreversibly suppressed when irradiated in the presence of these ligands; only subcellular fractions containing 5 alpha-reductase reveal the labelled proteins; in all 5 alpha-reductase containing preparations with increasing specific activity, independent of the polypeptide pattern, the same proteins are labelled. PMID:2779229

  18. Prostate-Specific Antigen and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the C8 Health Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fan, Hongmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To inform questions raised by inconsistent findings regarding an association between perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and prostate cancer by assessing the relationship of PFAAs in human serum to prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Methods: Using 2005 to 2006 survey data from a large survey population, we compared serum PFAA concentrations in adult males with PSA concentrations adjusted for risk factors including age, body mass index, smoking status, and socioeconomic status. Results: Perfluoroalkyl acids are not consistently associated with PSA concentration in general, or with PSA more than 4.0. Discussion: These findings do not provide evidence that PFAA exposure is associated with PSA. PMID:25563548

  19. Prostate-specific membrane antigen as a target for cancer imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    KIESS, A. P.; BANERJEE, S. R.; MEASE, R. C.; ROWE, S. P.; RAO, A.; FOSS, C. A.; CHEN, Y.; YANG, X.; CHO, S. Y.; NIMMAGADDA, S.; POMPER, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a molecular target whose use has resulted in some of the most productive work toward imaging and treating prostate cancer over the past two decades. A wide variety of imaging agents extending from intact antibodies to low-molecular-weight compounds permeate the literature. In parallel there is a rapidly expanding pool of antibody-drug conjugates, radiopharmaceutical therapeutics, small-molecule drug conjugates, theranostics and nanomedicines targeting PSMA. Such productivity is motivated by the abundant expression of PSMA on the surface of prostate cancer cells and within the neovasculature of other solid tumors, with limited expression in most normal tissues. Animating the field is a variety of small-molecule scaffolds upon which the radionuclides, drugs, MR-detectable species and nanoparticles can be placed with relative ease. Among those, the urea-based agents have been most extensively leveraged, with expanding clinical use for detection and more recently for radiopharmaceutical therapy of prostate cancer, with surprisingly little toxicity. PSMA imaging of other cancers is also appearing in the clinical literature, and may overtake FDG for certain indications. Targeting PSMA may provide a viable alternative or first-line approach to managing prostate and other cancers. PMID:26213140

  20. Evaluation of prostatic cancer prevalence in patients with prostatic-specific antigen between 4 and 10 and normal digital rectal examination

    PubMed Central

    Tadayon, Farhad; Arezegar, Hamid Reza; Khorrami, Mohammad Hatef; Hashemi Juzdani, Rasoul; Shahdoost, Amir Abbas; Mellat, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers. The prevalence of prostate cancer is different due to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of prostate cancer is by biopsy due to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Digital Rectal Examination (DRE). Controversy about decision making for prostate biopsy in PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, is one of the problems in this time. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of prostate cancer in males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE. We also evaluated the PSA density and percent of free PSA in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, were evaluated. Then, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) andprostate biopsy from 12 points of peripheral zone, was done. These data were analyzed by Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA and Roc curve. Results: In this study, the prevalence of prostate cancer in PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, was evaluated, 29.8%. With use of Roc curve, PSA density cutoff point was calculated 0.12 and percent of free PSA cutoff point, was calculated, 18%. Conclusion: In males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, PSA density smaller than 0.12-0.15, and percent of free PSA greater than 18%, the prevalence of prostate cancer is very few and we can safely ignore the TRUS and prostate biopsy in these males and eliminate its costs and side effects. PMID:27403407

  1. A critical evaluation of a specific radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, S.L.; Silver, H.K.; Sullivan, L.D.; Morse, M.J.; Archibald, E.L.

    1982-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for acid phosphatase detection was compared to a standard enzyme assay using sera from 210 normal volunteers and 285 patients with prostatic disease. Statistical and clinical comparisons were made between defined subgroups. All 55 normal females had RIA detectable serum acid phosphatase, implying that this assay cannot be entirely specific for enzyme of prostatic origin. Urinary catheterization did not affect acid phosphatase levels. In all stages of carcinoma there were more acid phosphatase elevations by the RIA method than enzyme method, but neither assay could differentiate intercapsular cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia. A small number of patients with biopsy proven negative nodules had marginally elevated values, suggesting an obligation for closer follow-up. The RIA method may be superior for monitoring patients with more advanced malignancy. Additional practical advantages of the RIA include relative simplicity and elimination of the special serum handling required for the enzyme assay.

  2. Treatment Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients With Ultra-High Prostate-Specific Antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Tonita, Jon; Woitas, Carla; Zhu Tong; Joseph, Kurian; Skarsgard, David

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: It is commonly believed that prostate cancer patients with very high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are unlikely to benefit from definitive local treatment, and patients with very high PSA are often underrepresented in, or excluded from, randomized clinical trials. Consequently, little is known about their optimal treatment or prognosis. We performed a registry-based analysis of management and outcome in this population of patients. Methods and Materials: Our provincial Cancer Registry was used to identify all men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1990 to 2001. A retrospective chart review provided information on stage, Gleason score, PSA at diagnosis, and treatment. In this study, ultra-high PSA was defined as PSA of {>=}50 ng/ml. For a more complete perspective, treatment outcomes of patients with PSA of 20 to 49.9 ng/ml were also studied. Results: Of the 8378 men diagnosed with prostate cancer during this period, 6,449 had no known nodal or distant metastatic disease. The median follow-up of this group was 67.2 months (range, 0-192 months). A total of 1534 patients had PSA of {>=}20 ng/ml. Among the 995 patients with PSA 20 to 49.9 ng/ml, 85 had radical prostatectomy (RP), and their 5- and 10-year cause-specific survivals (CSS) were 95% and 84%, respectively. The 497 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) had 5- and 10-year CSS of 92% and 71%. For the 332 patients with PSA 50-99.9 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 81% and 55%. For the 207 patients with PSA of {>=}100 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 80% and 54%. Conclusions: This is the largest series in the world on non metastatic cancer patients with ultra-high PSA at diagnosis. Even in the setting of a very high presenting PSA level, prostatectomy and radiotherapy are often associated with prolonged survival.

  3. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Xin; TANG, Jie; FEI, Xiang; LI, Qiu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less. Methods: A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated. Results: Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (P<0.05). The PSAD had no statistical significance between the two groups. Conclusions: Routine prostate biopsy should be undertaken if the f/t PSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings. PMID:26744703

  4. Small Molecule Antagonists of the Nuclear Androgen Receptor for the Treatment of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James K; Skoda, Erin M; Zhou, Jianhua; Parrinello, Erica; Wang, Dan; O'Malley, Katherine; Eyer, Benjamin R; Kazancioglu, Mustafa; Eisermann, Kurtis; Johnston, Paul A; Nelson, Joel B; Wang, Zhou; Wipf, Peter

    2016-08-11

    After a high-throughput screening campaign identified thioether 1 as an antagonist of the nuclear androgen receptor, a zone model was developed for structure-activity relationship (SAR) purposes and analogues were synthesized and evaluated in a cell-based luciferase assay. A novel thioether isostere, cyclopropane (1S,2R)-27, showed the desired increased potency and structural properties (stereospecific SAR response, absence of a readily oxidized sulfur atom, low molecular weight, reduced number of flexible bonds and polar surface area, and drug-likeness score) in the prostate-specific antigen luciferase assay in C4-2-PSA-rl cells to qualify as a new lead structure for prostate cancer drug development. PMID:27563404

  5. PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN IS A “CHYMOTRYPSIN-LIKE” SERINE PROTEASE WITH UNIQUE P1 SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY

    PubMed Central

    LeBeau, Aaron M.; Singh, Pratap; Isaacs, John T.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine protease belonging to the human kallikrein family, is best known as a prostate cancer biomarker. Emerging evidence suggests that PSA may also play a salient role in prostate cancer development and progression. With large amounts of enzymatically active PSA continuously and selectively produced by all stages of prostate cancer, PSA is an attractive target. PSA inhibitors, therefore, may represent a promising class of therapeutics and/or imaging agents. PSA displays chymotrypsin-like specificity, cleaving after hydrophobic residues, in addition to possessing a unique ability to cleave after glutamine in the P1 position. In this study, we investigated the structural motifs of the PSA S1 pocket that give it a distinct architecture and specificity when compared to the S1 pocket of chymotrypsin. Using the previously described PSA substrate Ser-Ser-Lys-Leu-Gln (SSKLQ) as a template, peptide aldehyde based inhibitors containing novel P1 aldehydes were made and tested against both proteases. Glutamine derivative aldehydes were highly specific for PSA while inhibitors with hydrophobic P1 aldehydes were potent inhibitors of both proteases with Ki values < 500 nM. The crystal structure of PSA was used to generate a model that allowed GOLD docking studies to be performed to further understand the critical interactions required for inhibitor binding to the S1 pockets of PSA and chymotrypsin. In conclusion, these results provide experimental and structural evidence that the S1 specificity pocket of PSA is distinctly different from that of chymotrypsin and that the development of highly specific PSA inhibitors is feasible. PMID:19281249

  6. Salvage Radiotherapy for Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: Dose-Response Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Johnny Ray; Buskirk, Steven J.; Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Ko, Stephen J.; Macdonald, Orlan K.; Schild, Steven E.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose and biochemical failure (BcF) of prostate cancer in patients who received salvage prostate bed EBRT for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with a rising PSA level after prostatectomy who received salvage EBRT between July 1987 and October 2007. Patients receiving pre-EBRT androgen suppression were excluded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between EBRT dose and BcF. Dose was considered as a numeric variable and as a categoric variable (low, <64.8 Gy; moderate, 64.8-66.6 Gy; high, >66.6 Gy). Results: A total of 364 men met study selection criteria and were followed up for a median of 6.0 years (range, 0.1-19.3 years). Median pre-EBRT PSA level was 0.6 ng/mL. The estimated cumulative rate of BcF at 5 years after EBRT was 50% overall and 57%, 46%, and 39% for the low-, moderate-, and high-dose groups, respectively. In multivariable analysis adjusting for potentially confounding variables, there was evidence of a linear trend between dose and BcF, with risk of BcF decreasing as dose increased (relative risk [RR], 0.77 [5.0-Gy increase]; p = 0.05). Compared with the low-dose group, there was evidence of a decreased risk of BcF for the high-dose group (RR, 0.60; p = 0.04), but no difference for the moderate-dose group (RR, 0.85; p = 0.41). Conclusions: Our results suggest a dose response for salvage EBRT. Doses higher than 66.6 Gy result in decreased risk of BcF.

  7. Current and projected annual direct costs of screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M D; Coombs, A; Levy, I G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern over the cost of screening for asymptomatic prostate cancer by means of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has played an important role in PSA screening policy. However, little is known about the true costs of current PSA screening in Canada and how costs may change in the future. METHODS: The authors performed a cost identification study from the perspective of provincial ministries of health. They used data from published reports, hospital discharge data, claims data from several provinces, a laboratory survey, a national survey of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about screening, a provincial cancer registry and expert opinion to estimate current first-year screening costs. Using demographic data from Statistics Canada and various scenarios regarding changes in screening patterns, the authors derived estimates of the future costs of PSA screening. RESULTS: In 1995 PSA screening cost an estimated $45 million (range $40 million to $84 million). Treatment accounted for over 61% of total costs, whereas screening, diagnosis and staging accounted for 35%. Screening all eligible men in Canada in 1995 would have cost $317 million (range $356 million to $691 million), more than the costs of all prostate cancer care in that year. Annual recurrent screening for all eligible men in 2005 would cost $219 million (range $208 million to $412 million). Projections from existing trends suggest that annual costs of PSA screening in 2000 are likely to increase from the estimated $45 million to approximately $66 million (range $59 million to $126 million). INTERPRETATION: PSA screening is costly, but even universal screening would consume a smaller share of national health expenditures than previous studies have suggested. Costs attributable to PSA screening may increase in the future owing to changes in utilization patterns and demographic shifts. PMID:9934343

  8. 68Ga-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Peptide as Marker for Androgen Deprivation Therapy Response in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlenkhoff, Carl Diedrich; Gaertner, Florian; Essler, Markus; Hauser, Stefan; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cancer was diagnosed in a 71-year-old man with an elevated prostate-specific antigen. The CT of the abdomen showed multiple para-aortal lymph nodes, and thus, a Ga anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-11) PET/CT was initiated, which showed, aside from the prostate cancer and multiple iliacal and para-aortal lymph node metastases, an increased tracer uptake in a lymph node left cervical. According to this advanced disease, a palliative therapy with GnRH agonist was initiated. A second PSMA-11 PET/CT was performed 4 months later, which showed a very good response; thus, additional radiation of the pelvis and the draining lymphatic system was performed. PMID:26859213

  9. Radioimmunotherapy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer with ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTAhuJ591 Anti Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Specific Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Jhanwar, Yuliya S; Kaur, Gurveen; Tagawa, Scott T; Nanus, David M; Bander, Neil H; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the single most well-validated prostate cancer (PCa)-specific cell membrane antigen known. It is present in high levels in 95% of PCa, and is an ideal target to develop radiopharmaceuticals for imaging studies and radionuclide therapy. Humanized J591 monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds specifically with nanomolar affinity to the extracellular domain of PSMA. After binding, the PSMA-antibody complex is rapidly internalized, increasing the potential utility of PSMA as a target for the delivery of mAb-conjugated radionuclides or cytotoxins. J591 mAb was labeled with 177Lu at a high specific activity (10-30 mCi/mg) using DOTA as the bifunctional chelate. The preclinical data in PSMA positive xenografts, strongly suggested that 177;Lu-J591 mAb is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for RIT of metastatic PCa. Since October 2000, five clinical studies (phase I and II) were performed in subjects with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) using 177Lu-J591. The methodology and the results of these clinical studies are briefly reviewed in this article. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) as a single dose was 70 mCi2. Based on dose fractionation (DF), MTD was 90 mCi/m2(2 doses of 45 mCi/m2, 2 wks apart). Phase II study in patients with progressive metastatic CRPC, at a dose of 65- 70 mCi/m2 resulted in significant PSA declines in 60% of the patients. While myelosuppression was the dose limiting toxicity, DF alone or in combination with docetaxel also resulted in significant PSA declines with much less toxicity. 177Lu imaging studies demonstrated accurate targeting of known metastatic sites in >90% of patients and those with stronger PSMA expression by semi-quantitative imaging had more PSA declines. These clinical studies clearly documented the potential therapeutic value of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in metastatic PCa. PMID:25771365

  10. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    O’Kane, Dermot B.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection. PMID:27141207

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)–Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men and their second or third leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for PC has been in common practice for more than 20 years. Objectives A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the effectiveness of PSA-based population screening programs for PC to inform policy decisions in a publicly funded health care system. Data Sources A systematic review of bibliographic databases was performed for systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) of PSA-based population screening programs for PC. Review Methods A broad search strategy was employed to identify studies reporting on key outcomes of PC mortality and all-cause mortality. Results The search identified 5 systematic reviews and 6 RCTs. None of the systematic reviews found a statistically significant reduction in relative risk (RR) of PC mortality or overall mortality with PSA-based screening. PC mortality reductions were found to vary by country, by screening program, and by age of men at study entry. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer found a statistically significant reduction in RR in PC mortality at 11-year follow-up (0.79; 95% CI, 0.67–0.92), although the absolute risk reduction was small (1.0/10,000 person-years). However, the primary treatment for PCs differed significantly between countries and between trial arms. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) found a statistically non-significant increase in RR for PC mortality with 13-year follow-up (1.09; 95% CI, 0.87–1.36). The degree of opportunistic screening in the control arm of the PLCO trial, however, was high. None of the RCTs found a reduction in all-cause mortality and all found a statistically significant increase in the detection of mainly low-risk, organ-confined PCs in the screening arm. Conclusions There was no

  12. In vivo characterization of a prostate-specific antigen promoter-based suicide gene therapy for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Cheon, J; Cho, H Y; Ko, Y H; Bae, J H; Moon, D G; Kim, J J

    2003-07-01

    To develop a novel gene therapeutic modality for the effective treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we investigated the properties of toxic gene therapy utilizing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter driving herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) suicide gene to induce highly selective molecular ablation of epithelial cells with minimal systemic toxicity in canine prostate. Replication-defective recombinant adenoviral vectors containing HSV-TK gene under transcriptional control of long PSA promoter (Ad-PSA-HSV-TK) were developed and delivered in an situ manner. Briefly, laparotomies were performed and Ad-PSA-HSV-TK (1 x 10(9) PFUs) was injected into the left lateral lobe of prostate only on days 1 and 7 with appropriate prodrug acyclovir in adult Beagle dogs. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated on the 56th experimental day. The striking apoptosis of epithelial cells was identified in the treated left half of canine prostate on TUNEL assay. On immunohistochemical studies, there was markedly decreased number of PSA-secreting epithelial cells compared to control. Also significant atrophy of prostate glands, associated with dense infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells, was identified in the treated side. The PSA promoter-based suicide gene therapy induced highly selective and definite ablation of epithelial cells in benign canine prostate. Our novel approach could open opportunity of gene therapeutic modality for the treatment of clinical BPH. PMID:12808443

  13. [The role of prostate specific antigen in diagnosis of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Nara Uro-Oncology Research Group].

    PubMed

    Hirao, Y; Ozono, S; Kagebayashi, Y; Yoshi, M; Tani, Y; Uemura, H; Momose, H; Okajima, E

    1996-10-01

    The number of cases of prostate carcinoma (PCA) is steadily inceasing in Japan. The clinical application of a reliable tumor marker, prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis, as well as the increasing elderly population in Japan may account for this increase. The subjects were patients at the Nara Medical University and its affiliated hospitals; 1) 687 cases without PCA were evaluated for age-specific PSA and the incidence of abnormal PSA following urological manipulations, 2) 135 cases with histological proven BPH by transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) were examined for PSA density (PSAD) and positive PSA rate in BPH, 3) 135 cases receiving a needle biopsy with suspicion of PCA were examined for the efficacy of PSA and PSAD and other parameters, and 4) 459 PCA cases treated between 1988 and 1994, were examined for specific PSA and PSAD values by stage and degree of cell differentiation. The PSA assay used in this study was MARKIT-M PA (normal range < or = 3.6 ng/ml). The PSA was decreased gradually with age in non-PCA patients, and abnormal PSA was found in 5.5% of these patients following manipulations. The average PSA was 2.95 +/- 2.03 ng/ml in 130 BPH patients (mean age: 71.1 +/- 7.0 years old. and average prostate volume: 32.9 +/- 16.1 ml). And abnormal PSA level (more than 3.61 ng/ml) was found in 22.3%. The mean PSAD was 0.1.0 +/- 0.06, and PSAD was below 0.15 in 86.1% of these BPH cases. Among the 135 cases receiving a needle biopsy, 33 cases had PSA values between 3.61 and 10.0 ng/ml. Of these cases, PCA was found in 18.5% of the 27 cases with a PSAD below 1.5, and in 33.3% of the 6 cases with a PSAD over 1.5. PSA and PSAD were proportionally increased with stage, and a significant difference in the PSA value was observed between stage B1 and B2, and stage C and D (P < 0.05). However, PSA and PSAD values were not significantly correlated with the cell differentiation in PCA stage A2-C. In total, PSA was 18.1 ng/ml in well, 23.9 ng/ml in

  14. Integrated and Functional Genomics Analysis Validates the Relevance of the Nuclear Variant ErbB380kDa in Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    El Maassarani, Mahmoud; Barbarin, Alice; Fromont, Gaëlle; Kaissi, Ouafae; Lebbe, Margot; Vannier, Brigitte; Moussa, Ahmed; Séité, Paule

    2016-01-01

    The EGF-family of tyrosine-kinase receptors activates cytoplasmic pathways involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation in response to specific extracellular ligands. Beside these canonical pathways, the nuclear localization of the ErbB receptors in primary tumours and cancer cell lines led to investigate their role as transcriptional regulators of cancer genes. The nuclear localization of ErbB3 has been reported in various cancer tissues and cell lines but the nuclear functions and the putative correlation with tumour progression and resistance to therapy remain unclear. We first assessed ErbB3 expression in normal and tumour prostate tissues. The nuclear staining was mainly due to an isoform matching the C-terminus domain of the full length ErbB3185kDa receptor. Nuclear staining was also restricted to cancer cells and was increased in advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer when compared to localized tumours, suggesting it could be involved in the progression of prostate cancer up to the terminal castration-resistant stage. ChIP-on-chip experiments were performed on immortalized and tumour cell lines selected upon characterization of endogenous nuclear expression of an ErbB380kDa isoform. Among the 1840 target promoters identified, 26 were selected before ErbB380kDa-dependent gene expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, providing evidence that ErbB380kDa exerted transcriptional control on those genes. Some targets are already known to be involved in prostate cancer progression even though no link was previously established with ErbB3 membrane and/or nuclear signalling. Many others, not yet associated with prostate cancer, could provide new therapeutic possibilities for patients expressing ErbB380kDa. Detecting ErbB380kDa could thus constitute a useful marker of prognosis and response to therapy. PMID:27191720

  15. Towards Personalized Treatment of Prostate Cancer: PSMA I&T, a Promising Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Theranostic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Heskamp, Sandra; Konijnenberg, Mark; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D.M.; Franssen, Gerben M.; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Schottelius, Margret; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Boerman, Otto C.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established target for nuclear imaging and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). Radiolabeled small-molecule PSMA inhibitors are excellent candidates for PCa theranostics—they rapidly and efficiently localize in tumor lesions. However, high tracer uptake in kidneys and salivary glands are major concerns for therapeutic applications. Here, we present the preclinical application of PSMA I&T, a DOTAGA-chelated urea-based PSMA inhibitor, for SPECT/CT imaging and radionuclide therapy of PCa. 111In-PSMA I&T showed dose-dependent uptake in PSMA-expressing tumors, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, lungs and salivary glands. Coadministration of 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid (2-PMPA) efficiently reduced PSMA-mediated renal uptake of 111In-PSMA I&T, with the highest tumor/kidney radioactivity ratios being obtained using a dose of 50 nmol 2-PMPA. SPECT/CT clearly visualized subcutaneous tumors and sub-millimeter intraperitoneal metastases; however, high renal and spleen uptake in control mice (no 2-PMPA) interfered with visualization of metastases in the vicinity of those organs. Coadministration of 2-PMPA increased the tumor-to-kidney absorbed dose ratio during 177Lu-PSMA I&T radionuclide therapy. Hence, at equivalent absorbed dose to the tumor (36 Gy), coinjection of 2-PMPA decreased absorbed dose to the kidneys from 30 Gy to 12 Gy. Mice injected with 177Lu-PSMA I&T only, showed signs of nephrotoxicity at 3 months after therapy, whereas mice injected with 177Lu-PSMA I&T + 2-PMPA did not. These data indicate that PSMA I&T is a promising theranostic tool for PCa. PSMA-specific uptake in kidneys can be successfully tackled using blocking agents such as 2-PMPA. PMID:27162555

  16. Structural Optimization, Biological Evaluation and Application of Peptidomimetic Prostate Specific Antigen Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kostova, Maya B.; Rosen, D. Marc; Chen, Ying; Mease, Ronnie C.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced at high levels by normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells that is used extensively as a biomarker in the clinical management of prostate cancer. To better understand PSA’s role in prostate cancer progression we prepared a library of peptidyl boronic acid based inhibitors. To enhance selectivity for PSA vs. other serine proteases, we modified the P1 site of the inhibitors to incorporate a bromopropylglycine group. This allowed the inhibitors to participate in halogen bond formation with the serine found at the bottom of the specificity pocket. The best of these Ahx-FSQn(boro)Bpg had PSA Ki of 72 nM and chymotrypsin Ki of 580 nM. In vivo studies using PSA-producing xenografts demonstrated that candidate inhibitors had minimal effect on growth but significantly altered serum levels of PSA. Biodistribution of 125I labeled peptides showed low levels of uptake into tumors compared to other normal tissues. PMID:23692593

  17. Cooperative behavior of the nuclear receptor superfamily and its deregulation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Mark D.; Thorne, James L.; Campbell, Moray J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the topology of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily in normal prostate epithelial cells and its distortion in prostate cancer. Both in vitro and in silico approaches were utilized to profile NRs expressed in non-malignant RWPE-1 cells, which were subsequently investigated by treating cells with 132 binary NR ligand combinations. Nine significant cooperative interactions emerged including both superadditive [22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and eicosatetraenoic acid] and subadditive [1α,25(OH)2D3 and chenodeoxycholic acid] cellular responses, which could be explained in part by cooperative control of cell-cycle progression and candidate gene expression. In addition, publicly available data were employed to assess NR expression in human prostate tissue. Common and significant loss of NR superfamily expression was established in publicly available data from prostate tumors, in part predicting parallel distortion of targeting microRNA. These findings suggest that the NR superfamily in the prostate cooperatively integrates signals from dietary, hormonal and metabolic cues, and is significantly distorted in prostate cancer. PMID:24104552

  18. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Human Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Ghods, Roya; Shabani, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Yeganeh, Omid; Hassannia, Hadi; Sadeghitabar, Ali; Balay-Goli, Leila; Noutash-Haghighat, Farzaneh; Sarrafzadeh, Ali reza; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is an important laboratory marker for diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Thus, development of diagnostic tools specific for PSA plays an important role in screening, monitoring and early diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this paper, the production and characterization of a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PSA have been presented. Methods Balb/c mice were immunized with PSA, which was purified from seminal plasma. Splenocytes of hyperimmunized mice were extracted and fused with Sp2/0 cells. By adding selective HAT medium, hybridoma cells were established and positive clones were selected by ELISA after four times of cloning. The isotypes of produced mAbs were determined by ELISA and then purified from ascitic fluids using Hi-Trap protein G column. The reactivities of the mAbs were examined with the purified PSA and seminal plasma by ELISA and western blot techniques. Furthermore, the reactivities of the mAbs were assessed in Prostate Cancer (PCa), Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and brain cancer tissues by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results Five anti-PSA mAbs (clones: 2G2-B2, 2F9-F4, 2D6-E8, IgG1/К) and clones (2C8-E9, 2G3-E2, IgG2a/К) were produced and characterized. All mAbs, except 2F9-F4 detected the expression of PSA in PCa and BPH tissues and none of them reacted with PSA in brain cancer tissue in IHC. Besides, all mAbs could detect a protein band around 33 kDa in human seminal plasma in western blot. Conclusion These mAbs can specifically recognize PSA and may serve as a component of PSA diagnostic kit in various biological fluids. PMID:25926946

  19. Screening and Characterization of a Novel RNA Aptamer That Specifically Binds to Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase and Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hoon Young; Byun, Jonghoe

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) expression increases proportionally with prostate cancer progression, making it useful in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers. A novel ligand that can specifically bind to PAP would be very helpful for guiding prostate cancer therapy. RNA aptamers bind to target molecules with high specificity and have key advantages such as low immunogenicity and easy synthesis. Here, human PAP-specific aptamers were screened from a 2′-fluoropyrimidine (FY)-modified RNA library by SELEX. The candidate aptamer families were identified within six rounds followed by analysis of their sequences and PAP-specific binding. A gel shift assay was used to identify PAP binding aptamers and the 6N aptamer specifically bound to PAP with a Kd value of 118 nM. RT-PCR and fluorescence labeling analyses revealed that the 6N aptamer bound to PAP-positive mammalian cells, such as PC-3 and LNCaP. IMR-90 negative control cells did not bind the 6N aptamer. Systematic minimization analyses revealed that 50 nucleotide sequences and their two hairpin structures in the 6N 2′-FY RNA aptamer were equally important for PAP binding. Renewed interest in PAP combined with the versatility of RNA aptamers, including conjugation of anti-cancer drugs and nano-imaging probes, could open up a new route for early theragnosis of prostate cancer. PMID:25591398

  20. Body-mass index, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yin; Ma, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggested obesity, measured by body-mass index (BMI), was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality, and its impact on biochemical recurrence was also inconclusive. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and bibliographies of retrieved studies up to Jan 5th, 2010. We used random-effects meta-analysis to assess the relative risks (RR) of prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence associated with a 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Among the 6 population-based cohort studies in 1,263,483 initially cancer-free men, 6,817 prostate cancer deaths occurred; a 5kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with 15% (RR 1.15, 95%CI 1.06–1.25, p<0.01) higher risk of dying of prostate cancer. In the 6 post-diagnosis survival studies on 18,203 patients with 932 prostate cancer deaths, a 5kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with 20% higher prostate cancer-specific mortality (RR 1.20, 95%CI 0.99–1.46, p=0.06). In the 16 studies which followed 26,479 prostate cancer patients after primary treatment, a 5kg/m2 increase in BMI was significantly associated with 21% increased risk of biochemical recurrence (RR 1.21, 95%CI 1.11–1.31 p<0.01). Elevated BMI is associated with risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in prospective cohort studies and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients. Its association with prostate cancer-specific mortality in diagnosed patients needs to be further evaluated. PMID:21233290

  1. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Arturo; Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  2. Postradiotherapy 2-Year Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir as a Predictor of Long-Term Prostate Cancer Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Shi Weiji; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett; Park, Jessica; Seshan, Venkatraman E.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report the influence of posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir response at 2 years after external beam radiotherapy (RT) on distant metastases (DM) and cause-specific mortality (CSM). Methods and Materials: Eight hundred forty-four patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT. The median duration of follow-up was 9.1 years. A fixed landmark time point at 2 years was used to assess the influence of nadir PSA value as a time-dependent variable on long-term outcomes. Results: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that nadir PSA <=1.5 ng/mL at the landmark was an independent predictor of progression-free survival after adjusting for T stage, Gleason score, pre-RT PSA value, and RT dose (p = 0.03). The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of DM were 2.4% and 7.9%, respectively, in those with nadir PSA levels <=1.5 ng/mL at the 2-year landmark, and were 10.3% and 17.5%, respectively, in patients with higher nadir values. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher nadir PSA value at the 2-year landmark (p = 0.002), higher Gleason scores (p < 0.001), and increasing T stage (p = 0.03) were predictors of DM after adjusting for pre-RT PSA values and RT dose. Multivariate analysis also showed that higher Gleason scores (p = 0.002), and higher nadir PSA values at the 2-year landmark (p = 0.03) were risk factors associated with CSM after adjusting for T stage and pre-RT PSA value. Conclusions: Nadir PSA values of <=1.5 ng/mL at 2 years after RT for prostate cancer predict for long-term DM and CSM outcomes. Patients with higher absolute nadir levels at 2 years after treatment should be evaluated for the presence of nonresponding disease, and earlier salvage treatment interventions should be considered.

  3. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI.

    PubMed

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J

    2016-07-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd(3+) contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd(3+) binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 ± 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 ± 0.1 × 10(-22) M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM(-1) s(-1) and r2 of 37.9 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM(-1) s(-1) per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd (188.0 mM(-1) s(-1) per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd (37.2 mM(-1) s(-1) per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI. PMID:26961235

  4. Cyclin D1 splice variants: polymorphism, risk, and isoform specific regulation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Clay E.S.; Augello, Michael A.; Benito, Ruth Pe; Karch, Jason; Tran, Thai H.; Utama, Fransiscus E.; Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Ying; Burd, Craig J.; Groh, Eric M.; Hoang, Hoa N.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Henderson, Brian E.; Marchand, Loic Le; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Baffa, Raffaele; Gomella, Leonard G.; Knudsen, Erik S.; Rui, Hallgeir; Henshall, Susan M.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Alternative CCND1 splicing results in cyclin D1b, which has specialized, pro-tumorigenic functions in prostate not shared by the cyclin D1a (full-length) isoform. Here, the frequency, tumor relevance, and mechanisms controlling cyclin D1b were challenged. Experimental Design First, relative expression of both cyclin D1 isoforms was determined in prostate adenocarcinomas. Second, relevance of the androgen axis was determined. Third, minigenes were created to interrogate the role of the G/A870 polymorphism (within the splice site), and findings validated in primary tissue. Fourth, impact of G/A870 on cancer risk was assessed in two large case-control studies. Results Cyclin D1b is induced in tumors, and a significant subset expressed this isoform in the absence of detectable cyclin D1a. Accordingly, the isoforms showed non-correlated expression patterns, and hormone status did not alter splicing. While G/A870 was not independently predictive of cancer risk, A870 predisposed for transcript-b production in cells and in normal prostate. The influence of A870 on overall transcript-b levels was relieved in tumors, indicating that aberrations in tumorigenesis likely alter the influence of the polymorphism. Conclusions These studies reveal that cyclin D1b is specifically elevated in prostate tumorigenesis. Cyclin D1b expression patterns are distinct from that observed with cyclin D1a. The A870 allele predisposes for transcript-b production in a context-specific manner. While A870 does not independently predict cancer risk, tumor cells can bypass the influence of the polymorphism. These findings have major implications for the analyses of D-cyclin function in the prostate, and provide the foundation for future studies directed at identifying potential modifiers of the G/A870 polymorphism. PMID:19706803

  5. SU-E-T-603: PBS Prostate Plan Robustness: A Tool for Patient Specific Setup Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, S; Song, L; Chen, C; Chang, C; Chon, B; Tsai, H; Soffen, E; Cahlon, O; Mah, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fiducial markers are commonly used for setup of prostate patients using orthogonal radiographs. After aligned with the markers, the displacement of the bony anatomy relative to the planned DRR can be up to 10 mm. Such offset can potentially have significant dosimetric effects because it changes the radiological path length of protons in differing amounts of bone. It is imperative to develop a method to evaluate its impact on target coverage and hence establish patient specific setup tolerance for prostate proton PBS treatment. Methods: Prostate patients were planned in RayStation according to the PCG protocol with bi-lateral beams. The primary planning objectives are: (1) 100% of CTV receives full prescription dose; (2) 98% of the prescription dose covers at least 98% of the PTV; (3) OARs meet criteria per protocol. For each patient 108 dose perturbations were automatically generated using an in-house script, which considered the isocenter shifting in S-I and A-P directions (up to ±15 mm with an interval of 6mm) as well as the range uncertainty (±3.5%). The target coverage was evaluated on the contour shifted along with prostate to mimic the daily treatment. Results: The minimum CTV coverage as a function of offsets in S-I and A-P directions is presented in a 2D contour map. The offsets along A-P direction generally have greater impact than along S-I direction. Both the CTV D98%>98% or CTV V98%>98% are achievable for most patients if the offset is <10 mm in either direction despite of range uncertainties. Conclusion: We developed a method to evaluate the plan robustness for proton PBS prostate treatment. It can provide patient specific setup tolerance of bony structure offset. For our current planning approach, a 1 cm displacement is acceptable. This approach can be generalized to other target structures that move relative to bony anatomy.

  6. Predictors of survival in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis and extremely high prostate-specific antigen levels

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hong; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a surrogate marker of disease progression; however, its predictive ability in the extreme ranges is unknown. We determined the predictors of survival in patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer (BMPCa) and with extremely high PSA levels. Methods Treatment-naïve patients (n = 248) diagnosed with BMPCa between December 2002 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological features at diagnosis, namely age, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and PSA levels, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir and its maintenance period, PSA declining velocity, Gleason grade, clinical T stage, pain score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS), and the number of bone metastases were assessed. The patients were stratified according to PSA ranges of <20 ng/mL, 20–100 ng/mL, 100–1000 ng/mL, and 1000–10,000 ng/mL. Study endpoints were castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)-free survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Results Patients with higher PSA and ALP levels showed more bone lesions (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period (median, 39.9 months; interquartile range, 21.5–65.9 months), there were no differences between the groups in terms of the survival endpoints. High ALP levels, shorter time to PSA nadir, and pain were associated with an increased risk of progression to CRPC, and high ALP levels, ECOG PS ≥ 1, and higher PSA nadir independently predicted CSS. Conclusions PSA response to androgen deprivation therapy and serum ALP are reliable predictors of survival in patients with BMPCa presenting with extremely high PSA levels. These patients should not be deterred from active treatment based on baseline PSA values. PMID:26157761

  7. Systematic meta-analyses of gene-specific genetic association studies in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiang; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Yaoguang; Chen, Xin; Yang, Fan; Yang, Ze; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    In the past twenty-five years, over 700 case-control association studies on the risk of prostate cancer have been published worldwide, but their results were largely inconsistent. To facilitate following and explaining these findings, we performed a systematic meta-analysis using allelic contrasts for gene-specific SNVs from at least three independent population-based case-control studies, which were published in the field of prostate cancer between August 1, 1990 and August 1, 2015. Across 66 meta-analyses, a total of 20 genetic variants involving 584,100 subjects in 19 different genes (KLK3, IGFBP3, ESR1, SOD2, CAT, CYP1B1, VDR, RFX6, HNF1B, SRD5A2, FGFR4, LEP, HOXB13, FAS, FOXP4, SLC22A3, LMTK2, EHBP1 and MSMB) exhibited significant association with prostate cancer. The average summary OR was 1.33 (ranging from: 1.016–3.788) for risk alleles and 0.838 (ranging from: 0.757–0.896) for protective alleles. Of these positive variants, FOXP4 rs1983891, LMTK2 rs6465657 and RFX6 rs339331 had not been previously meta-analyzed. Further analyses with sufficient power design and investigations of the potential biological roles of these genetic variants in prostate cancer should be conducted. PMID:26967244

  8. Androgen receptor coactivators lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 and four and a half LIM domain protein 2 predict risk of prostate cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Philip; Gullotti, Lucia; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Wolf, Susanne; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Vorreuther, Roland; Solleder, Gerold; Bastian, Patrick J; Ellinger, Jörg; Metzger, Eric; Schüle, Roland; Buettner, Reinhard

    2006-12-01

    Prostate cancer biology varies from locally confined tumors with low risk for relapse to tumors with high risk for progression even after radical prostatectomy. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers to predict tumor relapse and poor clinical outcome. In this study, we correlated expression patterns of the androgen receptor (AR) coactivators lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) and four and a half LIM-domain protein 2 (FHL2), AR, Gleason score, Gleason grade, and p53 expression in clinically organ confined prostate cancers with relapse after radical prostatectomy. Our data reveal that high levels of LSD1, nuclear expression of the FHL2 coactivator, high Gleason score and grade, and very strong staining of nuclear p53 correlate significantly with relapse during follow-up. No correlation exists with relapse and the expression of AR and cytoplasmic expression of FHL2. To confirm these data, we did quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses in a subset of tumor specimens. Consistently, both LSD1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated in high-risk tumors. We previously identified LSD1 and FHL2 as nuclear cofactors interacting specifically with the AR in prostate cells and showed that both stimulate androgen-dependent gene transcription. Our present study suggests that LSD1 and nuclear FHL2 may serve as novel biomarkers predictive for prostate cancer with aggressive biology and point to a role of LSD1 and FHL2 in constitutive activation of AR-mediated growth signals. PMID:17145880

  9. Predicting Gleason score using the initial serum total prostate-specific antigen in Black men with symptomatic prostate adenocarcinoma in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnabugwu, Ikenna I; Udeh, Emeka I; Ugwumba, Fredrick O; Ozoemena, Francis O

    2016-01-01

    Background Men of Black African descent are known to have the highest incidence of prostate cancer. The disease is also more aggressive in this group possibly due to biologically more aggressive tumor or late presentation. Currently, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay plays a significant role in making the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, the obtained value of serum PSA may not directly relate with the Gleason score (GS), a measure of tumor aggression in prostate cancer. This study explores the relationship between serum total PSA at presentation (iPSA) and GS. Patients and methods The iPSA of patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer was compared with the obtained GS of the prostate biopsy specimens. The age of the patients at presentation and the prostate volumes were also analyzed with respect to the iPSA and GS. The data were analyzed retrospectively using IBM SPSS Version 20. Pearson correlation was used for numeric variables, whereas Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical variables. Significance was set at P≤0.05. Results There were 205 patients from January 2010 to November 2013 who satisfied the inclusion criteria. iPSA as well as age at presentation and prostate volume were not found to significantly correlate with the primary Gleason grade, the secondary Gleason grade, or the GS. However, the presence of distant metastasis was identified to significantly correlate positively with GS. Conclusion GS may not be confidently predicted by the iPSA. Higher iPSA does not correlate with higher GS and vice versa. PMID:27486316

  10. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-02-25

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  13. Structural investigation of the alpha-1-antichymotrypsin: prostate-specific antigen complex by comparative model building.

    PubMed Central

    Villoutreix, B. O.; Lilja, H.; Pettersson, K.; Lövgren, T.; Teleman, O.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by prostate cells, provides an excellent serum marker for prostate cancer. It belongs to the human kallikrein family of enzymes, a second prostate-derived member of which is human glandular kallikrein-1 (hK2). Active PSA and hK2 are both 237-residue kallikrein-like proteases, based on sequence homology. An hK2 model structure based on the serine protease fold is presented and compared to PSA and six other serine proteases in order to analyze in depth the role of the surface-accessible loops surrounding the active site. The results show that PSA and hK2 share extensive structural similarity and that most amino acid replacements are centered on the loops surrounding the active site. Furthermore, the electrostatic potential surfaces are very similar for PSA and hK2. PSA interacts with at least two serine protease inhibitors (serpins): alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and protein C inhibitor (PCI). Three-dimensional model structures of the uncleaved ACT molecule were developed based upon the recent X-ray structure of uncleaved antithrombin. The serpin was docked both to PSA and hK2. Amino acid replacements and electrostatic complementarities indicate that the overall orientation of the proteins in these complexes is reasonable. In order to investigate PSA's heparin interaction sites, electrostatic computations were carried out on PSA, hK2, protein C, ACT, and PCI. Two heparin binding sites are suggested on the PSA surface and could explain the enhanced complex formation between PSA and PCI, while inhibiting the formation of the ACT-PSA complex, PSA, hK2, and their preliminary complexes with ACT should facilitate the understanding and prediction of structural and functional properties for these important proteins also with respect to prostate diseases. PMID:8732755

  14. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Ville; Haavikko, Raisa; Virtanen, Johannes; Ahonen, Ilmari; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Alakurtti, Sami; Purev, Enkhee; Rischer, Heiko; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Moreira, Vânia M; Nees, Matthias; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2015-01-01

    The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D) growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T), an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D) growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility. PMID:25965345

  15. Novel long non-coding RNAs are specific diagnostic and prognostic markers for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, René; Hoogland, A. Marije; Dits, Natasja; Verhoef, Esther I.; Kweldam, Charlotte; Waranecki, Piotr; Bangma, Chris H.; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.; Jenster, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Current prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers such as PSA are not optimal in distinguishing cancer from benign prostate diseases and predicting disease outcome. To discover additional biomarkers, we investigated PCa-specific expression of novel unannotated transcripts. Using the unique probe design of Affymetrix Human Exon Arrays, we identified 334 candidates (EPCATs), of which 15 were validated by RT-PCR. Combined into a diagnostic panel, 11 EPCATs classified 80% of PCa samples correctly, while maintaining 100% specificity. High specificity was confirmed by in situ hybridization for EPCAT4R966 and EPCAT2F176 (SChLAP1) on extensive tissue microarrays. Besides being diagnostic, EPCAT2F176 and EPCAT4R966 showed significant association with pT-stage and were present in PIN lesions. We also found EPCAT2F176 and EPCAT2R709 to be associated with development of metastases and PCa-related death, and EPCAT2F176 to be enriched in lymph node metastases. Functional significance of expression of 9 EPCATs was investigated by siRNA transfection, revealing that knockdown of 5 different EPCATs impaired growth of LNCaP and 22RV1 PCa cells. Only the minority of EPCATs appear to be controlled by androgen receptor or ERG. Although the underlying transcriptional regulation is not fully understood, the novel PCa-associated transcripts are new diagnostic and prognostic markers with functional relevance to prostate cancer growth. PMID:25686826

  16. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Johannes; Ahonen, Ilmari; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Alakurtti, Sami; Purev, Enkhee; Rischer, Heiko; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Moreira, Vânia M.; Nees, Matthias; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2015-01-01

    The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D) growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T), an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D) growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility. PMID:25965345

  17. Topoisomerase inhibitors modulate gene expression of B-cell translocation gene 2 and prostate specific antigen in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX's attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

  18. Topoisomerase Inhibitors Modulate Gene Expression of B-Cell Translocation Gene 2 and Prostate Specific Antigen in Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX’s attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

  19. PET imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer: current state of the art and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, SP; Gorin, MA; Allaf, ME; Pienta, KJ; Tran, PT; Pomper, MG; Ross, AE; Cho, SY

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface enzyme that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and is currently being extensively explored as a promising target for molecular imaging in a variety of clinical contexts. Novel antibody and small-molecule PSMA radiotracers labeled with a variety of radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications have been developed and explored in recent studies. METHODS A great deal of progress has been made in defining the clinical utility of this class of PET agents through predominantly small and retrospective clinical studies. The most compelling data to date has been in the setting of biochemically recurrent PCa, where PSMA-targeted radiotracers have been found to be superior to conventional imaging and other molecular imaging agents for the detection of locally recurrent and metastatic PCa. RESULTS Early data, however, suggest that initial lymph node staging before definitive therapy in high-risk primary PCa patients may be limited, although intraoperative guidance may still hold promise. Other examples of potential promising applications for PSMA PET imaging include non-invasive characterization of primary PCa, staging and treatment planning for PSMA-targeted radiotherapeutics, and guidance of focal therapy for oligometastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS However, all of these indications and applications for PCa PSMA PET imaging are still lacking and require large, prospective, systematic clinical trials for validation. Such validation trials are needed and hopefully will be forthcoming as the fields of molecular imaging, urology, radiation oncology and medical oncology continue to define and refine the utility of PSMA-targeted PET imaging to improve the management of PCa patients. PMID:27136743

  20. Prostate-specific antigen density predicts favorable pathology and biochemical recurrence in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Jung, Hae Do; Lee, Joo Yong; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Jeh, Seong Uk; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to identify clinical predictors of favorable pathology and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (IRPCa). Between 2006 and 2012, clinicopathological and oncological data from 203 consecutive men undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for IRPCa were reviewed in a single-institutional retrospective study. Favorable pathology was defined as Gleason score ≤6 and organ-confined cancer as detected by surgical pathology. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictive variables of favorable pathology, and the Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression model were used to estimate BCR-free survival after RARP. Overall, 38 patients (18.7%) had favorable pathology after RARP. Lower quartile prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) was associated with favorable pathology compared to the highest quartile PSAD after adjusting for preoperative PSA, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score (odds ratio, 5.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-28.97; P = 0.048). During a median 37.8 (interquartile range, 24.6-60.2) months of follow-up, 66 patients experienced BCR. There were significant differences with regard to BCR free survival by PSAD quartiles (log rank, P = 0.003). Using a multivariable Cox proportion hazard model, PSAD was found to be an independent predictor of BCR in patients with IRPCa after RARP (hazard ratio, 4.641; 95% confidence interval, 1.109-19.417; P = 0.036). The incorporation of the PSAD into risk assessments might provide additional prognostic information and identify some patients in whom active surveillance would be appropriate in patients with IRPCa. PMID:26178393

  1. [Usefulness of hyper sensitive PSA assay kits for determination on low range of prostate specific antigen in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, S; Akakura, K; Ohki, T; Shimazaki, J; Kuriyama, M; Kawada, Y

    1995-02-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels after total prostatectomy or radiation therapy to localized prostate cancer and also during endocrine therapy are within normal range. Therefore, it is necessary to use hyper sensitive PSA assay kits for early detection of relapse. The present study was undertaken to evaluate two hyper sensitive assay kits (Delfia kit, lower limit 0.1 ng/ml, Kabi Pharmacia Diagnostics Co. and Markit M kit, 0.5 ng/ml, Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co.) and to compare them with conventional PSA kit (Eiken Chemical Co., 1.0 ng/ml). Total of 291 sera were examined: patients consisted of 10 total prostatectomy+endocrine therapy, 9 radiation therapy+endocrine therapy, 5 radiation therapy alone and 44 endocrine therapy alone. Values of endocrine therapy alone were divided into two groups according to duration after start of treatment; more or less than 5 years. The following results were obtained. 1. In non-relapse patients after total prostatectomy+endocrine therapy and radiation+endocrine therapy, PSA showed under lower limit with hyper sensitive kit. On the contrary, conventional kit indicated more than 1.0 ng/ml. 2. Radiation therapy alone kept PSA in detectable range with hyper sensitive kit in spite of no sign of relapse. 3. In non-relapsed patients under endocrine therapy alone, long duration (more than 5 years after start of treatment) decreased PSA in non detectable values with hyper sensitive kits. In this case, conventional kit still showed PSA as more than 1 ng/ml. 4. Doubling time at relapse was estimated similar with Delfia kit and Markit M kit, and much longer with conventional kit. It is concluded that hyper sensitive kit is more useful to manage patients after therapy than conventional kit. PMID:7534843

  2. Prospects of medium specific activity (177) Lu in targeted therapy of prostate cancer using (177) Lu-labeled PSMA inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chakravarty, Rubel; Shetty, Priyalata; Vimalnath, K V; Sen, Ishita B; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy using (177) Lu-labeled peptidomimetic inhibitor of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) viz. PSMA-617 is emerging as one the most effective strategies for management of metastatic prostate cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer related death. The aim of the present study is to develop a robust and easily adaptable protocol for formulation of therapeutic dose of (177) Lu-PSMA-617 at hospital radiopharmacy using moderate specific activity (177) Lu available at an affordable cost. Extensive radiochemical studies were performed to optimize the required [PSMA-617] / [Lu] ratio and other parameters to formulate 7.4 GBq dose of (177) Lu-PSMA-617. Based on these, 7.4 GBq therapeutic dose of (177) Lu-PSMA-617 was formulated by incubating 160 µg of PSMA-617 with indigenously produced (177) LuCl3 (555 GBq/µg specific activity of (177) Lu) at 90 °C for 30 min. The radiochemical purity of the formulation was 98.3 ± 0.6% (n = 7) which was retained to the extent of >95% after 7 d in normal saline at room temperature and >96% after 2 d in human serum at 37 °C. Preliminary clinical studies showed specific targeting of the agent in the lesion sites and similar physiological distribution as in diagnostic (68) Ga-PSMA-11 PET scans performed earlier. The developed optimized protocol for formulating therapeutic dose of (177) Lu-PSMA-617 could be useful for large number of nuclear medicine therapy clinics across the world having access to moderate specific activity (177) Lu at an affordable cost. PMID:27264278

  3. Primary structure and androgen regulation of a 20-kilodalton protein specific to rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Ho, K C; Snoek, R; Quarmby, V; Viskochil, D H; Rennie, P S; Wilson, E M; French, F S; Bruchovsky, N

    1989-07-25

    Nuclear and cytosolic forms of a 20-kdalton rat ventral prostate protein were purified and partially sequenced from their N-termini. Isolated nuclei were treated with micrococcal nuclease and extracted in 0.6 M NaCl, and proteins were separated by affinity chromatography on Matrex gel green A, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superose 12. The 43 amino acid N-terminal sequence of the nuclear 20-kdalton protein was identical with the cytosolic protein except it lacked 7 N-terminal amino acids present in the cytosolic form. The DNA sequence of a full-length complementary DNA clone isolated from a ventral prostate gt11 library extended the N-terminal sequence of the cytosolic form by an additional nine amino acids from the predicted initiation methionine. The cDNA included the nucleotide sequence for the 43 amino acid N-terminal sequence of the purified 20-kdalton protein and predicted molecular weights of 16,686, 17,521, and 18,650, respectively, for the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and nonprocessed proteins. Northern blot analyses of reproductive tract tissue RNAs using the 20-kdalton protein cDNA as probe revealed a single mRNA species of 0.92 kb detectable only in extracts of rat ventral prostate. Expression of the 0.92-kb mRNA was androgen dependent since the mRNA was undetectable in extracts obtained 4 days after castration and was restored 16 h after restimulation with androgen. PMID:2477055

  4. All care, but whose responsibility? Community juries reason about expert and patient responsibilities in prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2016-09-01

    General practitioners have implicitly been given responsibility for guiding men's decisions about prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer, but patients' expectations of the bounds of this responsibility remain unclear. We sought to explore how well-informed members of the public allocate responsibilities in prostate-specific antigen screening decision-making. In 2014, we convened two Community juries in Sydney, Australia, to address questions related to the content and timing of information provision and respective roles of patients and general practitioners in screening decisions. Participants in the first jury were of mixed gender and of all ages (n = 15); the participants in the second jury were all male and of screening age (n = 12). Both juries were presented with balanced factual evidence on the harms and benefits of prostate-specific antigen screening and expert perspectives on ethico-legal aspects of consent in medical practice. In their deliberations, jurors agreed that general practitioners should take responsibility for informing men of the options, risks and benefits of prostate-specific antigen testing, but arrived at different positions on whether or not general practitioners should also guide screening decisions. Jurors also disagreed on how much and when general practitioners should provide detailed information about biopsies and treatments. These responses suggest that for prostate-specific antigen testing, there is a public expectation that both the allocation of responsibility between general practitioners and their male patients, and the level of information provided will be tailored to individual men. In the presence of expert uncertainty, a well-informed public may have reason to embrace or resist shared decision-making processes. PMID:27491944

  5. Hepatocyte differentiation markers in adenocarcinoma of the prostate: hepatocyte paraffin 1 but not arginase-1 is specifically expressed in a subset of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Giedl, Johannes; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Prostate adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common cancer types. Both may present with bone metastases, and both are known to be CK7/CK20 negative. Thus, diagnosis of less well-differentiated tumors at metastatic sites essentially relies on immunohistochemical confirmation. However, insufficient data exist on the expression status of the main 2 hepatocyte markers hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar-1) and arginase-1 (Arg-1) in prostatic adenocarcinoma. We screened 557 prostate carcinoma cases for expression of these 2 markers using tissue microarrays. Sixty-four of 557 (11.5%) cases showed highly variable expression of HepPar-1 in 1% to 75% of tumor cells with a characteristically strong granular "mitochondrial" pattern. Only 13 cases (2.3%) expressed HepPar-1 in greater than 10% of the tumor cells. No correlation was seen with Gleason grade. On the other hand, 19 (3.4%) of 557 cases showed variable nonspecific cytoplasmic expression of Arg-1 distinct from the specific combined nucleocytoplasmic staining seen in normal liver and in HCC. Specifically, this Arg-1 pattern was seen only using one antibody lot and not another suggesting cross-reactivity. Only a single case showed specific nucleocytoplasmic expression of Arg-1 in the tumor cells. In conclusion, specific granular cytoplasmic staining for HepPar-1 is frequent in prostatic adenocarcinomas (11.5%) but usually focal and limited to less than 5% of tumor cells. This should not be misinterpreted as evidence of HCC, particularly in solid-pattern neoplasms. On the other hand, specific Arg-1 expression is very rare (0.18%), highlighting the value of Arg-1 in distinguishing HepPar-1-positive prostatic carcinoma from HCC at metastatic sites or in cases of liver metastasis from prostate carcinoma. PMID:27184483

  6. Spondin-2 (SPON2), a More Prostate-Cancer-Specific Diagnostic Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaolong; Li, Changling; Pang, Bo; Xue, Meng; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Jianguang

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, although common, has recently been called into question. To find prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostic biomarkers that can make up for the defects of PSA, we compared the secretomes of several benign and PCa cell lines, selected candidate molecules, and then confirmed their clinical value. Methodology/Principal Findings We first identified extracellular proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification. We then validated the secreted proteins on a cellular level, and finally determined whether they could be used as PCa diagnostic biomarkers using prostate tissue and serum specimens of Chinese volunteers by immunohistostaining and sandwich ELISA. We obtained credible extracellular protein 2-DE graphs of prostate cell lines. The 5 spots that showed superior repeatability were selected for LC-MS/MS analysis, which identified seven candidate molecules. One of the candidate molecules, spondin-2 (SPON2), was only expressed in the conditioned media (CM) of androgen receptor (AR) positive PCa cell lines. Using tissue microarray by immunohistostaining, we found SPON2 to be over-expressed in PCa. SPON2 staining was more intense in Gleason score sum 7–8 and in PCa patients with metastasis. By receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we found that the serum SPON2 level was elevated in PCa patients, showing sensitivity and specificity suitable for diagnostic use. We also found that SPON2 could be used to identify PCa patients with serum PSA levels no higher than 10 ng/ml from healthy elderly men. Conclusion/Significance SPON2 is a new serum and histological diagnostic biomarker for PCa. It can avoid some of the problems of PSA testing and was here found to offer relatively high sensitivity and specificity relative to PSA. PMID:22615945

  7. Potential utility of cancer-specific biomarkers for assessing response to hormonal treatments in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Siebren; Baskin-Bey, Edwina; van Oort, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men and there is an urgent clinical need to improve its detection and treatment. The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker for prostate cancer several decades ago represented an important step forward in our ability to diagnose this disease and offers the potential for earlier and more effective treatment. PSA measurements are now routinely conducted alongside digital rectal examination, with raised PSA levels leading to biopsy. PSA is also used to monitor disease and assess therapeutic response. However, there are some important limitations to its use, not least its lack of specificity for prostate cancer, and increased PSA screening may have resulted in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of early, low-risk prostate cancer. Therefore, there is a need for more specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer and treatment response; in particular, biomarkers of response to hormonal treatments in prostate cancer and predictive biomarkers to identify who is most likely to respond to these treatments. Here we review the current utilization of PSA and data on potentially more specific and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer: prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) and the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. A description of the design of an ongoing study of the 6-month extended release formulation of leuprorelin acetate (Eligard® 45 mg) will provide preliminary data on the potential utility of these new biomarkers for detecting therapeutic response after hormonal therapy. PMID:25435918

  8. Initial Evaluation of [18F]DCFPyL for Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-Targeted PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Zsolt; Mena, Esther; Rowe, Steven P.; Plyku, Donika; Nidal, Rosa; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Fan, Hong; Dannals, Robert F.; Chen, Ying; Mease, Ronnie C.; Vranesic, Melin; Bhatnagar, Akrita; Sgouros, George; Cho, Steve Y.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a recognized target for imaging prostate cancer. Here we present initial safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry results with [18F]DCFPyL, a second-generation fluorine-18-labeled small-molecule PSMA inhibitor, in patients with prostate cancer. Procedures Biodistribution was evaluated using sequential positron-emission tomography (PET) scans in nine patients with prostate cancer. Time-activity curves from the most avid tumor foci were determined. The radiation dose to selected organs was estimated using OLINDA/EXM. Results No major radiotracer-specific adverse events were observed. Physiologic accumulation was observed in known sites of PSMA expression. Accumulation in putative sites of prostate cancer was observed (SUVmax up to >100, and tumor-to-blood ratios up to >50). The effective radiation dose from [18F]DCFPyL was 0.0139 mGy/MBq or 5 mGy (0.5 rem) from an injected dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi). Conclusions [18F]DCFPyL is safe with biodistribution as expected, and its accumulation is high in presumed primary and metastatic foci. The radiation dose from [18F]DCFPyL is similar to that from other PET radiotracers. PMID:25896814

  9. A phase I trial of DNA vaccination with a plasmid expressing prostate-specific antigen in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pavlenko, M; Roos, A-K; Lundqvist, A; Palmborg, A; Miller, A M; Ozenci, V; Bergman, B; Egevad, L; Hellström, M; Kiessling, R; Masucci, G; Wersäll, P; Nilsson, S; Pisa, P

    2004-08-16

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease secreted at low levels by normal luminal epithelial cells of the prostate and in significantly higher levels by prostate cancer cells. Therefore, PSA is a potential target for various immunotherapeutical approaches against prostate cancer. DNA vaccination has been investigated as immunotherapy for infectious diseases in patients and for specific treatment of cancer in certain animal models. In animal studies, we have demonstrated that vaccination with plasmid vector pVAX/PSA results in PSA-specific cellular response and protection against tumour challenge. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and biological efficacy of pVAX/PSA vaccine in the clinic. A phase I trial of pVAX/PSA, together with cytokine granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (Molgramostim) and IL-2 (Aldesleukin) as vaccine adjuvants, was carried out in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. To evaluate the biologically active dose, the vaccine was administered during five cycles in doses of 100, 300 and 900 microg, with three patients in each cohort. Eight patients were evaluable. A PSA-specific cellular immune response, measured by IFN-gamma production against recombinant PSA protein, and a rise in anti-PSA IgG were detected in two of three patients after vaccination in the highest dose cohort. A decrease in the slope of PSA was observed in the two patients exhibiting IFN-gamma production to PSA. No adverse effects (WHO grade >2) were observed in any dose cohort. We demonstrate that DNA vaccination with a PSA-coding plasmid vector, given with GM-CSF and IL-2 to patients with prostate cancer, is safe and in doses of 900 microg the vaccine can induce cellular and humoral immune responses against PSA protein. PMID:15280930

  10. Prostate specific antigen detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-09-01

    Antibody-functionalized Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA). The PSA antibody was anchored to the gate area through the formation of carboxylate succinimdyl ester bonds with immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target PSA in a buffer at clinical concentrations was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The authors could detect a wide range of concentrations from 10pg/mlto1μg/ml. The lowest detectable concentration was two orders of magnitude lower than the cutoff value of PSA measurements for clinical detection of prostate cancer. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of portable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for PSA screening.

  11. 68Ga Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Uptake in Renal Cell Cancer Lymph Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Einspieler, Ingo; Tauber, Robert; Maurer, Tobias; Schwaiger, Markus; Eiber, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-HBED-CC PET/CT in a patient with a history of both prostate cancer (PC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) shows high PSMA expression in the residual right seminal vesicle suggestive of local recurrence of PC as well as suspected PSMA-positive mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and iliac lymph nodes. Regarding the latter, biopsy revealed lymph node metastases from RCC excluding PC metastases. This case exemplarily demonstrates that high PSMA expression in RCC metastases can potentially mimic PC metastases. Thus, for accurate interpretation of imaging results in PC patients with additional primary tumors, knowledge of PSMA expression of non-PC tissue is necessary. PMID:26859205

  12. Prostate cancer specific integrin αvβ3 modulates bone metastatic growth and tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, NP; De, S; Vasanji, A; Brainard, J; Byzova, TV

    2009-01-01

    The management of pain and morbidity owing to the spreading and growth of cancer within bone remains to be a paramount problem in clinical care. Cancer cells actively transform bone, however, the molecular requirements and mechanisms of this process remain unclear. This study shows that functional modulation of the αvβ3 integrin receptor in prostate cancer cells is required for progression within bone and determines tumor-induced bone tissue transformation. Using histology and quantitative microCT analysis, we show that αvβ3 integrin is required not only for tumor growth within the bone but for tumor-induced bone gain, a response resembling bone lesions in prostate cancer patients. Expression of normal, fully functional αvβ3 enabled tumor growth in bone (incidence: 4/4), whereas αvβ3 (—), inactive or constitutively active mutants of αvβ3 did not (incidence: 0/4, 0/6 and 1/7, respectively) within a 35-day-period. This response appeared to be bone-specific in comparison to the subcutis where tumor incidence was greater than 60% for all groups. Interestingly, bone residing prostate cancer cells expressing normal or dis-regulated αvβ3 (either inactive of constitutively active), but not those lacking β3 promoted bone gain or afforded protection from bone loss in the presence or absence of histologically detectable tumor 35 days following implantation. As bone is replete with ligands for β3 integrin, we next demonstrated that αvβ3 integrin activation on tumor cells is essential for the recognition of key bone-specific matrix proteins. As a result, prostate cancer cells expressing fully functional but not dis-regulated αvβ3 integrin are able to control their own adherence and migration to bone matrix, functions that facilitate tumor growth and control bone lesion development. PMID:17369840

  13. Analysis of the Human Prostate-Specific Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling Identifies TMEM79 and ACOXL as Two Putative, Diagnostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Hurley, Gillian; Busch, Christer; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Stadler, Charlotte; Tolf, Anna; Lundberg, Emma; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Jirström, Karin; Bjartell, Anders; Gallagher, William M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    To better understand prostate function and disease, it is important to define and explore the molecular constituents that signify the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to define the prostate specific transcriptome and proteome, in comparison to 26 other human tissues. Deep sequencing of mRNA (RNA-seq) and immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling were combined to identify prostate specific gene expression patterns and to explore tissue biomarkers for potential clinical use in prostate cancer diagnostics. We identified 203 genes with elevated expression in the prostate, 22 of which showed more than five-fold higher expression levels compared to all other tissue types. In addition to previously well-known proteins we identified two poorly characterized proteins, TMEM79 and ACOXL, with potential to differentiate between benign and cancerous prostatic glands in tissue biopsies. In conclusion, we have applied a genome-wide analysis to identify the prostate specific proteome using transcriptomics and antibody-based protein profiling to identify genes with elevated expression in the prostate. Our data provides a starting point for further functional studies to explore the molecular repertoire of normal and diseased prostate including potential prostate cancer markers such as TMEM79 and ACOXL. PMID:26237329

  14. Aberrant sialylation of a prostate-specific antigen: Electrochemical label-free glycoprofiling in prostate cancer serum samples.

    PubMed

    Pihikova, Dominika; Kasak, Peter; Kubanikova, Petra; Sokol, Roman; Tkac, Jan

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical detection method allowing to detect prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer (PCa), with PSA glycoprofiling was applied in an analysis of PCa serum samples for the first time. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a label-free method with immobilized anti-PSA was applied for PSA detection and lectins to glycoprofile captured PSA on the same surface. A proper choice of blocking agent providing high selectivity of biosensor detection with the immobilized anti-PSA antibody was done. The biosensor could detect PSA down to 100 ag/mL with a linear concentration working range from 100 ag/mL up to 1 μg/mL, i.e. 10 orders of concentration magnitude and the sensitivity of (5.5 ± 0.2)%/decade. The results showed that a commercial carbo-free blocking solution was the best one, reducing non-specific binding 55-fold when compared to the immunosensor surface without any blocking agent applied, while allowing to detect PSA. The biosensor response obtained after addition of lectin (i.e. proportional to the amount of a particular glycan on PSA) divided by the biosensor response obtained after incubation with a sample (i.e. proportional to the PSA level in the sample) was applied to distinguish serum samples of PCa patients from those of healthy individuals. The results showed that Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) recognizing α-2,3-terminal sialic acid can be applied to distinguish between these two sets of samples since the MAA/PSA response obtained from the analysis of the PCa samples was significantly higher (5.3-fold) compared to the MAA/PSA response obtained by the analysis of samples from healthy individuals. Thus, combined analysis of serological PSA levels together with PSA glycoprofiling of aberrant glycosylation of PSA (i.e. increase in the level of α-2,3-terminal sialic acid) has a potential to improve detection of PCa. PMID:27506346

  15. The Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Regulates the Expression of IL-6 and CCL5 in Prostate Tumour Cells by Activating the MAPK Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Colombatti, Marco; Fracasso, Giulio; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Cingarlini, Sara; Poffe, Ornella; Naim, Hassan Y.; Heine, Martin; Tridente, Giuseppe; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Ramarli, Dunia

    2009-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the chemokine CCL5 are implicated in the development and progression of several forms of tumours including that of the prostate. The expression of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is augmented in high-grade and metastatic tumors. Observations of the clinical behaviour of prostate tumors suggest that the increased secretion of IL-6 and CCL5 and the higher expression of PSMA may be correlated. We hypothesized that PSMA could be endowed with signalling properties and that its stimulation might impact on the regulation of the gene expression of IL-6 and CCL5. We herein demonstrate that the cross-linking of cell surface PSMA with specific antibodies activates the small GTPases RAS and RAC1 and the MAPKs p38 and ERK1/2 in prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. As downstream effects of the PSMA-fostered RAS-RAC1-MAPK pathway activation we observed a strong induction of NF-κB activation associated with an increased expression of IL-6 and CCL5 genes. Pharmacological blockade with specific inhibitors revealed that both p38 and ERK1/2 participate in the phenomenon, although a major role exerted by p38 was evident. Finally we demonstrate that IL-6 and CCL5 enhanced the proliferative potential of LNCaP cells synergistically and in a dose-dependent manner and that CCL5 functioned by receptor-mediated activation of the STAT5-Cyclin D1 pro-proliferative pathway. The novel functions attributable to PSMA which are described in the present report may have profound influence on the survival and proliferation of prostate tumor cells, accounting for the observation that PSMA overexpression in prostate cancer patients is related to a worse prognosis. PMID:19242540

  16. Impacts of the Quinazoline-Based Alpha1-Antagonist, Terazosin, and of the Sulfonamide Derivative, Tamsulosin, on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume

    PubMed Central

    Paick, Jae-Seung; Cho, Min Chul; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of terazosin and tamsulosin, on prostate activity, i.e., serum prostate-specific antigen, total prostate volume (TPV), and transition zone volume (TZV). A total of 90 patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), ranging in age from 52 to 83 yr (median 65 yr), were included in the study. Patients were given 0.2 mg tamsulosin, 2 mg terazosin, or 4 mg terazosin once daily for an average of 14 months (range, 6-56 months). Subjective (International Prostate Symptom Scores, I-PSS) and objective (maximal flow rate and post-void residual) parameters were assessed both at baseline and at treatment cessation. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were found to be unaffected by treatment (1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL). In total patients, multivariate analysis showed that baseline TPV was the only independent predictor of treatment-related TPV reduction. Moreover, baseline TPV ≥30 g was found to be associated with a higher likelihood of TPV reduction (odds ratio [OR], 3.939; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.506-10.304; p=0.005), and a baseline TZV of ≥10 g was associated with a 7.1-times greater chance of TZV reduction (OR, 7.100; 95% CI, 2.428-20.763; p<0.001). The same model showed that patients on 2 mg terazosin had a 10.8-fold greater likelihood (OR, 10.770; 95% CI, 1.409-82.323; p=0.022) and that those on 4 mg terazosin had a 9.0-fold greater likelihood (OR, 9.001; 95% CI, 1.724-46.995; p=0.009) of a TZV reduction than those on 0.2 mg tamsulosin. In addition, symptoms improved regardless of prostate activity after taking alpha1-blockers. Our findings suggest that terazosin reduces TZV and demonstrate that the relief of symptoms associated with BPH may not be due to a prostate activity reduction induced by apoptosis in the prostate gland. PMID:18583890

  17. ERG is specifically associated with ETS-2 and ETV-4, but not with ETS-1, in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Ochsenfahrt, Jacqueline; Fuchs, Kerstin; Kristiansen, Glen; Perner, Sven; Wernert, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays important roles in both physiological and pathological conditions. Even though many studies have focused on single ETS factors within a single tissue and within the context of specific promoters, the functional impact of multiple ETS members present within a specific cell type has not yet been investigated, especially in prostate cancer (PCa). As the most prominent gene rearrangement in PCa leads to the overexpression of the ETS-related gene (ERG), the aim of this study was to investigate whether ERG is part of a complex integrated transcriptional network that involves other ETS factors. More specifically, as the ETS family consists of 27 members, we focused our efforts initially on investigating whether ERG is associated with the three family members, ETS-1, ETS-2 and ETS variant gene‑4 (ETV‑4), in PCa as a proof of principle. Using western blot analysis, we show that ERG, ETS-1, ETS-2 and ETV-4 are expressed in PC3 cell nuclear extracts and in protein lysates prepared from human PCa prostatectomy specimens. Immunoprecipitations using an anti-ERG antibody were used with PC3 cell nuclear extracts as well as with a pooled protein lysate sample prepared from the PCa tissue samples of five patients. Importantly, our results revealed that ERG is specifically associated with ETS-2 and ETV-4, but not with ETS-1, in PC3 cell nuclear extracts and PCa tissue protein lysates. Our findings strongly support the notion that ERG is part of a complex integrated transcriptional network that involves other ETS factors, which are likely to cooperate or influence the activity of ERG in PCa. The functional impact of multiple ETS factors being associated with ERG in PCa requires further study, as it may provide insights into the mechanism by which ERG exerts its influence in PCa and may subsequently contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis of PCa. PMID:22922762

  18. Disease-specific survival of patients with invasive cribriform and intraductal prostate cancer at diagnostic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kweldam, Charlotte F; Kümmerlin, Intan P; Nieboer, Daan; Verhoef, Esther I; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Roobol, Monique J; van Leenders, Geert J

    2016-06-01

    Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens have been associated with an adverse clinical outcome. Our objective was to determine the prognostic value of invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma in pre-treatment biopsies on time to disease-specific death. We pathologically revised the diagnostic biopsies of 1031 patients from the first screening round of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (1993-2000). Ninety percent of all patients (n=923) had received active treatment, whereas 10% (n=108) had been followed by watchful waiting. The median follow-up was 13 years. Patients who either had invasive cribriform growth pattern or intraductal carcinoma were categorized as CR/IDC+. The outcome was disease-specific survival. Relationships with outcome were analyzed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. In total, 486 patients had Gleason score 6 (47%) and 545 had ≥7 (53%). The 15-year disease-specific-survival probabilities were 99% in Gleason score 6 (n=486), 94% in CR/IDC- Gleason score ≥7 (n=356) and 67% in CR/IDC+ Gleason score ≥7 (n=189). CR/IDC- Gleason score 3+4=7 patients did not have statistically different survival probabilities from those with Gleason score 6 (P=0.30), while CR/IDC+ Gleason score 3+4=7 patients did (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, CR/IDC+ status was independently associated with a poorer disease-specific survival (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.8, P=0.002). We conclude that CR/IDC+ status in prostate cancer biopsies is associated with a worse disease-specific survival. Our findings indicate that men with biopsy CR/IDC- Gleason score 3+4=7 prostate cancer could be candidates for active surveillance, as these patients have similar survival probabilities to those with Gleason score 6. PMID:26939875

  19. Elevated 68Ga Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Activity in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepa; Loh, Han; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert; Stevanovic, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    A 71-year-old man with a background of treated stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer was referred for Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT for staging of prostate cancer. In addition to the PSMA uptake in the known prostate malignancy, the study also demonstrated increased PSMA uptake in an enlarging left lower lobe lung mass with diffusely increased PSMA uptake in an enlarged thyroid gland and bilateral enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland and a left supraclavicular lymph node demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma from a primary lung cancer. PMID:26828144

  20. Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy compared with permanent prostate implantation in low-risk prostate cancer based on endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and prostate-specific antigen level

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Barby . E-mail: pickett@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Kurhanewicz, John; Pouliot, Jean; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Coakley, Fergus; Roach, Mack

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response by comparing the time to resolution of spectroscopic abnormalities (TRSA) and the time to prostate-specific antigen level in low-risk prostate cancer patients after treatment with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) compared with permanent prostate implantation (PPI). Recent studies have suggested that the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer yields similar results for patients treated with 3D-CRT or PPI. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients, 25 in each group, who had been treated with 3D-CRT or PPI, had undergone endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging before and/or at varying times after therapy. The 3D-CRT patients had received radiation doses of {>=}72 Gy compared with 144 Gy for the PPI patients. The spectra from all usable voxels were examined for detectable levels of metabolic signal, and the percentages of atrophic and cancerous voxels were tabulated. Results: The median time to resolution of the spectroscopic abnormalities was 32.2 and 24.8 months and the time to the nadir prostate-specific antigen level was 52.4 and 38.0 months for the 3D-CRT and PPI patients, respectively. Of the 3D-CRT patients, 92% achieved negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 40% having complete metabolic atrophy. All 25 PPI patients had negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 60% achieving complete metabolic atrophy. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metabolic and biochemical responses of the prostate are more pronounced after PPI. Our results have not proved PPI is more effective at curing prostate cancer, but they have demonstrated that it may be more effective at destroying prostate metabolism.

  1. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml−1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1, however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml−1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1, respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1. PMID:25926603

  2. Solitary recurrence of castration-resistant prostate cancer with low or undetectable levels of prostate specific antigen salvaged with local ablative radiation therapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHIACHIEN JAKE; YING, JAMES; KAPUR, PAYAL; WOHLFELD, BRYAN; ROEHRBORN, CLAUS; KIM, DONG W. NATHAN

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer recurrences are usually first detected by increased levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), and systemic therapy is often initiated if distant metastasis is confirmed. However, low or nearly undetectable levels of PSA in the modern era of ultrasensitive PSA assay may be difficult to interpret in patients with a history of prostate cancer. Deciding whether to initiate additional systemic therapy in limited indolent metastatic disease while balancing the quality of life of the patient and ensuring the oncologic control of the disease may be challenging. In the present study, the case of a biopsy-confirmed solitary spine recurrence of prostate cancer with nearly undetectable but persistent levels of PSA (0.05 ng/ml) is reported. Treatment of the recurrence with local ablative radiotherapy improved the pain experienced by the patient, and reduced his levels of PSA to undetectable limits (<0.05 ng/ml). Repeated imaging analysis, PSA assay and clinical assessment demonstrated durable control of the disease without the requirement for additional systemic treatments. The present case highlighted the importance of initiating appropriate work-up according to the clinical scenario. Local treatment for solitary or oligometastatic recurrence of prostate cancer may enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutic strategies and benefit certain patients. PMID:26870272

  3. Review of Salvage Therapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: The Role of Imaging and Rationale for Systemic Salvage Targeted Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kosuri, Satyajit; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Smith, Michael; Osborne, Joseph R.; Tagawa, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite local therapy with curative intent, approximately 30% of men suffer from biochemical relapse. Though some of these PSA relapses are not life threatening, many men eventually progress to metastatic disease and die of prostate cancer. Local therapy is an option for some men, but many have progression of disease following local salvage attempts. One significant issue in this setting is the lack of reliable imaging biomarkers to guide the use of local salvage therapy, as the likely reason for a low cure rate is the presence of undetected micrometastatic disease outside of the prostate/prostate bed. Androgen deprivation therapy is a cornerstone of therapy in the salvage setting. While subsets may benefit in terms of delay in time to metastatic disease and/or death, research is ongoing to improve salvage systemic therapy. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly overexpressed by the majority of prostate cancers. While initial methods of exploiting PSMA's high and selective expression were suboptimal, additional work in both imaging and therapeutics is progressing. Salvage therapy and imaging modalities in this setting are briefly reviewed, and the rationale for PSMA-based systemic salvage radioimmunotherapy is described. PMID:22693495

  4. Evaluation of Phage Display Discovered Peptides as Ligands for Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, W. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential ligands of PSMA suitable for further development as novel PSMA-targeted peptides using phage display technology. The human PSMA protein was immobilized as a target followed by incubation with a 15-mer phage display random peptide library. After one round of prescreening and two rounds of screening, high-stringency screening at the third round of panning was performed to identify the highest affinity binders. Phages which had a specific binding activity to PSMA in human prostate cancer cells were isolated and the DNA corresponding to the 15-mers were sequenced to provide three consensus sequences: GDHSPFT, SHFSVGS and EVPRLSLLAVFL as well as other sequences that did not display consensus. Two of the peptide sequences deduced from DNA sequencing of binding phages, SHSFSVGSGDHSPFT and GRFLTGGTGRLLRIS were labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein and shown to bind and co-internalize with PSMA on human prostate cancer cells by fluorescence microscopy. The high stringency requirements yielded peptides with affinities KD∼1 µM or greater which are suitable starting points for affinity maturation. While these values were less than anticipated, the high stringency did yield peptide sequences that apparently bound to different surfaces on PSMA. These peptide sequences could be the basis for further development of peptides for prostate cancer tumor imaging and therapy. PMID:23935860

  5. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  6. Nomogram Predicting Prostate Cancer–specific Mortality for Men with Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, John A.; Alanee, Shaheen; Vickers, Andrew J.; Scardino, Peter T.; Wood, David P.; Kibel, Adam S.; Lin, Daniel W.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Rabah, Danny M.; Klein, Eric A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Gao, Tianming; Kattan, Michael W.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The natural history of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-defined biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) after definitive local therapy is highly variable. Validated prediction models for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) in this population are needed for treatment decision-making and clinical trial design. Objective To develop and validate a nomogram to predict the probability of PCSM from the time of BCR among men with rising PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Design, setting, and participants Between 1987 and 2011, 2254 men treated by radical prostatectomy at one of five high-volume hospitals experienced BCR, defined as three successive PSA rises (final value >0.2 ng/ml), single PSA >0.4 ng/ml, or use of secondary therapy administered for detectable PSA >0.1 ng/ml. Clinical information and follow-up data were modeled using competing-risk regression analysis to predict PCSM from the time of BCR. Intervention Radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer and subsequent PCa BCR. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis PCSM. Results and limitations The 10-yr PCSM and mortality from competing causes was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16–21%) and 17% (95% CI 14–19%), respectively. A nomogram predicting PCSM for all patients had an internally validated concordance index of 0.774. Inclusion of PSA doubling time (PSADT) in a nomogram based on standard parameters modestly improved predictive accuracy (concordance index 0.763 vs 0.754). Significant parameters in the models were preoperative PSA, pathological Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, time to PCa BCR, PSA level at PCa BCR, and PSADT (all p < 0.05). Conclusions We constructed and validated a nomogram to predict the risk of PCSM at 10 yr among men with PCa BCR after radical prostatectomy. The nomogram may be used for patient counseling and the design of clinical trials for PCa. Patient summary For men with biochemical recurrence of prostate

  7. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  9. Postoperative Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Independently Predicts for Failure of Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Presti, Joseph C.; Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Spiotto, Michael T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Identification of patients most likely to benefit from salvage radiotherapy (RT) using postoperative (postop) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics. Methods and Materials: From 1984 to 2004, 81 patients who fit the following criteria formed the study population: undetectable PSA after radical prostatectomy (RP); pathologically negative nodes; biochemical relapse defined as a persistently detectable PSA; salvage RT; and two or more postop PSAs available before salvage RT. Salvage RT included the whole pelvic nodes in 55 patients and 4 months of total androgen suppression in 56 patients. The median follow-up was >5 years. All relapses were defined as a persistently detectable PSA. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis were performed for all clinical, pathological, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 37 biochemical relapses observed after salvage RT. The 5-year bRFS after salvage RT for patients with postop prostate-specific antigen velocity {<=}1 vs. >1 ng/ml/yr was 59% vs. 29%, p = 0.002. In multivariate analysis, only postop PSAV (p = 0.0036), pre-RT PSA level {<=}1 (p = 0.037) and interval-to-relapse >10 months (p = 0.012) remained significant, whereas pelvic RT, hormone therapy, and RT dose showed a trend (p = {approx}0.06). PSAV, but not prostate-specific antigen doubling time, predicted successful salvage RT, suggesting an association of zero-order kinetics with locally recurrent disease. Conclusions: Postoperative PSA velocity independently predicts for the failure of salvage RT and can be considered in addition to high-risk features when selecting patients in need of systemic therapy following biochemical failure after RP. For well-selected patients, salvage RT can achieve high cure rates.

  10. Ultrasensitive immunoassay for prostate specific antigen using scanning tunneling microscopy-based electrical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Jang, Yong-Hark; Kang, Da-Yeon

    2008-07-01

    We characterized a vertically configured electrical detection system that used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to detect antigen-antibody binding. This technique could be used to easily construct a multiple measurement system in a protein chip. We utilized immunocomplexes comprised of our model protein, prostate specific antigen (PSA), corresponding antibody fragments, and gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates. The electrical tunneling current between the STM tip and these complexes exhibited a peaklike pulse, the frequency of which depended on the surface density of the bound complexes. We could therefore quantitatively measure PSA concentrations as low as 10fg/mL using periodogram analysis of this peak frequency.

  11. Label-free electrochemical aptasensing of the human prostate-specific antigen using gold nanospears.

    PubMed

    Rahi, A; Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H

    2016-08-15

    Gold nanospears were electrodeposited with the assistance of arginine as a soft template and precise selection of experimental parameters. The nanospears were then employed as a transducer to immobilize an aptamer of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and fabrication of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor. The aptasensor was employed for the detection of PSA with a linear concentration range of 0.125-200ngmL(-1) and a limit of detection of 50pgmL(-1). The aptasensor was successfully applied to detect PSA in blood serum samples of healthy and patient persons. PMID:27260456

  12. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers. PMID:26830232

  13. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA) & androgen receptor (AR) genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sushant V.; Maitra, Anurupa; Roy, Nobhojit; Chavan, Padma R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR) genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Methods: Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG) repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. Results: A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (P<0.001) in the proximal promoter region and -3845G/A (P<0.001) in enhancer region showed significant association with serum PSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (P<0.001) at both of these polymorphic sites showed higher expression of PSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (P<0.001) carriers demonstrated lower PSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short) was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression. PMID:24820830

  14. Specific Delivery of MiRNA for High Efficient Inhibition of Prostate Cancer by RNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Binzel, Daniel W; Shu, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Meiyan; Zhang, Qunshu; Shu, Dan; Guo, Bin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-08-01

    Both siRNA and miRNA can serve as powerful gene-silencing reagents but their specific delivery to cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miRNA seed-targeting sequence to block the growth of prostate cancer in mouse models. Utilizing the thermodynamically ultra-stable three-way junction of the pRNA of phi29 DNA packaging motor, RNA nanoparticles were constructed by bottom-up self-assembly containing the anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) RNA aptamer as a targeting ligand and anti-miR17 or anti-miR21 as therapeutic modules. The 16 nm RNase-resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection in mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 hours postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses with high efficiency. PMID:27125502

  15. Upstream Stimulatory Factor 2, a Novel FoxA1-Interacting Protein, Is Involved in Prostate-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Yu, Xiuping; Degraff, David J.; Matusik, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The forkhead protein A1 (FoxA1) is critical for the androgenic regulation of prostate-specific promoters. Prostate tissue rescued from FoxA1 knockout mice exhibits abnormal prostate development, typified by the absence of expression of differentiation markers and inability to engage in secretion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that FoxA1 is one of the earliest transcription factors that binds to prostate-specific promoters, and that a direct protein-protein interaction occurs between FoxA1 and androgen receptor. Interestingly, evidence of the interaction of FoxA1 with other transcription factors is lacking. The upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2), an E-box-binding transcription factor of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper family, binds to a consensus DNA sequence similar to FoxA1. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the binding of USF2 to prostate-specific gene promoters including the probasin promoter, spermine-binding protein promoter, and prostate-specific antigen core enhancer. Furthermore, we show a direct physical interaction between FoxA1 and USF2 through the use of immunoprecipitation and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. This interaction is mediated via the forkhead DNA-binding domain of FoxA1 and the DNA-binding domain of USF2. In summary, these data indicate that USF2 is one of the components of the FoxA1/androgen receptor transcriptional protein complex that contributes to the expression of androgen-regulated and prostate-specific genes. PMID:19846536

  16. Highly Efficient Capture and Enumeration of Low Abundance Prostate Cancer Cells Using Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Aptamers Immobilized to a Polymeric Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasiri, Udara; Balamurugan, Subramanian; Adams, André A.; Okagbare, Paul I.; Obubuafo, Annie; Soper, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate tumor cells over-express a prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) that can be used as a marker to select these cells from highly heterogeneous clinical samples, even when found in low abundance. Antibodies and aptamers have been developed that specifically bind to PSMA. In this study, anti-PSMA aptamers were immobilized onto the surface of a capture bed poised within a poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, microchip, which was fabricated into a high throughput micro-sampling unit (HTMSU) used for the selective isolation of rare circulating prostate tumor cells resident in a peripheral blood matrix. The HTMSU capture bed consisted of 51 ultra-high aspect ratio parallel curvilinear channels with a width similar to the prostate cancer cell dimensions. The surface density of the PSMA-specific aptamers on a UV-modified PMMA microfluidic capture bed surface was determined to be 8.4 × 1012 molecules/cm2. Using a linear velocity for optimal cell capture in the aptamer-tethered HTMSU (2.5 mm/s), a recovery of 90% of LNCaP cells (prostate cancer cell line; used as a model in this example) was found. Due to the low abundance of these cells, the input volume required was 1 mL and this could be processed in approximately 29 min using an optimized linear flow rate of 2.5 mm/s. Captured cells were subsequently released intact from the affinity surface using 0.25% (w/v) trypsin followed by counting individual cells using a contact conductivity sensor integrated into the HTMSU that provided high detection and sampling efficiency (~100%) and did not require staining of the cells for enumeration. PMID:19722212

  17. Social ecological predictors of prostate-specific antigen blood test and digital rectal examination in black American men.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, V. Diane; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Herring, R. Patti; Gardner, Robert W.; Stokols, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black American men continue to suffer disproportionately from epidemically higher rates of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that complex reasons for persistently higher death rates of prostate cancer in this group are steeped in social factors associated with health access. METHODS: We utilized data from the It's All About U prostate cancer prevention study among black men to investigate: 1) what social ecological factors were predictive of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examinations (DRE); 2) if black men were aware of prostate cancer screening and, if screening was available, would they take the PSA and DRE? Quantitative cross-sectional data from a cohort of 276 black men with no diagnosis of prostate cancer were analyzed to identify characteristics, beliefs, practices and attitudes of this group toward prostate cancer screening. We created a social ecological model to examine which social factors (i.e., environmental, personal, person/environment interplay, black culture and institutional policy) were predictive of PSA and DRE, PSA only and DRE only. To reduce data and identify data patterns, factor analyses (tested for reliability by calculating Cronbach alpha scores) were performed. Variables were standardized with Z scores and analyzed with predictive analytic software technology (SPSS, version 12). A multivariate binary logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of PSA and DRE. RESULTS: A significant predictor of both PSA and DRE was the physician's direct prostate cancer communication message (P<0.010). Significant correlations exist in PSA and DRE outcomes with a physician's engaging communication style (P<0.012), encouragement to screen (P<0.001) and sharing prostate cancer information (P<0.001); as was men understanding the serious risk of prostate cancer (P<0.001), culture (P<0.004), positive interaction with healthcare staff, significant other(s) and providers (P<0.001), and environmental dimensions

  18. Outcome After Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy in Patients With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Riegel, Martina G.; Thamm, Reinhard; Astner, Sabrina T.; Lewerenz, Carolin; Zimmermann, Frank; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to improve our understanding of the role of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy with regard to biochemical control, rate of distant metastasis, and survival. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 men treated with conformal prostate bed SRT (median, 64.8 Gy) at a single institution (median follow-up, 70 months). The majority had intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. Fifty-four percent underwent a resection with positive margins (R1 resection). The median time interval between surgery and SRT was 22 months. Results: After SRT, 66% of patients reached a PSA nadir of less than 0.2 ng/mL. However, the 5-year biochemical no evidence of disease rate was 35%. Seminal vesicle involvement was predictive for a significantly lower biochemical no evidence of disease rate. All patients with a preoperative PSA level greater than 50 ng/mL relapsed biochemically within 2 years. The 5-year distant metastasis rate was 18%, the 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 90%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88%. Significantly more distant metastases developed in patients with a PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL after SRT, and they had significantly inferior prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates. Resection status (R1 vs. R0) was not predictive for any of the endpoints. Conclusions: Men with postoperative PSA relapse can undergo salvage treatment by prostate bed radiotherapy, but durable PSA control is maintained only in about one-third of the patients. Despite a high biochemical failure rate after SRT, prostate cancer-specific survival does not decrease rapidly.

  19. Investigation of contactless detection using a giant magnetoresistance sensor for detecting prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuecheng; Zhi, Shaotao; Lei, Chong; Zhou, Yong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a contactless detection method for detecting prostate specific antigen with a giant magnetoresistance sensor. In contactless detection case, the prostate specific antigen sample preparation was separated from the sensor that prevented the sensor from being immersed in chemical solvents, and made the sensor implementing in immediately reuse without wash. Experimental results showed that applied an external magnetic field in a range of 50 Oe to 90 Oe, Dynabeads with a concentration as low as 0.1 μg/mL can be detected by this system and could give an approximate quantitation to the logarithmic of Dynabeads concentration. Sandwich immunoassay was employed for preparing PSA samples. The PSA capture was implemented on a gold film modified with a self-assembled monolayer and using biotinylated secondary antibody against PSA and streptavidinylated Dynabeads. With DC magnetic field in the range of 50 to 90 Oe, PSA can be detected with a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. Samples spiked with different concentrations of PSA can be distinguished clearly. Due to the contactless detection method, the detection system exhibited advantages such as convenient manipulation, reusable, inexpensive, small weight. So, this detection method was a promising candidate in biomarker detection, especially in point of care detection. PMID:27379844

  20. Rising prostate-specific antigen values during neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy: The importance of monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Niblock, Paddy; Pickles, Tom . E-mail: tpickles@bccancer.bc.ca

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (N-ADT) before external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From prospectively collected data, we identified 182 patients who received between 3 and 12 months of N-ADT before definitive external beam radiotherapy and who had at least three PSA readings during the neoadjuvant period. One hundred fifty patients had PSA values that continued to fall (Non-Rise group), but 32 had a PSA value that started to rise (Rise group). The two groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Pearson chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were performed for time to treatment failure, cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up was 62.5 months for the Non-Rise group and 53 months for the Rise group. Patients who sustained a PSA rise during the N-ADT period had a shorter time to PSA relapse (p = 0.013), poorer CSS (p = 0.027), and poorer OS (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirms the significance of a PSA rise during the N-ADT period for CSS (p = 0.035) and OS (p = 0.038). Conclusions:: A subset of patients treated with N-ADT develop a rising PSA profile that likely represents early androgen resistance. They have significantly worse outcome.

  1. Assessment of radiobiological metrics applied to patient-specific QA process of VMAT prostate treatments.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Gutiérrez, Francisco; Pérez-Vara, Consuelo; Clavo-Herranz, María H; López-Carrizosa, Concepción; Pérez-Regadera, José; Ibáñez-Villoslada, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    VMAT is a powerful technique to deliver hypofractionated prostate treatments. The lack of correlations between usual 2D pretreatment QA results and the clini-cal impact of possible mistakes has allowed the development of 3D verification systems. Dose determination on patient anatomy has provided clinical predictive capability to patient-specific QA process. Dose-volume metrics, as evaluation crite-ria, should be replaced or complemented by radiobiological indices. These metrics can be incorporated into individualized QA extracting the information for response parameters (gEUD, TCP, NTCP) from DVHs. The aim of this study is to assess the role of two 3D verification systems dealing with radiobiological metrics applied to a prostate VMAT QA program. Radiobiological calculations were performed for AAPM TG-166 test cases. Maximum differences were 9.3% for gEUD, -1.3% for TCP, and 5.3% for NTCP calculations. Gamma tests and DVH-based comparisons were carried out for both systems in order to assess their performance in 3D dose determination for prostate treatments (high-, intermediate-, and low-risk, as well as prostate bed patients). Mean gamma passing rates for all structures were bet-ter than 92.0% and 99.1% for both 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria. Maximum discrepancies were (2.4% ± 0.8%) and (6.2% ± 1.3%) for targets and normal tis-sues, respectively. Values for gEUD, TCP, and NTCP were extracted from TPS and compared to the results obtained with the two systems. Three models were used for TCP calculations (Poisson, sigmoidal, and Niemierko) and two models for NTCP determinations (LKB and Niemierko). The maximum mean difference for gEUD calculations was (4.7% ± 1.3%); for TCP, the maximum discrepancy was (-2.4% ± 1.1%); and NTCP comparisons led to a maximum deviation of (1.5% ± 0.5%). The potential usefulness of biological metrics in patient-specific QA has been explored. Both systems have been successfully assessed as potential tools for evaluating the clinical

  2. Segmenting CT prostate images using population and patient-specific statistics for radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Qianjin; Foskey, Mark; Chen Wufan; Shen Dinggang

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: In the segmentation of sequential treatment-time CT prostate images acquired in image-guided radiotherapy, accurately capturing the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy is more important than capturing interpatient variation. However, using the traditional deformable-model-based segmentation methods, it is difficult to capture intrapatient variation when the number of samples from the same patient is limited. This article presents a new deformable model, designed specifically for segmenting sequential CT images of the prostate, which leverages both population and patient-specific statistics to accurately capture the intrapatient variation of the patient under therapy. Methods: The novelty of the proposed method is twofold: First, a weighted combination of gradient and probability distribution function (PDF) features is used to build the appearance model to guide model deformation. The strengths of each feature type are emphasized by dynamically adjusting the weight between the profile-based gradient features and the local-region-based PDF features during the optimization process. An additional novel aspect of the gradient-based features is that, to alleviate the effect of feature inconsistency in the regions of gas and bone adjacent to the prostate, the optimal profile length at each landmark is calculated by statistically investigating the intensity profile in the training set. The resulting gradient-PDF combined feature produces more accurate and robust segmentations than general gradient features. Second, an online learning mechanism is used to build shape and appearance statistics for accurately capturing intrapatient variation. Results: The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 306 images of the 24 patients. Compared to traditional gradient features, the proposed gradient-PDF combination features brought 5.2% increment in the success ratio of segmentation (from 94.1% to 99.3%). To evaluate the effectiveness of online

  3. Extreme-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) >40 ng/ml: Prognostic Significance of the Preradiation PSA Nadir

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Abraham S.; Mydin, Aminudin; Jones, Stuart O.; Christie, Jennifer; Lim, Jan T.W.; Truong, Pauline T.; Ludgate, Charles M.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for clinically localized, extreme-risk prostate adenocarcinoma with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >40 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 64 patients treated at a single institution between 1991 and 2000 with ADT and RT for prostate cancer with a presenting PSA level of >40 ng/ml. The effects of patient age, tumor (presenting PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage), and treatment (total ADT duration and pre-RT PSA level) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 6.45 years (range, 0.09-15.19 years). Actuarial bDFS, PCSS, and OS rates at 5 years were 39%, 87%, and 78%, respectively, and 17%, 64%, and 45%, respectively, at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the pre-RT PSA level ({<=}0.1 versus >0.1 ng/ml) was the single most significant prognostic factor for bDFS (p = 0.033) and OS (p = 0.018) rates, whereas age, T stage, Gleason score, and ADT duration ({<=}6 versus >6 months) were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusion: In prostate cancer patients with high presenting PSA levels, >40 ng/ml, treated with combined modality, neoadjuvant ADT, and RT, the pre-RT PSA nadir, rather than ADT duration, was significantly associated with improved survival. This observation supports the use of neoadjuvant ADT to drive PSA levels to below 0.1 ng/ml before initiation of RT, to optimize outcomes for patients with extreme-risk disease.

  4. A Prospective Pilot Study of 89Zr-J591/Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Green, David A.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Lyashchenko, Serge; Fareedy, Shoaib B.; Robinson, Brian D.; Beattie, Bradley J.; Jain, Manu; Lewis, Jason S.; Christos, Paul; Larson, Steven M.; Bander, Neil H.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this pilot study we explored the feasibility of 89Zr labeled J591 monoclonal antibody positron emission tomography of localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Before scheduled radical prostatectomy 11 patients were injected intravenously with 89Zr-J591, followed 6 days later by whole body positron emission tomography. Patients underwent surgery the day after imaging. Specimens were imaged by ex vivo micro positron emission tomography and a custom 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner coil. Positron emission tomography images and histopathology were correlated. Results Median patient age was 61 years (range 47 to 68), median prostate specific antigen was 5.2 ng/ml (range 3.5 to 12.0) and median biopsy Gleason score of the 11 index lesions was 7 (range 7 to 9). On histopathology 22 lesions were identified. Median lesion size was 5.5 mm (range 2 to 21) and median Gleason score after radical prostatectomy was 7 (range 6 to 9). Eight of 11 index lesions (72.7%) were identified by in vivo positron emission tomography. Lesion identification improved with increasing lesion size for in vivo and ex vivo positron emission tomography (each p <0.0001), and increasing Gleason score (p = 0.14 and 0.01, respectively). Standardized uptake values appeared to correlate with increased Gleason score but not significantly (p = 0.19). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report of 89Zr-J591/prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography in localized prostate cancer cases. In this setting 89Zr-J591 bound to tumor foci in situ and positron emission tomography identified primarily Gleason score 7 or greater and larger tumors, likely corresponding to clinically significant disease warranting definitive therapy. A future, larger clinical validation trial is planned to better define the usefulness of 89Zr-J591 positron emission tomography for localized prostate cancer. PMID:24135437

  5. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  6. ASSOCIATION OF OBESITY AND DIABETES WITH SERUM PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN LEVELS IN JAPANESE MALES

    PubMed Central

    NAITO, MARIKO; ASAI, YATAMI; MORI, ATSUYOSHI; FUKADA, YUKO; KUWABARA, MAYUMI; KATASE, SHIRO; HISHIDA, ASAHI; MORITA, EMI; KAWAI, SAYO; OKADA, RIEKO; NISHIO, KAZUKO; TAMAKOSHI, AKIKO; WAKAI, KENJI; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with diabetes have been reported to be at an increased risk for cancers of the pancreas, liver, and colon; however, recent studies have suggested that men with diabetes are at a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Previous studies have found that obese men have lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations than do non-obese men. Further understanding of how obesity and diabetes affect the PSA concentration may improve our ability to detect clinically relevant prostate tumors. This study examined the relationships among serum PSA level, obesity, and diabetes in apparently healthy Japanese males. We analyzed the baseline data from 2,172 Japanese males (age, 56.8 ± 6.1 years [mean ± SD]) who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Diabetes was defined as the presence of both a hemoglobin A1c (JDS) of ≥6.1% and a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL, or a positive medical history. After adjusting for age, the PSA levels were elevated among males with a higher normal BMI (ranging from 23.0 to 24.9) and lowered among men with a BMI of ≥25.0. In the stratified analysis, these significant differences in BMI categories were absent among diabetics. The mean PSA levels were significantly lower in diabetics than in non-diabetics among subjects aged 60 and over. Our findings suggest that the pre-overweight men had increased PSA levels, and the diabetes was associated with a reduction of PSA levels in elderly. PMID:23092101

  7. Transcription variants of the prostate-specific PrLZ gene and their interaction with 14-3-3 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruoxiang; He, Hui; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xu, Jianchun; Marshall, Fray F.; Zhau, Haiyen; Chung, Leland W.K.; Fu, Haian; He, Dalin

    2009-11-20

    We have reported isolation and characterization of the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated PrLZ gene abnormally expressed in prostate cancer. PrLZ is a potential biomarker for prostate cancer and a candidate oncogene promoting cell proliferation and survival in prostate cancer cells. A full delineation of the PrLZ gene and its gene products may provide clues to the mechanisms regulating its expression and function. In this report, we identified three additional exons in the PrLZ gene and recognized five transcript variants from alternative splicing that could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Structural comparison demonstrated that the PrLZ proteins are highly conserved among species. PrLZ contains multiple potential sites for interaction with other proteins. We used mammalian two-hybrid assays to demonstrate that PrLZ isoforms interact with 14-3-3 proteins, and multiple sites in the PrLZ may be involved in the interaction. Alternative splicing may contribute to abnormally enhanced PrLZ levels in prostate cancer, and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins may be a mechanism by which PrLZ promotes cell proliferation and survival during prostate cancer development and progression. This information is a valuable addition to the investigation of the oncogenic properties of the PrLZ gene.

  8. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    PubMed Central

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). Setting A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Participants Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Primary outcome Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. Results PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013–2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70–74 years compared to 40–44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. Conclusions PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27406644

  9. Nuclear-safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The policy of the United States for all US nuclear power sources in space is to ensure that the probability of release of radioactive material and the amounts released are such that an undue risk is not presented, considering the benefits of the mission. The objective of this document is to provide safety criteria which a mission/reactor designer can use to help ensure that the design is acceptable from a radiological safety standpoint. These criteria encompass mission design, reactor design, and radiological impact limitation requirements for safety, and the documentation required. They do not address terrestrial operations, occupational safety or system reliability except where the systems are important for radiological safety. Specific safety specifications based on these criteria shall also be generated and made part of contractual requirements.

  10. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate gland biopsy; Transrectal prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate biopsy - transrectal ultrasound (TRUS); Stereotactic ...

  11. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.; Chanda, N.; Zambre, A.; Upendran, A.; Katti, K.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Nune, S. K.; Casteel, S. W.; Smith, C. J.; Vimal, J.; Boote, E.; Robertson, J. D.; Kan, P.; Engelbrecht, H.; Watkinson, L. D.; Carmack, T. L.; Lever, J. R.; Cutler, C. S.; Caldwell, C.; Kannan, R.; Katti, K. V.

    2012-07-16

    Systemic delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors is hindered by vascular and interstitial barriers. We hypothesized that prostate tumor specific epigallocatechingallate( EGCg) functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles, when delivered intratumorally (IT), will circumvent transport barriers, resulting in targeted delivery of therapeutic payloads. The results described herein provide unequivocal validation of our hypothesis. We report the development of inherently therapeutic gold nanoparticles derived from Au-198 isotope; the range of 198Au β-particle ( ~ 11 mm in tissue or ~1100 cell diameters) is sufficiently long to provide cross-fire effects of radiation dose delivered to cells within the prostate gland and short enough to minimize radiation dose to critical tissues near the periphery of the capsule. The formulation of biocompatible 198AuNPs utilizes the redox chemistry of prostate tumor specific phytochemical EGCg as it converts gold salt into gold nanoparticles and also selectively binds with excellent affinity to Laminin67R receptors which are over expressed in prostate tumor cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in PC-3 xenograft SCID mice showed ~72% retention of 198AuNP-EGCg in tumors 24 h after intratumoral administration. Therapeutic studies showed 80% reduction of tumor volumes after 28 days demonstrating significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to controls. This innovative “green nanotechnological“approach serves as a basis for designing target specific antineoplastic agents. This novel intratumorally injectable 198AuNP-EGCg nanotherapeutic agent may provide significant advances in oncology for use as an effective treatment for prostate and other solid tumors.

  12. Engineering a Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen–Activated Tumor Endothelial Cell Prodrug for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Denmeade, Samuel R.; Mhaka, Annastasiah M.; Rosen, D. Marc; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Dalrymple, Susan; Dach, Ingrid; Olesen, Claus; Gurel, Bora; DeMarzo, Angelo M.; Wilding, George; Carducci, Michael A.; Dionne, Craig A.; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Christensen, S. Brøgger; Isaacs, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous expression of drug target proteins within tumor sites is a major mechanism of resistance to anticancer therapies. We describe a strategy to selectively inhibit, within tumor sites, the function of a critical intracellular protein, the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA) pump, whose proper function is required by all cell types for viability. To achieve targeted inhibition, we took advantage of the unique expression of the carboxypeptidase prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) by tumor endothelial cells within the microenvironment of solid tumors. We generated a prodrug, G202, consisting of a PSMA-specific peptide coupled to an analog of the potent SERCA pump inhibitor thapsigargin. G202 produced substantial tumor regression against a panel of human cancer xenografts in vivo at doses that were minimally toxic to the host. On the basis of these data, a phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial has been initiated with G202 in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:22745436

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  14. Selenite Treatment Inhibits LAPC-4 Tumor Growth and Prostate-Specific Antigen Secretion in a Xenograft Model of Human Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Rumi S.; Husbeck, Bryan; Feldman, David; Knox, Susan J.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Selenium compounds have known chemopreventive effects on prostate cancer. However selenite, an inorganic form of selenium, has not been extensively studied as a treatment option for prostate cancer. Our previous studies have demonstrated the inhibition of androgen receptor expression and androgen stimulated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression by selenite in human prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of selenite as a therapy to treat mice with established LAPC-4 tumors. Methods and Materials: Male mice harboring androgen-dependent LAPC-4 xenograft tumors were treated with selenite (2 mg/kg intraperitoneally three times per week) or vehicle for 42 days. In addition, androgen-independent LAPC-4 xenograft tumors were generated in female mice over 4 to 6 months. Once established, androgen-independent LAPC-4 tumor fragments were passaged into female mice and were treated with selenite or vehicle for 42 days. Changes in tumor volume and serum PSA levels were assessed. Results: Selenite significantly decreased androgen-dependent LAPC-4 tumor growth in male mice over 42 days (p < 0.001). Relative tumor volume was decreased by 41% in selenite-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals. The inhibition of LAPC-4 tumor growth corresponded to a marked decrease in serum PSA levels (p < 0.01). In the androgen-independent LAPC-4 tumors in female mice, selenite treatment decreased tumor volume by 58% after 42 days of treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that selenite may have potential as a novel therapeutic agent to treat both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  15. Obesity inversely correlates with prostate-specific antigen levels in a population with normal screening results of prostate cancer in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ma, M; Nan, X; Sheng, B

    2016-07-11

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a diagnostic biomarker of prostate cancer and is possibly associated with obesity. This study aimed to explore the relationships between obesity indicators [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] with PSA in Chinese men. A cross-sectional study of men aged 30-85 years undergoing prostate cancer screening was conducted from August 2008 to July 2013 in Xi'an, China. Data were obtained from clinical reports, condition was recorded based on self-report including demographics, weight, height, and WC (>90 cm=obese). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and prostate volume (PV) were assessed clinically. Patients were grouped by BMI (normal=22.9, overweight=23-27.4, obese≥27.5 kg/m2). PSA parameters of density (PSAD), PSA serum level, and PSA increasing rate per year (PSAR) were calculated per BMI and age groups (30-40, 41-59, 60-85 years). Obesity indicators (BMI and WC) and PSA parameter relationships were modeled by age-stratified linear regression. Of 35,632 Chinese men surveyed, 13,084 were analyzed, including 13.44% obese, 57.44% overweight, and 29.12% normal weight, according to BMI; 25.84% were centrally (abdominally) obese according to WC. BMI and WC were negatively associated with all PSA parameters, except PSAD and PSAR [P<0.05, BMI: β=-0.081 (95%CI=-0.055 to -0.036), WC: β=-0.101 (-0.021 to -0.015)], and independent of FBG and PV (P<0.05) in an age-adjusted model. In conclusion, obesity was associated with lower PSA in Chinese men. Therefore, an individual's BMI and WC should be considered when PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer. PMID:27409334

  16. Obesity inversely correlates with prostate-specific antigen levels in a population with normal screening results of prostate cancer in northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Ma, M.; Nan, X.; Sheng, B.

    2016-01-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a diagnostic biomarker of prostate cancer and is possibly associated with obesity. This study aimed to explore the relationships between obesity indicators [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] with PSA in Chinese men. A cross-sectional study of men aged 30-85 years undergoing prostate cancer screening was conducted from August 2008 to July 2013 in Xi'an, China. Data were obtained from clinical reports, condition was recorded based on self-report including demographics, weight, height, and WC (>90 cm=obese). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and prostate volume (PV) were assessed clinically. Patients were grouped by BMI (normal=22.9, overweight=23-27.4, obese≥27.5 kg/m2). PSA parameters of density (PSAD), PSA serum level, and PSA increasing rate per year (PSAR) were calculated per BMI and age groups (30-40, 41-59, 60-85 years). Obesity indicators (BMI and WC) and PSA parameter relationships were modeled by age-stratified linear regression. Of 35,632 Chinese men surveyed, 13,084 were analyzed, including 13.44% obese, 57.44% overweight, and 29.12% normal weight, according to BMI; 25.84% were centrally (abdominally) obese according to WC. BMI and WC were negatively associated with all PSA parameters, except PSAD and PSAR [P<0.05, BMI: β=-0.081 (95%CI=-0.055 to -0.036), WC: β=-0.101 (-0.021 to -0.015)], and independent of FBG and PV (P<0.05) in an age-adjusted model. In conclusion, obesity was associated with lower PSA in Chinese men. Therefore, an individual's BMI and WC should be considered when PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer. PMID:27409334

  17. The Impact of Brachytherapy on Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality for Definitive Radiation Therapy of High-Grade Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xinglei; Keith, Scott W.; Mishra, Mark V.; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This population-based analysis compared prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of patients with high-risk prostate cancer after nonsurgical treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), or combination (BT + EBRT). Methods and Materials: We identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database patients diagnosed from 1988 through 2002 with T1-T3N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma of poorly differentiated grade and treated with BT, EBRT, or BT + EBRT. During this time frame, the database defined high grade as prostate cancers with Gleason score 8-10, or Gleason grade 4-5 if the score was not recorded. This corresponds to a cohort primarily with high-risk prostate cancer, although some cases where only Gleason grade was recorded may have included intermediate-risk cancer. We used multivariate models to examine patient and tumor characteristics associated with the likelihood of treatment with each radiation modality and the effect of radiation modality on PCSM. Results: There were 12,745 patients treated with EBRT (73.5%), BT (7.1%), or BT + EBRT (19.4%) included in the analysis. The median follow-up time for all patients was 6.4 years. The use of BT or BT + EBRT increased from 5.1% in 1988-1992 to 31.4% in 1998-2002. Significant predictors of use of BT or BT + EBRT were younger age, later year of diagnosis, urban residence, and earlier T-stage. On multivariate analysis, treatment with either BT (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.86) or BT + EBRT (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence ratio, 0.66-0.90) was associated with significant reduction in PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade prostate cancer, treatment with brachytherapy is associated with reduced PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Our results suggest that brachytherapy should be investigated as a component of definitive treatment strategies for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  18. Antibodies to prostate-specific antigen in immunoinfertile women and men.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rajesh K; Butler, Thomas S

    2013-04-01

    Immunoinfertility is caused by antisperm antibodies (ASA) present in the female or male partner of an infertile couple. PSA is a serine protease produced primarily by the prostate gland and is present in human semen. Although the modulation of PSA has been investigated in prostate abnormalities, its role and effect of its dysfunction on human fertility has not been examined. The present study was conducted to examine the presence and incidence of antibodies to PSA in sera of immunoinfertile women and men. The presence of iso- and autoantibodies in the sera of immunoinfertile patients was examined using the well-characterized purified human PSA and seminal plasma from normal fertile men in ELISA. Sera were collected from infertile women (n=25) and infertile men (n=19) who were positive for ASA. Sera from ASA-negative fertile women (n=24) and fertile men (n=19) served as controls. In women, sera from 40% of the immunoinfertile women showed positive reactivity with PSA, and 20% reacted positively with seminal plasma. None of the sera from fertile women reacted positively with PSA or seminal plasma. In men, sera from 16% of the immunoinfertile men showed positive reactivity with PSA, and none (0%) with seminal plasma. None of the sera from fertile men reacted positively with PSA or seminal plasma. This is the first study to examine the presence and incidence of PSA antibodies in immunoinfertile women and men. The findings may have clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of immunoinfertility in humans. PMID:23415846

  19. 3D label-free prostate specific antigen (PSA) immunosensor based on graphene-gold composites.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Sun Kyung; Chang, Hankwon; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-01-15

    Highly sensitive and label-free detection of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical immunosensor capable of sensitive and label-free detection of PSA is reported. This unique immunosensor is equipped with a highly conductive graphene (GR)-based gold (Au) composite modified electrode. The GR-based Au composite is prepared using aerosol spray pyrolysis and the morphology of the composite is the shape of a crumpled GR ball decorated with Au nanoparticles. Unlike the previous research, this novel 3D immunosensor functions very well over a broad linear range of 0-10 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.59 ng/mL; furthermore, it exhibits a significantly increased electron transfer and high sensitivity toward PSA. The highest rate of current change with respect to the PSA concentration is 5 μA/(ng/mL). Satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the 3D immunosensor are also exhibited. PMID:25150936

  20. Comparison of various assay systems for prostate-specific antigen standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, M; Akimoto, S; Akaza, H; Arai, Y; Usami, M; Imai, K; Tanaka, Y; Yamazaki, H; Kawada, Y; Koiso, K

    1992-12-01

    To avoid confusion between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values among various assay systems, clinical studies on the possibility of conversion among detection values were performed. The assay kits used for the PSA comparisons were MARKIT-F PA, MARKIT-M PA, EIKEN PA, PA test WAKO, Ball ELSA PSA, E-Test Tosoh II PA, PROS-CHECK PSA, DELFIA PSA and TANDEM-R PSA. Using each kit, the standards attached to each assay system were detected, and 142 sera samples from benign hypertrophies or prostate cancers were assayed for serum PSA values. By detecting the standards for each kit, slopes were obtained which were almost identical to those obtained from original assay system. The coefficients of correlation among the PSA detection systems, using patients' sera, were very high, and linear regression lines were also obtained. The results suggest that almost identical serum PSA values may be detected either by multiplying by a coefficient to bring it to the standard or using the conversion formula. PMID:1283993

  1. Quantitative [Fe]MRI of PSMA-targeted SPIONs specifically discriminates among prostate tumor cell types based on their PSMA expression levels.

    PubMed

    Sillerud, Laurel O

    2016-01-01

    We report the development, experimental verification, and application of a general theory called [Fe]MRI (pronounced fem-ree) for the non-invasive, quantitative molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of added magnetic nanoparticles or other magnetic contrast agents in biological tissues and other sites. [Fe]MRI can easily be implemented on any MRI instrument, requiring only measurements of the background nuclear magnetic relaxation times (T1, T2) of the tissue of interest, injection of the magnetic particles, and the subsequent acquisition of a pair of T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. These images, converted into contrast images, are subtracted to yield a contrast difference image proportional to the absolute nanoparticle, iron concentration, ([Fe]) image. [Fe]MRI was validated with the samples of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) both in agarose gels and bound to human prostate tumor cells. The [Fe]MRI measurement of the binding of anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) conjugated SPIONs to PSMA-positive LNCaP and PSMA-negative DU145 cells in vitro allowed a facile discrimination among prostate tumor cell types based on their PSMA expression level. The low [Fe] detection limit of ~2 μM for SPIONs allows sensitive MRI of added iron at concentrations considerably below the US Food and Drug Administration's human iron dosage guidelines (<90 μM, 5 mg/kg). PMID:26855574

  2. Quantitative [Fe]MRI of PSMA-targeted SPIONs specifically discriminates among prostate tumor cell types based on their PSMA expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Sillerud, Laurel O

    2016-01-01

    We report the development, experimental verification, and application of a general theory called [Fe]MRI (pronounced fem-ree) for the non-invasive, quantitative molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of added magnetic nanoparticles or other magnetic contrast agents in biological tissues and other sites. [Fe]MRI can easily be implemented on any MRI instrument, requiring only measurements of the background nuclear magnetic relaxation times (T1, T2) of the tissue of interest, injection of the magnetic particles, and the subsequent acquisition of a pair of T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. These images, converted into contrast images, are subtracted to yield a contrast difference image proportional to the absolute nanoparticle, iron concentration, ([Fe]) image. [Fe]MRI was validated with the samples of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) both in agarose gels and bound to human prostate tumor cells. The [Fe]MRI measurement of the binding of anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) conjugated SPIONs to PSMA-positive LNCaP and PSMA-negative DU145 cells in vitro allowed a facile discrimination among prostate tumor cell types based on their PSMA expression level. The low [Fe] detection limit of ~2 μM for SPIONs allows sensitive MRI of added iron at concentrations considerably below the US Food and Drug Administration’s human iron dosage guidelines (<90 μM, 5 mg/kg). PMID:26855574

  3. Localization and physical mapping of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM) gene to human chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker-Schaeffer, C.W.; Hawkins, A.L.; Griffin, C.A.; Isaacs, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM) was identified by the monoclonal antibody 7E11-C5.3, which was raised against the human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP. The PSM antigen is expressed by normal, neoplastic, and metastatic prostatic tissues. The 2.65-kb cDNA encoding the 100-kDa PSM glycoprotein was cloned from LNCaP cells. Studies have shown that the expression of PSM is tissue-specific. In the present study monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids were used to localize the PSM gene to human chromosome 11. Using this information, initial mapping studies identified two potential PSM gene loci at 11p11.1-p13 and 11q14. Further high-stringency analysis using cosmid probes identified the 11q14 region as the location of the PSM gene. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  4. ERBB2 increases metastatic potentials specifically in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tome-Garcia, Jessica; Li, Dan; Ghazaryan, Seda; Shu, Limin; Wu, Lizhao

    2014-01-01

    Despite all the blood-based biomarkers used to monitor prostate cancer patients, prostate cancer remains as the second common cause of cancer mortality in men in the United States. This is largely due to a lack of understanding of the molecular pathways that are responsible for the aggressive forms of prostate cancers, the castrate-resistant prostate cancer and the metastatic prostate cancer. Cell signaling pathways activated by the ERBB2 oncogene or the RAS oncogene are frequently found to be altered in metastatic prostate cancers. To evaluate and define the role of the ERBB2/RAS pathway in prostate cancer metastasis, we have evaluated the impact of ERBB2- or RAS-overexpression on the metastatic potentials for four prostate cancer cell lines derived from tumors with different androgen sensitivities. To do so, we transfected the human DU145, LnCaP, and PC3 prostate cancer cells and the murine Myc-CaP prostate cancer cells with the activated form of ERBB2 or H-RAS and assessed their metastatic potentials by three complementary assays, a wound healing assay, a transwell motility assay, and a transwell invasion assay. We showed that while overexpression of ERBB2 increased the metastatic potential of the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells (i.e. PC3 and DU145), it did not affect metastatic potentials of the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells (i.e. LnCaP and Myc-CaP). In contrast, overexpression of H-RAS only increased the cell motility of Myc-CaP cells, which overexpress the human c-MYC oncogene. Our data suggest that ERBB2 collaborates with androgen signaling to promote prostate cancer metastasis, and that although RAS is one of the critical downstream effectors of ERBB2, it does not phenocopy ERBB2 for its impact on the metastatic potentials of prostate cancer cell lines. PMID:24937171

  5. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  6. Predictors of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy With or Without External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Akash; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.

  7. Development of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Inhibitors Coupled to 99mTc(CO)3+ with Enhanced Specific Activity for SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paul; D.; Benny,; Clifford; Berkman,; Jeffery; Bryan

    2011-12-20

    The overall objectives of the project were two fold: 1) the development of new facile reactions for coupling radioactive complexes with biomolecules and 2) the development of a novel molecular imaging targeting vector for Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for prostate cancer. The didactic approach allowed the synergistic exploration of new technologies for coupling reactions of radioactive complexes that can be applied to a novel targeting moiety. As part of the project, a number of students (undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral) were trained in radiochemical techniques for preparing and characterizing radiometal complexes. Results from the experiments within the project have generated several presentations and publications.

  8. Neuropeptide-inducible upregulation of proteasome activity precedes nuclear factor kappa B activation in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Upregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activity and neuroendocrine differentiation are two mechanisms known to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) progression to castration resistance. We have observed that major components of these pathways, including NFκB, proteasome, neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and endothelin 1 (ET-1), exhibit an inverse and mirror image pattern in androgen-dependent (AD) and -independent (AI) states in vitro. Methods We have now investigated for evidence of a direct mechanistic connection between these pathways with the use of immunocytochemistry (ICC), western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and proteasome activity assessment. Results Neuropeptide (NP) stimulation induced nuclear translocation of NFκB in a dose-dependent manner in AI cells, also evident as reduced total inhibitor κB (IκB) levels and increased DNA binding in EMSA. These effects were preceded by increased 20 S proteasome activity at lower doses and at earlier times and were at least partially reversed under conditions of NP deprivation induced by specific NP receptor inhibitors, as well as NFκB, IκB kinase (IKK) and proteasome inhibitors. AD cells showed no appreciable nuclear translocation upon NP stimulation, with less intense DNA binding signal on EMSA. Conclusions Our results support evidence for a direct mechanistic connection between the NPs and NFκB/proteasome signaling pathways, with a distinct NP-induced profile in the more aggressive AI cancer state. PMID:22715899

  9. A Remote Arene-Binding Site on Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Revealed by Antibody-Recruiting Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Andrew X.; Murelli, Ryan P.; Barinka, Cyril; Michel, Julien; Cocleaza, Alexandra; Jorgensen, William L.; Lubkowski, Jacek; Spiegel, David A.

    2010-09-27

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase overexpressed in many forms of prostate cancer. Our laboratory has recently disclosed a class of small molecules, called ARM-Ps (antibody-recruiting molecule targeting prostate cancer) that are capable of enhancing antibody-mediated immune recognition of prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, during the course of these studies, we found ARM-Ps to exhibit extraordinarily high potencies toward PSMA, compared to previously reported inhibitors. Here, we report in-depth biochemical, crystallographic, and computational investigations which elucidate the origin of the observed affinity enhancement. These studies reveal a previously unreported arene-binding site on PSMA, which we believe participates in an aromatic stacking interaction with ARMs. Although this site is composed of only a few amino acid residues, it drastically enhances small molecule binding affinity. These results provide critical insights into the design of PSMA-targeted small molecules for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment; more broadly, the presence of similar arene-binding sites throughout the proteome could prove widely enabling in the optimization of small molecule-protein interactions.

  10. Selenium and Vitamin E: Cell Type– and Intervention-Specific Tissue Effects in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsavachidou, Dimitra; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Wen, Sijin; Wang, Xuemei; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Pisters, Louis L.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Wood, Christopher G.; Do, Kim-Anh; Thall, Peter F.; Stephens, Clifton; Efstathiou, Eleni; Taylor, Robert; Menter, David G.; Troncoso, Patricia; Lippman, Scott M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Secondary analyses of two randomized, controlled phase III trials demonstrated that selenium and vitamin E could reduce prostate cancer incidence. To characterize pharmacodynamic and gene expression effects associated with use of selenium and vitamin E, we undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled phase IIA study of prostate cancer patients before prostatectomy and created a preoperative model for prostatectomy tissue interrogation. Methods Thirty-nine men with prostate cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with 200 μg of selenium, 400 IU of vitamin E, both, or placebo. Laser capture microdissection of prostatectomy biopsy specimens was used to isolate normal, stromal, and tumor cells. Gene expression in each cell type was studied with microarray analysis and validated with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. An analysis of variance model was fit to identify genes differentially expressed between treatments and cell types. A beta-uniform mixture model was used to analyze differential expression of genes and to assess the false discovery rate. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The highest numbers of differentially expressed genes by treatment were 1329 (63%) of 2109 genes in normal epithelial cells after selenium treatment, 1354 (66%) of 2051 genes in stromal cells after vitamin E treatment, and 329 (56%) of 587 genes in tumor cells after combination treatment (false discovery rate = 2%). Validation of 21 representative genes across all treatments and all cell types yielded Spearman correlation coefficients between the microarray analysis and the PCR validation ranging from 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.31 to 0.79) for the vitamin E group to 0.87 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.99) for the selenium group. The increase in the mean percentage of p53-positive tumor cells in the selenium-treated group (26.3%), compared with that in the placebo-treated group (5%), showed borderline statistical significance

  11. Structure-Activity Relationship of (18)F-Labeled Phosphoramidate Peptidomimetic Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-Targeted Inhibitor Analogues for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dannoon, Shorouk; Ganguly, Tanushree; Cahaya, Hendry; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Galliher, Matthew S; Beyer, Sophia K; Choy, Cindy J; Hopkins, Mark R; Regan, Melanie; Blecha, Joseph E; Skultetyova, Lubica; Drake, Christopher R; Jivan, Salma; Barinka, Cyril; Jones, Ella F; Berkman, Clifford E; VanBrocklin, Henry F

    2016-06-23

    A series of phosphoramidate-based prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitors of increasing lipophilicity were synthesized (4, 5, and 6), and their fluorine-18 analogs were evaluated for use as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for prostate cancer. To gain insight into their modes of binding, they were also cocrystallized with the extracellular domain of PSMA. All analogs exhibited irreversible binding to PSMA with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 1.3 nM. In vitro assays showed binding and rapid internalization (80-95%, 2 h) of the radiolabeled ligands in PSMA(+) cells. In vivo distribution demonstrated significant uptake in CWR22Rv1 (PSMA(+)) tumor, with tumor to blood ratios of 25.6:1, 63.6:1, and 69.6:1 for [(18)F]4, [(18)F]5, and [(18)F]6, respectively, at 2 h postinjection. Installation of aminohexanoic acid (AH) linkers in the phosphoramidate scaffold improved their PSMA binding and inhibition and was critical for achieving suitable in vivo imaging properties, positioning [(18)F]5 and [(18)F]6 as favorable candidates for future prostate cancer imaging clinical trials. PMID:27228467

  12. Androgen-deprivation therapy does not impact cause-specific or overall survival after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@wheelinghospital.com; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A. M.S.; Adamovich, Edward

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To determine if androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has an impact on cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, or overall survival after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through June 2002, 938 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical Stage T1b to T3a (2002 AJCC) prostate cancer. All patients underwent brachytherapy more than 3 years before analysis. A total of 382 patients (40.7%) received ADT with a duration of 6 months or less in 277 and more than 6 months in 105. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated as predictors of cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival. Results: The 10-year cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival rates for the entire cohort were 96.4%, 95.9%, and 78.1%, respectively. Except for biochemical progression-free survival in high-risk patients, ADT did not statistically impact any of the three survival categories. A Cox linear-regression analysis demonstrated that Gleason score was the best predictor of cause-specific survival, whereas percent-positive biopsies, prostate volume, and risk group predicted for biochemical progression-free survival. Patient age and tobacco use were the strongest predictors of overall survival. One hundred two patients have died, with 80 of the deaths a result of cardiovascular disease (54) and second malignancies (26). To date, only 12 patients have died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, androgen-deprivation therapy did not have an impact on cause-specific or overall survival for any risk group; however, ADT had a beneficial effect on biochemical progression-free survival in high-risk patients. Cardiovascular disease and second malignancies far outweighed prostate cancer as competing causes of death.

  13. Population-based prediction of subject-specific prostate deformation for MR-to-ultrasound image registration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yipeng; Gibson, Eli; Ahmed, Hashim Uddin; Moore, Caroline M.; Emberton, Mark; Barratt, Dean C.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical shape models of soft-tissue organ motion provide a useful means of imposing physical constraints on the displacements allowed during non-rigid image registration, and can be especially useful when registering sparse and/or noisy image data. In this paper, we describe a method for generating a subject-specific statistical shape model that captures prostate deformation for a new subject given independent population data on organ shape and deformation obtained from magnetic resonance (MR) images and biomechanical modelling of tissue deformation due to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe pressure. The characteristics of the models generated using this method are compared with corresponding models based on training data generated directly from subject-specific biomechanical simulations using a leave-one-out cross validation. The accuracy of registering MR and TRUS images of the prostate using the new prostate models was then estimated and compared with published results obtained in our earlier research. No statistically significant difference was found between the specificity and generalisation ability of prostate shape models generated using the two approaches. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the landmark-based target registration errors (TREs) following registration using different models, with a median (95th percentile) TRE of 2.40 (6.19) mm versus 2.42 (7.15) mm using models generated with the new method versus a model built directly from patient-specific biomechanical simulation data, respectively (N = 800; 8 patient datasets; 100 registrations per patient). We conclude that the proposed method provides a computationally efficient and clinically practical alternative to existing complex methods for modelling and predicting subject-specific prostate deformation, such as biomechanical simulations, for new subjects. The method may also prove useful for generating shape models for other organs, for example, where

  14. External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer: Clinical Significance of Nadir Prostate-Specific Antigen Value Within 12 Months

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Onishi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Masahiko; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Araya, Masayuki; Mukumoto, Nobutaka M.S.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Teshima, Teruki

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer and investigate the clinical significance of nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value within 12 months (nPSA12) as an early estimate of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients with localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The total radiation doses ranged from 30 to 76 Gy (median, 66 Gy), and the median follow-up period for all 84 patients was 26.9 months (range, 2.7-77.3 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and local control rates in all 84 patients after radiotherapy were 67%, 61%, and 93%, respectively. Although distant metastases and/or regional lymph node metastases developed in 34 patients (40%) after radiotherapy, local progression was observed in only 5 patients (6%). Of all 84 patients, the median nPSA12 in patients with clinical failure and in patients without clinical failure was 3.1 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. When dividing patients according to low (<0.5 ng/mL) and high ({>=}0.5 ng/mL) nPSA12 levels, the 3-year PFS rate in patients with low nPSA12 and in those with high nPSA12 was 96% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, nPSA12 and pretreatment PSA value had a significant impact on PFS, and in multivariate analysis nPSA12 alone was an independent prognostic factor for PFS after radiotherapy. Conclusions: External beam radiotherapy had an excellent local control rate for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and nPSA12 was predictive of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy.

  15. Detection of prostate-specific antigen with biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-dong; Cheng, Jun-jie; Miao, Bin; Wei, Xiao-wei; Xie, Jie; Zhang, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Wu, Dong-min

    2014-07-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors, a simple biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was designed and successfully fabricated for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. UV/ozone was used to oxidize the GaN surface and then a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTES) self-assembled monolayer was bound to the sensing region. This monolayer serves as a binding layer for attachment of the prostate specific antibody (anti-PSA). The biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor shows a rapid and sensitive response when the target prostate-specific antigen in buffer solution was added to the antibody-immobilized sensing area. The current change showed a logarithm relationship against the PSA concentration from 0.1 pg/ml to 0.993 ng/ml. The sensitivity of 0.215% is determined for 0.1 pg/ml PSA solution. The above experimental result of the biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor suggested that this biosensor might be a useful tool for prostate cancer screening.

  16. Replication of a Genetic Variant for Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Shui, Irene M.; Feng, Ziding; Sesso, Howard D.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few genetic variants have been confirmed as being associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). A recent study identified 22 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCSM in a Seattle-based patient cohort. Five of these associations were replicated in an independent Swedish cohort. Methods We genotyped these 22 SNPs in Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) participants diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa). Utilizing the same model found to be most significant in the Seattle cohort, we examined the association of these SNPs with lethal disease with Cox proportional hazards models. Results One SNP, rs5993891 in the ARVCF gene on chromosome 22q11, which had also replicated in the Swedish cohort, was also significantly associated with PCSM in the PHS cohort (hazard ratio (HR)=0.32; P=0.01). When we tested this SNP in an additional cohort (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, HPFS), the association was null (HR=0.95, P=0.90); however, a meta-analysis across all studies showed a statistically significant association with a HR of 0.52 (0.29–0.93, P=0.03). Conclusions The association of rs5993891 with PCSM was further replicated in PHS and remains significant in a meta-analysis, though there was no association in HPFS. This SNP may contribute to a genetic panel of SNPs to determine at diagnosis whether a patient is more likely to exhibit an indolent or aggressive form of PCa. This study also emphasizes the importance of multiple rounds of replication. PMID:25939514

  17. Development of an ELISA detecting Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 in serum of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Houda; Seillier, Marion; Sandi, Maria José; Peuget, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Dusetti, Nelson J; Iovanna, Juan L; Rocchi, Palma; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1) plays an important role during cell stress response in synergy with the potent "genome-keeper" p53. In human, the gene encoding TP53INP1 is expressed at very high level in some pathological situations, such as inflammation and prostate cancer (PC). TP53INP1 overexpression in PC seems to be a worse prognostic factor, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse, making TP53INP1 a relevant specific target for molecular therapy of Castration Resistant (CR) PC. In that context, detection of TP53INP1 in patient biological fluids is a promising diagnostic avenue. We report here successful development of a new Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detecting TP53INP1, taking advantage of molecular tools (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins) generated in the laboratory during the course of basic functional investigations devoted to TP53INP1. The ELISA principle is based on a sandwich immunoenzymatic system, TP53INP1 protein being trapped by a first specific mAb coated on microplate then recognized by a second specific mAb. This new assay allows specific detection of TP53INP1 in serum of several PC patients. This breakthrough paves the way towards investigation of a large cohort of patients and assessment of clinical applications of TP53INP1 dosage. PMID:24600558

  18. Identification of specific Y-chromosomes associated with increased prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Farnham, James M.; Bailey, Matthew; Albright, Frederick S.; Teerlink, Craig C; Agarwal, Neeraj; Stephenson, Robert A.; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the possibility of a role of the Y chromosome in prostate cancer, but controversy exists. Methods A novel analysis of a computerized population-based resource linking genealogy and cancer data was used to test the hypothesis of a role of the Y chromosome in prostate cancer predisposition. Using a statewide cancer registry from 1966 linked to a computerized genealogy representing over 1.2 million descendants of the Utah pioneers, 1,000 independent sets of males, each set hypothesized to share the same Y chromosome as represented in genealogy data, were tested for a significant excess of prostate cancer. Results Multiple Y chromosomes representing thousands of potentially at-risk males were identified to be associated to have a significant excess risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions This powerful and efficient in silico test of an uncommon mode of inheritance has confirmed evidence for Y chromosome involvement in prostate cancer. PMID:24796687

  19. The C-Terminal Fragment of Prostate-Specific Antigen, a 2331 Da Peptide, as a New Urinary Pathognomonic Biomarker Candidate for Diagnosing Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Kenji; Inoue, Takahiro; Sekiya, Sadanori; Terada, Naoki; Miyazaki, Yu; Goto, Takayuki; Kajihara, Shigeki; Kawabata, Shin-Ichiro; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Ikawa, Kuniko; Oosaga, Junko; Tsuji, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Mass screening has been carried out since the 1990s using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the serum as a PCa biomarker. However, although PSA is an excellent organ-specific marker, it is not a cancer-specific marker. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover new biomarkers for the diagnosis of PCa. Materials and Methods We focused on urine samples voided following prostate massage (digital rectal examination [DRE]) and conducted a peptidomic analysis of these samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MSn). Urinary biomaterials were concentrated and desalted using CM-Sepharose prior to the following analyses being performed by MALDI-TOF/MSn: 1) differential analyses of mass spectra; 2) determination of amino acid sequences; and 3) quantitative analyses using a stable isotope-labeled internal standard. Results Multivariate analysis of the MALDI-TOF/MS mass spectra of urinary extracts revealed a 2331 Da peptide in urine samples following DRE. This peptide was identified as a C-terminal PSA fragment composed of 19 amino acid residues. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the relationship between isotope-labeled synthetic and intact peptides using MALDI-TOF/MS revealed that this peptide may be a new pathognomonic biomarker candidate that can differentiate PCa patients from non-cancer subjects. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 2331 Da peptide fragment of PSA may become a new pathognomonic biomarker for the diagnosis of PCa. A further large-scale investigation is currently underway to assess the possibility of using this peptide in the early detection of PCa. PMID:25233230

  20. Comprehensively Evaluating cis-Regulatory Variation in the Human Prostate Transcriptome by Using Gene-Level Allele-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; McDonnell, Shannon; French, Amy J.; Fogarty, Zach; Cheville, John; Middha, Sumit; Riska, Shaun; Baheti, Saurabh; Nair, Asha A.; Wang, Liang; Schaid, Daniel J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cis-acting regulatory variation in primary tissues has the potential to elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits and further our understanding of transcriptomic diversity across cell types. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data can improve upon the detection of cis-acting regulatory variation by leveraging allele-specific expression (ASE) patterns in association analysis. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation of cis-acting eQTLs by analyzing RNA-seq gene-expression data and genome-wide high-density genotypes from 471 samples of normal primary prostate tissue. Using statistical models that integrate ASE information, we identified extensive cis-eQTLs across the prostate transcriptome and found that approximately 70% of expressed genes corresponded to a significant eQTL at a gene-level false-discovery rate of 0.05. Overall, cis-eQTLs were heavily concentrated near the transcription start and stop sites of affected genes, and effects were negatively correlated with distance. We identified multiple instances of cis-acting co-regulation by using phased genotype data and discovered 233 SNPs as the most strongly associated eQTLs for more than one gene. We also noted significant enrichment (25/50, p = 2E−5) of previously reported prostate cancer risk SNPs in prostate eQTLs. Our results illustrate the benefit of assessing ASE data in cis-eQTL analyses by showing better reproducibility of prior eQTL findings than of eQTL mapping based on total expression alone. Altogether, our analysis provides extensive functional context of thousands of SNPs in prostate tissue, and these results will be of critical value in guiding studies examining disease of the human prostate. PMID:25983244

  1. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    PubMed Central

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves. PMID:26911983

  2. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  3. Betulinic Acid Selectively Increases Protein Degradation and Enhances Prostate Cancer-Specific Apoptosis: Possible Role for Inhibition of Deubiquitinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Teresita; Parrondo, Ricardo; de las Pozas, Alicia; Palenzuela, Deanna; Perez-Stable, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA) is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs), which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg) inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy. PMID:23424652

  4. A specific aptamer-cell penetrating peptides complex delivered siRNA efficiently and suppressed prostate tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yanjun; Liu, Jiayun; Ma, Yueyun; Su, Mingquan; Zhang, Hongyi; Hao, Xiaoke

    2016-05-01

    Specific and efficient delivery of siRNA into intended tumor cells remains as a challenge, even though RNAi has been exploited as a new strategy for prostate cancer therapy. This work aims to address both specificity and efficiency of SURVIVIN-siRNA delivery by constructing a therapeutic complex using combinatorial strategies. A fusion protein STD was first expressed to serve as a backbone, consisting of streptavidin, a cell-penetrating peptide called Trans-Activator of Transcription (TAT) and a double-stranded RNA binding domain. A biotinylated Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) specific aptamer A10 and SURVIVIN-siRNA were then linked to STD protein to form the therapeutic complex. This complex could specifically targeted PSMA(+) tumor cells. Compared to lipofectamine and A10-siRNA chimera, it demonstrated higher efficiency in delivering siRNA into target cells by 19.2% and 59.9%, and increased apoptosis by 16.8% and 26.1% respectively. Upon systemic administration, this complex also showed significant efficacy in suppressing tumor growth in athymic mice (p <0.001). We conclude that this therapeutic complex could specifically and efficiently deliver SURVIVIN-siRNA to target cells and suppressed tumor growth in vivo, which indicates its potential to be used as a new strategy in prostate cancer therapy. PMID:26954374

  5. Perineural invasion associated with increased cancer-specific mortality after external beam radiation therapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Clair . E-mail: cbeard@lroc.harvard.edu; Schultz, Delray; Loffredo, Marian; Cote, Kerri; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Hurwitz, Mark D.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To identify an association between perineural invasion (PNI) and cancer-specific survival in patients with prostate cancer after standard-dose external beam radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 517 consecutive patients who underwent RT (median dose, 70.5 Gy) between 1989 and 2003 for low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were studied. A genitourinary pathologist (AAR) scored presence or absence of PNI on all prostate needle-biopsy specimens. A Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to assess whether the presence of PNI was associated with risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT when the recognized risk-group variables were factored into the model. Estimates of cancer-specific mortality were made using a cumulative incidence method. Comparisons of survival were made using a two-tailed log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 84 patients (16%) have died, 15 of 84 (18%) from prostate cancer. PNI was the only significant predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT (p = 0.012). The estimated prostate cancer-specific mortality was 14% at 8 years for PNI+ patients vs. 5% for PNI- patients (p = 0.0008). Conclusions: Patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who have PNI on prostate needle biopsy have a significantly higher rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality after standard-dose radiation therapy than patients without PNI. Although this analysis is retrospective, this association argues for consideration of the use of more aggressive therapy, such as hormonal therapy with RT or dose escalation, in these select patients.

  6. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy or boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Jung; Phak, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woo Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after SBRT has not been well characterized. The purpose of the current study is to assess the kinetics of PSA for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT using Cyberknife as both monotherapy and boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in the absence of androgen deprivation therapy. Methods A total of 61 patients with low- and intermediated-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT as monotherapy (36.25 Gy in 5 fractions in 32 patients) and SBRT (21 Gy in 3 fractions in 29 patients) boost combined with WPRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated and compared. Results With a median follow-up of 52.4 months (range, 14–74 months), for SBRT monotherapy, the median PSA nadir was 0.31 ng/mL (range, 0.04–1.15 ng/mL) and slopes were –0.41 ng/mL/mo, –0.17 ng/mL/mo, –0.12 ng/mL/mo, and –0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively, for durations of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years postradiotherapy. Similarly, for SBRT boost after WPRT, the median PSA nadir was 0.34 ng/mL (range, 0.04–1.44 ng/mL) and slopes were –0.53 ng/mL/mo, –0.25 ng/mL/mo, –0.14 ng/mL/mo, and –0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively. The median nadir and slopes of SBRT monotherapy did not differ significantly from those of SBRT boost after WPRT. Benign PSA bounces were common in 30.4% of all cohorts, and the median time to PSA bounce was 12 months (range, 6–25 months). Conclusions In this report of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, an initial period of rapid PSA decline was followed by a slow decline, which resulted in a lower PSA nadir. The PSA kinetics of SBRT monotherapy appears to be comparable to those achieved

  7. Aptamer-MIP hybrid receptor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pawan; Tamboli, Vibha; Harniman, Robert L; Estrela, Pedro; Allender, Chris J; Bowen, Jenna L

    2016-01-15

    This study reports the design and evaluation of a new synthetic receptor sensor based on the amalgamation of biomolecular recognition elements and molecular imprinting to overcome some of the challenges faced by conventional protein imprinting. A thiolated DNA aptamer with established affinity for prostate specific antigen (PSA) was complexed with PSA prior to being immobilised on the surface of a gold electrode. Controlled electropolymerisation of dopamine around the complex served to both entrap the complex, holding the aptamer in, or near to, it's binding conformation, and to localise the PSA binding sites at the sensor surface. Following removal of PSA, it was proposed that the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) cavity would act synergistically with the embedded aptamer to form a hybrid receptor (apta-MIP), displaying recognition properties superior to that of aptamer alone. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate subsequent rebinding of PSA to the apta-MIP surface. The apta-MIP sensor showed high sensitivity with a linear response from 100pg/ml to 100ng/ml of PSA and a limit of detection of 1pg/ml, which was three-fold higher than aptamer alone sensor for PSA. Furthermore, the sensor demonstrated low cross-reactivity with a homologous protein (human Kallikrein 2) and low response to human serum albumin (HSA), suggesting possible resilience to the non-specific binding of serum proteins. PMID:26318788

  8. Specificity of anti-prostate cancer CYP17A1 inhibitors on androgen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Udhane, Sameer S; Dick, Bernhard; Hu, Qingzhong; Hartmann, Rolf W; Pandey, Amit V

    2016-09-01

    The orteronel, abiraterone and galeterone, which were developed to treat castration resistant prostate cancer, inhibit 17,20 lyase activity but little is known about their effects on adrenal androgen biosynthesis. We studied the effect of several inhibitors and found that orteronel was selective towards 17,20 lyase activity than abiraterone and galeterone. Gene expression analysis showed that galeterone altered the expression of HSD3B2 but orteronel did not change the expression of HSD3B2, CYP17A1 and AKR1C3. The CYP19A1 activity was not inhibited except by compound IV which lowered activity by 23%. Surprisingly abiraterone caused complete blockade of CYP21A2 activity. Analysis of steroid metabolome by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry revealed changes in steroid levels caused by different inhibitors. We can conclude that orteronel is a highly specific inhibitor of 17,20 lyase activity. The discovery of these specific drug actions on steroidogenic enzyme activities would be valuable for understanding the regulation of androgens. PMID:27395338

  9. Urinary microRNA-based signature improves accuracy of detection of clinically relevant prostate cancer within the prostate-specific antigen grey zone.

    PubMed

    Salido-Guadarrama, Alberto Ivan; Morales-Montor, Jorge Gustavo; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Langley, Elizabeth; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Cruz Colin, Jose Luis; Rodriguez-Dorantes, Mauricio

    2016-06-01

    At present, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used as a clinical biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis; however, a large number of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with PSA levels in the 'gray area' (4-10 ng/ml) are currently subjected to unnecessary biopsy due to overdiagnosis. Certain microRNAs (miRs) have been proven to be useful biomarkers, several of which are detectable in bodily fluids. The present study identified and validated a urinary miR‑based signature to enhance the specificity of PCa diagnosis and to reduce the number of patients with benign conditions undergoing biopsy. Seventy‑three urine samples from Mexican patients with diagnosis of PCa with a Gleason score ≥7 and 70 patients diagnosed with BPH were collected after digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate. miR expression profiles were determined using TaqMan Low Density Array experiments, and normalized Ct values for the miRs were compared between PCa and BPH groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate whether miR detection in urine is suitable for distinguishing patients with PCa from those with BPH. The identified miR‑100/200b signature was significantly correlated with PCa. Using a multivariable logistic regression approach, a base model including the clinical variables age, prostate‑specific antigen (PSA), the percentage of free PSA and DRE was generated, and a second base model additionally contained the miR‑100/200b signature. ROC analysis demonstrated that the combined model significantly outperformed the capacity of PSA (P<0.001) and the base model (P=0.01) to discriminate between PCa and BPH patients. In terms of evaluation of the sub‑group of patients in the gray zone of PSA levels, the performance of the combined model for predicting PCa cases was significantly superior to PSA level determination (P<0.001) and the base model (P=0.009). In addition, decision curve analysis demonstrated that the

  10. Prostate-specific antigen nadir after high-dose-rate brachytherapy predicts long-term survival outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Sekiguchi, Akane; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Fujita, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen nadir (nPSA) after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in clinically non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer patients. Material and methods Data from 216 patients with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis was 24 ng/ml (range: 3-338 ng/ml). The clinical stage was T1c-2a in 55 cases (26%), T2b-2c in 48 (22%), T3a in 75 (35%), and T3b-4 in 38 (17%). The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After 5 fractions, external beam radiation therapy with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent neoadjuvant ADT for at least 6 months, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months. The median follow-up was 7 years from the start of radiotherapy. Results The 7-year PSA relapse-free rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 94%, compared with 23% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 28.57; 95% CI: 12.04-66.66; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the nPSA value after radiotherapy was a significant independent predictor of biochemical failure, whereas pretreatment predictive values for worse biochemical control including higher level of initial PSA, Gleason score ≥ 8, positive biopsy core rate ≥ 67%, and T3b-T4, failed to reach independent predictor status. The 7-year cancer-specific survival rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 99%, compared with 82% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 32.25; 95% CI: 3.401-333.3; p = 0.002). Conclusions A post-radiotherapy nPSA value of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was associated with better long-term biochemical tumor control even if patients had pretreatment predictive values for worse